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Verbals

Gerunds, Infinitives, and Participles


The three verbals gerunds, infinitives, and participlesare formed from verbs, but are never used alone as
action words in sentences. Instead, verbals function as nouns, adjectives, or adverbs. These verbals are important in
phrases.
The gerund ends in -ing and functions as a noun.
Jumping is fun.
He liked skiing.
He had a unique way of whistling.
The infinitive is the base form of a verb with to. Usually it functions as a noun, although it can also function as an
adjective or adverb.
To jump is fun. (Noun; subject of the verb is)
I like to ski. (Noun; direct object of the verb like)
She had a suggestion to offer. (Adjective modifying suggestion)
He called to warn her. (Adverb modifying the verb called)
A participle is a verb that ends in -ing (present participle) or -ed, -d, -t, -en, -n(past participle). Participles may
function as adjectives, describing or modifying nouns.
The dancing parrots entertained the crowd.
The wrecked sailboat washed up on shore.
But participles have another function. When used with helping verbs such as to be and to have, they are action verbs
and form several verb tenses.
She is thinking of the children.
The conference room had been cleaned before they arrived.
More examples of Gerunds, Participles and Infinitives:
GERUNDS
1.)
2.)
3.)
4.)
5.)

Running in the park will always be my favorite exercise.


Studying our lessons is fun especially when we have food and coffee.
Reading the Bible will help us understand what God wants to say to us.
Swimming is my favorite sport.
Looking at our past enables us to understand our present.
PARTICIPLES

1.) The sleeping boy was disturbed by the singing lady.


2.) The falling debris hit the walking pedestrians.
3.) The destroyed house was already renovated.
4.) The crying baby had a wet diaper.
5.) Shaken, he walked away from the wrecked car.
6.) The burning log fell off the fire.
7.) Smiling, she hugged the panting dog.

INFINITIVES
1.) I want to listen and to learn.
2.) I dont want to accept his answer.
3.) To wait seemed foolish when decisive action was required. (subject)
4.) Everyone wanted to go. (direct object)
5.) His ambition is to fly. (subject complement)
6.) He lacked the strength to resist. (adjective)
7.) We must study to learn. (adverb)

Quiz in English VIII

1. The thief arrested for the robbery shot at the security guard.
a. gerund b. participle c. infinitive

2. The flag waving in the wind is inspirational.


a. gerund b. participle c. infinitive

3. They are sure the extra planning will make a difference in the end.
a. gerund b. participle c. infinitive

4. Jamals confusing message did nothing to solve the mystery.


a. gerund b. participle c. infinitive

5. Godzilla made a game of smashing all of the red cars parked near the lake.
a. gerund b. participle c. infinitive

6. The politicians broken promises were all that the voters remembered.
a. gerund b. participle c. infinitive

7. Delighted with the opportunity to learn, Christine took the internship in New York.
a. gerund b. participle c. infinitive

8. While playing the tuba, Orin felt as if his world was perfect.
a. gerund b. participle c. infinitive

9. The show offers everyone a chance to be a millionaire.


a. gerund b. participle c. infinitive

10. Samuel decided that missing the lecture every day was hurting his grade.
a. gerund b. participle c. infinitive

11. The kittens crouching under the bed have refused to come out.
a. gerund b. participle c. infinitive

12. The swimmer, driven by the need to be the best in the world, made himself sick with anxiety.
a. gerund b. participle c. infinitive

13. My friend was surprised by the lighting in the theater.


a. gerund b. participle c. infinitive

14. Brenda seemed surprised with the teams decision to withdraw.


a. gerund b. participle c. infinitive

15. Completing the obstacle course is harder than it looks.


a. gerund b. participle c. infinitive

16. Billy refused to accept the idea that his birthday cake was gone.
a. gerund b. participle c. infinitive

17. The marathon runner, pushed to the edge of endurance, collapsed at the finish line.
a. gerund b. participle c. infinitive

18. Freds arguing every call is getting frustrating.


a. gerund b. participle c. infinitive
19. Al hopes that giving the players a break will improve their attitudes.
a. gerund b. participle c. infinitive

20. The completed meal was so beautiful that we hesitated to eat it.
a. gerund b. participle c. infinitive