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Industrial training

In Chandrapur Super Thermal Power


Station (CSTPS)
By-

Aniket . S.Naphade
Priyadarshini Coll. Of Engg., Nagpur
Deptt. Of Electrical Engg.
(16/12/2013- to- 30/12/2013 )

Table of Contents
1.

OVERVIEW............................................................................................................ 4

2.

Chandrapur super thermal power station(CSTPS)................................................6

3.

Coal Handling Plant.............................................................................................. 9

4.

Power Plant Component and its Operation.........................................................11


4.1 Boiler............................................................................................................... 11
4.2 Turbine............................................................................................................ 18
4.3 Condensor....................................................................................................... 25
4.4 Generator........................................................................................................ 28
Exciter................................................................................................................ 32
4.5 Generating Transformer..................................................................................36

5.

WATER TREATMENT PLANT................................................................................. 46


Post-treatment of Water........................................................................................ 52
Condensate polishing unit..................................................................................... 58
Effluent Treatment plant (E.T.P)-............................................................................59

6.

Ash Handling Plant-............................................................................................ 60

1. OVERVIEW
ABOUT MAHAGENCO

Government of Maharashtra founded Maharashtra state electricity


board (MSEB) under Indian Companies Act 1956. In 2005 MSEB is
trifurcated in 3 companies as follows Mahanirmiti () or Mahagenco (Maharashtra State Power
Generation Company Limited (MSPGCL))
Mahapareshan ( ) or Mahatransco (Maharashtra State
Electricity Transmission Company Limited (MSETCL))
Mahavitaran () or Mahadiscom (Maharashtra State
Electricity Distribution Company Limited (MSEDCL))

Mahagenco is second heighest electricity genrating


company after NTPC. Mahagenco having generation capacity of
10737 MW comprising 7480 MW thermal, 2585 MW hydel and 672
MW gas turbine.

2. Chandrapur super thermal power station(CSTPS)

Chandrapur Super Thermal Power Station (CSTPS) is


a thermal power plant located inChandrapur district in the Indian
state of Maharashtra run by the MAHAGENCO. The power plant is
one of the coal based power plants ofMAHAGENCO. The coal for
the power plant is sourced from Durgapur and Padmapur
Collieries of Western Coalfields Limited & Mahanadi coalfields
limited. The plant was officially inaugurated by the then Prime
Minister Indira Gandhi on 8 October 1984. Installed capacity of
CSTPS is 2340MW.Water supplied to the plant from the Erai dam.

Unit
Number

Installed Capacity (MW)

Date of Commissioning

210

1983 August

210

1984 July

210

1985 May

210

1986 March

500

1991 March

500

1992 March

500

1997 October

Total unit 7

2340

Genration of electricity from thermal power stationIn thermal power station, steam driven turbine is a
prime mover of electrical generator . When water is heated in
boiler, turns into steam and spins a steam turbine which drives
an electrical generator. After it passes through the turbine, the
steam is condensed in a condenser and recycled to where it was
heated; this is known as a Rankine cycle.
Following energy conversion steps are used in the thermal
power stationChemical energy of coal

Heat energy of water due combustion of coal

Kinetic energy of steam in nozzle

Mechanical energy due to rotation of turbine

Electrical energy developed in generator armature due to rotation

3. Coal Handling Plant


Following is the function of the coal handling plant Unloading of the coal received from coal mines.
Carry coal to the bunker, & maintain bunker level.
Storing of the coal in case of emergency.
Coal for operation of boiler in CSTPS is provide from Durgapur and Padmapur Collieries of Western Coalfields
Limited .
Mahanadi coalfields limited.
Coal is also impetrated from Indonesia.
From WCL mine, we get Bituminous coal. It is dark brown to
black in colour. It is of higher quality than lignite coal but of
poorer quality than anthracite. Formation is usually the result of
high pressure being exerted on lignite. It also called as soft coal.
This contains high percentage of volatile substances which burnt
with yellow flame. Following table shows the percentage of
various elements in bituminous coal
Name of
coal

Bitumino
us

Carbon
%

60-80

Moisture
%

Ash
%

2.2-15.9

3.3-11.7

Calorific
valuve
Kcal/kg

Heat
content
Mj/Kg

4200 (for
imported
coal)
3600 (for
W.C.L.)

24-35

Amount coal required to produce one unit of electricity is


called as coal factor.
The coal factor of the coal from WCL mines is 0.6Kg.

It is examined by the following analysis of coal Proximate analysis


Ultimate analysis
Random samples are taken out from various mines and above
analysis are done on that coal sample. According to it various
grades are give to the coal. In WCL mines F. grade coal is seen.
Unit generated in 24 Hr.1unit=Kwh
Coal required for 3, 500MW & 4, 210MW plant is 39000MT.

Transportation of coalTransportation

Road
Rope way

Railway

Coal from coal Collieries contains magnetic materials, stones, and


other impurities. Magnetic materials are removed from coal by
employing magnet above the conveyor belt, which carries coal for
feeding boiler.
Coal for 210MW, plant is brought by rope way. Capacity of rope
way is 300 tons per hour.
In following ways magnet are employed on conveyor belt Suspended type magnet
Rotary type magnet

To remove the non magnetic material skilled labor are stand


besides the conveyor belt, remove impurities.

4. Power Plant Component and its Operation


4.1 Boiler
Boiler is a very important component of the thermal power
plant. it is used to generate steam to drive the turbine. It is a
closed vessel in which liquid is heated. This boiler is made up of
steel. temperature of the boiler is in the range of 1400-1600
degree cel.
Boilers are classified on different basis as follows
According to circulation of steam.
Following different method are used for circulation of
steam
Natural circulation- In circulation, difference in
density of steam water is used to circulate steam.
Forced circulationforce circulation method is
used when operating pressure is approaches to
critical pressure.
According to firing type of boiler.
In which portion of the boiler burner are place, according to
which boiler are classified as follows Front fire type
Corner fire type
The source of the heat in boiler is combustion coal. In CSTPS
water tube type boiler is used. Water tubes filled with water are
arranged inside a furnace in a number of possible configurations:
often the water tubes connect large drums, the lower ones
containing water and the upper ones, steam and water; in other
cases, such as a monotube boiler, water is circulated by a pump
through a succession of coils. This type generally gives high
steam production rates, but less storage capacity than the above.

