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International Journal of Computational Science, Information Technology and Control Engineering (IJCSITCE) Vol.2, No.

3, July 2015

ON OPTIMIZATION OF DOPING OF A HETEROSTRUCTURE DURING MANUFACTURING OF P-I-NDIODES


E.L. Pankratov1,3, E.A. Bulaeva1,2
1

Nizhny Novgorod State University, 23 Gagarin avenue, Nizhny Novgorod, 603950,


Russia
2
Nizhny Novgorod State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering, 65 Il'insky
street, Nizhny Novgorod, 603950, Russia
3
Nizhny Novgorod Academy of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Russia, 3 Ankudinovskoe Shosse, Nizhny Novgorod, 603950, Russia

ABSTRACT
We introduce an approach of manufacturing of a p-i-n-heterodiodes. The approach based on using a doped heterostructure, doping by diffusion or ion implantation of several areas of the heterostructure. After
the doping the dopant and/or radiation defects have been annealed. We introduce an approach to optimize
annealing of the dopant and/or radiation defects. We determine several conditions to manufacture more
compact p-i-n-heterodiodes.

KEYWORDS
p-i-n-heterodiodes; decreasing of dimensions of p-i-n-diodes; optimization of manufacturing; -doping;
analytical approach for modelling

1. INTRODUCTION
Development of the solid state electronic devices leads to necessity of increasing of performance,
reliability and integration rate of elements of integrated circuits (p-n- junctions, their systems et
al) [1-7]. Increasing of integration rate of elements of integrated circuits leads to necessity to decrease their dimensions. One way to increase performance of the above elements is determination
new materials with high charge carriers motilities. The second one is elaboration new technological processes and optimization existing one [8-21]. Dimensions of elements of integrated circuits could be also decreased by using new technological processes and optimization existing one
[8-17].
In the present paper we consider an approach to decrease dimensions of p-i-n-diodes. The approach based on using a heterostructure from Fig. 1. The heterostructure consist of a substrate
and four epitaxial layers. A -layer has been grown between average epitaxial layers to manufacture required type of conductivity (n or p) in the doped area. Another epitaxial layers have been
manufactured with sections (see Fig. 1). The sections have been manufactured by using another
materials. We assumed, that the sections have been doped by diffusion or ion implantation to produce in this section required type of conductivity (p or n). The considered approach gives us possibility to manufacture more thin p-i-n-diodes. After doping sections dopant and/or radiation defects have been annealed. Annealing of dopant gives us possibility to infuse the dopant on required depth. Annealing of radiation defects gives us possibility to decrease their quantity.
Framework this paper we analyzed dynamics of dopant and radiation defects during annealing.
1

International Journal of Computational Science, Information Technology and Control Engineering (IJCSITCE) Vol.2, No.3, July 2015

Epitaxial layer 4
-layer

Epitaxial layer 3
Epitaxial layer 2
Epitaxial layer 1
Substrate

Fig. 1. A multilayer structure with a substrate and four epitaxial layers.


Heterostructure, which consist of a substrate, four epitaxial layers and sections framework the layers

2. METHOD OF SOLUTION
We determine distributions of concentrations of dopants in space and time to solve our aim. To
determine the distributions we solved the second Fick's law [1,3,17]

C (x, y, z, t ) C (x, y, z, t ) C (x, y, z, t ) C (x, y, z, t )


=
DC
+
DC
+
DC
. (1)
t
x
x
y
z
y
z

Boundary and initial conditions for the equations are


C (x, y, z, t )
C ( x, y , z , t )
C ( x, y , z , t )
C ( x, y , z , t )
=0,
= 0,
=0,
=0,
y
y
x
x
y =0
x=Ly
x=0
x= L
x

C ( x, y , z , t )
C ( x, y , z , t )
=0,
= 0 , C (x,y,z,0)=f (x,y,z).
z
z
z =0
x= L

(2)

The function C(x,y,z,t) describes distribution of concentration of dopant in space and time; T is
the temperature of annealing; D is the dopant diffusion coefficient. Dopant diffusion coefficient
has different values in different materials. Value of dopant diffusion coefficient changing with
heating and cooling of heterostructure (with account Arrhenius law). Dopant diffusion coefficient
could be approximated by the following relation [22-24]

C ( x, y , z , t )
V ( x, y , z , t )
V 2 ( x, y , z , t )
DC = DL ( x, y, z, T ) 1 +
1
+

.
1
2
P (x, y , z, T )
V*
(V * )2

(3)

The function DL(x,y,z,T) describes variation of dopant diffusion coefficient in space (due inhomogeneity of heterostructure) and with variation of temperature (due to Arrhenius law); the function
P (x,y,z,T) describes the limit of solubility of dopant; parameter is integer in the following interval [1,3] [22]; the function V (x,y,z,t) describes variation of distribution of concentration of
radiation vacancies in space and time; the parameter V* describes the equilibrium distribution of
concentration of vacancies. Dependence of dopant diffusion coefficient on concentration of dopant has been described in details in [22]. It should be noted, that using diffusion type of doping
did not generation radiation defects. In this situation 1=2=0. We determine distributions of concentrations of radiation defects in space and time by solving the following system of equations
[23,24]
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International Journal of Computational Science, Information Technology and Control Engineering (IJCSITCE) Vol.2, No.3, July 2015

I (x, y, z, t )
I ( x, y, z, t )
I (x, y, z, t )
=
DI (x, y, z, T )
+
DI ( x, y, z, T )
k I , I (x, y, z, T )
t
x
x
y
y

I 2 ( x, y , z , t ) +

I (x, y , z , t )

D I ( x, y , z , T )
k I ,V ( x, y, z, T ) I (x, y, z, t ) V ( x, y, z, t )
z
z

(4)

V (x, y, z, t )
V (x, y, z, t )
V (x, y, z, t )
=
DV (x, y, z, T )
+
DV (x, y, z, T )
kV ,V (x, y, z, T )
t
x
x
y
y

V ( x, y , z , t )

DV (x, y, z , T )
k I ,V ( x, y, z, T ) I ( x, y, z , t ) V ( x, y, z , t ) .
z
z

