Day 1112
ECE3030
Jeff Davis
CMOS Transistors!
(Complementary MOSFET)
pchannel MOSFET
acts like normally
closed switches
VDD
b
nchannel MOSFET
acts like normally
open switches
b
GRD
source
gate
source
drain
source
drain
gate
source
drain
source
Gate
Source
Drain
M(etal)
O(xide)
channel
n+
n+
S(emiconductor)
p
Drain
x
channel
(in equilibrium)
Source
channel
EF
Drain
EC
Ev
x
Vdd
Drain
Gate
+
VDS
Source
Ec
Ev
Unbiased Junction
VDS = 0
Ec
Unbiased Junction
VDS = 0
VDS = small voltage
Ev
Ec
Unbiased Junction
VDS = 0
VDS = small voltage
Ev
Leakage Currents
VG = 0
Unbiased Bias Junction
Unbiased Junction
Ec

VDS = 0
VDS = small voltage
Ev
Lau,Drain current saturation at high drain voltage due to pinch off instead of velocity saturation in sub100nm metaloxidesemiconductor transistors, Microelectronics Reliability, vol. 49 (2009)p. 17.
M(etal)
O(xide)
S(emiconductor)
n+
n+
MOS Capacitor
Gate voltage VG
Metal Gate
Insulator
Semiconductor
Substrate grounded!
16
Example Calculation
Assuming for the moment that the semiconductor acts like a good conductor,
what is the capacitance of a MOS capacitor that has a gate length of 180nm and a
transistor width that is 10x the length. Assume that the oxide thickness is 5nm.
L = 180nm
180nm Technology
VDD = 1.8V
L = 180nm
xox = 5nm
xox = 5nm
C ox =
x ox
O(xide)
Z = width
S(emiconductor)
M(etal)
Work Function/Affinity
Vacuum Level
Electron Affinity
19
MOS Capacitor
Assumption of this discussion
M = S
20
21
Accumulation
VG > 0 with ntype substrate
VG
n
Accumulation of MAJORITY carriers!
M(etal)
O(xide)
e e e e e e e e e e e e e e
n = e(Fn Ei )/ kT
p=e
(Ei Fp )/ kT
22
Depletion
VG < 0 for ntype substrate
23
Inversion
VG < VT for ntype substrate
Note that VT is negative for this case!
pinterface = ND
n = e(Fn Ei )/ kT
p=e
(Ei Fp )/ kT
Strong Inversion
VG << VT for ntype substrate
n = e(Fn Ei )/ kT
p=e
(Ei Fp )/ kT
25
DEPLETION
INVERSION
26
Surface Potential
(x) = electrostatic potential inside the
semiconductor at a depth x
1
(x ) = [Ei BULK Ei (x )] electrostatic potential
q
and
Ptype Example
1
[Ei BULK Ei INTERFACE ] surface potential
q
along with,
1
F = [Ei BULK EF ]
q
S =
s = 2 F
28
p BULK = ni e
(Ei BULK EF )
kT
= NA
(EF Ei BULK )
and n BULK = ni e
kT N A
ln
for a ptype semiconductor
q ni
F =
kT ln N D for a ntype semiconductor
q n
i
kT
= ND
29
Example Calculation
Find the Fermi potential in the body of the nchannel transistor assuming that
the channel doping concentration is 1015 cm3. Assume the room temperature
intrinsic carrier concentration is given by 1.45e10 cm3.
We know by definition that the channel is p doped because it is an nFET.
N A = 1015 cm 3
Solving for the Fermi potential gives the following:
F =
kT
N
ln( A )
q
ni
(1.38e 23 J/K)(300 K)
1015 cm3
F =
ln(
)
3
1.6e 19C
1.45e10cm
F = 0.2885V
Example Calculation
For the previous example how much band bending do we need to have to
reach the threshold condition? More specifically what is the surface potential
at threshold?
We know the threshold condition is set when the surface potential is
twice the Fermi potential in the body of the transistor.
s = 2 F
From the previous example we can know that the Fermi potential in the body is:
F = 0.2885V
s = 2(0.2885) = 0.577 V
33
Q=CV
oxide
QB ZL
=
C ox ZL
M(etal)
O(xide)
                  
Z = transistor width
L = transistor length
VG = s + oxide
Remember this is the surface
potential!
C ox
oxide
K SiO2 o
=
x ox
Q=CV
QB qN AW
=
=
Cox
Cox
M(etal)
O(xide)
                  
