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Development of High Strength Steel Consumables

From Project to Product.

Vincent van der Mee, Fred Neessen.


Lincoln Smitweld bv, The Netherlands

Introduction
Application of high strength steels may offer many advantages. Today, high strength steels are
increasingly applied in pipelines, cranes, offshore construction, bridges, minesweepers, etc. In order to
meet market requirements for a wider range of steel grades, consumables for applicable processes need
to be available, whether it is for manual or mechanized welding.
In this paper, an overview is given of criteria and results in the development process of FCAW,
SMAW, GMAW and SAW consumables for steel grades up to S690.
Initially, weldability is the feature to be met. Next, chemical composition and mechanical properties in
the as welded and/or post weld heat treated condition need to be demonstrated, followed by a
consumable classification according to AWS, EN or other. Influence of individual elements (like Mn,
Ni, Mo, Ti or B) on weld metal toughness and strength level is discussed.
An important issue for end-users is the working range of a consumable that still delivers required
properties. Restrictions in operability, heat input, welding position, joint configuration or heat
treatment, do limit the application of a specific consumable and should be minimized. Consistency in
obtained mechanical properties is an essential development criterion.
Finally, welding procedures will be discussed using consumables that demonstrated fitness for purpose.

Steel grades
In European Standards, construction steel grades are classified according to method of production.
· Normalized fine grain steel grades (EN 10113 part 2)
· TMCP fine grain steel grades (EN 10113 part 3)
· Q&T high strength steel grades (EN10137 part 2)
The application of these steel grades is in table 1, sub-divided in two main groups:
EN 10113 part 2 & 3, EN 10137 part 2
Steels in these groups are used in more severe constructions like offshore, bridges, cranes,
storage tanks, minesweepers, etc. Application can be at low temperatures.

Table 1: Classification of steel grades


EN standard "Current" Classification "Old" Classification
EN 10113 part 2: S 275 N StE 285
Normalized fine grain steel grades S 355 N StE 355
S 420 N StE 420
S 460 N StE 460
EN 10113 part 3: S 275 M ---
TMCP fine grain steel grades S 355 M StE 355 TM
S 420 M StE 420 TM
S 460 M StE 460 TM
EN10137 part 2: S 460 Q ---
Q&T high strength steel grades S 500 Q StE 500 V
S 550 Q StE 550 V
S 620 Q StE 620 V
S 690 Q StE 690 V
S 890 Q StE 890 V
S 960 Q StE 960 V

In this paper, high strength steels are defined as structural steels from S420 up to S690 . High strength
steel grades, defined in EN 10137 part 2 are weldable, relatively low carbon, low-alloyed steel grades.
The excellent mechanical properties of these grades are obtained by a well-balanced chemical
composition in combination with a well-controlled heat treatment. Within one chemical composition, it
is possible to supply different strength levels. Depending on manufacturer, production method, and
plate thickness, one or more of the elements mentioned in table 2 can be present.
Most Q&T steels contain manganese, nickel, molybdenum, chromium, with additional hardening by
small amounts of boron. Normally some micro alloying elements are present also, to obtain a fine
martensite microstructure after quenching, however vanadium should be avoided when any heat
treatment is applied.

Table 2: Chemical composition (max. %) according to EN 10137 part 2


C Mn Si Cr Ni Mo Cu Ti B N Nb V Zr
0.2 1.7 0.8 1.5 2.0 0.7 0.5 0.05 0.005 0.015 0.06 0.12 0.15

With quenched and tempered steel grades, the high tempered martensite will result in good ductility and
high yield and tensile strength. When welding these steel grades, the heat input needs to be such that
forming of ferrite and perlite is avoided, because of lower strength and toughness level.
At a particular plate thickness, the cooling time▲t800-500, is a function of heat input. When cooling too
fast, the presence of some alloying elements could result in high HAZ hardness. An optimal ▲t800-500
needs to be established (~10-15 seconds).