Boundary and initial conditions for these equations are


(x, y, z, t )
(x, y , z , t )
( x, y , z , t )
( x, y , z , t )
=0,
=0,
=0,
= 0,

y
y
x

x
y =0
y= Ly
x=0
x= L
V 2 ( x, y , z , t ) +

( x, y , z , t )
( x, y , z , t )
=0,
= 0 , (x,y,z,0)=f (x,y,z).
z
z
z =0
z=L

(5)

Here =I,V; the function I (x,y,z,t) describes distribution of concentration of radiation interstitials
in space and time; D(x,y,z,T) are the diffusion coefficients of point radiation defects; terms
V2(x,y,z,t) and I2(x,y,z,t) correspond to generation divacancies and diinterstitials; kI,V(x,y,z,T) is the
parameter of recombination of point radiation defects; kI,I(x,y,z,T) and kV,V(x,y,z,T) are the parameters of generation of simplest complexes of point radiation defects.
Distributions of concentrations of divacancies V(x,y,z,t) and dinterstitials I (x,y,z,t) in space and
time have been determined by solving the following system of equations [23,24]

I ( x, y, z, t )
I ( x, y, z, t )
I ( x, y, z, t )
=
D ( x, y, z,T )
+ y DI ( x, y, z, T )
+
t
x I
x
y

I (x, y, z, t )

2
DI (x, y, z, T )
+ k I , I (x, y, z, T ) I (x, y, z, t ) k I (x, y, z, T ) I (x, y, z, t )
z
z

(6)

V (x, y, z, t )
V (x, y, z, t )
V (x, y, z, t )
=
DV (x, y, z,T )
+
DV (x, y, z,T )

+
t
x
x
y
y

V (x, y, z, t )

2
DV (x, y, z, T )
+ kV ,V (x, y, z, T )V (x, y, z, t ) kV (x, y, z, T )V (x, y, z, t ) .
z
z

Boundary and initial conditions for these equations are


( x, y , z , t )
x

=0,
x =0

( x, y , z , t )
z

=0,
z =0

( x, y , z , t )
x

x = Lx

( x, y, z, t )
z

=0,

( x, y , z , t )
y

= 0,
y =0

(x, y, z, t )
y

= 0,
y=Ly

= 0 , I (x,y,z,0)=fI (x,y,z), V (x,y,z,0)=fV (x,y,z). (7)


z =Lz

Here D(x,y,z,T) are the diffusion coefficients of the above complexes of radiation defects;
kI(x,y,z,T) and kV (x,y,z,T) are the parameters of decay of these complexes.
3

International Journal of Computational Science, Information Technology and Control Engineering (IJCSITCE) Vol.2, No.3, July 2015

To determine spatio-temporal distribution of concentration of dopant we transform the Eq.(1) to


the following integro-differential form
xyz x y z
yz t y z
V ( x, v, w, )
V 2 (x, v, w, )
+2

C (u , v, w, t ) d w d v d u =
1 + 1
*
Lx L y L z Lx L y Lz
L y Lz 0 L y Lz
V
(V * )2

C (x, v, w, ) C (x, v, w, )
xz t x z
DL (x, v, w, T ) 1 +
d +
DL (u, y, w, T )

x
P (x, v, w, T )
Lx Lz 0 Lx Lz

V (u , y, w, )
V 2 (u , y, w, )
C (u , y , w, ) C (u , y, w, )

1 + 1
+ 2
1
+
d +

2
*
V
(V * ) P (x, y, z,T ) y

xy t x y
V (u , v, z, )
V 2 (u , v, z , )
C (u , v, z, )
(
)
D
u
,
v
,
z
,
T
1
+
+
1
+

L
1
2
Lx L y 0 Lx L y
V*
(V * )2 P (x, y, z,T )

C (u , v, z , )
xyz x y z
d +
f (u , v, w) d w d v d u .
L x L y L z Lx L y L z
z

(1a)

We determine solution of the above equation by using Bubnov-Galerkin approach [25]. Framework the approach we determine solution of the Eq.(1a) as the following series
N

C0 ( x, y , z, t ) = a nC cn (x ) cn ( y ) cn (z ) enC (t ) ,
n=0

where enC (t ) = exp 2 n 2 D0C t (Lx2 + Ly2 + Lz2 ) , cn()=cos( n/L). The above series includes
into itself finite number of terms N. The considered series is similar with solution of linear Eq.(1)
(i.e. with =0) and averaged dopant diffusion coefficient D0. Substitution of the series into
Eq.(1a) leads to the following result
xyz

aC
yz t y z N

s (x ) sn ( y ) sn (z ) enC (t ) =
1 + anC cn ( x ) cn (v ) cn (w) enC ( )
3 n
n =1 n

L y Lz 0 Ly Lz n=1
N

V ( x, v, w, )
V 2 ( x, v, w, )

1
+
+

DL ( x, v, w, T ) a nC s n ( x ) cn (v )

1
2

*
* 2
n =1
P ( x, v, w,T )
V
(V )

n cn (w) enC ( ) d

xz t x z N

1 + amC cm (u ) cm ( y ) cm (w) emC ( )

P (u, y, w, T )
Lx Lz 0 Lx Lz m=1

V (u , y , w, )
V 2 (u , y , w, ) N
DL (u , y , w, T ) 1 + 1
+

n c (u ) s ( y ) c (w) e ( ) d
2
V*
(V * )2 n=1 n n n nC

xy t x y


(
)
(
)
(
)
(
)
(
)
a nC
D
u
,
v
,
z
,
T
1
+
a
c
u
c
v
c
z
e

nC n
n
n
nC


Lx L y 0 Lx L y
P (u , v, z , T ) n=1

V (u , v , z , )
V
1 + 1
+2
V*

(u , v , z , )

(V )

* 2

N
xyz

n a nC c n (u ) c n (v ) s n ( z ) e nC ( ) d +
Lx L y Lz
n =1

x y z

f (u , v, w) d w d v d u ,
L x L y Lz

International Journal of Computational Science, Information Technology and Control Engineering (IJCSITCE) Vol.2, No.3, July 2015

where sn() = sin ( n /L). We determine coefficients an by using orthogonality condition of terms
of the considered series framework scale of heterostructure. The condition gives us possibility to
obtain relations for calculation of parameters an for any quantity of terms N. In the common case
the relations could be written as