xox
W=
2K S o s
qN A
Example Calculation
What is the width of the depletion region when the surface potential is at the
threshold condition? Assume the doping in the channel is 1015 cm3 Assume that
the KSiO2= 3.9, KS = 11.9, and o = 8.85e14 F/cm.
W=
2K S o s
qN A
From the previous example we can know that the surface potential at threshold is:
s = 2(0.2885) = 0.577 V
The width of the depletion region at threshold is given by:
W =
37
Threshold voltage!!!
= 2 F
2qN A K s o 2 F
= VT = 2 F +
xxoox
K SiO2 o
2kT N A
2 F =
ln
q
ni
ptype
38
Example Calculation
Calculate the threshold voltage for an nFET. Assume the doping in the channel is
1015 cm3 Assume that the KSiO2= 3.9, KS = 11.9, and o = 8.85e14 F/cm. Assume
180nm technology specifications that have been outlined in previous graphs.
We have already calculated the Fermi potential for this doping to be:
F = 0.2885V
The estimation of the threshold voltage for this case is:
2qN A K s o 2 F
VT = 2 F +
x ox
K SiO2 o
2(1.6e 19)(1015 )(11.8)(8.85e 14)2(0.2885)
VT = 2(0.2885) +
5e 7[cm]
(3.9)(8.85e 14)
VT = 2 F +
S
C ox
2qN A
(2 F ) (for n  channel devices)
S
VT = 2 F
S
C ox
2qN D
( 2 F ) (for p  channel devices)
S
where,
C ox =
ox
xox
S = K S o
ox = K SiO2 o
40
41
MOS Transistor
Qualitative Description
Change
conductivity of
channel region
Ptype
0<VGS <VT
(depletion CUTOFF)
There is a deficit of electrons and holes making the channel very
highly resistive. => No Drain current can flow.
High due
to Depletion
Ptype
45
Ptype
46
Drain current verses drain voltage when in the linear or triode* region.
Linear region
47
VGS > VT
Ptype
Leads to current
starting to roll off
for larger VDS.
48
Saturation region
Linear Region
IDsat
49
VDS = 0
VDS =VD,SAT
MOS Transistor
Qualitative Description
Finally,
IDVDS curves for various VGS:
VDsat depends on VG
51
52
BULK VALUE
n = 1350
n = 200
53
Quick Estimation
QI = Cox (VGS VT )
L
I=
Charge in Channel
time to move charge out of channel
C ox (VGS VT )ZL
I=
t
L
vd =
= E field
t
Z
I = C ox (VGS VT )VDS
L
L2
t =
Vdd
E field
Vdd
IDS
Saturation region
Linear region
I Cox
Z
(VGS VT )VDS
L
I Cox
VDS = VGS  VT
Z
(VGS VT )2
L
VDS
57
58
VDS =VD,SAT
Source
MOS Capacitor
QN Cox VGS VT
for VGS VT
Drain
MOS Transistor
QN Cox VGS VT
for VGS VT
60
= VDS
= VDS
= 0
= 0
QN d
Cox (VG VT )d
Z nCox
VDS
ID =
(VGS VT )VDS
L
2
0 VDS VDsat
and VGS VT
61
For VDS>VDsat
I D = I Dsat
Z nCox
VDsat
=
(VGS VT )VDsat
L
2
VDsat VDS
But,
I D = I Dsat =
Z nCox
2
V
(
)
GS
T
2L
VDsat VDS
62
Z nCox
VDS
ID =
V
V
V
(
)
GS
T
DS
L
2
0 VDS VDsat and VGS VT
I D = I Dsat =
Z nCox
2
VGS VT )
(
2L
VDsat VDS
V Dsat = VGS VT
63
Example Calculation
Calculate the current through the MOSFET assuming that the threshold voltage is
0.6V and the rest of the parameters correspond to 180nm technology. Assume that
the VGS = VDD and VDS = VDD/2. Also assume that the surface mobility is 200 cm2/Vs,
and the transistor width is 10x the transistor length.
First we must consider the whether the device is in cutoff, linear region, or saturation.
VGS > VT
Z nCox
VDS
ID =
(VGS VT )VDS
L
2
0 VDS VDsat and VGS VT
(0.9) 2
I D = 10 * 200 * 6.903e 7(1.8 0.6)0.9
I D = 9.319e 4[ A] = 0.9319mA
Example Calculation
Calculate the current through the MOSFET assuming that the threshold voltage is
0.6V and the rest of the parameters correspond to 180nm technology. Assume that
the VGS = VDD and VDS = 0.8*VDD. Also assume that the surface mobility is 200
cm2/Vs, and the transistor width is 10x the transistor length.
First we must consider the whether the device is in cutoff, linear region, or saturation.
VGS > VT
Z n Cox
2
VGS VT )
(
2L
VDsat VDS
I D = 9.940e 4[ A] = 0.9940[mA]
Example Calculation
Calculate the current through the MOSFET assuming that the threshold voltage is
0.6V and the rest of the parameters correspond to 180nm technology. Assume that
the VGS = 0.1 V and VDS = 0.8*VDD. Also assume that the surface mobility is 200
cm2/Vs, and the transistor width is 10x the transistor length.
First we must consider the whether the device is in cutoff, linear region, or saturation.
VGS > VT
ID 0
A more accurate answer is that that there is leakage! Notice dependence below!
I D,sub = I x (1 e
VDS
kT / q
(VGS VT )
)e
= I x (1 e
VDS
kT / q
VT
)e S
VGS =0
S = subthreshold slope
I D,sub = I x (1 e
VDS
kT / q
(VGS VT )
)e
= I x (1 e
VDS
kT / q
VT
)e S
VGS =0
S = subthreshold slope
Conclusion
Subthreshold current Z
Subthreshold current e
VT
S
I D = I Dsat
Z nCox
2
=
(VGS VT ) (1 + VDS )
2L
VDsat VDS
69
Current Equations
NMOS
Regardless of
Mode
K n = K n'
PMOS
W
W
W
W
= n C ox
(Note : W = Z in Pierret) K p = K p'
= p Cox
L
L
L
L
(Note: W = Z in Pierret)
Cutoff
i DS = 0
Linear
iDS
Z n Cox
vDS
=
(vGS VTN )vDS
L
2
vGS VTN vDS 0
Saturation
iDS =
VT for
Enhancement
Mode
Z nCox
(vGS VTN )2 (1 + vDS )
2L
for vDS vGS VTN 0
VTN > 0
iSD = 0
iSD
iSD =
Z nCox
vSD
=
vSG VTP )vSD
(
L
2
vSG + VTP vSD 0
Z pCox
(v V )2 (1 + v )
SG
TP
SD
2L
for vSD vSG + VTP 0
VTP < 0
70