statistics video tutorial

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statistics video tutorial

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Roslyn Heights, New York

Statistics

Study Guide

This study guide should be used along with a program published by Video Aided Instruction, Inc.

#VAI-S1787

v1.1

Statistics

3 DVDs 6 hrs.

item #VAI-1787 price $119.95

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high school, and its even a required course for many

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student can master this course quickly and easily!

The ultimate resource for AP high school students,

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the standard topics taught in introductory stats

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Video Aided Instruction, Inc.

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David M. Levine, Ph.D., is a Professor Emeritus of Statistics and Computer Information Systems at Baruch

College, City University of New York. Dr. Levine is an

award-winning educator and bestselling author. He

has written 14 textbooks, many of which have been

translated into foreign languages and adopted by

leading academic institutions around the world.

2

This study guide should be used along with a program published by Video Aided Instruction, Inc.

This study guide should be used along with the following program published by Video Aided Instruction. The

instructor works through the exercises found in this

guide and much, much more during the course of the

actual program.

Introduction

PART 1 Definitions

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For each of the following variables, indicate whether the variable is quantitative or qualitative. If the variable is quantitative, indicate whether it is discrete or continuous.

1. Ownership of a CD player.

2. The number of albums and discs purchased in the last year.

3. The playing length of the last album or disc purchased.

4. Favorite type of music.

1. Given the following:

Y

Compute:

(a)

(b)

Xi

(c)

Xi

(d)

(d)

(X

2

i

(e)

(e)

cX , where c = 2

X iYi

X

Compute:

(a)

(f)

X

(X

(b)

Xi

(c)

X iYi

Yi )

4)

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PART 3 Descriptive Statistics

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1. The following data represent the pulse rates (in beats per minute) of a sample of incoming freshmen at the time of their medical examinations:

49, 74, 66, 68, 78, 53, 57, 62, 61, 66

In (a)(k), compute:

arithmetic mean

(b) median

(c)

mode

(e)

(f)

range

(g) variance

(i)

coefficient of variation

(j)

(l)

Based on the results in (a)(k), indicate whether the distribution is right-skewed, symmetric,

or left-skewed.

third quartile (Q 3)

midrange

(k) midhinge

2. The following data represent the cost of a lunch time Deluxe Hamburger Special, consisting of

a hamburger, french fries, and regular soft drink at a sample of 15 coffee shops within a 10-block

radius of a large urban college.

Coffee Shop

Cost ($)

Coffee Shop

Cost ($)

4.75

4.60

4.30

4.85

4.05

4.75

4.55

4.55

4.60

4.90

3.90

4.55

5.25

4.95

4.65

Compute:

(a)

arithmetic mean

(b) variance

(c)

standard deviation

(e) median

(f)

mode

(i)

range

(j)

(k) midhinge

midrange

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(a)

3. The commuting time of a population of employees of a large company has a population mean of

45 minutes and a population standard deviation of 8 minutes.

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At least 75% of the employees will have commuting times between what two values?

(b) At least what percentage of the employees will have commuting times between

33 and 57 minutes?

ERRATUM NOTICE

In the very last step of the solution for Part 3, question 3, part (b), the writing on the chalkboard in the video includes

a typographical error which causes the instructor to misstate the correct answer to this question. The calculation of the

1

expression 1

should have yielded ~.5556 (not ~.8889 as written on the chalkboard). Thus, the correct answer

2

(1.5)

should have been stated as approximately 55.56%. We sincerely apologize for any confusion that this error may cause.

1. The following data represent the grade point averages (GPAs) of a sample of 50 freshmen at the

end of their first year of study.

GPAs of 50 Freshmen

(a)

1.95

3.42

3.97

3.56

2.94

2.04

3.07

3.94

2.54

1.64

3.14

3.77

1.80

2.32

3.44

2.21

2.96

3.98

2.59

3.30

2.82

2.98

3.99

3.50

2.46

2.87

3.35

2.18

3.33

1.93

3.45

3.26

3.00

3.09

2.60

2.86

3.72

3.32

2.77

2.95

2.15

2.38

3.66

3.02

2.28

2.70

3.85

2.75

2.59

3.15

Construct a frequency distribution of the GPA values using 1.6 to under 2.0 as the first class,

2.0 to under 2.4 as the second class, , and 3.6 to under 4.0 as the last class.

