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Farm managers tend to work in either animal production, dairy or crop production although some
do work with all three. Livestock on farms tends to be pigs, cows or sheep while crops can cover
cereals, oilseed rape, vegetables and salad.
The job is varied and includes planning strategies for maximum yield, organising farm
administration, working machinery, organising associated businesses and managing staff.

Farm managers need to have technical and practical competence, as well as the ability to make
sound business decisions. Farms are typically run by management companies or single-owner

Typical work activities

Farm managers are responsible for planning, organising and managing the activities of a farm.
Specific tasks may vary depending on the type of farm but in general include:

planning finances and production to maintain farm progress against budget parameters;
practical activities, e.g. driving tractors, operating machinery, feeding livestock, spraying
fields, etc;

marketing the farm's products;

buying supplies, such as fertiliser and seeds;

arranging the maintenance and repair of farm buildings, machinery and equipment;

planning activities for trainee staff, mentoring and monitoring them;

maintaining and monitoring the quality of yield, whether livestock or crops;

understanding the implications of the weather and making contingency plans;

making sure that products are ready for deadlines, such as auctions and markets;

ensuring that farm activities comply with government regulations;

monitoring animal health and welfare, including liaising with vets;

maintaining a knowledge of pests and diseases and an understanding of how they spread
and how to treat them;

applying health and safety standards across the farm estate;

protecting the environment and maintaining biodiversity;

keeping financial records up to date.

Many farmers are now diversifying their activities to supplement their income. Supplementary
activities may include:

providing bed and breakfast or holiday lets;

field sports and off-roading;

wind power generation;

speciality herds, such as llamas and alpacas;

farm shops selling the farm's own and other locally sourced produce;

creating fishing lakes;

horse trials, livery stables and riding schools;

worm farming;

processing their own products, e.g. vegetables or cold pressed oils.

Mining is the extraction of valuable minerals or other geological materials from the earth from an
orebody, lode, vein, seam, or reef, which forms the mineralized package of economic interest to the miner.
Ores recovered by mining include metals, coal, oil shale, gemstones, limestone, dimension stone, rock
salt, potash, gravel, and clay. Mining is required to obtain any material that cannot be grown through
agricultural processes, or created artificially in a laboratory or factory. Mining in a wider sense includes
extraction of any non-renewable resource such as petroleum, natural gas, or even water.
Mining of stones and metal has been done since pre-historic times. Modern mining processes involve
prospecting for ore bodies, analysis of the profit potential of a proposed mine, extraction of the desired
materials, and final reclamation of the land after the mine is closed.
The nature of mining processes creates a potential negative impact on the environment both during the
mining operations and for years after the mine is closed. This impact has led most of the world's nations
to adopt regulations designed to moderate the negative effects of mining operations. Safety has long been
a concern as well, and modern practices have improved safety in mines significantly.
A miner is a person who extracts ore, coal, or other minerals from the earth through mining. There are
two senses in which the term is used. In its narrowest sense, a miner is someone who works at the rock
face; cutting, blasting, or otherwise working and removing the rock.[1][2] In a broader sense, a "miner" is
anyone working within a mine, not just a worker at the rock face.[1] This article will consider this broader
In regions with a long mining tradition, many communities have developed cultural traditions and aspects
specific to the various regions, in the forms of particular equipment, symbolism, music, and the like.

A miner is a person who extracts ore, coal, or other minerals from the earth through mining. There are two
senses in which the term is used. In its narrowest sense, a miner is someone who works at the rock face;
cutting, blasting, or otherwise working and removing the rock.[1][2] In a broader sense, a "miner" is
anyone working within a mine, not just a worker at the rock face.[1] This article will consider this broader
In regions with a long mining tradition, many communities have developed cultural traditions and aspects
specific to the various regions, in the forms of particular equipment, symbolism, music, and the like.

