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Mitochondria

Rod- shaped
Two membrane:
Outer membrane
Inner membrane
The latter is greatly folded
with stalked particles.
Inner membrane encloses a
fluid-filled matrix.(can be
found a few circular strands
of DNA,70S ribosomes and
enzymes used in Krebs
cycle).
Abundant in cells which are
metabolically active.
(Ex:skeletal muscle cells,
spermatozoa,liver and
pancreatic cell.)

Chloroplast

Large plastids found only in


the photosynthetic tissues of
plant cell.
These are the doublemembrane bound
organelles.
Has a system of
membranous flattened
sacs(thylakoids) stacked to
form grana(where
chlorophyll is located).
Intergranal lamella connects
one thylakoid of a granum
to another granum. The
fluid outside the thylakoid

Sites of cellular aerobic


respiration.
The matrix contains
enzymes of the Krebs
Cycle.
The highly folded cristae
increase the surface area
for the electron transport
chain reaction.The
energy released is
harnessed in the
synthesis of ATP use by
energy-consuming
activities of the cell.
DNA in the
mitochondria enables
the mitochondria to
replicate during cell
division.
site of photosynthesis
It(grana & thylakoid
membrane) provides
large surface area for
chlorophyll & accessory
pigments to be located
traps light energy &
carry out production of
ATP & NADPH
stroma has enzymes to
carry out lightindependent
reaction(Calvin cycle)
forming high energy
organic molecules such
as ; sugar molecules

is the stroma

Centriole

Found in animal cell only.


Located outside of nucleus
Paired cylinders with a 9+0
pattern of microtubular
triplets.

Microtubules

Hollow tube
Contains two types of
globular proteins,alpha and
beta tubulin.
Continually polymerising
and depolymerising(cause
changes in the length of
microtubules

Act as organisers of
microtubules spindle
fibres
involved in the
separation of
chromosomes or
chromatids during cell
division.
Divide to produce basal
bodies from which
flagella and cilia
develop.(some cell)
Give shape&mechanical
support to the cell.
Serve as tracks for
intracellular movement
of organelles or vesicles.
Main component of cilia
and flagella in the cell
motility.
Component of spindle
fibres involved in
separation of

chromosomes during
cell division.
Role in cell wall
formation.

Microfilaments

Long, thin, contractile


rods(6-7 nm in diameter)
that appear to be
responsible for the
movement of cells (both
external and internal
movement).
Microfilament consists of
two intertwined strands of
actin
Composed of one/two types
of protein-actin(found in
skeletal muscles as thin
filaments) & myosin(found
in skeletal muscles as thick
filaments)

Component of
cytoskeleton
Give shape&support to
the cell.
Role in cellular
movements
Actin and myosin
filament are needed for
muscle constraction.
Constriction of filaments
causes cleavage and
furrow formation in
cytokinesis of animal
cell