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Water tube boilers can be designed to exploit any heat source and
are generally preferred in high pressure applications since the
high pressure water/steam is contained within small diameter
pipes which can withstand the pressure with a thinner wall. Cool
water at the bottom of the steam drum returns to the feed water
drum via large-bore 'downcomer tubes', where it pre-heats the
feed water supply. To increase economy of the boiler, exhaust
gases are also used to pre-heat the air blown into the furnace and
warm the feedwater supply. Such watertube boilers in thermal
power station are also called steam generating units.
In CSTPS , boiler is suspended from top, it is because of when
water tubes are heated . due to heating ,water tubes expands. If
bottom of the boiler is fixed then tubes will expand in upward
direction, above the boiler the boiler draft is fitted. So due to
heavy weight of boiler drum & tube expansion high stares are
developed in boiler. So it may harmful & reduces boiler & its
peripheries life.
Water tube boiler are subjected to the high pressure, heat flux
and temperature so circulation of steam and water gets
important.
A boiler equipped with a combustion chamber which has
a strong current of air (draft) through the fuel bed will increase
the rate of combustion, which is the efficient utilization of fuel
with minimum waste of unused fuel. The stronger movement will
also increase the heat transfer rate from the flue gases to the
boiler, which improves efficiency and circulation. The combustion
rate of the flue gases and the amount of heat transfer to the
boiler are both dependent on the movement and motion of the
flue gases. Hence, due to above reasons draught system holds
high significance.
The difference between atmospheric pressure and the pressure
existing in the furnace or flue gas passage of a boiler is termed

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as draft. The system, which maintain the draught in boiler is


called as a draught system.Draught is produced by rising the level
flue gases in stack.
In CSTPS,
Balanced draft system is employed.
-5mm of water column pressure is maintaining in boiler.
Forced draft is induces secondary air in boiler. secondary air
is required for complete combustion of pulverized coal.
Generally, negative pressure is maintained inside the
boiler. And, it is in the range of -5mm of water column.
Negative pressure is maintain because of, when coal is burnt,
positive pressure inside boiler cause the flame to reach to boiler
wall, which causes damage to boiler wall & also reduces efficiency
of boiler .hence draught system is employed to take out the flue
gases from boiler.
Following are the important periphery of boilerCoal Mill- coal mill is used to pulverized a coal.
Unburned coal is found in bottom ash if coal is not
completely burned. Unburned coal is found 2-3% in bottom
ash & about0.5% in fly ash.Major reason for incomplete
combustion is size of coal.
In coal mill coal is grind to obtain a coal particles of size
about 70 micron.
In CSTPS following type of coal mill is used Ball & race type.
Bowl type.
Tube type.

Economizer-

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A feedwater economizer reduces steam boiler fuel requirements


by transferring heat from the flue gas to incoming feedwater.
Boiler flue gases are often rejected to the stack at temperatures
higher than the temperature of the generated steam .
Primary heater- Air preheater is used to heat the air which is
required for combustion inside boiler , before it enter in boiler . it
helps in improving rate of combustion of coal in boiler.
Final superheater- It is a device in which the seam from the
boiler is dried. It means that total moisture is removed from the
steam.
Platen superheater- It is a plate type heater.
Electrostatic precipitator- An electrostatic
precipitator (ESP), or electrostatic air cleaner is
a particulate collection device that removes particles from a
flowing gas using the force of an induced electrostatic charge.
Electrostatic precipitators are highly efficient filtration devices
that minimally impede the flow of gases through the device, and
can easily remove fine particulate matter such as dust and smoke
from the air stream.
Stack- stack is vertical pipe through which the flue gases are
exhausted to atmosphere from boiler.
Fans in boilerFollowing are the fans are used in boiler.

Primary air fan (P.A. fan)-

Function of primary air fan Carry the pulverized coal to boiler from coal mills.
Remove moisture from coal.
Forced Draft FanFans for boilers force ambient air into the
boiler, typically through a preheater to increase overall

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boiler efficiency. Forced Draft (FD) fans purpose is to provide


a positive pressure to a system.
Induced draft Fan (I.D. Fan)Induced Draft (ID) fans
are used to create a vacuum or negative air pressure
in boiler. Boiler ID Fans are often used in conjunction with
FD fans to maintain system pressure which is slightly lower
than ambient.

Cycles of boilerFollowing air cycles are in the boiler Primary air cycle- functions of primary air is follows Carry the pulverized coal from the coal mill to the
combustion chamber of boiler.
Provide oxygen for combustion of coal particles.
Primary air cycle is shown as follows-

Primary air Fan


Air pre heater
Coal mill
Boiler combustion chamber

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Secondary air cycle- function of secondary air is


provide oxygen for combustion of coal
inside boiler.
When pulverized coal particle burn, ash is
deposits on the coal particle. Which causes
incomplete combustion of coal particle.
Hence efficiency of boiler lowered down.
If coal burn near the burner head & boiler
wall. It may damage it . this damage is
avoided by forcing secondary air inside the
boiler as it causes coal burn away from
these peripheries.
Secondary air removes this deposition of ash on coal particle.
Secondary air cycle is as followsF.D.Fan
Air pre heater
boiler

Flue gas cycleFlue gases are formed after combustion of coal. Flue gases
may contain carbo dioxide(co2),water vapors, sulpher
dioxide(so2),and poolution causing gases like carbon monooxide(CO), particulate matter like soot, & fly ash.
These gases are cleaned by using
Electrostatic precipitator for removal of soot & fly ash.
Flue gas cycle is as follows-

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Boiler

Air heater

Electrostatic precipitator

Induced draft fan

stack
Boiler MaintenanceBlowdownsBoiler blowdown is removal of water from the boiler.
It is done in order to remove the amount of solids in the
water, and is performed as either bottom (sludge) blowdown, or
continuous (surface) blowdown. The blowdown frequency and
duration is primarily determined by the boiler water analysis. The
water quality will vary greatly
based on boiler type and size, amount of condensate return,
and boiler water treatment program.
Water tube cleaningafter burning of coal two types of ash is formed, namely Fly ash.
Bottom ash.
Fly ash is light in weight, and it flue with flue gases. It
may deposite on the water tube surface inside the boiler. Due

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which less heat is absorbed by the water tube & hence efficiency
of the boiler is lowered downHence it is necessary to clean the
boiler water tube surface.
To remove this deposition suit blowing method is used. in this
method steam is forced to flow over water tube & boiler wall at a
pressure of 150kg.following 2 type of suit blower are used Short soot blower.
It is used to clean to boiler walls &
water tube surface near to boiler walls.
Long soot blower
Two soot blower of 10m are used from both
side of boiler.

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4.2 Turbine
Turbine is a device which converts the kinetic energy of the
steam in the mechanical rotational energy of rotor. Steam
from the boiler is passed over the blade of the turbine, which
tends to rotate the shaft of the turbine. Turbine shaft is
mechanically coupled with generator shaft .when turbine
shaft rotate generator shaft also rotate.
Basically turbine is of following type Impulse turbine.
Reaction turbine.
On 5 different basis turbine is classified ,those are as followsType of compounding.
Type of blading.
Division of flow.
Type of steam flow.
Type of exhausting condition.
Turbine used in CSTPS has following features turbine set consist of 3 turbine defined on the basis of
the pressure inside it. These turbines with their type are
as follows High pressure turbine - impulse turbine.
Intermediate pressure turbine Reaction turbine.
Low pressure turbine Reaction turbine.
Condensing type.
Tandom compound.
Tandom compounding means
both impulse & reaction type turbine is used.
Nozzle governing.
Disc & diaphragm type.