Development issues
Consumables
Recent advances in thermo-mechanical controlled processing of steel have resulted in low carbon
equivalent, higher strength pipe steel, with limited the risk of HAZ cracking. The predominant
strengthening mechanism in the weld metal, however, is through alloy additions. The weld metal thus
becomes the “weakest link" with increased susceptibility to hydrogen cracking. Consumables for
welding high strength steels have been developed parallel with base material. Optimization of these
consumables has been a continuous process. With this background, defining the limits of consumables
becomes relevant.
Empirical carbon equivalent expressions have been developed that weigh the relative effects of alloying
elements on material hardenability. One frequently used equation is the IIW carbon equivalent
Ceq = C + Mn/6 + (Cr + Mo + V)/5 + (Ni + Cu)/15
Based on the coefficients it is clear that Mn, Cr, Mo and V have a significant effect on the carbon
equivalent and thus the hardenability. The carbon content in the Ceq formula however, has the largest
influence. Most initial studies in the area of alloying effects concentrated on SMAW electrodes and the
above mentioned elements.
Hart1 looked at the effects of carbon, iron powder and basicity, molybdenum and nickel on the
properties of welds. He used basic electrodes to do gapped-bead-on-plate (GBOP) welds. This GBOP
test gives an evaluation of weld metal hydrogen cracking without involving influences of the base
metal.
Molybdenum up to 0.4% was seen to improve the crack resistance at intermediate levels (5ml/100g) of
hydrogen in deposited metal, and was deleterious at high levels (10ml/100g) of hydrogen in weld metal.
With basic electrodes, a preheat of 100°C was always adequate to prevent hydrogen cracking.
Evans2 pointed out that molybdenum was beneficial for toughness up to 0.25% when the manganese
content remained low in basic electrodes. The role of molybdenum was speculated to be the restriction
of pro-eutectoid ferrite formation at grain boundaries either due to pinning or dragging effects of
molybdenum carbides. The effect of chromium on C-Mn welds has also been studied. The toughness
was adversely affected, especially when chromium was increased beyond 1%.
There is very little literature available regarding the effect of vanadium on weld metal microstructure.
Vanadium, apparently has a very complex and unpredictable effect on transformation behavior.
Generally, vanadium is considered to reduce the development of ferrite side plates. It has been
suggested that this is due to the pinning effect of interphase precipitates of V4C3.
Studies on individual and some specific trace elements are mostly done by consumable manufacturers
and often treated as confidential information. Further in this document we will illustrate some more
effects.

SMAW: Cellulosic electrodes


The traditional method of circumferential girth welding of pipes, cellulosic electrodes, still stands
because of versatility, albeit with limitations at high strength levels. In the case of root and hot passes,
this still has been mentioned as the recommended procedure, while fill and cap passes can be welded
when proper precautions are taken, particularly on thin wall pipes.
High strength (E9010G) cellulosic electrodes also serve a niche because of the increasing emphasis on
weld metal strength overmatching the pipe strength. Pipe is manufactured with certain specified
minimum yield strength, but in practice can be much stronger than this specified minimum.
The effect of various alloying elements to obtain high strength cellulosic electrodes has been evaluated.
The relative effects of chromium, vanadium, and manganese have been compared to that of
molybdenum. The approach taken was to compare all these alloying additions at a similar strength level
(to match X-80 pipe strength) and sufficient resistance to hydrogen cracking.
For instance for welding X-80 pipe,
· Weld strength should be over 560N/mm2 yield strength, realistically a minimum of 580 N/mm2 for
transverse tensile tests requirement. The tensile strength should correspondingly be 660N/mm2 to
expect to match the pipe strength.
· Similarly, the toughness should be as high as possible at any temperature in the transition region
· Resistance to hydrogen cracking should be optimized.

Optimizing chemical compositions


Depending on the presence of other elements, manganese could have a detrimental effect on the CVN
properties at levels above 560 N/mm2 yield strength. Chromium also has poor impact properties
attributed to the extensive perlitic regions seen in the reheat regions. Chromium additions also do not
necessarily improve the yield strength to match requirements. Vanadium additions appear to be the
most potent of the alloying elements for strengthening, but give a low resistance to hydrogen cracking
and PWHT. A means of selecting optimal composition could be as illustrated by Dallam3 in Figure 1.

