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A group of interdependent items that interact regularly to perform a task. An established
or organized procedure; a method. A computer system refers to the hardware and
software components that run a computer or computers.

Windows is a series of operating systems developed by Microsoft. Each version of
Windows includes a graphical user interface, with a desktop that allows users to view
files and folders in windows. For the past two decades, Windows has been the most
widely used operating system for personal computers PCs.


is a Unix-like and mostly POSIX-compliant computeroperating

system assembled under the model of free and open-source software development and
distribution. The defining component of Linux is the Linux kernel, an operating system
kernel first released on 5 October 1991 by Linus Torvalds.
Linux was originally developed as a free operating system for Intel x86-based personal
computers. It has since been ported to more computer hardware platforms than any
other operating system. It is a leading operating system on servers and other big
iron systems such as mainframe computers and supercomputers. As of June 2013,
more than 95% of the world's 500 fastest supercomputers run some variant of
Linux, including all the 44 fastest. Linux also runs on embedded systems, which are
devices whose operating system is typically built into the firmware and is highly tailored

Some such distributions may include a less resource intensive desktop such as LXDE or the system. network routers. Because Linux is freely redistributable. Linux distributions include the Linux kernel. and the commercial Red Hat Enterprise Linux and SUSE Linux Enterprise Server. open SUSE. Wayland or Mir as the windowing system. and instead include other software to set up and operate a solution stack such as LAMP. modified. for use on older or less powerful computers. this includes mobile phones. A distribution oriented toward desktop use will typically include X11. tablet computers. . anyone may create a distribution for any intended use. Some popular mainstream Linux distributions include Debian. A distribution intended to run as a server may omit all graphical environments from the standard install. facility automation controls. The development of Linux is one of the most prominent examples of free and opensource software collaboration. Ubuntu. Arch Linux. televisions and video game consoles. Linux Mint. and an accompanying desktop environment such as GNOME or the KDE Software Compilation. which is a widely used operating system for mobile devices. Android. Linux is packaged in a format known as a Linux distribution for desktop and server use. Typically. The underlying source code may be used. supporting utilities and libraries and usually a large amount of application software to fulfill the distribution's intended use. Fedora. is built on top of the Linux kernel. and distributed—commercially or non-commercially—by anyone under licenses such as the GNU General Public License.

allowing for portability beyond the initial PDP11 development platform and the use of Unix on numerous computing platforms." meaning the OS provides a set of simple tools that each perform a limited. From the power user's or programmer's perspective. While initially intended for use inside the Bell System. Dennis Ritchie. well-defined function. which then sold its Unix business to the Santa Cruz Operation (SCO) in 1995. but the UNIX trademark passed to the industry standards consortium The Open Group.Unix (all-caps UNIX for the trademark) is a multitasking. . Unix systems are characterized by a modular design that is sometimes called the "Unix philosophy. which allows the use of the mark for certified operating systems compliant with the Single UNIX Specification. leading to a variety of both academic (e. with a unified filesystem as the main means of communication and a shell scripting and command language to combine the tools to perform complex workflows. AT&T tried to commercialize it by licensing the OS to third-party vendors. and others.g. Unix developed into a standard operating system for academia during the late 1970s and 1980s. BSD) and commercial variants of Unix (such as Xenix) and eventually to the "Unix wars" between groups of vendors. The C programming language was designed by Dennis Ritchie as a systems programming language for Unix. multiuser computer operating system that exists in many variants. AT&T finally sold its rights in Unix to Novell in the early 1990s. The original Unix was developed at AT&T's Bell Labs research center by Ken Thompson..

0. In the 1990s. Macintosh systems still found success in education and desktop publishing and kept Apple as the second-largest PC manufacturer for the next decade. and in 1994 Apple was relegated to third place . The Macintosh is a series of personal computers (PCs) designed. was expensive which caused it to be overtaken in sales by the aggressively priced IBM Personal Computer and its accompanying clone market. however. The term Unix is also often used informally to denote any operating system that closely resembles the trademarked system. although the Open Group disapproves of this term. The most common version of Unix (bearing certification) is Apple's OS X. The performance advantage of 68000-based Macintosh systems was eroded by Intel's Pentium. while Linux is the most popular non-certified workalike. gradually took market share from the more expensive Macintosh systems. developed. Steve Jobs introduced the original Macintosh computer on January 24. improvements in the rival Wintel platform. This was the first mass-market personal computer featuring an integral graphical user interface and mouse. 1984. This first model was later renamed to "Macintosh 128k" for uniqueness amongst a populous family of subsequently updated models which are also based on Apple's same proprietary architecture. The Macintosh product family has been collectively and singularly nicknamed "Mac" or "the Mac" since the development of the first model. and marketed by Apple Inc.Other operating systems that emulate Unix to some extent are often called Unix-like. The Macintosh. notably with the introduction of Windows 3.

Apple also develops the operating system for the Mac. Production of the Mac is based on a vertical integration model. Macs are currently capable of running non-Apple operating systems such as Linux. Apple consolidated its multiple consumer-level desktop models into the all-in-one iMac G3. Apple exclusively produces Mac hardware. Since their transition to Intel processors in 2006. which became a commercial success and revitalized the brand. Apple facilitates all aspects of its hardware and creates its ownoperating system that is pre-installed on all Mac computers. MacBook Pro. Its current lineup comprises three desktops (the all-in-one iMac. currently OS X version 10. entry-level Mac mini. Its Xserve server was discontinued in 2011 in favor of the Mac Mini and Mac Pro. Despite a transition to the PowerPCbased Power Macintosh line in 1994. designs. In 1998 after the return of Steve Jobs. Apple does not license OS X for use on non-Apple computers. and three laptops (the MacBook Air. and Microsoft Windows with the aid of Boot Camp or third-party software. and the Mac Pro tower graphics workstation). choosing internal systems. though it did . the complete lineup is entirely based on said processors and associated systems. and prices. and MacBook Pro with Retina display). where multiple sellers create and integrate hardware intended to run another company's operating system. Open BSD.9 "Mavericks".as Compaq became the top PC manufacturer. unlike most IBM PC compatibles. the falling prices of PC components and the release of Windows 95 saw the Macintosh user base decline.

.license previous versions of Mac OS through their Macintosh clone program from 1995 to 1997.