The Turbine contained one row of stationary blade & one


row of rotating blades alternatively. The fixed blades are carefully
shaped to direct the flow of steam against the moving blades at
an angle and a velocity that will maximize the conversion of the

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steam's heat energy into the kinetic energy of rotary motion.


Because the steam's temperature, pressure and volume change
continuously as it progresses through the turbine, each row of
blades has a slightly different length, and in certain parts of the
turbine the twist of the blade is usually varied along the length of
the blade, from root to tip. One set of stationary & rotating blade is
called as stage. These no. of stages can b varied as per
requirement.
In CSTPS, no of stages for a given turbine is given in
following table
Type of turbine

No of stages

H.P. turbine
I.P. turbine
L.P. turbine

12
11
4+4

The steam from the boiler is initially provided to high


pressure turbine (H.P. turbine). Steam is expanded inside H.P.
turbine .H.P. gives the starting torque & operating speed to the
turbine rotor. The expanded steam from the H.P. turbine again
brought into the boiler for heating. After rising the temperature of
steam, it is fed to the intermediate pressure turbine (I.P.).then this
steam is supplied to the low pressure turbine (L.P.). The function
of I.P. turbine & L.P. turbine is to provide torque to the rotor.
As steam transferred from I.P. turbine to L.P. turbine, steam
pressure goes on the decreasing, and hence steam goes on
expanding. In L.P turbine steam is expand in huge amount hence
it requirement of space.
To overcome this limitation steam is bifurcated in L.P. turbine.
turbine is design so that steam enter at the middle part of the
turbine & exit from the both end. The blades in each half face
opposite ways, so that the axial forces negate each other but the
tangential forces act together. This design of rotor is called two-

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flow, double-axial-flow, or double-exhaust. This arrangement


is common in low-pressure casings of a compound turbine.
This arrangement has following advantages

Required space is less.


Vibration cause is less.
Steam can be expands up to require amount.
Maintain the correct rotor position and balancing, this
force must be counteracted by an opposing force.

Following are the turbine peripheries


Emergency stop valve (E.S.V) Hydraulically operated.
Operate live steam
Live steam is steam under pressure, obtained by heating water
in a boiler.
Control valves ( C.V.)Control valves used to control the
flow of steam in boiler. during light load period, by controlling
flow of steam we can generate limited electricity. Control valves
are mounted on casing of H.P. turbine at the middle bearing side,
it is common for H.P. & I.P turbine.
There are total 4 no. of C.V in one turbine.
Turbine rotor connection
Rotor of I.P. & L.P. turbine is connected by semi flexible rod.
3 rotors are supplied with 5 bearings.
H.P. & L.P. turbine is combined on radial bearing.
Barring gear- barring gear is structure to support the rotor
during sagging & hogging due to differential temperature
between the top of the rotor shaft and the bottom. Once the rotor

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is cooled toambient temperature, unless there is a supplementary


support structure for the rotor, it should be barred periodically to
avoid sagging of the rotor under its own weight.

More about turbine


Anchor point- when steam is
expand in turbine, heat is transferred from the steam to
rotor & turbine casing. Due to heating elongation is
produced in rotor & casing. It is subjected to axial thrust. To
allow their controlled motion during operation and to
prevent any eventuality between rotor and casing they are
required to be anchored Rotors are anchored at Bearing no
2(between HP &IP) by means of thrust bearing. In some
Turbines they are also anchored at free end Thrust bearing
( Anchor point) is always located near High temperature end
to minimize the differential expansion.
So anchor point is defined as casing which are connected
by means of pedestals & keys.
Anchor point is located near the high teprature
In CSTPS, anchor point is located near front of L.P. turbine.
Cycles of turbine

Cooling water cycle. Two circulating water pump (C.W. pump)are circulating
water, taken from sump.
Water from the condenser water tube is cooled in cooling
tower.
27000ton water per hour is cooled in one cooling tower.
14 C.T fans are employed in 210MW plant cooling tower.
Temperature in cooling tower should be 28-30degree cel.

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Following dia. shows the cooling water cycle-

C
o
o
l i n
g
T
o
w
e
r

W
a
t
e
r
s
u
m
p

C
o
n
d
e
n
s
e
r

Regenerative feed water cycleRegenerative water is


obtained from the condensate from the condenser. When steam in
condenser is passed over the cool water tube, it condensate &
collected in hot well. Hence regenerative feed water starts from
hot well & end at boiler drum. 2 condensate extraction pumps are
running & 1 pump is stand by. It is as follows

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Condenser

Hot well

C.E.P - 1

C.E.P - 2

Low pressure heater (L.P.)

De aerator

Feed storage tank (F.S.T.)

Feed water cycle-

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C.E.P - 3

In feed water cycle 2 boiler feed


pumps (B.F.P.) are running & 1 is stand by at a time.
Feed water cycle is as followsFeed water cycle (F.S.T)

B.F.P.-1

B.F.P.-2

B.F.P.-3

High pressure heater (H.P.)


economizer

Boiler drum

4.3 Condensor

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Condenser is used to condense the steam out from the L.P.


turbine. Cooled water is circulating inside the water tube of
condenser. Heat of the steam is transferred to cooled water inside
water tube. Hence, due to this steam gets condense. Condensate
is collected in hot well, which is just below the condenser. The
heated water inside the water tube is sent to the cooling tower in
which temperature of this water is decreased to the ambient
temperature.
Following are the important component of condenser
Shell- The shell is the condenser's outermost body and contains
the heat exchanger tubes. The shell is fabricated from carbon
steelplates and is stiffened as needed to provide rigidity for the
shell. At the bottom of the shell, where the condensate collects,
an outlet is installed. In some designs, a hotwell is provided.
Condensate is pumped from the outlet or the hotwell for reuse
as boiler feedwater.
For most water-cooled surface condensers, the shell is
under vacuum during normal operating conditions.
Cooling water tubes- Generally the tubes are made
of stainless steel, copper alloys such as brass or bronze. Cooled
water flows through it. Which extract heat from the steam. Due to
absorption of heat tube gets elongate hence some clearance is
provided for this expansion.
Condensate extraction pump (C.E.P)- condensate extraction
pump (C..P) is generally a centrifugal pump used to extract the
condensate from the condenser.
In CSTPS, there are total 3 C.E. pumps are installed
per condenser unit in 210MW unit. Out of these 2 C.E. pumps are
running &1 is stand by at a time.