Figure 1: Relation between 50% Shear Transition Temperature, GBOP results and Yield

Limitation of cellulosic electrodes


(uncracked)
YS (Ksi)
GBOP

-10.0 110

1.0 GBOP
50% Shear Transition temperature

-23.0 100
0.8
YS
0.6
-36.0 90

0.4
X-80 YS reference line
-49.0 80
0.2

0.0
-62.0 70
50% Shear
-0.2

-75.0 60
0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 1.2
% Molybdenum

Here, the critical design is a yield strength of 80 ksi, while toughness and resistance to hydrogen
cracking are maximized. The 50% shear transition temperature is plotted in this figure to represent the
fracture appearance of the impact specimen. Apparent in this figure is that the optimal molybdenum
concentration for the GBOP testing coincides with the optimal point for 50% shear, both occurring at
just below 0.4% molybdenum. The strength of weld metal at that composition is also adequate for
welding X-80 pipe.
Any “optimal” point from a testing procedure is valid only for that welding condition. This point could
be altered dramatically with welding conditions resulting in different cooling rates or different base
formula compositions. On pipe, the effects of the cooling rate and weld composition resulting from the
pipe welding procedure and base metal dilution would control the optimal composition.
Weld metal behavior is ultimately dependent on the microstructure. The limits for using any sort of
consumable will be determined by the ability to consistently produce the desired microstructure.
The solution seems to be to minimize formation of any phase on prior austenite grain boundaries. This
directly or indirectly seems to provide the best resistance to hydrogen cracking.
It is apparent from earlier investigations that molybdenum hinders the grain boundary phase formation
until the driving force to form shear transformation products becomes overwhelming. This unique effect
of molybdenum seems to give it an advantage over other alloying elements studied, to produce high
strength welds with a relatively better hydrogen cracking resistance. It is the most effective element for
strengthening weld metal while incurring the smallest loss in impact toughness, simultaneously
minimizing the risk of hydrogen cracking. From the point of view of a manufacturer of electrodes, the
optimal designs can be utilized as a baseline for designing cellulosic electrodes for X-80 high strength
pipes. Certain limits/constraints, particularly hydrogen concerns, will eventually limit the use of these
electrodes.

SMAW: Basic vertical down electrodes


Alternatively, basic vertical down electrodes can be applied for pipe welding. These type of electrodes
are designed to weld single and multiple pass fillet and butt welds on high strength, medium and high
carbon or low alloy steel, as well as for all types of heavy restrained mild steel joints. They are
recommended for pipe grades up to X90. Although the travel speed is slower than with cellulosic
electrodes, the joint will fill faster due to the higher deposition rate of the basic vertical down
electrodes. Small size electrodes can be used for open gap root pass welding, although joint fit-up is
more critical.
Due to the deeper penetrating characteristics, cellulosic electrodes are preferred for root and hot-pass.
For open gap root pass welding, also a basic vertical-up electrode can be used when low hydrogen root
pass is required as an example for Tie-in's. Strength level and toughness requirements are met through
an alloy system based on manganese, nickel and molybdenum.

SMAW: Basic (high recovery) electrodes


Traditionally, basic electrodes have been the first choice in high strength applications. These electrodes
are to a certain extend readily available, together with solid wires for GMAW. A common range of
basic coated electrodes for high strength steel applications is again with the alloy system including Mn,
Ni, Mo and in some occasions small amounts of Cr (See WPAR Conarc 80.01). There is however an
increasing need for higher deposition, downhand as well as out-of position. With the introduction of a
150% efficiency basic coated electrode, there is a good alternative for high deposition filling of joints
as well as fillet welds in horizontal-vertical position.
With a yield of >750 MPa and a toughness of >50 J @ -50°C, mechanical properties are similar to
traditional basic electrodes. For higher efficiency out-of-position welding the best process is FCAW.

FCAW: Rutile and Metal cored wires


For gas-shielded flux cored wires, the optimal chemical composition is not necessarily the same as for
coated electrodes. Most important is the resulting micro-structure that is obtained.
Because of weldability and positional welding requirements, only rutile flux cored wires are taken in
consideration. Specifically when post weld heat treatment is required, basic flux cored wires are
favorable in mechanical properties, however these wires do not exhibit a preferred weldability.
Although not widely popular, metal cored wires can be chosen also. Still, out-of-position welding
(vertical-up) with basic or metal-cored wires, is very difficult and not the most economical solution.
Modern rutile flux cored wires offer the best out-of-position weldability and combine this with fit-for-
purpose mechanical properties.