A Marine Biologist is a specialized type of Scientist. Also known as: Marine Life Biologist, Marine
Scientist, Ocean Biologist.
A marine biologist is someone who studies all types of sea creatures, and can choose to specialize in
studying large ocean animals, all the way down to microscopic organisms. Everything from whales to the
plankton they eat, and everything else in between, can be studied.
Marine biology is a learning and research field, and many marine biologists, therefore, work in
coordination with universities and other educational institutions. In fact, many marine biologists are also
teachers and professors during the winter months when less work is being done in the field. Research
projects are at the heart of what most marine biologists do, whether it be actually collecting specimens in
the field, compiling research data, finding real life applications for the research data, or classroom
What does a Marine Biologist do?
Some of the possible careers for a marine biology graduate would include teaching at a high school or
college level, being a research scientist, an oceanographic laboratory technician, working for an aquarium
or zoo, or any number of possibilities for consulting with different government agencies and universities.

Another potential career for a marine biology graduate would be to become a hydrologist, which is a
scientist or researcher that studies bodies of water and helps to find ways to eliminate water pollution.
There are actually many environmental careers that can be attained with a degree in marine biology. Even
a fish and game warden, which is something akin to an environmental police officer, is a possible career
move for a marine biology graduate.
Marine biotechnology, one of the possible specializations, involves developing and testing new drug
treatments and protocols that are derived from ocean life. Another specialization is molecular biology,
which is helpful in identifying microorganisms as well as diagnosing diseases that are caused by
What is the workplace of a Marine Biologist like?
Oceanography centres, laboratories, aquariums, research boats and vessels are some of the possibilities
for field workplaces. It would not be unusual to find a marine biology graduate working in a tide pool, a
swamp, a mangrove forest, a coral reef, or any place on earth that supports marine life. Travel to
interesting places is one of the possible perks for a career in marine biology.
Laboratory work could involve working directly with the federal government, or the Environmental
Protection Agency (EPA), or on behalf of a university's research program. Virtually every body of salt
water on the planet is being studied by marine biologists, from the Caribbean seas to the arctic ocean.
Nonprofit organizations are also a major employer for marine biology graduates since they fund studies
and research projects for commercial products. Drug companies conduct marine research as well, as
marine life is often at the cutting edge of research.
What is Marine Biology?
Marine biology is the study of marine organisms, their behaviors and interactions with the environment.
Marine biologists study biological oceanography and the associated fields of chemical, physical, and
geological oceanography to understand marine organisms.
Marine biology is a very broad area, so most researchers select a particular area of interest and
specialize in it. Specializations can be based on a particular species, group, behavior, technique, or
Molecular biology is a related area of specialization in marine biology. Researchers apply molecular
techniques to many environments ranging from coastal marshes to the deep sea and to various organisms
such as viruses, plants, and fish.
Why is Marine Science Important?
As growing global population stresses the ability of our society to produce food, water, and shelter, we
will continue to look to the oceans to help sustain our basic needs.
Advances in technology, combined with demand, will improve our ability to derive food, drinking
water, energy sources, waste disposal, and transportation from the ocean.
It will be up to this and future generations to build upon our existing knowledge of the ocean and its
potential to help meet the needs of the world and its inhabitants.

Fishermen use a variety of equipment to catch fish. This can include nets of various sizes, fishing lines
and traps. Many also operate machinery designed to hoist captured fish onto a boat. Often, this job
involves maintaining machinery in good working order, troubleshooting and repairing equipment during
fishing trips and keeping the fishing vessel clean. In addition, some fishing jobs involve diving into a
body of water and catching fish with spears, while others require the use of rakes to collect kelp and other
types of water-based vegetation.
Handling Fish
After catching fish, fishermen usually measure fish and release any that don't meet their jurisdiction's or
captain's size requirements. Likewise, they examine fish for defects or signs of ill health, discarding any
that don't meet expectations. They must also sort their catches, clean the fish and ensure that they don't
spoil by storing them in refrigerated or ice-filled holds. Once the ship returns to port, fishermen typically
unload the fish as well.
Operating a Fishing Vessel

Higher-ranking fishermen sometimes act as captains of a vessel, operating the boat and hiring, firing and
training crew members. An individual with this job must supervise the crew and decide which types of
fish to catch and where to go catch them. He also oversees the maintenance of the boat and the fishing
equipment, ensuring that it stays in good shape. A captain also navigates the fishing vessel.

