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You are on page 1of 13

1. Introduction

In our dialy life ,we see lots of things moving around for

example car passing through from one place to other

,person riding on a bicycle and many more like this.

In scientific terms an object is said to be in motion ,if it

changes its position with the pasage of time and if it

does not change it position with the passage of time

then it is said to be at rest

Both the motion and rest are relative terms for example

mobile kept on the table is resting at its position but it is

moving in the sense as earth is rotating on its axis.So for

a person seeing mobile from earth it is at rest and for

person on moon earth seems to change its position with

time and so mobile is moving.

Simplest case of motion is rectilinear motion which is

the motion of the object in a straight line

In our descriotion of object ,we will treat the object as

an point object

Object under consideration can be treated as point

object if the size of the object is much smaller than the

distance travelled by it in a reasonable time duration for

example length of a motor car travelling a distance of

500km can be neglected w.r.t distance travelled by it.

Here in kinematics ,we study ways to describe the

motion without going into the cause of the motion

(a) Position:

frame of refrence.

Simplest way to choose a frame of refrence is to choose

three mutually perpendicular axis labelled as X-,Y- and

Z- axis as shown in figure below

as rectangular coordinates system

If A(x,y,z) be the position of any point in rectangular coordinates system it can be labelled as follows

perpendicular axis and is known as refrence point or

origin of frame of refrence

To measure a time ,we can also attach a clock with this

frame of refrence

If any or all co-ordinates of the object under

consideration changes with time in this frame of

refrence then the object is said to be in a motion w.r.t

the frame of the refrence otherwise it is at rest

For describing motion in one dimension we need one

set of co-ordinates axis i.e only one of X,Y and Z axis

Similary for two and three dimensions we need two or

three set of axis respectively

Motion of an object along a straight line is an example

of motion in one dimension

choosen so as to co-incide with the path along which

object is moving

Position of the object can be measured w.r.t origin O

shown in the figure

those to the left of origin O has negative values.

time t1 and at position R at time t2.

path PQR and length of the path PQR is the distance

travelled by the object in the time interval t1 to t2

Now connect the initial position of the object P with its

final position R through a straight line and we get the

displacement of the object.

Displacement of the object has both magnitude and

direction i.e., displacement is a vector quantity.

Magnitude of displacement vector is equal to the length

of straight line joining initial and final position and its

towards its final position.

In contrast to displacement distance is scalar quantity.

line i.e. moving along X-axis.

X co-ordinate describing motion of the particle from

origin O varies with time or we can say that X coordinate depends on time.

If at time t=t1 particleis at point P , at a distance x1 from

origin and at time t=t2 it is at point Q at a distance

x2 from the origin then displacement during this time is a

vector from point P to Q and is

x=x2-x1

(1)

of the displacement x of the particle in the time interval

t=t2-t1. If vavgrepresents average velocity then,

motion of the particle i.e., it shows how the value of xcoordinate of moving particle changes with the passage

of time.

In figure 5b average velocity of the particle is

represented by the slope of chord PQ which is equal to

the ratio of the displacement x occuring in the

particular time interval t.

Like displacement average velocity vavg also has

magnitude as well as direction i.e., average velocity is a

vector quantity.

Average velocity of the particle can be positive as well

as negative and its positive and negative value depends

on the sign of displacement.

If displacement of particle is zero its average velocity is

also zero.

Graphs below shows the x-t graphs of particle moving

with positive, negative average velocity and the particle

at rest.

velocity slope of line slants upwards right or we can say

that it has positive slope.

For negative average velocity slope line slants upwards

down to the right i.e. it has negative slope.

For particles at rest slope is zero.

So far we have learnt that average speed is the rate of

motion over displacement of the object.

Displacement of the object is different from the actual

distance travelled by the particle.

For actual distance travelled by the particle its average

speed is defined as the total distance travelled by the

particle in the time interval during which the motion

takes place.

Mathematically,

Since distance travelled by an particle does not involve

direction so speed of the particle depending on distance

travelled does not involve direction and hence is a

scalar quantity and is always positive.

Magnitude of average speed may differ from average

velocity because motion in case of average speed

involve distance which may be greater than magnitude

of displacement for ex.

return to point P then in this case displacement of man

is

Displacement from O to Q is OQ=80m

Displacement from Q to P is =20m-80m=-60m

total displacement of particle in moving from O to Q and

then moving Q to P is = 80m + (-60m) = 20 m

Now total distance travelled by man is OQ+OP= 80m

+60m = 140m

Hence diring same cource of motion distance travelled

is greater then displacement.

from this we can say that average speed depending on

distance is in general greater than magnitude of velocity.

of its path is called instantaneous velocity.

Again consider the graph 5b and imagine second point

Q being taken more and more closer to point P then

calculate the average velocity over such short

displacement and time interval.

Instantaneous velocity can be defined as limiting value

of average velocity when second point comes closer

and closer to the first point.