The strength level can be obtained through several routes. Relatively low carbon in combination with
manganese and molybdenum additions for strength and nickel additions for toughness works best.
Additions of vanadium and chromium did not result in optimum toughness properties, although they
worked well for strength level. Other than with coated electrodes micro-alloying with boron works well
for strength and impact properties with rutile cored wires, provided the Ti/B ratio is optimized.
Titanium and boron containing wires do show a shift in the yield-to-tensile ratio and need to be well
balanced to avoid hydrogen cracking susceptibility. When no boron is present in the weld metal, the
yield-to-tensile ratio improves, but the strength level decreases. Looking at weldability, it is preferred
that a welding procedure is for instance not limited to stringer beads. Some wires available in the
market do not allow the use of a weaving technique, while maintaining the mechanical properties. Wires
presented in this report were specifically developed on this issue (See WPAR OS690.01).
Next there is an increased demand for wires that can be used when a post weld heat treatment needs to
be applied. This heat treatment depends of course on the manufacture procedure of the steel. Typically,
a post weld heat treatment should be at least 30°C below the actual tempering temperature of the plate.
Baring this in mind, a PWHT of max. 550°C is common for S690 where max. 600°C could be more
common for S420.
SAW: Flux and wire combinations
In welding high strength steel using the SAW process, neutral aluminate-basic or fluorid-basic fluxes
are the only option. With higher strength, the lowest diffusible hydrogen level is preferred. There are
patented sub-arc fluxes available that guarantee a diffusible hydrogen content of less than 2 ml/100g
deposited weld metal. This low level can be achieved due to the use of hydrogen scavengers.
Typically, solid wires are used when the SA process is applied. The chemical composition of these solid
wires is also on a Mn, Ni, Mo and in some cases Cr alloy basis (See WPAR P230.09). Today, more
often cored wires (m etal cored) are used for increased deposition. The most important issue from a
manufacturers point of view is the possibility of making any desired alloy. With this fine-tuning, no
complete heats need to be produced in a steel mill, but small quantities of 100 kg could be supplied.

Hydrogen cracking
The three well-known relevant factors in hydrogen induced cold cracking are:
Ø Sufficient amount of diffusible hydrogen
Ø Susceptible microstructure
Ø Stress
The microstructure of the weld metal is clearly a function of cooling rates, thermal history and chemical
composition. The weld procedure thus can change the microstructure drastically. A wide range of
microstructures is possible using the same electrode and machine parameters when changing from a
vertical up position weld to a vertical down position. The optimal formulation for an electrode is very
closely linked with a defined operating procedure, and changing either the formulation or the procedure
can alter the properties of the weld metal. For the root, it is often preferred to use a consumable that is
one grade lower than the base material. Due to dilution, the weld metal strength will increase anyway.

Figure 2: Susceptibility for hydrogen cracking


Cellulosic SMAW
40
100 grams of deposited metal
mL of diffusible hydrogen

Unacceptable

Acceptable
5
Basic SMAW & FCAW-S
2
GMAW & FCAW-G

X-65 X-80 X-100 X-120


Susceptibility to Hydrogen Cracking

With increasing strength level, the risk for hydrogen induced cracking increases. A lower carbon
equivalent will help in minimizing the hydrogen induced cracking. Depending on diffusible hydrogen
level in the weld metal, microstructure after welding, strain level of the construction, chemistry and
plate thickness, preheating is often recommended in order to reduce the susceptibility for hydrogen
induced cracking.
Florian4 calculated the required preheat temperature (Tp) for weld metal, based on five different
concepts (Thyssen, Okuda, Nippon, Hart and Chakravarti). With the exception of the Okuda and
Nippon concept, which are based on Rm, they are all based on carbon equivalent. The formula for
calculating the necessary preheating temperature to avoid cold cracking in high strength weld metal (for
steel grades S450-S690) is:
Tp = 0.25Rm + 62HIIW0.35 - 154
Using this formula, the calculated preheat temperature is found to be appropriate for diffusible
hydrogen levels of around 5 ml/100g deposited weld metal.
High restraint cracking tests have been performed on fillet welds (t=30/15mm) using flux cored wires
up to 800MPa yield strength. An optimized micro-alloy system was used in order test the designs on
susceptibility to cracking at room temperature, as indicated in figure 3. Even at 6°C, no cracking
occurred in 2 of the 3 wires tested. At this strength level (700-800MPa) a minimum preheat of 100°C is
still recommended for base metal thickness over 10mm.
Figure 3: Cold cracking tests using high strength flux cored wires
4

230A, 24.5V

no cracking OS81K2-H
2
OS550-H
OS690-H
OS690-H cracked

only weld that cracked 200A, 21V


0
0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

Preheat temperature.°C

Mechanical Properties
Typical chemical composition and all weld metal mechanical properties of the processes / consumables
discussed are shown in tables 3 through 6.