(c)

(e)

(f)

5

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(a)

2. The following data represent the interest rate (in percentage points of interest per year) provided

by 6-month certificates of deposit at a sample of 200 savings banks in a particular state.

39

56

47

33

15

10

Total:

200

(a)

Frequency

(c)

(e)

(f)

3. A sample of 50 students was asked to indicate their preference for various types of soft drinks. The

results were as follows:

Soft Drink

Cola

27

Lemon-Lime

Orange

Root Beer

Other

6

Total:

(a)

Frequency

50

(c)

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Interest Rate

PART 5 Normal Distribution & Sampling Distribution of the Mean

What is the probability that Z is between 0 and 1.24?

(c)

(e)

What is the probability that Z is less than 1.24 or greater than 1.73?

(f)

(g) What is the probability that Z is less than 1.24 or greater than 1.73?

(h) What is the value of Z if 67.36% of all the values are larger?

(i)

(j)

Between what two values of Z (symmetrically distributed around the mean) will 76.2%

of all the values be contained?

2. The amount of tea used daily at a local Chinese restaurant is normally distributed with a mean of

8500 ounces and a standard deviation of 800 ounces.

(a)

What is the probability that on a randomly selected day the amount used will be between

8500 and 9100 ounces?

(b) What is the probability that on a randomly selected day the amount used will be more than

9100 ounces?

(c)

What is the probability that on a randomly selected day the amount used will be between

6500 and 7500 ounces?

(d) What is the probability that on a randomly selected day the amount used will be less than

6500 ounces or more than 7500 ounces?

(e)

On 85% of the days, the amount of tea used will be more than how many ounces?

3. A multiple choice test is given in which there are 4 possible answers for each of 25 questions. Suppose that a student is not familiar with the test material and has decided to randomly guess the

answer to each question (there is no penalty for incorrect guesses). In the absence of any other

information, the student assumes that each of the 4 possible answers is equally likely to occur.

(a)

On the average, how many questions would you expect the student to answer correctly

out of the 25 questions?

(b) What is the approximate probability that the student will answer exactly 10 questions

correctly?

(c)

What is the approximate probability that the student will answer at least 10 questions

correctly?

(d) What is the approximate probability that the student will answer between 5 and 8 questions

(inclusive) correctly?

7

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(a)

1. Given a standardized normal distribution (with a mean of 0 and a standard deviation of 1):

4. The amount of tea used daily at a local Chinese restaurant is normally distributed with a mean of

8500 ounces and a standard deviation of 800 ounces. If a random sample of 64 days is selected:

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what is the probability that the sample mean will exceed 8673 ounces?

(b) what is the probability that the sample mean will be between 8300 and 8700 ounces?

(c)

between what two values (symmetrically distributed around the population mean) will

92.98% of the sample means be contained?

5. Suppose that the cholesterol level of ten-year-old girls is normally distributed with a mean of 175

and a standard deviation of 20. A sample of 25 ten-year-old girls is selected.

(a)

What is the probability that the sample mean cholesterol level will be above 185?

(b) Between what two values (symmetrically distributed around the population mean) will 95% of

all the sample means be contained?

1. Suppose that the scores on a certain IQ test are known to be normally distributed with a population standard deviation of 15. If a sample of 25 scores indicates a sample mean of 106, set up a 95%

confidence interval estimate of the population average IQ score.

2. The following data represent the pulse rates (in beats per minute) of a sample of incoming freshmen at the time of their medical examinations:

49, 74, 66, 68, 78, 53, 57, 62, 61, 66

Set up a 95% confidence interval estimate of the population average pulse rate of incoming

freshmen.

3. The management of a car dealership conducted a telephone survey to determine the proportion of

customers who were satisfied with services performed on their cars in the past month. A random

sample of 100 customers indicated that 59 reported that they were satisfied. Set up a 90% confidence interval estimate of the population proportion of customers who were satisfied with their

service.

4. A random sample of 75 children was interviewed upon leaving an aquarium; 45 reported that the

seals were their favorite aquatic creature. Set up a 99% confidence interval estimate of the population proportion of children visiting the aquarium who prefer the seals.

5. The Board of Trustees of the Scholarship Fund of a local high school would like to estimate the contributions that can be expected from past contributors in the upcoming year. The chairperson of

the committee would like to have 95% confidence of estimating the true average amount donated

to within $5. Based on last years contributions, the standard deviation is estimated as $17. What

sample size should be selected?