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More about condenserVacuum is maintained in condenser.


It is because of the steam turbine itself is a device to convert
the heat in steam to mechanical power. The difference between
the heat of steam per unit mass at the inlet to the turbine and the
heat of steam per unit mass at the outlet from the turbine
represents the heat which is converted to mechanical power.
Therefore, the more the conversion of heat
per pound or kilogram of steam to mechanical power in the
turbine, the better is its efficiency. By condensing the exhaust
steam of a turbine at a pressure below atmospheric pressure, the
steam pressure drop between the inlet and exhaust of the turbine
is increased, which increases the amount of heat available for
conversion to mechanical power. Most of the heat liberated due
to condensation of the exhaust steam is carried away by the
cooling water.

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Cooling TowerCooling towers are used to cool the water from the
water tube of condenser. Water in water tube take heat from the
steam from the turbine.

Heat from water is transferred by following methodWet cooling methodIn this method evaporation phenomenon is used to transfer
heat.
Dry cooling method-

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In this method convention of heat phenomenon is used to


transfer of heat from water from water tube. Heat is transferred
through a surface that separates the water from ambient air, such
as in a heat exchanger.

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4.4 Generator
Generator is an electrical device which converts mechanical
energy into electrical energy. This Energy conversion is based on
the principal of the production of dynamically induced emf.
Whenever conductor cuts magnetic flux, dynamically induced emf
is produced in it according to Faradays Laws of electromagnetic
induction. This emf causes a current to flow if the conductor
circuit is closed.
Synchronous generator ( Alternator) is used to generate A.C
electric power at a constant frequency 50Hz.
In A.C. generator, following are constructional important parts A stationary element called as stator, on which armature
winding is mounted.
A rotating part inside the stator called as rotor. this rotor is
driven by the rotational mechanical energy from the turbine
shaft at a constant speed.
In CSTPS, 210MW unit 2 pole alternator is used which
generate electricity at 3000rpm of frequency 50Hz.
Stator Construction
Stator is a heaviest component of the
entire generator. It contains stator winding & stator body with a
stator core. it is designed to
Withstand high internal pressure, which may arise due to unlikely
event of explosion of hydrogen air mixture without any residual
deformations. Stator body is a totally enclosed gas tight
fabricated structure made up of high quality mild steel and
austenitic steel.
Stator windingStator winding is made up of a hallow
conducting pipe through which water is circulated for cooling
hydrogen gas. The stator winding is placed in open rectangular
slots of the stator core which are uniformly distributed on the
circumference Bus bars are connected to bring out the three
phases & six neutrals. This bus barware connected with terminal
bushings. Both are water cooled, connection is made by brazing

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the two lugs properly. The insulation is highly resistant to high


temperatures and
temperature changes. The composition of the insulation and
synthetic resin permits the machine to be operated continuously
under conditions corresponding to these for insulation class B
temperature.
END WINDING:
In the end winding, the bars are arranged
close to each other. Lower as well as upper layers of bars are
braced with terelyne cord with binding ring as well as with
adjacent bars. Bus bars are connected to bring out the three
phases & six neutrals. These bus bars are connected with terminal
bushings. Both are water cooled, connection is made by brazing
the two lugs properly.
TERMINAL BUSHING :
Three phases and six neutral
terminals are brought
out
from the stator frame through bushings, which are capable of
withstanding high voltage, and provided with gastight joints. The
bushings are bolted to the bottom plate of the terminal box, with
their mounting flanges. The terminal box that is welded
underneath the stator frame at exciter end is made of
nonmagnetic
Steel to avoid admissible temperature rise. The conductor of the
bushing is made of high conductivity copper tube. A copper pipe
is connected to circulate water for cooling. The terminal bar
conductor is housed in porcelain insulator which can be mounted
on the terminal box by means of ring.
The bushing is connected to terminal bus bar by means of flexible
copper leads for making the electrical connections conveniently.
Rotor Construction
In rotor construction following are the
important parts of rotor, which require very careful operation
during its construction.
Rotor winding.
Rotor shaft.
Rotor winding

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Rotor winding is mounted on the rotor shaft.


The field winding consists of several coils inserted into the
longitudinal slots of the rotor body. The coils are wound around
the poles so that one north magnetic pole and one south
magnetic pole are obtained on shaft. Rotor winding is excited by
the excitation voltage provided by excitation system.
Rotor winding conductor are made up of hard drawn
silver bearing copper. Apart from low electrical resistance this
grade exhibits high creep resistance so that coil deformations due
to thermal cycling due to start and stop operation are minimum.
Insulation winding is made up of Layer of glass laminates
insulates the Individual turns from each other. This laminate is
built by glass prepped strips on the turn of copper and baked
under pressure and temperature.
Due to rotation & flow of current in winding heat is generated.
if excessive heat is generated, it may damage the winding
insulation & weaken the rotor. Hence winding cooling is necessary.
It can be done by hydrogen cooling. Hydrogen gas can be rich up
to deepest layer of winding hence efficient cooling is done.
Rotor shaftThe rotor shaft is long forging measuring more than
9 meters in length and slightly more than one meter in diameter.
The main constituents of the steel are chromium, molybdenum.
Nickel, and vanadium. The shaft and body are forged integral to
each other by drop forging process.
On 2/3 of its circumference approximately, the
rotor body is provided with longitudinal slots to accommodate
field windings. The slots pitch is selected in such a way that two
solid poles displaced by 180 are obtained.
D.C exciter is also mounted on the generator shaft .
Fans-

Two single stage axial flow propeller type fans circulate the
generator cooling gas. Fitted on either sides of rotor body
BearingsThe rotor shaft is supported on pedestal type of
bearings which has spherical seating to allow self alignment. On
the top of bearings pedestal a vent pipe emerges connecting
bearing chamber to the atmosphere for venting out oil vapour or
traces of Hydrogen. A current collector located just above the
rotor shaft and touching it is also mounted on the bearing body to

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give, shaft voltage for rotor earth fault protection. To prevent the
flow of shaft currents slip ring and bearing and connecting pipes
are insulated from earth.
Shaft Seal
The locations where the rotor shaft passes through
the stator casing, are provided with radial seal rings. The seal ring
is guided in the seal body, which is bolted on to the end shield
and insulated to prevent the flow of shaft currents. The seal ring is
lined with babbit on the shaft journal side. The gap between the
seal ring and the shaft is sealed with seal oil. The seal oil is
supplied to the sealing gap from the seal body via radial holes
and an annular groove in the seal ring. To ensure effective
sealing, the seal oil pressure in the annular gap is maintained at
a higher level than the gas pressure within the generator casing.
Following flow chart shows generated electricity route
Generator

Generating transformer

National grid
CoolingIn generator heat is generated due to windage
loss ,Cu losses, friction. The rise in temperature must be
controlled to protect the insulating material . the temperature with
which these insulating material can with stand is decided by the
class of insulating material to which it belongs.
For cooling generator components following cooling systems
are used Hydrogen cooling.
Demineralised water (D.M.) cooling.