L2x L2y L2z

L y L z t L x L y Lz
N
a nC

(
)
(
)
(
)
(
)
(
)
(
)
e
t
D
x
,
y
,
z
,
T
1
a
c
x
c
y
c
z
e

nC n
nC
L
n
n
nC
6

n =1 n
2 2 0 0 0 0
n=1
N

V (x, y , z, )
V 2 ( x, y , z, ) N anC
1
+

s (2 x ) cn ( y ) cn ( z ) enC ( )

1
2
P ( x, y , z, T )
V*
(V * )2 n=1 n n

t Lx L y Lz
Ly

[c n ( y ) 1] z s n (z ) + L z [c n (z ) 1] d z d y d x d D L (x , y , z , T )
y sn (y ) +
n
n
0 0 0 0

V ( x , y , z , )
D L (x, y , z , T ) 1 + a nC c n (x ) cn ( y ) cn (z ) enC ( )
+
1 + 1

P (x, y , z, T )
V*
n =1
Lx
V 2 ( x , y , z , )
V (x, y , z , )
V 2 ( x, y , z , ) N

+2
1
+
+
[cn (x ) 1] anC

x sn (x ) +
1
2
*
* 2
* 2
V
n
(V )
(V ) n=1
n

Lx L y

Lx Lz
L
cn (x ) sn (2 y ) cn ( z ) enC ( ) z sn (z ) + z [cn ( z ) 1] d z d y d x d

2
2
n
2 2

t L x L y Lz
N

V 2 (x, y , z, )
1 + a nC c n ( x ) cn ( y ) cn ( z ) enC ( )
+
1+ 2

n=1
P ( x, y, z , T )
0 0 0 0
(V * )2

+ 1

N a

L
V ( x, y, z , )
DL (x, y , z, T ) nC cn ( x ) cn ( y ) sn ( z ) x sn ( x ) + x [cn (x ) 1]
*

n
=
1

V
n
n

N Lx
Ly

[cn ( y ) 1] enC ( )d z d y d x d + x sn (x ) + Lx [cn (x ) 1]


y sn ( y ) +
n =1 0
n
n

Ly
L
Ly

z
y sn ( y ) +
[cn ( y ) 1] z sn (z ) + Lz [cn (z ) 1] f (x, y, z ) d z d y d x .
n
n
0

As an example for = 0 we obtain


Lx L y
Lz
Ly
L
[cn ( y ) 1] z sn (z ) + y [cn (z ) 1] f (x, y, z ) d z d y { x sn (x ) +
a nC = y sn ( y ) +
n
n
0 0
0

L
L
y
Ly

Lz
L n t x
[c n ( x ) 1] x d x s n (2 x ) cn ( y ) y s n ( y ) +
[
cn ( y ) 1] DL (x, y , z , T )
n 2 0 0
n
0

Ly

[cn (z ) 1]1 + 1 V (x, y*, z, ) + 2 V (x, *y,2z, ) 1 +


z sn (z ) +

n
V
(V ) P (x, y, z, T )

Ly
Lx
Lz
t
Ly

[c n (x ) 1] s n (2 y ) c n (z )
c n ( z ) d z d y d x e nC ( ) d + e nC ( ) c n ( x ) x s n ( x ) +
n
0
0
0

Ly

V ( x , y , z , )
V 2 (x , y , z , )
[c n (z ) 1] 1 +

z s n (z ) +
1
+
+

1
2
n
P (x , y , z , T )
V*
(V * )2

Lx
t

Ly
L
DL ( x, y , z , T ) d z d y d x d + enC ( ) cn ( x ) x s n ( x ) + x [cn (x ) 1] cn ( y ) { s n ( y )
n
0
0

International Journal of Computational Science, Information Technology and Control Engineering (IJCSITCE) Vol.2, No.3, July 2015

y+

Ly

[c ( y ) 1] s (2 z ) D (x, y, z,T ) 1 +
Lz

V 2 ( x, y, z , )
+
1 + 2

P ( x, y , z , T )
(V * )2

L2z L2z L2z


V ( x, y, z , )
+ 1
d
z
d
y
d
x
d

5 6 enC (t ) .
*

For = 1 one can obtain the following relation to determine required parameters
a nC =

where n =

Ly
Lx
Lz
n
n2 + 4 n c n ( x ) c n ( y ) cn (z ) f ( x, y, z ) d z d y d x ,
2 n
0
0
0

L y Lz
Lx
L y Lz t
V (x, y , z , )
V 2 ( x, y , z , ) D L ( x, y , z , T )
(
)
(
)

e
s
2
x
1
+
+

nC
n
1
2
2 2n 0
V*
0
0 0
(V * )2 P(x, y, z, T )

t
Ly

[c n ( y ) 1] z s n (z ) + Lz [c n (z ) 1] d z d y d x d + Lx2Lz enC ( )
c n ( y ) c n (z ) y s n ( y ) +
n
n
2 n 0

Lx
L y Lz

L
L
V ( x, y , z , )
V 2 ( x, y , z , )

x s n (x ) + x [c n (x ) 1] z s n (z ) z [c n (z ) 1]1 + 1
+

2
n
n
V*
0
(V * )2
0 0

Ly
Lx
Lz
Lx L y t
D ( x, y , z , T )
D L ( x, y , z , T )
d z d y d xd +
c n ( x ) s n (2 y ) c n (z ) L

e nC ( ) c n ( x ) c n ( y )
2
P ( x, y , z , T )
2 n 0
0
0
0 P ( x, y , z , T )

Lx
V ( x, y , z , )
V 2 ( x, y , z , )
1 + 1
+
[c n (x ) 1] y s n ( y ) + y [c n ( y ) 1] d y

x s n (x ) +
2
*
2
*
n
n
V
(V )

2
L
L
L
y
t

x
z
L y Lz
V (x, y, z, )
V (x, y, z, )
e ( ) s n (2 x ) cn (z ) 1 + 1
+2
s n (2 z ) d z d x d , n =

2 nC
*
2 n 0
V
0
0 0
(V * )2

Ly

L
[cn ( y ) 1] d y d x d + Lx Lz2
DL (x, y, z, T ) z s n (z ) + z [c n ( z ) 1] d z cn ( y ) y s n ( y ) +
n
n
2 n