8

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(a)

6. A researcher for a public interest group would like to estimate the proportion of adults over the

age of 18 in a particular community who are not registered to vote. She wishes to have 95%

confidence of being correct to within .06 of the true population proportion. Previous surveys in

other communities have indicated a proportion of .35. What sample size should be selected?

7. The Market Research Director for a large department store would like to study mens spending per

year on dress shirts.

A survey is to be sent to a sample of the stores credit card holders to determine the average

yearly amount that men spend on dress shirts. If the market researcher wanted to have 99%

confidence of estimating the true average to within $10 and the standard deviation is

assumed to be $28 (based on previous studies), what sample size is needed?

(b) A survey is to be sent to a sample of the stores credit card holders to determine the

population proportion of men whose dress shirts are primarily purchased by themselves. If the

market researcher wishes to have 90% confidence of estimating the true proportion to within

.04, what sample size is needed?

(c)

Suppose the department store has 2,000 credit card holders. What would be your answer in

part (a)?

(d) Suppose the department store has 2,000 credit card holders. What would be your answer in

part (b)?

8. Suppose that in problem 3 of this part, there was a population of 800 customers. Recalculate the

confidence interval developed there.

1. Suppose that scores on a certain aptitude test were known to have a population mean of

100 and a population standard deviation of 10. A new version of the test is to be given to a sample

of 50 students who have been carefully selected to represent a cross-section of the population of

students who would be taking the test. The average score of this sample test was 101.1. Assuming

that the population standard deviation had not changed from the previous test, at the .05 level

of significance, is there any evidence that the average score on the new test would be different

from 100?

2. The following data represent the pulse rates (in beats per minute) of a sample of incoming freshmen at the time of their medical examinations:

49, 74, 66, 68, 78, 53, 57, 62, 61, 66

At the .01 level of significance, is there evidence that the average pulse rate of incoming freshmen

is different from 50 beats per minute?

3. An investigator for a State Highway Department needed to test the speed of cars on a particular

section of an interstate highway in order to qualify for federal highway funds. Suppose that a

sample of 30 cars taken at a particular point on the highway revealed a sample average speed of

61.3 miles per hour with a sample standard deviation of 9.7 miles per hour. At the .05 level of significance, is there evidence that the population average speed is greater than 55 miles per hour?

9

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(a)

5. The Home Mortgage Department of a bank has just instituted a new system to streamline the process of a decision concerning the approval of a home mortgage equity loan. Under the old system,

75% of the applications had final decisions made within 30 days. A random sample of 100 applications processed under the new system revealed that 87 had decisions made within 30 days. At the

.05 level of significance, is there evidence that the proportion of applications in which decisions are

made within 30 days has increased under the new system?

6. Find the p-value in problem 1 of this part, and use the p-value approach to reject or to not reject

the null hypothesis.

7. Find the p-value in problem 5 of this part, and use the p-value approach to reject or to not reject

the null hypothesis.

1. Suppose that we wanted to study sales of annual plants at two branches of a large garden supply

chain. Samples of customers were selected with the following results:

Branch A

Branch B

11.73

9.94

6.32

5.14

42

26

At the .05 level of significance, is there evidence of a difference in the average sales between

Branch A and Branch B?

10

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4. An admissions officer of a college wanted to determine whether the proportion of entering freshmen who indicated a desire to major in Business had changed in the past year. A random sample

of 200 of this years freshmen indicated that 77 expressed a desire to major in Business. At the .01

level of significance, is there evidence of a change from last year in which the population proportion was .40?

Patient

Before

After

236

221

257

248

204

205

229

198

288

269

253

230

235

218

275

249

240

227

10

216

207

11

226

219

12

264

252

At the .01 level of significance, is there evidence that the average cholesterol level is higher

before the medication was taken that at the conclusion of the clinical trial?

3. A career guidance counselor at a large university wanted to study the scores on the mathematics

section of a standard aptitude test for Liberal Arts and for Business majors. A sample of 25 students

from each type of major was selected with the following results:

Major

Liberal Arts

Business

473.6

521.8

138.1

125.9

25

25

At the .01 level of significance, is there evidence that the average mathematics score is lower

for Liberal Arts majors than for Business majors?

11

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Cholesterol Levels

2. A pharmaceutical company wanted to determine the effectiveness of a new drug in lowering the

cholesterol level of patients with current levels of at least 200. A clinical trial of the new drug was

conducted on a sample of 12 patients with the following results:

Game

Child

21

34

29

22

23

29

35

43

19

25

25

25

29

39

23

21

27

32

10

18

20

At the .05 level of significance, is there any evidence of a difference in the average price that would

be paid for the two video games?

