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CHAPTER 8 SOLUTIONS

4/24/10

8-1)

Load: I avg  0, I rms  10 A.
Switches: I avg  5 A., I rms  I m D  10 0.5  7.07 A.
Source : I avg  I rms  10 A.

(See Example 2-4)

8-2)

I max

V
 dc
R

 1  e T /2
L 0.1
1 V
96
;  
 0.02s.; T  ; dc 
 19.2 A.

T /2
R 5
60 R
5
 1 e

 0.341
  3.94 A.
 1.66)

I max  19.2 

b) From Eq. 8  1: io (t ) 
io (0)  0  A  

Vdc
 Ae  t /
R

Vdc
R

Vdc
1  e  t / 

R
i (T / 2)  19.2  1  e 1/2.4   6.54 A.
io (t ) 

c) PSpice results are consistent with parts (a) and (b). The current waveform reaches
steady state after approximately 100 ms, corresponding to 5 time constants.
8.0A
(8.3333m,6.5486)

(158.333m,3.9485)
4.0A

0A

-4.0A
0s

40ms

80ms

120ms

160ms

I(L)
Time

8-3)
Vdc 150
L 40 mH

 7.5 A.;   
 2 ms;
R
20
R
20 

a)

T 1 / 60

 4.167
2 4 ms

Using Eq (8  8),
 1  e 4.167
 7.271 A.
4.167
 1 e

I max  7.5 

I min   I max  7.271 A.
Using Eq. (8-5),
for 0  t  8.33 ms

 7.5  14.8e  (t 1/120)/.002

for 8.33 ms  t  16.7 ms

io  

 7.5  14.8e t /.002

200ms

271 A. 8-4) .b) c ) I peak  7. d ) Vmax  Vdc  150 V .

25  12.rms 8.33  1 e  I max  6.00125 0  2 dt  5. 4 Z n  R 2   2 400 L  Vn 331 110 66 1.25 A.5e  t /.33 ms  6.01 a)  2  29.25  20  594 W .  1  e 13.25 ms. 1  120 I rms 1/120   6.Vdc 125 L 25 mH   6. Using Eq.25  12. 2 Is  P 594   4.45 A. Vdc 125 8-5) Z1  152   2  400   0. n n 1 3 5 THDI  8-6)  V1  260 V .33 2 1.     1.75 A. Zn 29.25 ms Using Eq (8  8). I n .02 0.0 1. R 20 R 20  a) T 1 / 60   13.37 In 2 .  6.33  6.00125 for 8.7 ms io   b) Using the first half-period..3   331 V .3   V1  I1Z1  8 2  29.33 ms  t  16.022  0.25  12.0 2 .6% 8. (8-5).5e t /.00125  for 0  t  8.25 A.37 2  0.25 A.rms  In. V1  4Vdc  b)  Vdc  Vn  4Vdc .136  13.3 77 127 In  Vn Zn .5e  (t 1/120)/.25  I min   I max  6. 13. 2 c) P  I rms R   5.

185  18. In  Vn Zn Zn 31.132  0.rms  In. 2 .0 .rms 2. 4 Z n  R 2   2 120 L  n 1 3 5 Vn 88.5 17.a ) Z1  2. n  V1  69. I n .8 97.5 0.3 61.52   2  120   0.5% 2.3   V1  I1Z1  2 2  31.342  0.13 In 2 .6 V .6 29.025  2  31. V1  4Vdc  b) Vn   Vdc  4Vdc .34 0.3  88.7 THDI  Using PSpice.0 0.6 V .

200E+02 2.800E+02 6.000E+00 -3.000E+02 7.589E-06 1.778E-01 3.099E+02 1.203E+02 -4.587E+01 1.523E-06 5.594E+01 1.292E+01 2.913E-07 -1.028E+01 1.515E+02 TOTAL HARMONIC DISTORTION = 1.000E+00 1.668708E-06 HARMONIC FREQUENCY FOURIER NORMALIZED PHASE NORMALIZED NO (HZ) COMPONENT COMPONENT (DEG) PHASE (DEG) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1.818E-01 2.490E+01 1.068E+02 3.422E-02 -7.095E+02 1.629E+01 6.427E-02 2.400E+02 9.FOURIER COMPONENTS OF TRANSIENT RESPONSE I(L_L) DC COMPONENT = -3.223E+02 2.268E-06 -1.200E+02 8.162E+02 1.029E-02 -8.878E+02 2.847695E+01 PERCENT .716E+01 0.600E+02 4.658E+01 4.080E+03 2.858E-06 9.688E-01 -6.830E+00 5.331E-02 -8.400E+02 3.600E+02 1.743E-02 1.798E+02 8.377E-06 4.010E-06 -1.900E-06 -1.