An energy engineer is involved with the production of energy through natural resources, such as the
extraction of oil and gas, as well as from renewable or sustainable sources of energy, including biofuels,
hydro, wind and solar power.
Energy engineers are focused on finding efficient, clean and innovative ways to supply energy. They
work in a variety of roles including designing and testing machinery, developing ways of improving
existing processes, and converting, transmitting and supplying useful energy to meet our needs for
They research and develop ways to generate new energy, improve the efficient use of energy through
reducing emissions from fossil fuels, and minimise environmental damage.
Typical work activities
Energy engineers can have an extremely varied workload, depending on the sector they are in or
individual project they are working on. In general, their tasks may involve:

being part of designing, developing and building renewable energy technologies;

combining renewable energy production with existing power systems;
arranging new supplies and negotiating tariffs with fuel providers;
carrying out site inspections and energy surveys;

designing and selecting equipment;

using mathematical and computer models to carry out design and specification calculations;
carrying out lab experiments and adapting them to large-scale industrial processes;
preparing detailed schedules of work, feasibility studies and cost estimates;
checking site and ground conditions for the installation of renewable technologies, such as wind
negotiating service agreements and managing associated costs and revenues;
liaising and negotiating with fuel providers, specialist contractors, geologists and other relevant
contributing to sustainable energy initiatives and researching new energy methods;
keeping up to date with legislation and environmental standards and making sure systems and
processes comply;
monitoring new technologies or applications, and developing performance indicators;
developing technical expertise in all matters to do with energy and environmental control.

A geologist is a scientist who studies the solid and liquid matter that constitutes the Earth as well as the
processes and history that have shaped it. Geologists usually engage in studying geology. Geologists,
studying more of an applied science than a theoretical one, must approach Geology using physics,
chemistry and biology as well as other sciences. Geologists, compared to scientists engaged in other
fields, are generally more exposed to the outdoors than staying in laboratories; although some geologists
prefer to perform most of their studies in the lab.

Geologists are engaged in exploration for mining companies in search of metals, oils, and other Earth
resources. They are also in the forefront of natural hazards and disasters warning and mitigation, studying
earthquakes, volcanic activity, tsunamis, weather storms, and the like; their studies are used to warn the
general public of the occurrence of these events. Currently, geologists are also engaged in the discussion
of climate change, as they study the history and evidence for this Earth process.

Meteorologists study the causes of particular weather conditions using information obtained from the
land, sea and upper atmosphere.

They use computerised and mathematical models to make short and long-range forecasts concerning
weather and climate patterns. A variety of organisations use meteorological forecasts including:
transport services, particularly air and sea travel;
the shipping and sea fishing industries and sailing organisations;
the armed forces;
government services, e.g. for advice on climate change policy;
public services;
the media;
industry and retail businesses;
insurance companies;
health services.
In addition to forecasting, meteorologists study the impact of weather on the environment and conduct
research into weather patterns, climate change and models of weather prediction.
Typical work activities
A meteorologist's work falls into the two main categories of forecasting and research.
In weather forecasting, common tasks include:
collecting data from satellite images, radar, remote sensors and weather stations all over the world;
measuring factors such as air pressure, temperature and humidity at various atmospheric levels;
analysing and presenting this information to customers in the form of weather briefings;
coding weather reports for transmission over international networks;
applying physical and mathematical relationships and sophisticated computer models to make short and
long-range weather forecasts;
liaising with colleagues and clients from around the country and worldwide.
In research, work that may be carried out includes:
investigating subjects such as airflow in the lowest kilometre of the atmosphere, the physics of
clouds and precipitation, or global climate change;
developing and improving numerical and computer models to predict atmospheric processes and
improve the accuracy of forecasts;
monitoring climate variability and change;
researching seasonal forecasting, ocean forecasting and climate prediction;
monitoring and investigating changes in the stratosphere (10-50km above the Earth), including
the ozone layer;
applying the results of research in order, for example, to give flood warnings or estimate the
likely effects of global warming.