Lx
Lz
t

L
L y
V ( x, y , z , )
V 2 ( x, y, z, )
enC ( ) c n ( x ) x s n (x ) + x [c n ( x ) 1] s n (2 y ) c n (z ) 1 + 1
+

2
n
V*
0
0
0
(V * )2

Lx
Lx L y t

L
L
DL (x, y, z, T ) z s n (z ) + z [cn (z ) 1] d z d y d x d +
e ( ) x s n ( x ) + x [cn (x ) 1]
2 nC
n
2 n 0
n
0

2
Ly

Ly

Lz
y sn ( y ) +
[cn ( y ) 1] s n (2 z ) DL (x, y, z, T ) 1 + 1 V (x, y*, z, ) + 2 V (x, *y,2z, ) d z
n
V
0
(V )

cn ( y ) d y cn (x ) d x d L2x L2y L2z enC (t ) 5 n 6 .

Analogous way could be used to calculate values of parameters an for larger values of parameter

. However the relations will not be present in the paper because the relations are bulky.
Equations of the system (4) have been also solved by using Bubnov-Galerkin approach. Previously we transform the differential equations to the following integro- differential form

International Journal of Computational Science, Information Technology and Control Engineering (IJCSITCE) Vol.2, No.3, July 2015
t y z
xyz x y z
I ( x, v, w, )
d wd v d
I (u , v, w, t ) d w d v d u = DI (x, v, w, T )
Lx L y Lz L x L y L z
x
0 L y Lz

x y z
yz
xz t x z
I (u , y , w, )
+
d w d u d k I ,V (u , v, w, T )
DI (u , y , w, T )
L y Lz Lx Lz 0 L x L z
x
Lx L y Lz

I (u , v, w, t )V (u , v, w, t ) d w d v d u

DI (u , v, z , T ) d v d u d
+

xyz
x y t x y I (u , v, z , )
+

z
Lx L y Lz L x L y 0 L x L y

xyz x y z
2
k I , I (u , v, w, T ) I (u , v, w, t ) d w d v d u +
Lx L y Lz L x L y L z

xyz x y z
f I (u , v, w) d w d v d u
Lx L y Lz L x L y L z

(4a)

t y z
xyz x y z
V ( x, v, w, )
d wd v d
V (u , v, w, t ) d w d v d u = DV (x, v, w, T )
Lx L y L z L x L y L z
x
0 L y Lz

t x y
yz
xz t x z
V (u , y , w, )
+
d w d u d + DV (u , v, z , T )
DV (u , y, w, T )
L y Lz Lx Lz 0 L x L z
x
0 Lx L y

V (u , v, z , )
xy
xyz x y z
d vd u d

k I ,V (u , v, w, T ) I (u , v, w, t )
z
Lx L y Lx L y Lz L x L y L z

V (u , v, w, t ) d w d v d u

xyz x y z
2
kV ,V (u , v, w, T ) V (u , v, w, t ) d w d v d u +
Lx L y Lz L x L y L z

xyz x y z
fV (u , v, w) d w d v d u .
Lx L y Lz L x L y L z

We determine solutions of the Eqs.(4a) as the following series


N

0 (x, y , z, t ) = a n cn ( x ) cn ( y ) cn ( z ) en (t ) .
n =1

Coefficients an are not yet known. Substitution of the series into Eqs.(4a) leads to the following
results
xyz
3

t y
z
a nI
y z N
s n ( x ) s n ( y ) s n (z ) enI (t ) =
a nI cn ( y ) cn ( z ) DI ( x, v, w, T ) d w d v
3
n =1 n
Lx L y Lz n=1 0 L y
Lz
N

enI ( ) d sn ( x )

t
x
z
x z N
a nI s n ( y ) enI ( ) c n (x ) cn ( z ) DI (u , y , w, T ) d w d u d
Lx L y Lz n=1
0
Lx
Lz

y
t
x
x y z
x y N
a nI s n ( z ) enI ( ) cn ( x ) cn ( y ) DI (u , v, z , T ) d v d u d k I , I (u , v, v, T )
Lx L y Lz n =1
0
Lx
Ly
Lx L y Lz

2
N
xyz
xyz x y z N
a nI c n (u ) c n (v ) c n (w) e nI (t ) d w d v d u

a nI c n (u ) c n (v ) c n (w)
n =1

L x L y L z L x L y L z Lx L y Lz n =1
N

enI (t ) anV cn (u ) cn (v ) cn (w) enV (t ) k I ,V (u, v, v, T ) d w d v d u +


n =1

xyz

xyz x y z
f I (u, v, w) d w d v d u
L x L y L z Lx L y Lz

t y
z
anV
y z N
s n (x ) s n ( y ) s n (z ) enV (t ) =
anV cn ( y ) cn ( z ) DV ( x, v, w, T ) d w d v
3
n =1 n
Lx L y Lz n=1
0 Ly
Lz
N

International Journal of Computational Science, Information Technology and Control Engineering (IJCSITCE) Vol.2, No.3, July 2015

enV ( ) d s n ( x )

t
x
z
x z N
a nV s n ( y ) enV ( ) cn ( x ) c n ( z ) DV (u , y, w, T ) d w d u d
Lx L y Lz n=1
0
Lx
Lz

y
t
x
x y z
x y N
a nV sn ( z ) enV ( ) cn (x ) cn ( y ) DV (u , v, z , T ) d v d u d kV ,V (u , v, v, T )
Lx L y Lz n=1
0
Lx
Ly
Lx L y L z

2
N
xyz
xyz x y z N
a nV cn (u ) cn (v ) cn (w) enI (t ) d w d v d u

a nI c n (u ) c n (v ) c n (w )
n=1

Lx L y Lz Lx L y Lz Lx L y Lz n=1
N

enI (t ) anV cn (u ) cn (v) cn (w) enV (t ) k I ,V (u, v, v, T ) d w d v d u +


n =1

xyz x y z
f V (u, v, w) d w d v d u .
Lx Ly Lz Lx Ly Lz

We determine coefficients an by using orthogonality condition on the scale of heterostructure.