1. The owner of a car dealership conducted a survey to determine whether there was a gender difference in ones satisfaction with the service received. A sample of 100 women showed that 65 were

satisfied, while a sample of 100 men showed that 80 were satisfied. At the .01 level of significance,

is there any evidence of a difference in satisfaction with service between men and women?

2. Do problem 1 of this part using the chi-square test.

12

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4. The Research Director for a company that develops video games wanted to determine which one

of two video games should have marketing priority. An experiment was devised in which 10 youngsters ranging in age from eight to fifteen years were allowed to play each game on a particular

video game system for a particular period of time. After playing each game (the order of which

game was played first was randomized for each child), the child indicated the amount of money (in

dollars) that he or she would be willing to pay for the game. The results were as follows:

Favor

East

South

Midwest

West

Total

Yes

215

125

146

92

578

No

185

75

54

108

422

400

200

200

200

1000

Total

At the .05 level of significance, is there evidence of a difference in attitude between the various

regions of the United States?

1. A garment manufacturer was interested in predicting the annual maintenance cost of sewing machines based upon the age of the machine. A sample of 16 machines revealed the following ages

and maintenance costs in the last year:

(a)

Machine

X

Age (Years)

Y

Cost ($)

Machine

X

Age (Years)

Y

Cost ($)

109

25

75

10

70

21

11

126

135

12

58

67

13

30

125

14

47

71

15

120

52

16

105

Compute the regression coefficients the Y-intercept (b 0), and the slope (b1) in this

problem.

(b) Predict the average maintenance cost for a machine that is four years old.

(c)

Compute the coefficient of determination (r 2) and interpret its meaning in this problem.

(e)

(f)

At the .05 level of significance, is there evidence of a linear relationship between age

and maintenance cost?

13

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Region

3. A poll was taken concerning attitudes of voters toward the institution of a common poll closing

time on Election Day during presidential election years. The results, categorized according to

regions of the United States, were as follows:

2. The following data represent the heights in inches of a sample of 10 husbands and their wives:

68

69

73

70

67

74

72

75

67

72

Wife

64

62

56

67

66

69

66

71

64

60

(b) At the .05 level of significance, is there evidence of a relationship between the height

of husbands and the height of wives?

1. At one time, the Director of Consumer Affairs of a large suburban county wanted to study whether

there were any differences in the price of unleaded regular (87 octane) gasoline for four major

brands of gasoline sold in the county. A random sample of five service stations was selected for

each of the four brands and the price (in cents) on a particular day was recorded with the

following results:

Prices of Gasoline Brands (Cents)

A

111.9

116.3

112.8

109.9

114.9

117.4

113.5

109.5

116.5

118.4

116.8

110.9

115.8

113.6

115.4

111.3

118.4

116.4

114.8

112.5

At the .05 level of significance, is there evidence of a difference in the average price between the

different brands?

14

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(a)

Husband

Type

A

42

46

52

57

52

47

59

56

58

47

50

46

49

51

(Note that one plant of type B was accidentally destroyed soon after being planted.)

At the .01 level of significance, is there evidence of a difference in the average yield of the three

types of string beans?

2. An agronomist was interested in measuring the differences in the yield of three types of string

beans. Five plants of each type of string bean were planted with the following results (yield in

pounds):