Table 3: Typical results for optimal (high strength) cellulosic electrode for pipe
AWS C Mn Si Ni Cr Mo V Yield Tensile CVN (J)
% % % % % % % N/mm2 N/mm2
-29°C -46°C
E6010 0.15 0.50 0.25 --- --- --- --- 440 520 65 ---
E7010 0.12 0.35 0.12 --- --- 0.35 0.02 450 550 80 ---
E8010 0.12 0.90 0.20 0.85 0.10 --- 0.03 510 570 75 ---
E9010 0.13 0.60 0.15 0.70 --- 0.60 --- 550 640 50 45
E10010 0.18 0.85 0.20 0.75 0.02 0.40 0.003 630 720 75 57

Table 4: Typical results for basic vertical down electrodes for pipe welding
C Mn Si Ni Mo Yield Tensile CVN (J)
AWS % % % % % N/mm2 N/mm2
-29°C -46°C
E8018 0.06 1.30 0.45 0.02 --- 530 620 115 80
E9018 0.06 1.45 0.45 0.75 --- 610 675 110 75
E10018 0.06 1.65 0.55 0.80 0.2 680 730 100 70

Table 5: Typical results for basic (150% recovery) high strength electrodes
AWS C Mn Si Ni Cr Mo N Yield Tensile CVN (J)
% % % % % % ppm N/mm2 N/mm2
-40°C -50°C
E9018 0.06 1.00 0.35 1.60 0.01 0.30 80 600 670 100 75
E10018 0.06 1.40 0.40 1.00 0.02 0.40 80 650 730 95 70
E11018 0.06 1.50 0.30 2.20 0.20 0.40 80 710 785 90 80
E12018 0.06 1.70 0.30 1.90 0.40 0.40 90 790 850 80 60
E12028 0.05 1.50 0.40 2.50 --- 1.00 80 770 840 75 55
Table 6: Typical results for high strength flux cored wires
AWS C Mn Si Ni Mo Ti B Yield Tensile CVN (J)
% % % % % % % N/mm2 N/mm2
-40°C -50°C
E71T-1 0.04 1.40 0.55 --- --- 0.035 0.003 500 570 45 ---
E81T1Ni1 0.05 1.40 0.25 0.90 --- 0.040 0.004 530 600 90 60
E81T1K2 0.04 1.40 0.20 1.40 0.040 0.004 590 630 130 100
E101T1K3 0.04 1.40 0.20 2.00 0.30 0.035 0.025 700 730 60 ---
E111T1K3 0.06 1.50 0.20 2.00 0.50 0.035 0.025 800 830 60 50

In some applications, CTOD and wide plate tests are required. For a number of consumables, these are
available but is probably out of the scope of this paper.

Applications
In general, consumables are selected on strength and toughness, which is normally a "matching"
consumable. The yield strength of the deposited weld metal in that case is slightly higher than the
specified minimum yield strength of the steel applied. In some applications, an overmatching of 15-20%
is prescribed, which means a significant higher yield strength than the base metal. For instance steel
grade S500, with a minimum yield strength of 500MPa would require a minimum yield of the welded
joint of 580MPa.
With increasing yield strength, the elongation will decrease. In order to handle shrinkage and distortion,
this elongation is important. Preheat, in combination with a "softer" weld metal for the root, could be
beneficial. In table 7, an overview is given of recommended consumables for welding high strength
steels and pipes.