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Hydrogen CoolingIn CSTPS, 2 pole generator runs at


3000 rpm. So the rotor of large diameter is used. To minimize the
size of generator air gap should be as small as possible & by
increasing value of current density. But increasing in value of
current density increases the losses in generator ultimately heat
developed is also increased. If excess amount of heat is
developed, it may damage the winding insulation.
In Generator hydrogen gas may be leak from the bearings &
casing.
This hydrogen gas is highly explosive when it is in contact
with air. This may cause fire to the generator. To avoid this
leakage Generator seal oil system is employed.
In order to prevent the escape of Hydrogen from the
generator casing along the rotor shaft, shaft seals with oil under
pressure are used. The shaft seals are radial thrust type and are
mounted between the end shield and the bearing at either end of
the stator.
The seal oil supply system consists of an oil injector,
two seal oil pumps, one cooler, two oil filters, differential pressure
regulator, pressure oil regulator, damper tank, hydraulic seal,
visual window, oil check pipe etc.
Demineralised (D.M.) Water CoolingStator
conductor are made hallow . through this hallow conductor D.M.
water is circulate . which absorb the heat from stator winding.
D.M. Cooling water is admitted to upper bar and it
returns through lower bar of next slot. The hot water then goes to
expansion tank which is maintained under a vacuum of about 300
mm of Hg. This helps to remove gases from the water and thus
corrosion is minimsed. From expansion tank, water is pumped by
primary stator water pumps through DM/DM Coolers,
filters back to stator conductors.
Exciter

33

According to Faradays Laws of electromagnetic induction,


Whenever conductor cuts magnetic flux dynamically an induced
emf is produced in it.
Due to this induced emf current is flows in closed circuit.
Need of excitation to A.C. generator-

ac generators required a large magnetic field which


cannot be provided by permanent magnets. so dc
generators called auxillary generators are used to provide
constant magnetic field.
More about exciterExcitation can be given by both A.C. & D.C. source, but the A.C.
excitation have
Following limitations A.C. excitation itself produce alternating flux, thus generator
will give transformer action But it will not generate
electricity as per mutual induction laws.
If field is rotated by giving A.C. excitation, we will not get
constant magnetic polls. Polls will change with respect to
armature winding . so, it results in irregular waveform of
generated emf.& there will be chances of burning of stator
winding.
In case of D.C. excitation , it gives constant magnetic field.
Generator are connected in parallel with another generator or
infinite bus bars.An infinite bus means a large system whose
voltage and frequency
remain constant independent of the power exchange between the
synchronous generator and the bus, and independent of the
excitation of the synchronous generator. The generator excitation
which is controllable determines the flow of VARs into or out of
the generator.
Generally , D.C. generator as an exciter is
mounted on the generator shaft itself.
Objectives of excitation control :
Besides maintaining the field current and steady state operating
point, the excitation

34

system is required to improve the natural damping behavior and


to extend the stability limits.
The operating conditions to be taken into consideration are :
Good response in Voltage and reactive power control.
Satisfactory steady state stability i.e. sufficient damping of
electromagnetic and electromechanical transients.
Transient stability for all stated conditions.
Quick voltage recovery after fault clearance.
Generator ProtectionIn CSTPS, near about 30
protection are given to the generator.
Following points shows the requirement of protection
Faults in generator reflect back on whole system.
Generator faults may damage the generator winding which
is so much costly. Also, this may damage the stator core, due
to which severe mechanical torsion may produce.
Fault current is flows through the winding even after
generator is tripped; it is because of presence of trapped flux
with in machine. There by increasing amount of fault
damage.
A fault produces high short circuit current.
Following are the major protection are given to the
generator Mechanical protection.
Protection against failure against prime
mover.
Failure of field.
Over current.
Over voltage.
Over speed.
Electrical protection.
Unbalanced load.
Stator winding.

35

Governing & Lubricating System


Turbine in CSTPS is equipped with hydraulic mechanical governing
system, which ensures smooth & safe operation of turbine &
generator. This system is as follows-

36

Oil Tank

MOP
SOP

LOP
AC

DC

Governor

Oil cooler

Servomotor Operate
Pump

4 control valve

Bearings of turbine & generator

37

4.5 Generating Transformer


Transformer is a static device which step up or step down
electrical energy. Function of transformer in power plant is to step
up the voltage level to the transmission voltage level. Following
table shows the transformer component and its function.
component

function

core

Provide path for magnetic lines of flux.

Primary winding

Receive electrical energy from energy


source & creates magnetic field.

Secondary winding

Receive electrical energy from primary


winding & deliver to the load

enclosure

Protect the above component from


environmental attack
Core is made up of CRGO steel which have high magnetic
properties due to which losses are reduced, &permeability is
increase
Transformer bushing- transformer bushing is used to take out
the terminal of the secondary winding to connect it to the
transmission lines. Electrical power is the product of voltage and
current, the insulation in a bushing must be capable of
withstanding the voltage at which it is applied, and its current
carrying conductor must be capable of carrying rated current
without overheating the adjacent insulation. The bushing must
also be able to withstand the various mechanical forces applied to
it .
Transformer insulationIn power transformer ,insulation is provided on two
places in stator winding-

38

Insulation between two winding turn in same layer. It is


called as basic insulation.
Insulation between two layer of winding .
Basic insulation need not by excessive because the
voltage difference between a winding turn and its neighboring
turn is small in value and its the voltage across one winding turn.
To insulate layer of winding from the other layer of winding paper
insulation is used.
Some of the salient features of our insulating materials are
listed below:

Excellent flexibility.
Heat resistant.
Moisture resistant.
Brilliant electrical properties.
Resistant to smoke or odour.

More about power transformer


Paper insulation is used in between the two layer of
winding it is because of
the voltage difference between a winding turn and its
neighboring winding turn one layer above or below it can be
excessive and equals the voltage drop across a large number
of turns in one windings layer. Therefore an extra insulation
layer using paper strip is used between windings layers.
Paper is used as a insulating material. it is because of
cellulose paper have outstanding insulating properties.
In power transformer, when transformer is loaded with load.
Current is flows through the transformer winding which causes I2R
losses in transformer. Due to I 2R losses heat is produced in
transformer. hence as load goes on increasing amount of heat
developed also increases.

39

Excess amount of heat is developed is main reason behind


transformer winding insulation breakdown.
It also adversely affects the life of the transformer.
Hence cooling system is employed in transformer

Transformer cooling system

In generating transformer, heat developed is extremely high.