The condition gives us possibility to obtain relations to calculate an for any quantity N of terms
of considered series. In the common case equations for the required coefficients could be written
as

L2x L2y L2z

Ly
Ly

a nI
1 N anI t Lx
(
)
[
(
)
]
[cn (2 y ) 1]
e
t
=

c
2
x

L y + y s n (2 y ) +
nI
n
6
2
n =1 n
2 Lx n =1 n 0 0
2 n
0

Lz

L
1 N anI t Lx
DI (x, y, z , T ) z s n ( z ) + z [cn (z ) 1] d z d y d x enI ( ) d

{ x s n (2 x ) +
2 n
2 L y n =1 n 2 0 0
0

L y Lz

L
L
+ Lx + x [cn (2 x ) 1] DI (x, y, z , T )Lz + z sn (2 z ) + z [cn (2 z ) 1] d z [1 cn (2 y )]
n
2 n
0 0

Lz

L
d y d x enI ( ) d DI ( x, y, z, T )Lz + z sn (2 z ) + z [c n (2 z ) 1] d z d y d x enI ( ) d

2
n
0

Ly
Lx
t
N
Ly

a
L
1
[cn (2 y ) 1]

nI2 Lx + x s n (2 x ) + x [c n (2 x ) 1] L y + y s n (2 y ) +
n
=
1
2 Lz n 0 0
2 n
2 n
0

Lx
Lz
N
L
[1 cn (2 z )] DI ( x, y, z, T ) d z d y d x enI ( ) d a nI2 enI (2 t ) Lx + x [cn (2 x ) 1] +
n =1
2 n
0
0
Ly
Lz
Ly

[cn (2 y ) 1] k I ,I (x, y, z, T )Lz + Lz [cn (2 z ) 1] +


+ x s n (2 x )} L y + y s n (2 y ) +
2 n
2 n
0

0
Lx
N
Ly
L
+ z sn (2 z )}d z d y d x anI anV enI (t ) enV ( t ) Lx + x s n (2 x ) + x [cn (2 x ) 1] {L y +
n =1
2 n
0
0
Lz
Ly
[cn (2 y ) 1] k I ,V (x, y, z, T )Lz + z s n (2 z ) + Lz [cn (2 z ) 1] d z
+ y sn (2 y ) +
2 n
2 n

0
N Lx
Ly
Lz
Ly
L
d y d x + x s n (x ) + x [cn ( x ) 1] y s n ( y ) +
[cn ( y ) 1] f I (x, y, z, T )
n =1 0
n
n

0
0

L
Lz + z s n (2 z ) + z [cn (2 z ) 1] d z d y d x
2 n

L2x L2y L2z

Ly
Ly

a nV
1 N a nV t Lx
(
)
[
(
)
]
[cn (2 y ) 1]
e
t
=

c
2
x

L y + y s n (2 y ) +
nV
n
6
2
n =1 n
2 Lx n=1 n 0 0
2 n
0

Lz

L
1 N anV t Lx
DV ( x, y, z, T ) z sn (z ) + z [cn (z ) 1] d z d y d x enV ( ) d

{ x sn (2 x ) +
2 n
2 Ly n =1 n 2 0 0
0

International Journal of Computational Science, Information Technology and Control Engineering (IJCSITCE) Vol.2, No.3, July 2015

+ Lx +

L y Lz
Lx
[cn (2 x ) 1] DV (x, y, z,T )Lz + z sn (2 z ) + Lz [cn (2 z ) 1] d z [1 cn (2 y )]
n
2 n
0 0

Lz

L
d y d x enV ( ) d DV (x, y, z,T )Lz + z sn (2 z ) + z [cn (2 z ) 1] d z d y d x enV ( ) d

2
n
0

L
L
y
t
Ly

L
1 N a nV x
[cn (2 y ) 1]

2 Lx + x s n (2 x ) + x [c n (2 x ) 1] L y + y s n (2 y ) +
n
=
1
2 Lz
n 0 0
2 n
2 n
0

Lx
Lz
N
L
2
[1 cn (2 z )] DV ( x, y , z , T ) d z d y d x enV ( ) d a nV
enV (2 t ) Lx + x [c n (2 x ) 1] +
n =1
2 n
0
0
Ly
Lz
Ly

[cn (2 y ) 1] kV ,V (x, y, z ,T )Lz + Lz [cn (2 z ) 1] +


+ x s n (2 x )} L y + y s n (2 y ) +
2 n
2 n
0

0
Lx
N
Ly
L
+ z sn (2 z )}d z d y d x anI anV enI (t )enV ( t ) Lx + x s n (2 x ) + x [cn (2 x ) 1] { L y +
n =1
2 n
0
0
Lz
Ly
[cn (2 y ) 1] k I ,V (x, y, z, T )Lz + z s n (2 z ) + Lz [cn (2 z ) 1] d z
+ y s n (2 y ) +
2 n
2 n

0
N Lx
Ly
Lz
Ly
L
d y d x + x sn ( x ) + x [c n ( x ) 1] y sn ( y ) +
[cn ( y ) 1] fV (x, y, z,T )
n =1 0
n
n

0
0

L
Lz + z s n (2 z ) + z [c n (2 z ) 1] d z d y d x .
2 n

In the final form relations for required parameters could be written as


a nI =

b3 + A

4 b4

(b3 + A)2 4 b y + b3 y nV 2nI ,


4

a nV =

nI a nI2 + nI anI + nI
,
nI a nI

Lx L y Lz

L
where n = en (2 t ) k , ( x, y, z, T ) Lx + x sn (2 x ) + x [c n (2 x ) 1]{y s n (2 y ) + L y +

2
n
0 0 0

t
Ly

+
[cn (2 y ) 1]Lz + z sn (2 z ) + Lz [cn (2 z ) 1] d z d y d x , n = 1 2 en ( )
2 n
2 n
2 Lx n 0

Lx L y
Lz
Ly
[cn ( y ) 1] z sn (z ) + Lz [cn (z ) 1] D (x, y, z ,T ) d z d y [1
y sn ( y ) +
2 n
2 n
0 0

0
Lx
Lz
t
Ly
Lx
1
(
)
(
)
(
)
cn (2 x )] d x d +
e
L
+
x
s
2
x
+
[
c
2
x

1
]