Table 7: Recommended consumables for welding high strength steel


EN standard Grade SMAW FCAW SAW flux/wire
EN499 / 757 EN758 EN756
Plate
EN 10113 part 2: S 420 N E50 6 1NiB32H5 T50 6 1NiPM2H5 S426FBS3Si
(Normalized) S 460 N E55 6 ZB32H5 T50 6 1.5Ni-PM2H5 S506FBS0
EN 10113 part 3: S 420 M E50 6 1NiB32H5 T50 6 1NiPM2H5 S426FBS3Si
(TMCP) S 460 M E55 6 ZB32H5 T50 6 1.5Ni-PM2H5 S506FBS0
EN10137 part 2: S 460 Q E55 6 ZB32H5 T50 6 1.5Ni-PM2H5 S506FBS0
(Q&T) S 500 Q E55 4 ZB32H5 T50 6 1.5Ni-PM2H5 S506FBS0
S 550 Q E55 4 1NiMoB32H5 T55 4 ZPM1H5 S556FBS0
S 620 Q E69 5 ZB32H5 T69 4 ZPM2H5 S694FBS0
S 690 Q E69 5 Mn2NiCrMoB32H5 T69 4 ZPM2H5 S694FBS0
E69 5 Mn2NiMoB53H5
Pipe
X42/X46 E42 3 C25 T46 3 P M1H5 S38 2 ABS2Si
E46 5 B35H5
X52 E42 2 MoC25 T46 3 P M1H5 S38 2 ABS2Si
E46 5 B35H5
X56 E42 2 MoC25 T50 6 1NiPM2H5 S42 2 ABS2Mo
E46 5 B35H5
X60 E46 4 1NiC25 T50 6 1.5NiPM2H5 S42 2 ABS2Mo
E46 5 B35H5
X65 E46 4 1NiC25 T50 6 1.5NiPM2H5 S46 4 FB SO
E55 5 Mn1NiB35H5
X70 E46 4 1NiC25 T55 4 ZPM1H5 S50 6 FB SO
E55 5 Mn1NiB35
X80 E50 4 1NiMoC25 T55 4 ZPM1H5 S50 6 FB SO
E62 5 Mn1NiB35H5
X90 E50 4 1NiMoC25 --- ---
E62 5 Mn1NiB35H5
The width of the HAZ is a function of heat input and plate thickness. When welding TMCP steel
grades, a reduction of strength in the HAZ could be possible, depending on the welding procedure. For
this, the weld metal should be higher in strength than the base metal. The weaker HAZ will yield first
and consequently become stronger, to a level of the base metal.
When using Q&T steel grades, the high tempered martensite will result in high yield- and tensile
strength. It will also result in good toughness and low susceptibility to brittle fracture. The formation of
relatively soft ferrite and perlite should be avoided in order to maintain a higher strength level.
Typically, Q&T steel grades do not require overmatching to an extend as the TMCP steel grades.

Welding procedures
In WPAR Conarc80.01, OS690.01 and P230.09, practical welding procedures for the SMAW, FCAW
and SAW processes are shown. These procedures list necessary information regarding weld
preparation, preheat and interpass temperature, heat input, bead sequence etc. in addition to chemical
composition and mechanical properties of the weld metal.