4.2603) rms (50.77 A. The THD from the output file is 32%.7738) i(t) 0A -10A 30ms I(R) 35ms RMS(I(R)) 40ms 45ms 50ms Time voltage (100 V) 10 current S1.000m. D4 0 D1.8. S4 -10 30ms I(R) 35ms V(A)/10 0 40ms Time 45ms 50ms . S2 D3.8-7) Using a restricted time interval of 33.26 A and the rms value is 4. D2 S3. the peak value is 8.134m. 20A 10A Peak (35.33 ms to 50 ms to analyze steady-state current.

I n .7    cos   4 200    4Vdc      cos 1  In 2 .082  0. Z n  R  jn0 L .52  0.3 2  10.43 THDI  8-9) V1  a) Vn Zn .035   12.08 1.6 I1  I1. Z1  10  j 2 30  0.5 24.29  29% 5.5 0.rms  b) 15.7 39 In.3 A.0   184 V .6 4.rms  Zn 12.3  12.08 4Vdc 4  200    255 V . Z1 16. At 30 Hz .0  V1  I1Z1   15.08 1.6    cos    4Vdc  4  125    cos 1   4Vdc Vn    cos  n   n  n 1 3 5 . I n  |Vn| 90 51.  4Vdc  cos       V1   8-10)  184   V1  1  43.6  V1 255   15.035   16.   Z1  R  j0 L  10  j 2 60  0.rms 5.8-8)  4Vdc  cos       a ) V1    90   V1  1  55.9 A.

8-11) .α = 30° Using the FFT function in Probe shows that voltages at frequencies at multiples of n = 3 are absent. b) α = 15° Using the FFT function in Probe shows that voltages at frequencies at multiples of n = 5 are absent.

8-12) Letting T = 360 seconds and taking advantage of half-wave symmetry.  90 90   12.86 n 7 Using the FFT function in Probe. the n = 7 harmonic is absent.730Vm 180  .From Eq. Vrms  2   360  Vrms  Vm 8-13) 54  30 114 Vm2 dt   66  150 Vm2 dt  V 2 m dt 126   1   54  30    114  66    150  126   0. (8-22).

A period of 360 seconds is used.01 330 330 360 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 0 0 -1 -1 0 0 -1 -1 0 0 -1 -1 0 0 .01 234 234. 0 30 30.01 210 210.01 54 54. A transient simulation with a run time of 360 second and a maximum step size of 1m gives good results.01 294 294.01 66 66.01 126 126.01 306 306.01 114 114.The VPWL_FILE source is convenient for this simulation.01 246 246. The FFT of the Probe output confirms that the 3rd and 5th harmonics and their multiples are eliminated.01 150 150. making each second equal to one degree.

8-14) a) b) Vm  4Vdc  cos  n1   cos  n 2   cos  n 3  n  Vdc  48 V . 1  15 .  3  55 .  2  25 .

0043 ≈ 0 13 -0.4  0.0370 17 0.0077 ≈ 0 9 -0.8137 5 0.79 7 -3.0078 ≈ 0 15 -0.0057 ≈ 0 7 -0.3810 11 0.5 3 0 cos  1   cos   2   cos   3  3 5 -2. The normalized coefficients through n = 17 are n Vn/Vdc 1 4.4593 3 -0. 11.831 0.04 9 -14. cos(31 )  cos(3 2 )  cos(3 3 )  0 Select two of the angles and solve for the third.1725 The coefficients are not exactly zero for those harmonics because of rounding of the angle values. Examples: α1 15 20 10 10 α2 25 30 30 30 α3 55 40 50 70 Mi 0. 7.857 0.815 8-15) To eliminate the third harmonic.731 8-16) This inverter is designed to eliminate harmonics n = 5. 8-17) .815 0. and 13.n Vn c) M i  1 149.

8 Vdc 96 Z n  R  jn0 L  32  jn 2 60  .22 0.024   32  jn9.8   0.151 0. ma  V1 76.8 78.1 Zn 33. mf mf .3 157 139 175 In=Vn/Zn 2.22 Vn 76.121 .7 21.8 V .1 21.82 0.50 0.05 From Table 8-3.rms 2  54 2  76.2 mf + 2 n 1 17 15 19 Vn/Vdc 0.30 0.8-18) V1  V1.8 0.