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15

.00

.01

.02

.03

.04

.05

.06

.07

.08

.09

0.0

0.1

0.2

0.3

0.4

0.5

0.6

0.7

0.8

0.9

.0000

.0398

.0793

.1179

.1554

.1915

.2257

.2580

.2881

.3159

.0040

.0438

.0832

.1217

.1591

.1950

.2291

.2612

.2910

.3186

.0080

.0478

.0871

.1255

.1628

.1985

.2324

.2642

.2939

.3212

.0120

.0517

.0910

.1293

.1664

.2019

.2357

.2673

.2967

.3238

.0160

.0557

.0948

.1331

.1700

.2054

.2389

.2704

.2995

.3264

.0199

.0596

.0987

.1368

.1736

.2088

.2422

.2734

.3023

.3289

.0239

.0636

.1026

.1406

.1772

.2123

.2454

.2764

.3051

.3315

.0279

.0675

.1064

.1443

.1808

.2157

.2486

.2794

.3078

.3340

.0319

.0714

.1103

.1480

.1844

.2190

.2518

.2823

.3106

.3365

.0359

.0753

.1141

.1517

.1879

.2224

.2549

.2852

.3133

.3389

1.0

1.1

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5

1.6

1.7

1.8

1.9

.3413

.3643

.3849

.4032

.4192

.4332

.4452

.4554

.4641

.4713

.3438

.3665

.3869

.4049

.4207

.4345

.4463

.4564

.4649

.4719

.3461

.3686

.3888

.4066

.4222

.4357

.4474

.4573

.4656

.4726

.3485

.3708

.3907

.4082

.4236

.4370

.4484

.4582

.4664

.4732

.3508

.3729

.3925

.4099

.4251

.4382

.4495

.4591

.4671

.4738

.3531

.3749

.3944

.4115

.4265

.4394

.4505

.4599

.4678

.4744

.3554

.3770

.3962

.4131

.4279

.4406

.4515

.4608

.4686

.4750

.3577

.3790

.3980

.4147

.4292

.4418

.4525

.4616

.4693

.4756

.3599

.3810

.3997

.4162

.4306

.4429

.4535

.4625

.4699

.4761

.3621

.3830

.4015

.4177

.4319

.4441

.4545

.4633

.4706

.4767

2.0

2.1

2.2

2.3

2.4

2.5

2.6

2.7

2.8

2.9

.4772

.4821

.4861

.4893

.4918

.4938

.4953

.4965

.4974

.4981

.4778

.4826

.4864

.4896

.4920

.4940

.4955

.4966

.4975

.4982

.4783

.4830

.4868

.4898

.4922

.4941

.4956

.4967

.4976

.4982

.4788

.4834

.4871

.4901

.4925

.4943

.4957

.4968

.4977

.4983

.4793

.4838

.4875

.4904

.4927

.4945

.4959

.4969

.4977

.4984

.4798

.4842

.4878

.4906

.4929

.4946

.4960

.4970

.4978

.4984

.4803

.4846

.4881

.4909

.4931

.4948

.4961

.4971

.4979

.4985

.4808

.4850

.4884

.4911

.4932

.4949

.4962

.4972

.4979

.4985

.4812

.4854

.4887

.4913

.4934

.4951

.4963

.4973

.4980

.4986

.4817

.4857

.4890

.4916

.4936

.4952

.4964

.4974

.4981

.4986

3.0

3.1

3.2

3.3

3.4

3.5

3.6

3.7

3.8

3.9

.49865

.49903

.49931

.49952

.49966

.49977

.49984

.49989

.49993

.49995

.49869

.49906

.49934

.49953

.49968

.49978

.49985

.49990

.49993

.49995

.49874

.49910

.49936

.49955

.49969

.49978

.49985

.49990

.49993

.49996

.49878

.49913

.49938

.49957

.49970

.49979

.49986

.49990

.49994

.49996

.49882

.49916

.49940

.49958

.49971

.49980

.49986

.49991

.49994

.49996

.49886

.49918

.49942

.49960

.49972

.49981

.49987

.49991

.49994

.49996

.49889

.49921

.49944

.49961

.49973

.49981

.49987

.49992

.49994

.49996

.49893

.49924

.49946

.49962

.49974

.49982

.49988

.49992

.49995

.49996

.49897

.49926

.49948

.49964

.49975

.49983

.49988

.49992

.49995

.49997

.49900

.49929

.49950

.49965

.49976

.49983

.49989

.49992

.49995

.49997

NOTE:

Some instructors prefer to use a different table, the Cumulative Standardized Normal Distribution (which represents

the areas under the standardized normal distribution from to Z). The procedures and calculations using the two tables

will be slightly different, but they will lead you to the same answers.

16

This study guide should be used along with a program published by Video Aided Instruction, Inc.

In this program, Dr. Levine uses a table of the Standardized Normal Distribution

like that shown below. Each entry in this table represents the area under the standardized

normal distribution from the mean to Z.