References
1 Hart P, Welding Journal 14s-22s, Jan 1986
2 Evans G, Welding Research Abroad, Volume XXXVII no 2/3, 42-69, 1991
3 Dallam C, Feb 2002, to be published
4 Florian W, Cold cracking in high strength weld metal, IIW doc IX-2006-01
Page 1 /
Welding Procedure WPAR : Conarc 80.01
Approval Record Rev. : 0
Ref. WPQ : test report doc. 00892 Welding Procedure Page 1 / 1
WPAR : OS 690.01
Procedure Specification Test Results Approval Record Rev. : 0
Ref. WPQ : -
Base material HRS 650M Radiographic, Magnetic Particle Examination: : Acceptable Procedure Specification Test Results
Welding processes A: SMAW (111) B:
Manual or machine Manual Reduced-section tension test Base material St 42 buttered with Conarc 80 Radiographic Examination: Acceptable
Tensile strength [MPa] Fracture location Welding processes A: FCAW B:
Welding position PA (1G) 2/3 Side 793 Base material Manual or machine Manual Reduced-section tension test
Filler metal (trade) 1: Conarc 80 2: 1/3 Side 787 Base material Tensile strength [MPa] Fracture location
Flux N.A. Welding position PF (3G up) Cap :
Filler metal classific. AWS A5.5: E 11018-M All-weld-metal tension test 2/3 Side 1/3 Side Filler metal (trade) 1: Outershield 690-H Root :
EN 757: E 69 5 Z B 3 2 H5 Yield point [MPa] : Rp0,2 747 - 753 794 - 792 Flux N.A.
Shielding gas [l/min] N.A. Flow Rp1,0 757 - 764 793 - 792 Filler metal classific.
AWS A5.29: E 111 T1-K3 MJ H4 All-weld-metal tension test
Backing (gas) [l/min] N.A. Flow Tensile strength [MPa] : Rm 815 - 810 833 - 836 EN 12535: T 69 4 Z P M 2 H5 Yield point [MPa] : Rp0,2 781
Gouge method Arc air + grinding Rp0,2/Rm 0,92 - 0,93 0,95 - 0,95 Shielding gas [l/min] 80Ar + 20% CO2 Flow ± 18 Tensile strength [MPa] : Rm 822
Elongation, A5 [%] : A4 20 - 20 20 - 23 Backing (gas) [l/min] Ceramic strip Flow - Elongation, A5 [%] : 17
Current / polarity DC + A5 17 - 16 17 - 20 Gouge method N.A. Reduction, Z [%] : 63
Preheat temp. [°C] 100 - 150 Reduction [%] : Z 62 - 62 62 - 59 Bend tests Former diameter:
Interpass temp. [°C] max. 150 Side bend tests Former diameter: D = 4d Current / polarity DC + Root
Postheat treatment N.A. 2/3 Side 180° No defects Preheat temp. [°C] RT Face
Welder's name Cees de Roij 1/3 Side 180° No defects Interpass temp. [°C] 150 ±15 Side
Postheat treatment N.A. Impact tests ISO-V [Joule] Test temp. [°C]: see table
Laboratory Test No. VE 54 Impact tests ISO-V [Joule] Test temp. [°C]: see table Welder's name Edwin Rebel Size of specimen: 10 * 10 * 55 mm, 2 mm sub surface
Remarks : Lot No.: ø 3,2 mm 646350 Size of specimen: 10 x 10 x 55 mm (2 mm sub-surface) Clw av. Root av.
ø 4,0 mm 842433 Clw 2/3 Side av. Lateral exp. [mm] av. Laboratory Test No. EX 72 - 20°C 71 77 80 76 0
- 20°C 106 107 100 104 1,28 1,10 1,19 1,19 Remarks : Lot No.: 6901213 - 30°C 73 82 77 77 0
Welding Procedure - 40°C 70 70 78 73 0,95 0,93 0,99 0,96 - 40°C 78 87 94 86 0
Pass Consumable Welding Current Speed H.I. - 51°C 66 - 55 - 64 - 65 - 65 63 0,82-0,61-0,75-0,80-0,78 0,75 0 0
No. index Ø [mm] Ampere Volts [mm/min] [kJ/mm] - 60°C 63 - 65 - 68 -37 58 0,86-0,72-0,80-0,46 0,71 Welding Procedure Chemical composition all weld metal test (V-45°)
Side 1 Pass Consumable Welding Current Speed H.I.
1 A1 3,2 75 23 - 24 46 2,29 No. index Ø [mm] Ampere Volts [mm/min] [kJ/mm] C 0,06
2 - 16 A1 5,0 220 24 - 26 ± 215 ± 1,5 Clw Root av. Lateral exp. [mm] av. 1 A1 1,2 160 22 89 2,37 Si 0,25
17 A1 3,2 125 23 - 24 122 1,45 - 20°C 84 83 81 83 0,94 0,95 1,04 0,98 2 A1 1,2 200 25 141 2,13 Mn 1,54
18-21 A1 5,0 220 24 - 26 ± 215 ± 1,5 - 40°C 65 65 46 59 0,77 0,61 0,45 0,61 3 A1 1,2 200 25 133 2,26 P 0,015
22 A1 5,0 220 24 - 26 261 1,26 - 51°C 48 - 36 - 67- 57- 50 52 0,57-0,47-0,80-0,65-0,56 0,61 4 A1 1,2 200 25 218 1,38 S 0,010
Side 2 - 60°C 50 - 52 - 44 - 39 46 0,48-0,56-0,46-0,52 0,51 5 A1 1,2 200 25 203 1,48 Cr 0,010
23 A1 3,2 125 23 - 24 122 1,45 6 A1 1,2 200 25 171 1,75 Ni 2,02
24-40 A1 5,0 220 24 - 26 ± 215 ± 1,5 7 A1 1,2 200 25 209 1,44 Mo 0,41
41 A1 5,0 220 24 - 26 246 1,34 Clw 1/3 Side av. Lateral exp. [mm] av. 8 A1 1,2 200 25 166 1,81 V 0,027
Joint Detail - 20°C 110 110 92 104 1,20 1,24 1,17 1,20 9 A1 1,2 200 25 209 1,44 Ti 0,044
50° - 40°C 90 88 91 90 0,88 1,04 1,04 0,99 Al 0,007
- 51°C 65 - 66 - 68 - 74 - 65 68 0,72-0,75-0,77-1,02-0,81 0,81 Joint Detail B 0,0043
- 60°C 72 - 56 - 64 - 43 59 0,83-0,60-0,60-0,60 0,66 N 0,0042