Natural air cooling is not sufficient to maintain transformer
temrature. Hence oil cooling system is employed in power
transformer.
Oil is used in transformer to insulate & cool the winding.
Transformer core & both winding are immersed in oil filled up in
oil tank. This transformer oil should have following propertiesTransformer oil properties

40

Electrical

Physical

Chemical

Dielectric strength.
Interfacial
water
content.
Specific resistance.
Tension.
Acidity.
Dielectric dissipation
viscosity
sludge
content.
Factor.
Flash point.
To cool this hot oil water cooling arrangement is provided.
Water is circulated through the tubes. This hot water is
cooled naturally.
Transformer accessories
BreatherWhenever electrical power transformer is loaded, the
temperature of the insulating oil increases, consequently the
volume of the oil is increased. As the volume of the oil is
increased, the air, above the oil level in conservator, will come
out. Again at low oil temperature the volume of the oil is
decreased, which cause, the volume of the oil to be decreased
which again causes air to enter into conservator tank. The natural
air always consists of more or less moisture in it and this moisture
can be mixed up with oil if it is allowed to be entered into the
transformer. The air moisture should be resisted during entering
the air into the transformer, because moisture is very harmful for
transformer insulation. A silica gel breather is most commonly
used as a means of filtering air from moisture. Silica gel breather
for transformer is connected with conservator tank by means of
breathing pipe.

41

Conservator
It is the important periphery of transformer.
Conservator is a tank which conserves oil. When transformer is
loaded, oil inside it is heated. Due to heating oil expand. To
provide extra volume conservator is employed.
When oil gets cooled it returns to transformer oil tank.
Conservator tank is partially filled with oil.
So, the vaccum space is filled up by the
atmospheric air. A filtering device, called breather is attached with
the conservator to ensure that only dry and clean air can enter
into the transformer. So, a conservator ensures the safety
operation of a transformer. High temperature of oil also leads
to generate sludge, which occurs in the presence of air. If
somehow the transformer is subjected to a major fault, then the
temperature rise becomes quite high and this causes vaporization
of a part of the oil. This oil vapour forms an explosive mixture with
air and can ignite and cause huge damage. So, to prevent the
contact of oil and moisture-enriched air, conservator and breather
assembly is used.

Buchholz RelayPrinciple of operation of buchholz relay is


very simple. It is a mechanical phenomenon

Whenever there will be a minor internal fault in the


transformer such as an insulation faults between turns, break
down of core of transformer, core heating, thetransformer insulating oil will
be decomposed in different hydrocarbon gases, CO2 and CO. The
gases produced due to decomposition of transformer insulating oil will

42

accumulate in the upper part the Buchholz Container which


causes fall of oil level in it.

Fall of oil level means lowering the position of float and thereby
tilting the mercury switch. The contacts of this mercury switch are
closed and an alarm circuit energized. Sometime due to oil
leakage on the main tank air bubbles may be accumulated in the
upper part the Buchholz Container which may also cause fall of oil
level in it and alarm circuit will be energized. By collecting the
accumulated gases from the gas release pockets on the top of the
relay and by analyzing them one can predict the type of fault in
the transformer.

Pressure release valve (P.R.V.)It is a oil pressure relief


valve. When oil is heated in transformer tank, it expands & it
exerts pressure. If this pressure crosses certain limit then this
P.R.V. is operated.

43

Pressure relief is very simple construction. It contain an


aluminum foil of required thickness is fitted on the opening of
valve. Whenever surge developed in oil. The aluminum foil is
busted.

Circuit BreakerCircuit breaker is nothing but the switch.


Circuit breaker is enclosed in a close vessel. It is operated by
external media. When relay senses faults. Then relay sends signal
and then circuit breaker breaks the circuit, Due to high voltage arc
is produced in it. To extinguish it following methods are usedBulk oil
Minimum oil
Air blast
Vacuum
SF6

( sulfur hexafluoride)

CO2

IsolatorIsolator is a switch which isolates the circuit. it is


very simple in construction, & mechanically operated switch.
Circuit breaker always trip the circuit but open contacts of
breaker cannot be visible physically from outside of the breaker
and that is why it is recommended not to touch any electrical
circuit just by switching off the circuit breaker. So for better safety
there must be some arrangement so that one can see open
condition of the section of the circuit before touching it. Isolator is
a mechanical switch which isolates a part of circuit from system

44

as when required. Electrical isolators separate a part of the


system from rest for safe maintenance works.
Other transformer used in CSTPS
Besides generating transformer following transformer
are also used. These transformers have their own significance in
power plant. Following are those transformers Unit auxiliary transformer.
Station transformer.
Unit auxiliary transformerUnit auxiliary transformer is
employed to provide electricity to the auxiliaries like B.F.P., C.E.P.,
cooling pumps, of power plant unit.
Before starting power generation in plant, these auxiliaries must
be started. To start these auxiliaries initially power is taken from
station transformer. After generating 30MW electricity, this UAT is
connected to primary side of generating transformer. This
arrangement has following advantagesElectricity can be taken from generator itself as well as from
external source.
When electricity is taken from generator itself, then CSTPS does
not need to pay for electricity required for power plant auxiliaries.
Primary side voltage of UAT is equal to the generating voltage
level. & secondary voltage is equal to rated voltage of auxiliaries.
General layout of UAT is as follows

45

Station transformer-

46

Station transformer is also called as start-up transformer. This


station transformer provides initial power to the plant auxiliaries,
when no power is available. Following are the function of station
transformerProvide electricity to auxiliaries of power plant, during start-up.
During normal operation, power to the C.H.P. auxiliaries. it is
because of working of all unit is depends upon coal supply from
C.H.P. following auxiliaries are installed in C.H.P.Motors of conveyor belts.
Motors of crusher.
Lightening system
Provide power to the boiler feed pump (B.F.P.). it is very important
auxiliary of thermal power plant.
If boiler drum level is not maintain, then many complications
(like boiler over heating which damage boiler tubes & many other
components) are arises.
Hence power supply to B.F.P. must be maintained. To maintain
this supply power supply is taken from station transformer.
Station transformer is connected to the grid transmission lines,
hence power supply reliability is maintained, even though
generating units are tripped up.

47

5. WATER TREATMENT PLANT


Water treatment is important component of thermal
power plant. water treatment plant working area are given
belowWater treatment.
Coal analysis.
Oil tests.
Flue gas analysis.
Out of above mentioned area water treatment has prime
importance. It is because of following reasons.
Water contains different types of impurities, when
these impurities enters inside boiler it will produce slice
formation inside boiler tube due to which heat will not
transfer properly hence tubes will melt. This impurities
deposits inside the water tubes & block the water tubes.
Presence of oxygen & carbon dioxide leads to corrosion of
water tubes.
In CSTPS, raw water is come from Erai Dam
through pipelines. In Erai dam water is collected from the
forest area near by it. So chemical impurities are not in raw
water, therefore contamination of dam water is very less.but
till following impurities are present in raw waterTurbidityIt is due to mud, minerals.
Organic Matter- Organic present is due to the decomposition
of dead animals, trees, leaves.
Colour & odurColour & odur comes to water due to its
organic matter contains.
Dissolved gasesGases like carbon monoxide, oxygen are
dissolves in water.
Living micro-organism
Water is goes through following processes during treatment
Pre-treatment.

