SOALAN 2 3 faktor yang mempengaruhi keputusan beretika ialah keputusan berdasarkan ketekunan beretika,seterusnya perkembangan moral dan

factor yang ke-3 ialah prinsip membuat keputusan beretika.

Factor-faktor tersebut member kesan kepada pihak pengurusan dalam membuat keputusan beretika dalam pekerjaan mereka. Dari segi keputusan berdasarkan ketekunan beretika mengandungi enam factor penting iaitu (magnitude of consequences),(social consensus), (probability of effect),temporal immediacy,proximity of effect dan concentration of effect. Magnitude of consequences is the total harm or benefit derived from an ethical decision,social consensus is agreement on whether behavior is bad or good, probability of effect is the change that something will happen and then harm others,temporal immediacy is the time between an act and the consequences the act produces, proximiting of effect

Is the social.psycology,cultural or physical distance between a decision maker and those affected by his or her decision. Concentration of effect is the total harm or that an act produce on the average person.

Factor-faktor yang member kesan kepada pihak pengurusan seterusnya ialah perkembangan moral. Perkembangan moral mengandungi preconventional,conventional dan postconventional. Preconventional merangkumi kepentingan diri sendiri,manakala conventional pula merangkumi keperluan dan pentaksiran social dan postconventional adalah berdasarkan prinsip-prinsip etika itu sendiri.

Factor terakhir ialah prinsip membuat keputusan beretika. Prinsip pertama ialah principle of long-term self interest iaitu an ethical principle that holds that you should never take any action that is not in your or your organization’s long-term self interest,seterusnya principle of personal virtue an ethical principle that holds that you should never do anything that is not

honest,open,and truthful and that you would not be glad to see reported in the newspapers or on tv,principle of religious injunctions an ethical principles that holds that you should never take any action that is not kind and that does not build a sense of community,principle of government requirements an ethical principle that holds that you should never take any action that violates the law,for the law represents the minimal moral standart,and the last is principle of utilitarian benefits an ethical principle that holds that you should never take any action that does not result in greater good for society.

Three factor influence ethical decision the ethical intensity of the decision,the moral development of the decision maker,and the ethical principles used to solve the problem.ethical intensity is strong when decisions have large,certain,immediate consequences and when we are phycically or psychologically close to those affected by the decision. There are three level of moral maturity,each with two steps. At the preconventional level decision are made for selfish reason. At the conventional level,decision conform to societal expectations. At the postconventional level,internalized principles are used to make ethical decisions. Finally, managers can use a number of different principle when making ethical decision .

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