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**Use of Series and Shunt Capacitors in
**

Transmission Lines

Semester 4

Instructed by: Mr. Shanaka

Group Members:

H.N.T.Wijesekara

L.S.Wijesinghe

W.M.K.M.Wijesooriya

D.T.P.Wijesooriya

V.Y.Wong

K.L.I.M.P.B.Jayarathna

120716U

120720C

120724R

120726B

120737J

120240E

Observations

Name

: H. N. T. Wijesekara

Index No.

: 120716 U

Group

: G-22

Field

: Electrical Engineering

Date of Perform

: 24/02/2015

Date of Submission

: 10/03/2015

39 0.05 1.8 1.2 1.48 0.45 1.52 0.65 0.15 1.1 1.2 (A) 0.73 (W) 41 22 32 44 55 62 With shunt capacitance Capacitance ( F ) 12 18 24 30 36 Current 1 Current 2 (A) 0.28 0.With series capacitance Capacitance ( F ) 0 17 29 35 43 52 Current Power Received (A) 0.45 Calculations 1 X Series capacitive reactance ( c ) = 2 fC Power Received (W) 80 90 100 110 105 .3 1.95 1.

124 1.329 32 35 90.213 47.124 2.15 47.299 62 Compensation of the Line Received Power vs.241 6 = 2 50 17 10 Inductive Reactance = 2 50 0.241 47.124 1.946 47.241 Power Received (W) .124 Capacitance( Per Unit Series Capacitive Inductive F ) Reactance ( ) Reactance ( ) 0 - - - 41 17 187.571 55 52 61.973 Per Unit Compensation of the Line = 47.026 47.Inductive reactance ( XL ) = 2 fL Per Unit Compensation of the Line = Series Capacitive Reactance Inductive Reactance 1 (2 f C ) 2 f L Per Unit Compensation of the Line = Sample Calculation C = 17 µF L = 0.241 3.15 H f = 50 Hz Series Capacitive Reactance 1 187.124 187.124 3.124 1.762 47.930 44 43 74.973 22 29 109. Series Capacitive Reactance Received Power (W) 22 Series Capacitive Reactance ( ) 187.

946 55 74.762 44 90.026 62 61.32 109.213 .

Series Capacitive Reactance 65 60 55 50 45 Received Power (W) 40 35 30 25 20 15 50 70 90 110 130 150 Series Capacitive Reactance (ohm) Received Power vs.Received Power vs. Per Unit Compensation of the Line 170 190 210 .

Received Power (W) Per Unit Compensation 22 3.299 .930 55 1.329 44 1.571 62 1.973 32 2.

5 .5 3 Per Unit Compensation Received Power vs. Per Unit Compensation 70 60 50 Received Power (W) 40 30 20 10 0.5 1 1. Shunt Capacitive Reactance 3.5 4 4.5 2 2.Received Power vs.

103 110 36 88.258 18 176.Capacitance( F ) Shunt Capacitive Received Power (W) 12 Reactance ( ) 265.839 90 24 132.629 100 30 106.419 105 80 .

5 150.5 300.5 50.5 200. Shunt Capacitive Reactance 115 110 105 100 95 Received Power (W) 90 85 80 75 70 0.Received Power vs.5 Shunt Capacitive Reactance (Ohm) 250.5 100.5 .

Apparent power is the product of the current and voltage of the circuit. As a result. it will draw Leading Reactive Power. They also must have larger capacity equipment in place than would be otherwise necessary. Some industrial sites will have large banks of capacitors strictly for the purpose of correcting the power factor back toward one to save on utility company charges. Low-power-factor loads increase losses in a power distribution system and result in increased energy costs.e. . This can be accomplished by adding Shunt Capacitors to the system. leading) Reactive Power is opposite to the direction of the Inductive (i. If a capacitor is connected across the supply. It lags behind the Active Power by 90 degrees. the apparent power is usually greater than the real power. Usefulness of Shunt Capacitors in Improving the Power Factor of the Load Inductive components in a power system such as ballasts.e. Due to energy stored in the load and returned to the source or due to a nonlinear load that distorts the wave shape of the current drawn from the source. To do so. which leads the Active Power by 90 degrees. Utilities typically charge additional costs from the industrial users who have a power factor below some limit. they have to supply more current to the user for a given amount of power use. they incur more line losses. an industrial facility will be charged a penalty if its power factor is much different from 1.Discussion Effect of Power Factor on the Power Systems The power factor of an AC electric power system can be defined as the ratio of the real power to the apparent power. lagging) Reactive Power. Industrial facilities tend to have a lagging power factor. draw Lagging Reactive Power from the supply. motors and heaters. The direction of the Capacitive (i. Real power is the capacity of the circuit to perform work in a unit time. This is a number between 0 and 1. So it is necessary to have a power factor close to unity to reduce additional costs in electricity payments. This will lead to the consumption of Lagging Reactive Power. To minimize this effect we should either consume Leading Reactive Power or Supply Lagging Reactive Power within the system. A power factor of unity is the goal of any electric utility company because if the power factor is less than one. where the current lags the voltage because of having a lot of electric induction motors. which is typically 90 to 95%.

The reactive power drawn by the synchronous motor is a function of its field excitation. it is possible to use an unloaded synchronous motor. in a short circuit condition the capacitor should be able to withstand the high current. The reason for this is the presence of harmonics in the waveform caused by switched mode power supplies.Effect of series and shunt capacitance Shunt Connection: This is the most popular method of connection. It is started and connected to the electrical network. using capacitors or inductors as required. This filter kills the harmonic current. instead of using a capacitor. One is that because of the series connection. Even though the voltage regulation is much high in this method. Other Methods Available to Improve the Power Factor Synchronous Motor For power factor correction. 50 or 60 Hz). it behaves like an electrically variable capacitor. The other is that due to the series connection due to the inductivity of the line there can be a resonance occurring at a certain capacitive value. which means that the non-linear device now looks like a linear load. however. At this point the power factor can be brought to near unity. . This is referred to as a synchronous condenser. It is possible to design a filter that passes current only at line frequency (e. which are bulky and expensive. Filters There are certain situations where capacitors are not connected directly to the supply lines. Its principal advantage is the ease with which the amount of correction can be adjusted. Series Connection: This method of connection is not much common. The condenser’s installation and operation are identical to large electric motors. The capacitor is connected in parallel to the unit. This will lead to very low impedance and may cause very high currents to flow through the lines. The simplest way to control the harmonic current is to use a filter. It operates at full leading power factor and puts VARs onto the network as required to support a system’s voltage or to maintain the system power factor at a specified level. This filter requires large-value high-current inductors. it has many disadvantages.g. The voltage rating of the capacitor is usually the same as or a little higher than the system voltage.

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