48

Post treatment.
175000m^3 water is treated in one day in CSTPS.
Pretreatment of water- Pretreatment is used to kill
disease-causing organisms and help control taste and odor
causing substances. A pretreatment chemical could be any
number of oxidants or disinfectant.
In water pre treatment plant the suspending particles
are removed by screening the water. Following flow chart shows
the water treatment process sequenceWater from Erai dam brought pipe lines

One day reserve tank

Flash mixture

Clariflocculator

Rapid gravity filter

Water sump

49

To post treatment plant


Function of each step is explain below
One day reserve tankOne day reserve tank is used to
store sufficient water storage, which will last long nearly one day.
Sometimes water supply from dam is interrupted due to certain
interrupts. Therefore to continue plant operation without any
interrupts. Water from one day reserve is taken out. Water is
stored in this tank, due these suspended particles, heavy
impurities, silica particles settled down here.
Besides this, one day reserve tank is used as a water
source during any emergency.
Flash mixture
Alum & lime is added in water. Effect
of adding alum & lime is explain as follows
Alum not only settles certain hazardous chemicals and
suspended solids but also bacterial colonies. Alum has a negative
charge and tends to disperse in water very fast and very well .
This causes it to join up with all of the offending particles and
neutralize them. Now that the particles don't have any repelling
charges, they tend to clump together into 'flocs'.

Addition of lime
softening can be achieved by adding lime in the
form of limewater, Ca(OH)2, which, in a carbonatation reaction
with CO2, forms calcium carbonate precipitate, reacts next with
multivalent cat ions to remove carbonate hardness, then reacts
with anions to replace the non-carbonate hardness due to

50

multivalent cations with non-carbonate hardness due to calcium.


The process requires recarbonation through the addition of carbon
dioxide to lower the pH which is raised during the initial softening
process.[3]
As lime is added to raw water, the pH is raised and the
equilibrium of carbonate species in the water is shifted.
Dissolved carbon dioxide (CO2) is changed
into bicarbonate (HCO3-) and then carbonate (CO32-). This action
causes calcium carbonate to precipitate due to exceeding the
solubility product. Additionally, magnesium can be precipitated
as magnesium hydroxide in a double displacement reaction.
The byproduct from the reaction of water with lime
produces large volumes of calcium carbonate and magnesium
hydroxide sludge. This residual stream can substantially increase
costs associated with the process. The sludge can be used as an
agricultural soil amendment (it is an alkalinity supplement) and
can also be used as a filler material in certain cementitious
materials such as low strength concrete.
ClariflocculatorClariflocculator is a device in which
flocculation & clarification reaction takes place simultaneously.
Clariflocculator contains two concentric water tanks. The inner
tank serves as a flocculation chamber. And the outer tank serve
as a clarifier chamber. storror are used to
During flocculation reaction flocs hydroxide is formed & then
settled down. This floc is removed as a sludge by blowdown
process.
Mechanism of clariflocculator is as follows

These provide gentle agitation by slow moving paddles.


This action serves to break up the mass rotation of liquid
and promote mixing.

51

The specially designed flocculation paddles enhance


flocculation of the feed solids
Agglomeration of the destabilized colloids is achieved as a
result of particulate transport in the flocculation
compartment
Increased particle contact will promote floc growth and aids
faster settling.
There are 5 no. of clariflocculators are installed in CSTPS.
Rapid gravity FilterRapid sand filters contains relatively
coarse sand and other granular media like bolder to remove
particles and impurities that have been trapped in a floc through
the use of flocculation chemicalstypically salts
of aluminium or iron. Water and flocs flows through the filter
medium under gravity or under pumped pressure and the
flocculated material is trapped in the sand matrix. Mixing,
flocculation and sedimentation processes are typical treatment
stages that precede filtration. Chemical additives, such as
coagulants, are often used in conjunction with the filtration
system.

Rapid sand filters must be cleaned frequently, often several


times a day, by backwashing, which involves reversing the
direction of the water and adding compressed air. During

52

backwashing, the bed is fluidized and care must be taken not to


wash away the media.
Water sumpWater sump is a water storage tank in which
pretreated water is stored. From thank water is sent for post
treatment.
Post treatment is different for both Demineralized water (D.M. water)
Soften water
Demineralized water- DM water is demineralized
water . Dissolved impurities and dissolved gases in
water. Sometimes water is hard, temporary hardness or
permanent hardness and which is badly affects the
boiler which helps formation of scales in sides the
boiler.
In D.M. water plant , water is passed through
activated carbon filter for absorbing dissolved carbon
dioxide. For removing temporary hardness and
permanent hardness ion exchanging process used. By
Ion - exchange process from which the minerals have
been removed and get Demineralized water.
Demineralized water have following qualities Neutral P.H (6.5-7.5).
Conductivity of water (<10s/cm).

During pretreatment for D.M. water, following process is


carried out

53

screening

settling

Chemical dosing

coagulation

ScreeningDuring screening process all the suspended


particles are removed in this process.

SettlingWater is stored in one day reserve tank for one day.


During this heavy particles are settled down.
Chemical Dosingwater.

In chemical dosing alum & lime is added in

54

CoagulationCoagulation is a process is a joining small


particle together to form large particles. Due to chemical dosing,
floc is produced.

Post-treatment of Water
Pretreated water send for post
treatment. Post treatment method for D.M water & soften water.
Demineralised (D.M.) water PlantDemineralisation
is a process of removing dissolved salts from water by iron
exchange process. In CSTPS, water with no chemical substances
is come from Erai dam. So the better quality D.M water is
obtained. During demineralization process water is passed
through following ion beds-

Pretreated water sump

Pressure sand filter (P.S.F.)

