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A telecommunication system consists of several fundamental components.

Identify and describe the fundamental components of a telecommunication system.


Describe two broad categories of telecommunications media and their associated
characteristics.
Briefly describe several options for short-range, medium-range, and long-range
communication.
In a telecommunication system, the sending unit transmits a signal to a
telecommunications device, which performs a number of functions such as
converting the signal into a different form or from one type to another. The
telecommunications device then sends the signal through a medium that carries the
electronic signal. The signal is received by another telecommunications device that
is connected to the receiving computer.
A networking protocol defines the set of rules that governs the exchange of
information over a telecommunications channel to ensure fast, efficient, error-free
communications and to enable hardware, software, and equipment manufacturers
and service providers to build products that interoperate effectively. There is a
myriad of telecommunications protocols, including international, national and
regional standards.
Communication among people can occur synchronously and asynchronously.
A transmission medium can be divided into one or more communications channels,
each capable of carrying a message. Telecommunications channels can be classified
as simplex, half-duplex or full-duplex.
Channel bandwidth refers to the rate at which data is exchanged, usually expressed
in bits per second.
A circuit-switching network uses a dedicated path for the duration of the
communication. A packet-switching network does not employ a dedicated path for
communications and breaks data into packets for transmission over the network.
The telecommunications media that physically connect data communications
devices can be divided into two broad categories: guided communications devices
can be divided into two broad categories: guided transmission media and wireless
media, guided transmission media include twisted-pair wire, coaxial cable and fiberoptic cable. Wireless transmission involves the broadcast of communications in one
of three frequency ranges: radio, microwave or infrared.
Wireless communications solutions for very short distances include Near Field
Communications, Bluetooth, ultra wideband, infrared transmission, and ZigBee. WiFi is a popular wireless communications solutions for long distances include satellite
and terrestrial microwave transmission, wireless mesh, 3G and 4G cellular
communications service, and WiMAX.
Networks are an essential component of an organizations information
technology infrastructure.

Identify the benefits of using a network.


Describe the three distributed processing alternatives and discuss their basic
features.
Identify several telecommunications hardware devices and discuss their functions.
The geographic area covered by a network determines whether it is called a
personal area network (PAN), local area network (LAN), metropolitan area network
(MAN), or wide area network (WAN).
The electronic flow of data across international and global boundaries is often called
transborder data flow.
When an organization needs to use two or more computer systems, it can follow
one of three basic data-processing strategies: centralized (all processing at a single
location, high degree of control), decentralized (multiple processors that
communicate with each other). Distributed processing minimizes the consequences
of a catastrophic event at one location while ensuring uninterrupted systems
availability.
A client/server systems is a network that connects a users computer (a client) to
one or more host computers (servers). A client is often a PC that requests services
from the server, shares processing tasks with the server, and displays the results.
Numerous popular telecommunications devices include smartphones, modems,
multiplexers, PBX systems, switches, bridges, routers and gateways.
Telecommunications software performs important functions, such as error checking
and message formatting. A network operating system controls the computer
systems and devices on a network, allowing them to communicate with one
another. Network-management software enables a manager to monitor the use of
individual computers and shared hardware, scan for viruses, and ensure compliance
with software licenses.
The interception of confidential information by unauthorized parties is a major
concern for organization. Encryption of data and the use of virtual private networks
are two common solutions to this problem. Special measures must be taken to
secure wireless network.
Network applications are essential to organizational success.
List and describe several network applications that organization that benefit from
today.