Hardness
Test type : Vickers Load: 5 kg
BM HAZ WM HAZ BM
2/3 Side 321 303 303 - 358 271 - 317 313 - 367 265 274

Root 268 274 227 - 229 286 - 303 306 - 332 271 271 Sketch

1/3 Side 271 268 362 - 367 274 - 325 321 - 371 274 274
We hereby, certify that the statements in this record are correct.
Project Sub Marine
Manufacturer or Contractor Lincoln Smitweld bv We certify that the data in this report are actual test results.
3 Authorized by Frans Spierings Project HSLA steels with min. 690 Yield
Issued by Fred Neessen Manufacturer or Contractor Lincoln Smitweld bv
Date 29 March 2001 Witnessed by QA Department
Issued by Fred Neessen
Date 7 May 2001
Welding Procedure WPAR : P 230.09
Approval Record Rev. : 0
Ref. WPQ : 95.098
Procedure Specification Test Results

Base material StE 690 Radiographic-ultrasonic Examination: Acceptable


Welding processes A: SMAW B: SAW Dye - Penetrant, Visual Inspection: Acceptable
Manual or machine Manual and machine Reduced-section tension test
Tensile strength [MPa] Fracture location
Welding position PA (1G) * 1. 19.4 x 34.8 830 Base material
Filler metal (trade) 1: Conarc 70G 2: LNS 168 mod. 2. 19.2 x 35.2 840 Base material
Flux P 230
Filler metal classific.
1: EN 757: E 55 4 1Ni Mo B 3 2 H5 All-weld-metal tension test ø 10.0
2: EN 756*: S 70 4 AB S0 ** Yield point [MPa] : 785
Shielding gas [l/min] N.A. Flow Tensile strength [MPa] : 899
Backing (gas) [l/min] N.A. Flow Elongation, A5 [%] : 20
Gouge method Arc air + grinding Reduction, Z [%] :
Bend tests Former diameter: 4xt
Current / polarity DC + Side 2x 180° Acceptable
Preheat temp. [°C] min. 160 Side 2x 180° Acceptable
Interpass temp. [°C] max. 200
Postheat treatment Soaking 72h/180°C Impact tests ISO-V [Joule] Test temp. [°C]: - 40
Welder's name -- Size of specimen: 10 x 10 x 55 mm
Mid weld av. Root av.
Laboratory Test No. Clw 105 89 81 92
Remarks : * Conarc 70G in 3G up (PF) and DC - Fl 95 120 109 108
Fl + 2 171 161 166 166
Fl + 5 168 191 168 176
Welding Procedure Micro examination: E 690T LNS 168 mod.
Pass Consumable Welding Current Speed H.I. C 0.18 0.10
No. index Ø [mm] Ampere Volts [mm/min] [kJ/mm] Micro examination of weld Si 0.44 0.62
Chemical composition:

and HAZ at 100x investigation Mn 0.99 1.74


1 A1 3.2 120-130 23 - 25 50 - 70 ~ 3.0 shows no unacceptable P 0.007 0.009
2+3 B2 4.0 500 28 500 1.68 structures or fissures. S 0.002 0.006
4-7 B2 4.0 600 30 600 1.8 (Micro test specimen taken Al 0.042 0.006
8+9 B2 4.0 500 26 450 1.73 from cap area). B 0.003 -
10 B2 4.0 500 26 700 1.11 Cr 0.89 0.27
11+12 B2 4.0 550 28 600 1.54 Cu 0.11 0.08
13-25 B2 4.0 600 30 600 1.8 Mo 0.42 0.40
26-29 B2 4.0 500 26 450 1.73 Ni 0.06 2.43
Ti 0.02 0.09
Joint Detail Hardness see sketch
Test type: Vickers Load: 5 kg
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 ………..
1 = Base 257-269-262-257-271-249-257-262-257
2 = HAZ 307-306-293-296-341-341-336-317-299-310-306-303-329-323
3 = Weld 265-265-271-271-262-265-283-286-286
4 = HAZ 353-296-296-293

Sketch

We hereby, certify that the statements in this record are correct.


Project Matanzas
Manufacturer or Contractor --
Authorized by Det Norske Veritas
Issued by Fred Neessen
Date 29 December 1998