55

Activated charcoal filter (A.C.F)

Strong acid cation (S.A.C)

Weak base anion (W.B.A)

De-gaser

De-gaser tank

Strong base anion (S.B.A)

56

Mixed bed (M.B)

De-mineralised (D.M) tank

Condensate storage tank (C.S.T)

Function of each of above mention beds are explain below


Pressure sand filter (P.S.F)Pressure sand filter consist
of a pressure vessel. it contain graded sand which supported by
graded pebbles & silex. Distributor nozzle installed at top
distributes water throughout the cross-section of filter. To collect
water under drain system is provided.
Working Principle
In pressure sand filter raw water flows down wards through the
filter bed and as the suspended matter- which has usually been
treated by addition of a coagulant like alum- is retained on the

57

sand surface ands between the sand grains immediately below


the surface.
There is steady rise in the loss of head as the filtration process
continues and the flow reduces once the pressure drop across the
filter is excessive.
The filter is now taken out of service and cleaning of the filter is
effected by flow reversal. To assist in cleaning the bed, the
backwash operation is often preceded by air agitation through the
under drain system. The process of air scouring agitates the sand
with a scrubbing action, which loosens the intercepted particles.
The filter is now ready to be put back into
Service.
Activated charcoal filter (A.C.F)Activated charcoal
means activated carbon. It is a form of carbon processed to be
riddled with small, low-volume pores that increase the surface
area available for chemical reactions. Activated charcoal have
good carbon trapping quality. due to this property chemical &
organic impurities can be removed.

58

Strong Acid Cation (S.A.C)


Porus type synthetic resin is
filled in strong acid cation exchanger.
SAC resins can neutralize strong bases and convert
neutral salts into their corresponding acids. SAC resins derive
their functionality from sulfonic acid groups (HSO 3). When used
in demineralization, SAC resins remove nearly all raw water
cations, replacing them with hydrogen ions, as shown below:

The exchange reaction is reversible. When its capacity is


exhausted, the resin can be regenerated with an excess of
mineral acid.
Strong acid cation exchangers function well at all pH ranges.
These resins have found a wide range of applications.
Weak Base Anion (W.B.A)Weak base anion bed
absorb acid from the water . & convert it into neutral salts. When

59

this bed absorb acid after it is exhausted. it is need to regenerate


it.
Regeneration needs only to neutralize the absorbed acid: it
need not provide hydroxide ions. Less expensive weakly basic reagents such
as ammonia (NH3) or sodium carbonate can be employed.
DegasserDegasser is a device in which dissolved gases
from water is removed. It also removes small bubbles trappeped
in water layer.

Degasser tankIn this tank water from the degasser is


stored. this water is send to strong base anion bed.
Strong Base Anion (S.B.A)-

60

In this bed anionic contamination is removed


from water.

Mixed Bed (M.B.)The strong acid cation and strong based


anion bed are intermixed.
The cation & anion is taking place over & over within resin bed.
Both anion & cation escaped from prior bed is trapped in mix bed.
By using mix bed high quality of D.M. water can be obtained.

Demineralised Water TankWater passed from above


process is stored in this tank. this water is send as make up water
in boiler.
Anion & cation vessels are exhausted during the treatment. This
ion bed is regenerative. In following ways this beds are
regenerated
Water
Vessel
Impurities
Regenerative
capacit

61

element

P.S.F.

Gelatinous
material

A.C.F.

turbidity

8500

S.A.C.

(Ca^+2),
(Mg^+2),
(Na^+2)
(Cl^-), (SO4^2)
silicates

HCl acid

8500

NaOH solution

8500

NaOH

8000

HCL +NaOH

13200

W.B.A.
S.B.A.
M.B.

Any particles
other than
above

Backwash by
filtered water

y
(M^3)
8500

Before feeding D.M. water to boiler chemical


conditioning is done.
D.M. water is corrosive by nature. Hence, ammonia (NH3) is
added.
Hydrazine (N2H4) which is colorless is added , to remove
dissolved oxygen from D.M. water. This reaction gives water
& nitrogen gas.
Phosphate (PO4) is dose directly in boiler drum. It form
phosphate of dissolved impurities.
After particular period blowdown is given to
the boiler. This phosphate form is removed during this
process.
Soften WaterPlantWater softening is the removal
of calcium, magnesium, and certain other
metal cations in hard water. The resulting soft water is more
compatible with soap and extends the lifetime of plumbing.

62

Water softening is usually achieved using lime


softening or ion-exchange resins.
soften water is used for cooling purpose ,drinking purpose.
In CSTPS, there are 11 no. of stream and each stream
contains 3 softening containers.
In 210MW plant 15000(M^3) soften water is required as a
makeup per hour. flow of each softener is 250(M^3/Hr.).
Vessel
Type of
Impurities
Regenerative
exchanger
removed
solution
Softener

Strong acid
cation

hardness

Brine solution

Condensate polishing unit


Condensate polishing unit is used to remove
the impurities from the condensate of the condenser. Main
function of condensate polishing unit is to maintained boiler water
quality.

63

Following are the advantages of condensate polishing unit

Improvement in the quality of condensate and "cycle" clean


up

Reduced blow down & make up requirements


Improvement in boiler water quality for drum type boilers
Quick start up and as a result, full load conditions are
reached early giving economics

Orderly shutdown possible in case of condenser tube leak


conditions

Improvement in quality of steam which results in enhanced


turbine life
Effluent Treatment plant (E.T.P)Main function of E.T.P. is
to clean gas clean plant (G.C.P.) effluent & recycle it for further

64

use. Sewage water is treated as per is pollution control norms in


E.T.P.
This water is used for ash handling.
6. Ash Handling PlantSystem Description
The ash handling system handles the ash by bottom ash handling
system, coarse ash handling system, fly ash handling system, ash
disposal system up to the ash disposal area and water recovery
system from ash pond and Bottom ash overflow. Description is as
follows:

1.
A.
Bottom Ash Handling System
Bottom ash resulting from the combustion of coal in the boiler
shall fall into the over ground, refractory lined, water impounded,
maintained level, double V-Section type/ W type steel- fabricated
bottom ash hopper having a hold up volume to store bottom ash
and economizer ash of maximum allowable condition with the
rate specified. The slurry formed shall be transported to slurry
sump through pipes.
1.
B.
Coarse Ash (Economizer Ash) handling System
Ash generated in Economizer hoppers shall be evacuated
continuously through flushing boxes. Continuous generated
Economizer slurry shall be fed by gravity into respective bottom
ash hopper pipes with necessary slope.
1.
C.
Air Pre Heater ash handling system
Ash generated from APH hoppers shall be evacuated once in a
shift by vacuum conveying system connected with the ESP hopper
vacuum conveying system.

65

1.
D.
Fly Ash Handling System
Fly ash is considered to be collected in ESP Hoppers. Fly ash from
ESP hoppers extracted by Vacuum Pumps up to Intermediate
Surge Hopper cum Bag Filter for further Dry Conveying to fly ash
silo.
Under each surge hopper ash vessels shall be connected with Oil
free screw compressor for conveying the fly ash from
Intermediate Surge Hopper to silo. Total fly ash generated from
each unit will be conveyed through streams operating
simultaneously and in parallel.
1.

E.

Ash Slurry Disposal System

Bottom Ash slurry, Fly ash slurry and the Coarse Ash slurry shall
be pumped from the common ash slurry sump up to the dyke area
which is located at a distance from Slurry pump house.

66