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OBJECTIVE The objective is to verify member forces obtain from experiment with tension coefficient method.

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LEARNING OUTCOME There are many learning outcome that we can get from this laboratory test: 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 The application of theoretical engineering knowledge through practical application. To enhance the technical competency in structural engineering through laboratory application. Communicate effectively in group. To identify the problem, solving and finding out the appropriate solution through laboratory application.

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THEORY If a members of a truss system is situated not in a two dimensional plane, then the truss is defined as a space frame truss. In other words, space truss has components in three axis i.e. x, y and z. Consider a member with node A (xA, yA) and B (xB,yB)

Assume te force in the member is TAB (+ve tension) and length LAB 1

Definition of tension coefficient (t), tAB

=

TAB

LAB At A, the horizontal component TAB is : TAB cos θ = = tAB LAB cosθ LAB tAB (xB – xA) = tAB LAB (xB – xA)

Use the same method, the vertical component at A is : = tAB (yB – yA) At B, the horizontal component TAB = Vertical component TAB = tAB (xA – xB) tAB (yA – yB)

Using statics, write the equation for each joint using the coordinate value and solve for it. Convert it into force using: TAB = tAB LAB = √ (xB – xA)2 + (yB – yA)2

A space frame or space structure is a truss-like, lightweight rigid structure constructed from interlocking struts in a geometric pattern. Space frames usually utilize a multidirectional span, and are often used to accomplish long spans with few supports. They derive their strength from the inherent rigidity of the triangular frame; flexing loads (bending moments) are transmitted as tension and compression loads along the length of each strut. Many architects and engineers throughout the world have expressed their design freedoms with Space Frame Systems. The simplicity of these systems provides a natural link between yesterday and today. For this reason, designers have specified Space Frame Systems for an increasing variety of renovation and remodeling applications. The modular systems allow fast track delivery and job site assembly at affordable prices. Space frame systems give you the architectural beauty you desire within the budget you set.

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Some space frame applications include: 1) Parking canopy’sH 2) 3) Hotel/Hospital/commercial building entrances Commercial building lobbies/atriums

Some advantages of space frame systems over conventional systems are: 1) 2) 3) 4) 5) 6) 7) 8) Random column placement Column-free spaces Minimal perimeter support Controlled load distribution Redundant integrity Design freedom Supports all types of roofing Exposing building exterior to view adds color, texture and style

Figure 1 : Space frame for construction

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APPARATUS

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Space frame apparatus

PROSEDURES Part 1 1. 2. First of all, we select any weight between 10 to 50 N. Then, ensure that the distance a = 500 mm and place load hanger on D.

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3.

Measure the distance b, c and d, and then record it in table 1.

4.

We record the dynamometer readings for members S1, S2 and S3.

5.

After that, we put the selected load on hanger at D and record it.

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6. 7.

Then, we repeat step (2) to (4) with the different value of a. Finally, calculate the theoretical member forces and record it in table one.

Part 2 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. For part 2, we use a distance of 350 mm for a. Then, we place the hanger on D. After that, measure the distance b, c, and d. Then we record the dynamometer reading for member S1, S2, S3 in table 2. The next step is we put a load of 5 N on the hanger and record the dynamometer readings. We repeat step 2 to 4 using the different load. We complete the table 2 by calculating the theoretical member value. The last one is we plot the graf of force against load for the theoretical and experimental results.

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Table 1

RESULT

Dimension (mm) a 500 400 300 200 Table 2 Load (N) 5 10 15 20 25 b 483 503 532 548 c 260 215 170 110 d 365 365 365 365

Dynamometer Reading S1 Loaded 60 78 109 181 Unloaded 40 70 15 31 S2 Loaded 55 74 104 175 Unloaded 0 40 11 28 S3 Loaded 80 110 150 240 Unloaded 1 0 10 40

Force (N) Experiment S1 20 8 94 150 S2 55 34 93 147 S3 80 110 140 200 Theory S1 142.35 141.54 72.16 146.14 S2 142.35 141.54 72.16 146.14 S3 -274.27 -273.51 -139.63 -279.47