0.25

0.10

0.05

0.025

0.01

0.005

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

1.0000

0.8165

0.7649

0.7407

0.7267

0.7176

0.7111

0.7064

0.7027

0.6998

3.0777

1.8856

1.6377

1.5332

1.4759

1.4398

1.4149

1.3968

1.3830

1.3722

6.3138

2.9200

2.3534

2.1318

2.0150

1.9432

1.8946

1.8595

1.8331

1.8125

12.7062

4.3027

3.1824

2.7764

2.5706

2.4469

2.3646

2.3060

2.2622

2.2281

31.8207

6.9646

4.5407

3.7469

3.3649

3.1427

2.9980

2.8965

2.8214

2.7638

63.6574

9.9248

5.8409

4.6041

4.0322

3.7074

3.4995

3.3554

3.2498

3.1693

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

0.6974

0.6955

0.6938

0.6924

0.6912

0.6901

0.6892

0.6884

0.6876

0.6870

1.3634

1.3562

1.3502

1.3450

1.3406

1.3368

1.3334

1.3304

1.3277

1.3253

1.7959

1.7823

1.7709

1.7613

1.7531

1.7459

1.7396

1.7341

1.7291

1.7247

2.2010

2.1788

2.1604

2.1448

2.1315

2.1199

2.1098

2.1009

2.0930

2.0860

2.7181

2.6810

2.6503

2.6245

2.6025

2.5835

2.5669

2.5524

2.5395

2.5280

3.1058

3.0545

3.0123

2.9768

2.9467

2.9208

2.8982

2.8784

2.8609

2.8453

21

0.6864

1.3232

1.7207

2.0796

2.5177

2.8314

22

0.6858

1.3212

1.7171

2.0739

2.5083

2.8188

df

23

0.6853

1.3195

1.7139

2.0687

2.4999

2.8073

24

0.6848

1.3178

1.7109

2.0639

2.4922

2.7969

25

0.6844

1.3163

1.7081

2.0595

2.4851

2.7874

26

0.6840

1.3150

1.7056

2.0555

2.4786

2.7787

2.7707

27

0.6837

1.3137

1.7033

2.0518

2.4727

28

0.6834

1.3125

1.7011

2.0484

2.4671

2.7633

29

0.6830

1.3114

1.6991

2.0452

2.4620

2.7564

30

0.6828

1.3104

1.6973

2.0423

2.4573

2.7500

31

0.6825

1.3095

1.6955

2.0395

2.4528

2.7440

32

0.6822

1.3086

1.6939

2.0369

2.4487

2.7385

33

0.6820

1.3077

1.6924

2.0345

2.4448

2.7333

34

0.6818

1.3070

1.6909

2.0322

2.4411

2.7284

35

0.6816

1.3062

1.6896

2.0301

2.4377

2.7238

36

0.6814

1.3055

1.6883

2.0281

2.4345

2.7195

2.7154

37

0.6812

1.3049

1.6871

2.0262

2.4314

38

0.6810

1.3042

1.6860

2.0244

2.4286

2.7116

39

0.6808

1.3036

1.6849

2.0227

2.4258

2.7079

40

0.6807

1.3031

1.6839

2.0211

2.4233

2.7045

17

This study guide should be used along with a program published by Video Aided Instruction, Inc.

In this program, Dr. Levine uses a table of the t Distribution like that shown below.

For a particular value of degrees of freedom df, each entry in this table represents

the critical value of t corresponding to a specific upper-tail area .