[1 c n (2 y )] {Lz +
n
x
n
n
2
2 L y n 0
n
0
0
0

+ z s n (2 z ) +

+ Lx +

Lx
t
Lz
[cn (2 z ) 1]D (x, y, z,T ) d z d y d x d + 1 2 en ( ) {x sn (2 x ) +
2 n
2 Lz n 0
0

Ly
L

Lz
Lx
[cn (2 x ) 1] L y + y sn ( y ) + y [cn ( y ) 1] [1 cn (2 z )]D (x, y, z,T ) d z
n
2 n
0
0

d yd xd

L2x L2y L2z

5n6

Lx
Ly
Ly
L
en (t ) , nIV = x sn (x ) + x [cn (x ) 1] L y +
[cn (2 y ) 1] +
n
2 n
0
0

International Journal of Computational Science, Information Technology and Control Engineering (IJCSITCE) Vol.2, No.3, July 2015
Lz

L
+ y s n (2 y )} k I ,V ( x, y, z , T ) Lz + z s n (2 z ) + z [cn (2 z ) 1] d z d y d x enI (t ) enV ( t ) ,
2 n
0

Ly
Lx
L
z
L

L
L
n = x sn (x ) + x [cn (x ) 1] y sn ( y ) + y [cn ( y ) 1] z sn (z ) + z [cn (z ) 1]
n
n
n

0
0
0

f ( x, y , z , T ) d z d y d x , b4 = nV nI2 nI nI2 , b3 = 2 nV nI nI nI nI2 nV nI nI ,

A = 8 y + b32 4b2 , b2 = nV nI2 + 2nI nV nI nV nI nI + (nV nI ) nI2 , b1 = 2nI


nV nI nV nI nI , y = 3

q 2 + p3 q 3

q2 + p3 + q

b3
3b b b 2
, p= 2 42 3 ,
3b4
9 b4

q = (2b33 9b2 b3 + 27b1b42 ) 54 b43 .


We determine solutions of the Eqs.(4a) as the following series
N

0 ( x, y, z, t ) = a n cn ( x ) cn ( y ) cn ( z ) en (t ) .
n =1

Coefficients an are not yet known. Let us previously transform the Eqs.(6) to the following integro-differential form
t y z
I ( x, v, w, )
xyz x y z
d wd v d
I (u , v, w, t ) d w d v d u = DI ( x, v, w, T )
L x L y L z Lx L y Lz
x
0 L y Lz

I (u, y, w, )
yz
xz t x z
xy t x y
+
d wd u d +
DI (u , y, w, T )
DI (u , v, z, T )
L y L z L x L z 0 L x Lz
Lx L y 0 Lx L y
y

I (u , v, z , )
xyz x y z
2
d vd u d +
k I , I (u , v, w, T ) I (u , v, w, ) d w d v d u (6a)
L x L y L z Lx L y Lz
z

xyz x y z
xyz x y z
k I (u , v, w, T ) I (u , v, w, ) d w d v d u +
f I (u , v, w) d w d v d u
L x L y Lz Lx L y Lz
Lx L y L z Lx L y Lz

t y z
V ( x, v, w, )
xyz x y z
d wd v d
V (u , v, w, t ) d w d v d u = DV ( x, v, w, T )
L x L y L z Lx L y Lz
x
0 L y Lz

V (u, y, w, )
yz
xz t x z
xy t x y
+
d wd u d +
DV (u , y, w, T )
DV (u , v, z, T )
L y L z L x L z 0 L x Lz
L x L y 0 Lx L y
y

V (u , v, z , )
xyz x y z
2
d vd ud +
kV ,V (u , v, w, T )V (u , v, w, ) d w d v d u
L x L y L z L x L y Lz
z

xyz x y z
xyz x y z
kV (u , v, w, T ) V (u , v, w, ) d w d v d u +
f V (u , v, w) d w d v d u .
L x L y Lz Lx L y Lz
L x L y Lz Lx L y Lz

Substitution of the previously considered series in the Eqs.(6a) leads to the following form
t y z
a nI
y z N
s (x ) s n ( y ) s n ( z ) enI (t ) =
n a nI s n ( x )enI (t ) cn (v )c n (w)
3 3 n
n =1 n
Lx L y Lz n =1
0 L y Lz
N

x y z

DI (x, v, w, T ) d w d v d
n s n ( y )enI (t )

t x z
x z N
a nI cn (u )cn (w) DI (u , v, w, T ) d w d u d
Lx L y Lz n=1
0 Lx Lz

t x y
x y N
n a nI s n ( z )enI (t ) cn (u )cn (v ) DI (u , v, z , T ) d v d u d +
Lx L y Lz n =1
0 Lx L y

10

International Journal of Computational Science, Information Technology and Control Engineering (IJCSITCE) Vol.2, No.3, July 2015

x y z
xyz x y z
2
k I , I (u , v, w, T ) I (u , v, w, ) d w d v d u + f I (u , v, w) d w d v d u
L x L y L z Lx L y Lz
Lx L y Lz

xyz
xyz x y z

k I (u , v, w, T ) I (u , v, w, ) d w d v d u
L x L y Lz L x L y L z Lx L y Lz

t y z
a nV
y z N
s (x ) s n ( y ) s n ( z ) enV (t ) =
n anV s n ( x )enV (t ) c n (v )cn (w)
3 3 n
n =1 n
Lx L y Lz n =1
0 L y Lz
N

x y z

DV ( x, v, w, T ) d w d v d
a nV s n ( y ) enV (t )

a nV +

x z N t x z
n cn (u )cn (w) DV (u , v, w, T ) d w d u d
Lx L y Lz n=1 0 Lx Lz

t x y
x y N
n s n (z )enV (t ) cn (u )cn (v ) DV (u , v, z , T ) d v d u d
Lx L y Lz n=1
0 Lx L y

x y z
xyz x y z
2
kV ,V (u , v, w, T )V (u , v, w, ) d w d v d u + f V (u , v, w) d w d v d u
L x L y Lz Lx L y Lz
Lx L y Lz

xyz
xyz x y z

kV (u , v, w, T ) V (u , v, w, ) d w d v d u .
L x L y L z L x L y L z Lx L y Lz

We determine coefficients an by using orthogonality condition on the scale of heterostructure.