Dynamometer Reading S1 Loaded Unloaded 50 10 90 10 134 10 178 10 230 10 Dimension a = 350mm

S2 Loaded 45 85 130 175 225

Unloaded 7 7 7 7 7

S3 Loaded 70 120 180 245 305

Unloaded 20 20 20 20 20

Force (N) Experiment S1 S2 40 38 80 78 124 123 168 168 220 218

S3 50 100 160 225 285

Theory S1 53.48 106.96 160.43 213.91 267.39

S2 53.48 106.96 160.43 213.91 267.39

S3 -98.97 -197.95 -296.92 -395.89 -494.86

Dimension b = 521mm

Dimension c = 185mm

Dimension d = 365mm

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Data Analysis Part 1: Example Of Experiment Calculation a = 500 mm 1. S1 : So 2. S2 : So 3. S3 : So loaded Unloaded S1 loaded Unloaded S2 loaded Unloaded S3 = 60N = 40N = 60N – 40N = 20N = 55N = 0N = 55N – 0N = 55N = 80N = 0N = 80N –0N = 80 N

Part 1:

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Table 1 theoretical calculation Load F = 10 N 1. a = 500mm, b = 483mm, c = 260mm, d = 365mm. Lx = b Ly = d/2 Member Lx (mm) S1 483 S2 483 S3 483 Force (N) 0 (for S1 and S2) Ly (mm) -182.5 182.5 0.00 0 Lz (mm) 240 240 260 -10 L (mm) 569.38 569.38 548.53 t 0.25 0.25 -0.50 F (N) 142.35 142.35 -274.27 Remarks Tension Tension Compression -

Lz = a – c (for S1 and S2) F=Lxt L = √ (Lx² + Ly² + Lz²)

∑ Fx = 0; ∑ FY = 0; ∑ Fz = 0;

483s1 + 483s2 + 483s3 = 0 -182.5s1 + 182.5s2 + 0s3 = 0 240s1 + 240s2 + 260s3 = -10

By using calculator So ts1 = 0.25 ts2 = 0.25 ts3 = -0.50 And S1 = 142.35 S2 = 142.35 S3 = -274.27

2. a = 400mm, b = 503mm, c = 215mm, d = 365mm. 10

Lx = b Ly = d/2 Member Lx (mm) S1 503 S2 503 S3 503 Force (N) 0

(for S1 and S2) Ly (mm) -182.5 182.5 0.00 0 Lz (mm) 185 185 215 -10 L (mm) 566.16 566.16 547.02 t 0.25 0.25 -0.50 F (N) 141.54 141.54 -273.51 Remarks Tension Tension Compression -

Lz = a – c (for S1 and S2) F=Lxt L = √ (Lx² + Ly² + Lz²)

∑ Fx = 0;

503s1 + 503s2 + 503s3 = 0

∑ FY = 0;-182.5s1 + 182.5s2 + 0s3 = 0 ∑ Fz = 0; 185s1 + 185s2 + 215s3 = -10 By using calculator So ts1 = 0.25 ts2 = 0.25 ts3 = -0.50

And S1 = 141.54 S2 = 141.54 S3 = -273.51

3. a = 300mm, b = 532mm, c = 170mm, d = 365mm. Lx = b Ly = d/2 (for S1 and S2) 11

Member

Lx (mm) S1 532 S2 532 S3 532 Force (N) 0

Ly (mm) -182.5 182.5 0.00 0

Lz (mm) 130 130 170 -10

L (mm) 577.26 577.26 558.50 -

t 0.125 0.125 -0.25 -

F (N) 72.16 72.16 -139.63 -

Remarks Tension Tension Compression -

Lz = a – c (for S1 and S2) F=Lxt L = √ (Lx² + Ly² + Lz²)

∑ Fx = 0;