108  0.108 .305 0.121  0.5 585 547 622 2  0.044  4.27 0.9 Vdc 250 Z n  R  jn0 L  20  jn 2 60  . mf mf .2 mf + 2 2 n 1 31 29 33 Vn/Vdc 0.3 V .2 2 0.050   20  jn18.71 0.85 From Table 8-3.27 2 0.50  0.23  23% 8-19) V1  V1.30 2 2  0.122 0.18 2 Vn 225 178 67 67 Zn 27.122          2  2    2 THD  8. rms 2  160 2  226.305  0. ma  V1 226.151          2  2    2 THD  2.3   0.9 0.18 0.4% In=Vn/Zn 8.

The parameters are modified to match the problem values. TOTAL HARMONIC DISTORTION = 9.8-20) The circuit “Inverter Bipolar PWM Function” is suitable to verify the design results.387011E+00 PERCENT . Transient Analysis and Fourier Analysis are establish in the Simulation Setup menu: The output file contains the THD of the load current. verifying that the THD is less than 10%.

6 A.9  Vdc  I1  V1 141   157 V .9 Using Table 8-3. ma 0.9 V1 V1 141    4.448 A. Z1 R  j0 L 30  j 377  0. ma 0.025  Choose odd integer 29 or greater for m f .6   1.5 I mf  0.71 157  0.4 377  0. Z1 10  j 2 60  0. Z mf  mf  Vmf I mf  134  123   m f 0 L 1. Let ma  0. 8-22) Example solution: V1  V1.448 I mf  0.48 A.025  THDI  Z mf  mf  I mf I1 Vmf I mf   0.10  0.09 A.020  Choose odd integer 19 or greater for m f .1 4. .48   0. at n  m f . I mf  0. Vmf  0.rms 2  100 2  141 V .8-21) Example solution: Let ma  0.4 0 L 377  0.  249   m f 0 L 249  26.71 189   134 V . for THD  8%.9.09 123 123   16.08  13.08I1 I1  V1 120 2 120 2    13. Vdc  Vm 120 2   189 V .020  12.

8-23) Use the bipolar PWM function circuit of Fig. is 10.8 for V1 = 120 V from the 150-V dc source. and for unipolar mf = 10 is 5. The THD for bipolar.2 %.9%.2%. . 8-23a. Use ma = 0.8-26 with mf = 10. for bipolar mf = 41 is 5. and use the unipolar PWM function circuit of Fig. mf = 21.

Bipolar mf = 21: Bipolar mf = 41: .

mf = 10: 8-24) a ) V1.1 I1. Z1 25  j 377  0.020  26. . L  N  I1  V1 159 159    6.Unipolar.rms  8-25) 2Vdc     2     500  2  cos    cos     3  159 V .09 A. 3   3  3    3 I1 2  4.31 A.

43 0.9 0.273  27. and I n.22 1.08 0.43 The THD for current is reduced from 10% to 5. .75 0.31 0.312  0.3 94.6 Zn 11.3 1.8 132 208 245 In 11.4 23.3%. These results can also be determined from a PSpice simulation for the six-step inverter.1 19.38 0.L-N .Use Eq.06 0.44 0.19% 8.54 0.42  0.0 In 23.06 0.192  0.0 1.62  0.5 52.19% as f is increased from 25 Hz to 100 Hz.0 2.412  0. L.3 THDV  For f = 100 Hz.752  0.222  0.rms 8.92  36.6 34.9 36. Z n  R  jn2 fL .0519  5.10  10% 16. rms  I n / 2.32 In. The THD of the line-to-neutral voltage remains at 27.8 62.19 0.6 Zn 21.382  0.1 25. n 1 5 7 11 13 THDI  50.3% 255 VnL-N 255 50. I n  Vn.4 23.222  19.12 0.27 0.062  0.082  0.9 36.41 0.N / Z n . For f = 25 Hz: n 1 5 7 11 13 THDI  VnL-N 255 50.rms 16. (8-42) for Vn.08 In.1 19.

7 .637 . 0.5   276 V Vdc  276  433 V .5 . L  N  Vdc  2Vdc     2    2  cos    cos    Vdc  0. V1  I1Z1  10 2  19.8-26)   At f  30 Hz . V1.637  151  237 V .7   151 V . V1  I1Z1  10 2  10.637  3   3  3  V1. Z1  10. 0. Z1  19. L  N 0.637   At f  60 Hz .