The condition gives us possibility to obtain relations to calculate an for any quantity N of terms
of considered series. In the common case equations for the required coefficients could be written
as

L2x L2y L2z

Ly
Ly

a n I
1 N t Lx
(
)
(
)
e
t
=

[
1

c
2
x
]
[cn (2 y ) 1]

L y + y s n (2 y ) +
n

I
n
6
n =1 n
2 Lx n=1 0 0
2 n
0

anI Lz
Lz
1 N t Lx
(
)
(
)
[
(
)
]
(
)

D
x
,
y
,
z
,
T
z
s
z
+
c
z

1
d
z
d
y
d
x
e
d

{x s n (2 x ) +

I
n
n
nI
n2 0
2 n
2 n=1 0 0

+ Lx +

Ly
Lz
Lx
[cn (2 x) 1] [1 cn (2 y )] DI (x, y, z, T ) z sn (z ) + Lz [cn (z ) 1] d z d y d x
2 n
2 n
0
0

Ly
L y
enI ( )
L
1 N anI t Lx
d
[cn (2 y) 1] +
2 x sn (x) + x [cn (x ) 1] y sn (2 y ) +
2
n Ly
2 Lx n=1 n 0 0
2 n
2 n
0
Lx
Lz
L
1 Na t
+ Ly } [1 cn (2 y )] DI (x, y, z, T ) d z d y d x enI ( ) d + 3 n3 I enI ( ) x [cn (x ) 1] +
n
=
1

n 0
0
0 2 n

anI

Ly
Ly

Lz
+ x s n (x )} y sn ( y ) +
[cn ( y ) 1] I 2 (x, y, z, t ) k I ,I (x, y, z,T ) Lz [cn (z ) 1] +
2 n
0
2 n
0
Lx
Ly L y
L
1 N a t
[cn ( y ) 1] +
+ z s n ( z )} d z d y d x 3 n3 I enI ( ) x s n (x ) + x [cn (x ) 1]
n=1 n 0
2 n
0
0 2 n
Lz

L
1 N a
+ y sn ( y )} z sn ( z ) + z [cn ( z ) 1] k I ( x, y, z , T ) I ( x, y, z , t ) d z d y d x + 3 n3 I
2 n
n=1 n
0

Lx
Lz
t
Ly
Ly
L
[cn ( y ) 1] Lz [cn (z ) 1] +
enI ( ) x s n ( x ) + x [cn (x ) 1] y s n ( y ) +
2 n
2 n
0
0
0
0 2 n

+ z s n ( z )} f I ( x, y, z ) d z d y d x

11

International Journal of Computational Science, Information Technology and Control Engineering (IJCSITCE) Vol.2, No.3, July 2015

L2x L2y L2z

Ly
Ly

a n V
1 N t Lx
(
)
[
(
)
]
[cn (2 y ) 1]
e
t
=

c
2
x

L y + y s n (2 y ) +
nV
n
6
n =1 n
2 Lx n =1 0 0
2 n
0

N t Lx

anV Lz
Lz
[cn (z ) 1] d z d y d x enV ( ) d 1 {x sn (2 x) +
DV (x, y, z,T ) z sn (z ) +
2
n 0
2 n
2 n=1 0 0

+ Lx +

Ly
Lz
Lx
[cn (2x) 1] [1 cn (2 y)] DV (x, y, z,T )z sn (z ) + Lz [cn (z ) 1] d z d y d x
2 n
2 n
0
0

Ly
L y
enV ( )
Lx
1 N anV t Lx
(
)
(
)

x
s
x
+
[
c
x

1
]
[cn (2 y) 1] +

y sn (2 y ) +
n
n
2
2
n Ly
2 Lx n=1 n 0 0
2 n
2 n
0
Lx
Lz
L
1 Na t
+ Ly } [1 cn (2 y )] DV (x, y, z, T ) d z d y d x enV ( ) d + 3 n3V enV ( ) x [cn ( x) 1] +
n=1 n 0
0
0 2 n

anV

Ly
Lz
Ly

[cn ( y ) 1] V 2 (x, y, z, t ) kV ,V (x, y, z, T ) Lz [cn (z ) 1] +


+ x s n ( x )} y s n ( y ) +
2 n
0
2 n
0
Lx
Ly L y
L
1 N a t
[cn ( y ) 1] +
+ z s n (z )} d z d y d x 3 n3V enV ( ) x s n (x ) + x [cn (x ) 1]
n=1 n 0
2 n
0
0 2 n

Lz

L
1 N a
+ y sn ( y )} z s n ( z ) + z [cn ( z ) 1] kV ( x, y, z, T )V ( x, y, z, t ) d z d y d x + 3 n3V
2 n
n=1 n
0

L
L
L
t
x
z
Ly
y
L
[cn ( y ) 1] Lz [cn (z ) 1] +
enV ( ) x s n ( x ) + x [cn ( x ) 1] y s n ( y ) +
2 n
2 n
0
0
0
0 2 n

+ z s n (z )} f V ( x, y , z ) d z d y d x .

3. DISCUSSION
In this section we used relations from previous section for analysis of influence of parameters on
distributions of concentrations of infused and implanted dopants. The typical distributions are
presented on Figs. 2 and 3, respectively. The figures correspond to doping of one layer of twolayer structure with higher value of dopant diffusion coefficient in comparison with value of dopant diffusion coefficient in the second layer. The figures show, that using interface between layers of heterostructure leads to increasing of compactness of p-i-n-heterodiode. At the same time
we homogeneity of distributions of concentrations of dopants in doped areas increases with decreasing of the homogeneity outside the enriched areas.
We note, that using the considered approach of manufacturing p-i-n-diodes leads to necessity to
optimize annealing of dopant and/or radiation defects. Necessity of this optimization is following.
Increasing of annealing time of dopant gives a possibility to obtain too homogenous distribution
of concentration of dopant. If the annealing time is small, the dopant has not enough time to
achieve interface between layers of heterostructure. In this situation one can not find any modification of distribution of concentration of dopant due to existing the interface. In this situation it is
required optimization of annealing time. We optimize annealing time of dopant framework recently introduced criterion [26-35]. Dependences of optimal annealing time on parameters are
presented on Figs. 4 and 5. Optimal annealing time of implanted dopant is smaller, than optimal
annealing time of infused dopant. Reason of the difference is necessity of annealing of radiation
defects. One can find spreading of distribution of concentration of dopant during annealing of
radiation defects. In the ideal distribution of concentration of dopant achieves interface between
layers of heterostructure during annealing of radiation defects. It is practicably to use additional
annealing of dopant in the case, one the dopant has not enough time to achieve the interface. The
Fig. 5 shows just dependences of optimal values of additional annealing time of dopant.
12