Limiting value of x/ t as t aproaches zero is written

as dx/dt, and is known as instantaneous velocity.Thus

instantaneous velocity is

slope of the chord PQ becomes equal to the slope of

tangent to the curve at point P.

Thus we can say that instantaneous velocity at any point

of a coordinate time graph is equal to the slope of the

tangent to the graph at that point.

Instantaneous speed or speed is the magnitude of the

instantaneous velocity unlike the case of average

velocity and average speed where average speed over

an finite interval of time may be greate than or equal to

average velocity.

Unit of average velocity , average speed, instantaneous

velocity and instantaneous speed is ms-1 in SI system of

units.

Some other units of velocity are ft.s-1 , cm.s-1 .

5. Acceleration

For describing average acceleration we first consider

the motion of an object along X-axis.

Suppose at time t1 object is at point P moving with

velocity v1 and at time t2 it is at point Q and has velocity

v2. Now average acceleration of object in moving from P

to Q is

passage of time.

Instantaneous acceleration can be defined in the same

way as instantaneous velocity

slope of v-t graph at that instant.

to the slope of tangent at this point P.

Since velocity of a moving object has both magnitude

and direction likewise acceleration depending on

velocity has both magnitude and direction and hence

acceleration is a vector quantity.

Acceleration can also be positive, negative and zero.

SI unit of acceleration is ms-2

accelerated motion is that in which velocity changes at

the same rate troughout motion.

When the acceleration of the moving object is constant

its average acceleration and instantaneous acceleration

are equal. Thus from eq. 5 we have

velocity of object at some other instant of time say at

or , v=v0+at

(8)

Graphically this relation is represented in figure 8 given

below.

at time t is equal to the velocity v0 at time t=0 plus the

change in velocity (at).

In the same way average velocity can be written as

where x0 is the position of object at time t=0 and vavg is

the averag velocity between time t=0 to time t.The

above equation then gives

x=x0+vavgt

(9)

but for the interval t=0 to t the average velocity is

Now from eq. 8 we find

(11)

putting this in eq. 9 we find

vavg = v0 + (at)

x = x0 + v0t + (at2)

or,

(12)

this is the position time relation for object having

uniformly accelerated motion.

From eq. 12 it is clear that an object at any time t has

quadratic dependance on time, when it moves with

x - x0 = v0t + (at2)

for such motion will be parabolic in natureas shown

below.

acceleration and these two equations can be combined

to get yet another relation for x , v and a eleminating t

so, from 8

putting this value of t in equation 12 and solving it we

finally get,

v2 = (v0)2 + 2a ( x - x0 )

(13)

Thus from equation 13 we see that it is velocity

displacement relation between velocities of object

moving with constant acceleration at time t and t=0 and

their corresponding positions at these intervals of time.

This relation 13 is helpful when we do not know time t.

Likewise we can also eliminate the acceleration between

equation 8 and 12. Thus from equation 8

finally get,

( x - x0 ) = ( v0 + v ) t

(14)

Same way we can also eliminate v0 using equation 8

and 12. Now from equation 8

v0 = v - at

finally get,

(15)

thus equation 15 does not involve initial velocity v0

Thus these basic equations 8 and 12 , and derived

equations 13, 14, and 15 can be used to solve constant

acceleration problems.

( x - x0 ) = vt + ( at2 )

gravity is an example of uniformly accelerated motion.

Kinematic equation of motion under gravity can be

obtained by replacing acceleration 'a' in equations of

motion by acceleration due to gravity 'g'.

Value of g is equal to 9.8 m.s-2.

Thus kinematic equations of motion under gravity are

v = v0 + gt

(16a)

2

x = v0t + ( gt )

(16b)

2

2

v = (v0) + 2gx

(16c)

The value of g is taken positive when the body falls

vertically downeards and negative when the body is

projected up against gravity.

8. Relative velocity

velocities vAand vB along two straight and parallel tracks.

Let xOAand xOB be their distances from origin at time t=0

and xAand xB be their distances from origin at time t.

For object A

xA = xOA + vAt

(18)

and for object B

xB = xOB + vBt

(19)

subtracting equation 18 from 19

xB - xA = ( xOB - xOA ) + ( vB - vA) t

(20)

Above equation 20 tells that as seen from object A ,

object B seems to have velocity ( vB - vA) .

object A. Thus,

vBA = ( vB - vA )

(21)

Similarly velocity of object A relative to object B is

vAB = ( vA - vB )

(22)

If vB = vA then from equation 20

xB - xA = ( xOB - xOA )

distance.

vA > vB then (vB - vA ) would be negative and the distance

between two objects will go on decreasing by an

amount ( vA - vB ) after each unit of time. After some time

they will meet and then object A will overtake object B.

If vA and vB have opposite signs then magnitude of

vBA or vAB would be greater then the magnitude of

velocity of A or that of B and objects seems to move

very fast.

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