532s1 + 532s2 + 532s3 = 0

∑ FY = 0; -182.5s1 + 182.5s2 + 0s3 = 0 ∑ Fz = 0; 130s1 + 130s2 + 170s3 By using calculator So ts1 = 0.125 ts2 = 0.125 ts3 = -0.25 S1 = 72.16 S2 = 72.16 S3 = -139.63 = -10

And

4. a = 200mm, b = 548mm, c = 110mm, d = 365mm. Lx = b Ly = d/2 (for S1 and S2) Lz = a – c (for S1 and S2) 12

Member

Lx (mm) S1 548 S2 548 S3 548 Force (N) 0

Ly (mm) -182.5 182.5 0.00 0

Lz (mm) 90 90 110 -10

L (mm) 584.56 584.56 558.93 -

t 0.25 0.25 -0.50 -

F (N) 146.14 146.14 -279.47 -

Remarks Tension Tension Compression -

F=Lxt L = √ (Lx² + Ly² + Lz²)

∑ Fx = 0;

548s1 + 548s2 + 548s3 = 0

∑ FY = 0; -182.5s1 + 182.5s2 + 0s3 = 0 ∑ Fz = 0; 90s1 + 90s2 + 110s3 = -10

By using calculator So ts1 = 0.25 ts2 = 0.25 ts3 = -0.50 And S1 = 146.14 S2 = 146.14 S3 = -279.47

Part 2 : Table 2 theoretical calculation: 1. Load F = 5 N 13

a = 350mm, b = 521mm, c = 185mm, d = 365mm. Lx = b Ly = d/2 Member Lx (mm) S1 350 S2 350 S3 350 Force 0 (N) (for S1 and S2) L (mm) 427.82 427.82 395.89 t 0.125 0.125 -0.25 F (N) 53.48 53.48 -98.97 Remarks Tension Tension Compression -

Ly (mm) Lz (mm) -182.5 165 182.5 165 0.00 185 0 -5

Lz = a – c (for S1 and S2) F=Lxt L = √ (Lx² + Ly² + Lz²)

∑ Fx = 0; ∑ FY = 0; ∑ Fz = 0;

350s1 + 350s2 + 350s3

=0

-182.5s1 + 182.5s2 + 0s3 = 0 165s1 + 165s2 + 185s3 = -5

By using calculator So ts1 = 0.125 ts2 = 0.125 ts3 = -0.25

And S1 = 53.48 S2 = 53.48 S3 = -98.97

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2. Load F = 10 N a = 350mm, b = 521mm, c = 185mm, d = 365mm. Lx = b Ly = d/2 Member Lx (mm) S1 350 S2 350 S3 350 Force 0 (N) (for S1 and S2) L (mm) 427.82 427.82 395.89 t 0.25 0.25 -0.50 F (N) 106.96 106.96 -197.95 Remarks Tension Tension Compression -

Ly (mm) Lz (mm) -182.5 165 182.5 165 0.00 185 0 -10

Lz = a – c (for S1 and S2) F=Lxt L = √ (Lx² + Ly² + Lz²)

∑ Fx = 0; ∑ FY = 0; ∑ Fz = 0;

350s1 + 350s2 + 350s3

=0

-182.5s1 + 182.5s2 + 0s3 = 0 165s1 + 165s2 + 185s3 = -10

By using calculator So ts1 = 0.25 ts2 = 0.25 ts3 = -0.50

And S1 = 106.96 S2 = 106.96 S3 = -197.95

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3. Load F = 15 N a = 350mm, b = 521mm, c = 185mm, d = 365mm. Lx = b Ly = d/2 Member Lx (mm) S1 350 S2 350 S3 350 Force 0 (N) (for S1 and S2) Lz (mm) 165 165 185 -15 L (mm) 427.82 427.82 395.89 t 0.375 0.375 -0.75 F (N) 160.43 160.43 -296.92 Remarks Tension Tension Compression -

Ly (mm) -182.5 182.5 0.00 0

Lz = a – c (for S1 and S2) F=Lxt L = √ (Lx² + Ly² + Lz²)

∑ Fx = 0; ∑ FY = 0; ∑ Fz = 0;