International Journal of Computational Science, Information Technology and Control Engineering (IJCSITCE) Vol.2, No.3, July 2015

It is known, that using diffusion type of doping did not leads radiation damage of materials in
comparison with ion type of doping. However ion doping of heterostructures attracted an interest
for large difference of the lattice constant. In this case radiation damage leads to mismatchinduced stress [36].

Fig.2. Dependences of concentration of infused dopant in heterostructure from Fig. 1 near one of
interfaces. Value of dopant diffusion coefficient in the left layer is larger, than value of dopant
diffusion coefficient in the right layer. Increasing of number of curve corresponds to increasing of
difference between values of dopant diffusion coefficient in layers of heterostructure
2.0
1

C(x,)

1.5

2
3

1.0
Epitaxial layer

0.5

Substrate

0.0
0

L/4

L/2
x

3L/4

Fig.3. Dependence of concentration of implanted dopant on coordinate in heterostructure from


Fig. 1 near one of interfaces. Curves 1 and 3 corresponds to annealing time = 0.0048(Lx2+Ly2+
Lz2)/D0. Curves 2 and 4 corresponds to annealing time = 0.0057(Lx2+Ly2+Lz2)/D0. Curves 1 and 2
are distributions of concentration of implanted dopant in a homogenous sample. Curves 3 and 4
are distributions of concentration of implanted dopant in a heterostructure near one of interfaces.
Value of dopant diffusion coefficient in the left layer is larger, than value of dopant diffusion
coefficient in the right layer. Increasing of number of curve corresponds to increasing of difference between values of dopant diffusion coefficient in layers of heterostructure
13

International Journal of Computational Science, Information Technology and Control Engineering (IJCSITCE) Vol.2, No.3, July 2015

0.5

D0 L

-2

0.4

0.3
3

0.2

1
0.1
0.0
0.0

0.1

0.2
0.3
a/L, , ,

0.4

0.5

Fig.4. Optimal annealing time of infused dopant as a functions of several parameters. Curve 1 is
the dependence of dimensionless optimal annealing time on the relation a/L and = = 0 for
equal to each other values of dopant diffusion coefficient in all parts of heterostructure. Curve 2 is
the dependence of dimensionless optimal annealing time on value of parameter for a/L=1/2 and
= = 0. Curve 3 is the dependence of dimensionless optimal annealing time on value of parameter for a/L=1/2 and = = 0. Curve 4 is the dependence of dimensionless optimal annealing
time on value of parameter for a/L=1/2 and = = 0
0.12
2
0.08
D0 L

-2

0.04

0.00
0.0

0.1

0.2
0.3
a/L, , ,

0.4

0.5

Fig.5. Optimal annealing time for ion doping of heterostructure as a function of several parameters. Curve 1 is the dependence of dimensionless optimal annealing time on the relation a/L and
= = 0 for equal to each other values of dopant diffusion coefficient in all parts of heterostructure. Curve 2 is the dependence of dimensionless optimal annealing time on value of parameter
for a/L=1/2 and = = 0. Curve 3 is the dependence of dimensionless optimal annealing time on
value of parameter for a/L=1/2 and = = 0. Curve 4 is the dependence of dimensionless optimal annealing time on value of parameter for a/L=1/2 and = = 0

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International Journal of Computational Science, Information Technology and Control Engineering (IJCSITCE) Vol.2, No.3, July 2015

4. CONCLUSIONS
In this paper we introduce an approach to manufacture p-i-n-heterodiodes. The approach based on
using a -doped heterostructure, doping by diffusion or ion implantation of several areas of the
heterostructure. After the doping the dopant and/or radiation defects have been annealed.At the
same time we consider an analytical approach to model technological processes. Framework the
approach gives a possibility to manage without stitching decisions on the interfaces between layers heterostructures.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
This work is supported by the agreement of August 27, 2013 02..49.21.0003 between The
Ministry of education and science of the Russian Federation and Lobachevsky State University of
Nizhni Novgorod and educational fellowship for scientific research of Government of Russian
and of Nizhny Novgorod State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering.

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Authors:
Pankratov Evgeny Leonidovich was born at 1977. From 1985 to 1995 he was educated in a secondary
school in Nizhny Novgorod. From 1995 to 2004 he was educated in Nizhny Novgorod State University:
from 1995 to 1999 it was bachelor course in Radiophysics, from 1999 to 2001 it was master course in Radiophysics with specialization in Statistical Radiophysics, from 2001 to 2004 it was PhD course in Radiophysics. From 2004 to 2008 E.L. Pankratov was a leading technologist in Institute for Physics of Microstructures. From 2008 to 2012 E.L. Pankratov was a senior lecture/Associate Professor of Nizhny Novgorod State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering. Now E.L. Pankratov is in his Full Doctor
course in Radiophysical Department of Nizhny Novgorod State University. He has 105 published papers in
area of his researches.
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International Journal of Computational Science, Information Technology and Control Engineering (IJCSITCE) Vol.2, No.3, July 2015

Bulaeva Elena Alexeevna was born at 1991. From 1997 to 2007 she was educated in secondary school of
village Kochunovo of Nizhny Novgorod region. From 2007 to 2009 she was educated in boarding school
Center for gifted children. From 2009 she is a student of Nizhny Novgorod State University of Architecture and Civil Engineering (spatiality Assessment and management of real estate). At the same time she
is a student of courses Translator in the field of professional communication and Design (interior art) in
the University. E.A. Bulaeva was a contributor of grant of President of Russia (grant MK-548.2010.2).
She has 52 published papers in area of her researches.

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