350s1 + 350s2 + 350s3

=0

-182.5s1 + 182.5s2 + 0s3 = 0 165s1 + 165s2 + 185s3 = -15

By using calculator So ts1 = 0.375 ts2 = 0.375 ts3 = -0.75

And S1 = 160.43 S2 = 160.43 S3 = -296.92

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4. Load F = 20 N a = 350mm, b = 521mm, c = 185mm, d = 365mm. Lx = b Ly = d/2 (for S1 and S2) L (mm) 427.82 427.82 395.89 t 0.5 0.5 -1 F (N) 213.91 213.91 -395.89 Remarks Tension Tension Compression -

Member Lx (mm) Ly (mm) Lz (mm) S1 350 -182.5 165 S2 350 182.5 165 S3 350 0.00 185 Force 0 0 -20 (N) Lz = a – c (for S1 and S2) F=Lxt L = √ (Lx² + Ly² + Lz²)

∑ Fx = 0; ∑ FY = 0; ∑ Fz = 0;

350s1 + 350s2 + 350s3

=0

-182.5s1 + 182.5s2 + 0s3 = 0 165s1 + 165s2 + 185s3 = -20

By using calculator So ts1 = 0.5 ts2 = 0.5 ts3 = -1

And S1 = 213.91 S2 = 213.91 S3 = -395.89

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5. Load F = 25 N a = 350mm, b = 521mm, c = 185mm, d = 365mm. Lx = b Ly = d/2 Member Lx (mm) S1 350 S2 350 S3 350 Force 0 (N) (for S1 and S2) Lz (mm) 165 165 185 -25 L (mm) 427.82 427.82 395.89 t 0.625 0.625 -1.25 F (N) 267.39 267.39 -494.86 Remarks Tension Tension Compression -

Ly (mm) -182.5 182.5 0.00 0

Lz = a – c (for S1 and S2) F=Lxt L = √ (Lx² + Ly² + Lz²)

∑ Fx = 0; ∑ FY = 0; ∑ Fz = 0;

350s1 + 350s2 + 350s3

=0

-182.5s1 + 182.5s2 + 0s3 = 0 165s1 + 165s2 + 185s3 = -25

By using calculator So ts1 = 0.625 ts2 = 0.625 ts3 = -1.25

And S1 = 267.39 S2 = 267.39 S3 = -494.86

GRAPH 18

Graph of Force versus Load
300 250 Force (N) 200 150 100 50 0 5 10 15 Load (N) 20 25 S1 Exp. S1 Theory

Graph of Force versus Load 2
300 250 Force (N) 200 150 100 50 0 5 10 15 Load (N) 20 25 S2 Exp. S2 Theory

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DISSCUSSION 19

Based on the graph that have been plotted, we can see that for the graph1, the comparison between the theoretical and the experimental results is there is not much different for the two lines. When more load were applied, the value of force was also increase. It is same like the graph2, which is there is a little difference between the theoretical and the experimental results. The value of force in increase due to the increasing of load. But for the graph3, the results of the theoretical and the experimental is totally difference because for the experiment, the results is in range 0 to 300 while for the results of the theoretical is around range -0 to -300. For the theoretical, when more load were applied, the value of force were decrease but for the experimental, when more load were applied, the force will increase. The reason of discrepancy in the results maybe cause by the spring that used was not elastic anymore after being stretched for many time of doing experiment, it might have a mistake during taking the results. Beside that, it maybe cause by the error of the apparatus which is not in good condition.

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CONCLUSION The experiment is to prove experimental and theoretical have a small relative

value. Space frames usually utilize a multidirectional span, and are often used to accomplish long spans with few supports. They derive their strength from the inherent rigidity of the triangular frame; flexing loads (bending moments) are transmitted as tension and compression loads along the length of each structure. In many ways this looks like the horizontal jib of a tower crane repeated many times to make it wider. A stronger purer form is composed of interlocking tetrahedral pyramids in which all the struts have unit length. More technically this is referred to as an isotropic vector matrix or in a single unit width an octet truss.

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