0.25

0.10

0.05

0.025

0.01

0.005

41

42

43

44

45

46

47

48

49

50

0.6805

0.6804

0.6802

0.6801

0.6800

0.6799

0.6797

0.6796

0.6795

0.6794

1.3025

1.3020

1.3016

1.3011

1.3006

1.3022

1.2998

1.2994

1.2991

1.2987

1.6829

1.6820

1.6811

1.6802

1.6794

1.6787

1.6779

1.6772

1.6766

1.6759

2.0195

2.0181

2.0167

2.0154

2.0141

2.0129

2.0117

2.0106

2.0096

2.0086

2.4208

2.4185

2.4163

2.4141

2.4121

2.4102

2.4083

2.4066

2.4049

2.4033

2.7012

2.6981

2.6951

2.6923

2.6896

2.6870

2.6846

2.6822

2.6800

2.6778

51

52

53

54

55

56

57

58

59

60

0.6793

0.6792

0.6791

0.6791

0.6790

0.6789

0.6788

0.6787

0.6787

0.6786

1.2984

1.2980

1.2977

1.2974

1.2971

1.2969

1.2966

1.2963

1.2961

1.2958

1.6753

1.6747

1.6741

1.6736

1.6730

1.6725

1.6720

1.6716

1.6711

1.6706

2.0076

2.0066

2.0057

2.0049

2.0040

2.0032

2.0025

2.0017

2.0010

2.0003

2.4017

2.4002

2.3988

2.3974

2.3961

2.3948

2.3936

2.3924

2.3912

2.3901

2.6757

2.6737

2.6718

2.6700

2.6682

2.6665

2.6649

2.6633

2.6618

2.6603

61

0.6785

1.2956

1.6702

1.9996

2.3890

2.6589

62

0.6785

1.2954

1.6698

1.9990

2.3880

2.6575

63

0.6784

1.2951

1.6694

1.9983

2.3870

2.6561

64

0.6783

1.2949

1.6690

1.9977

2.3860

2.6549

df

65

0.6783

1.2947

1.6686

1.9971

2.3851

2.6536

66

0.6782

1.2945

1.6683

1.9966

2.3842

2.6524

67

0.6782

1.2943

1.6679

1.9960

2.3833

2.6512

68

0.6781

1.2941

1.6676

1.9955

2.3824

2.6501

69

0.6781

1.2939

1.6672

1.9949

2.3816

2.6490

70

0.6780

1.2938

1.6669

1.9944

2.3808

2.6479

2.6469

71

0.6780

1.2936

1.6666

1.9939

2.3800

72

0.6779

1.2934

1.6663

1.9935

2.3793

2.6459

73

0.6779

1.2933

1.6660

1.9930

2.3785

2.6449

74

0.6778

1.2931

1.6657

1.9925

2.3778

2.6439

75

0.6778

1.2929

1.6654

1.9921

2.3771

2.6430

76

0.6777

1.2928

1.6652

1.9917

2.3764

2.6421

77

0.6777

1.2926

1.6649

1.9913

2.3758

2.6412

78

0.6776

1.2925

1.6646

1.9908

2.3751

2.6403

79

0.6776

1.2924

1.6644

1.9905

2.3745

2.6395

80

0.6776

1.2922

1.6641

1.9901

2.3739

2.6387

0.6745

1.2816

1.6449

1.9600

2.3263

2.5758

(continued)

18

This study guide should be used along with a program published by Video Aided Instruction, Inc.

12.461

13.121

13.787

27

28

29

30

14.954

14.257

13.565

12.879

12.198

11.524

10.856

8.897

16.791

16.047

15.308

14.573

13.844

13.120

12.401

11.689

10.982

10.283

3.816

4.404

5.009

5.629

6.262

6.908

7.564

8.231

8.907

9.591

0.001

0.051

0.216

0.484

0.831

1.237

1.690

2.180

2.700

3.247

0.975

18.493

17.708

16.928

16.151

15.379

14.611

13.848

13.091

12.338

11.591

4.575

5.226

5.892

6.571

7.261

7.962

8.672

9.390

10.117

10.851

0.004

0.103

0.352

0.711

1.145

1.635

2.167

2.733

3.325

3.940

0.95

20.599

19.768

18.939

18.114

17.292

16.473

15.659

14.848

14.042

13.240

5.578

6.304

7.042

7.790

8.547

9.312

10.085

10.865

11.651

12.443

0.016

0.211

0.584

1.064

1.610

2.204

2.833

3.490

4.168

4.865

0.90

24.478

23.567

22.657

21.749

20.843

19.939

19.037

18.137

17.240

16.344

7.584

8.438

9.299

10.165

11.037

11.912

12.792

13.675

14.562

15.452

0.102

0.575

1.213

1.923

2.675

3.455

4.255

5.071

5.899

6.737

0.75

29.615

30.813

32.007

33.196

34.382

35.563

36.741

37.916

39.087

40.256

27.141

28.241

29.339

30.435

31.528

32.620

33.711

34.800

17.275

18.549

19.812

21.064

22.307

23.542

24.769

25.989

27.204

28.412

13.701

14.845

15.984

17.117

18.245

19.369

20.489

21.605

22.718

23.828

24.935

2.706

4.605

6.251

7.779

9.236

10.645

12.017

13.362

14.684

15.987

1.323

2.773

4.108

5.385

6.626

7.841

9.037

10.219

11.389

12.549

26.039

0.10

0.25

50.892

49.588

48.278

46.963

45.642

44.314

42.980

41.638

40.289

38.932

24.725

26.217

27.688

29.141

30.578

32.000

33.409

34.805

36.191

37.566

6.635

9.210

11.345

13.277

15.086

16.812

18.475

20.090

21.666

23.209

0.01

53.672

52.336

50.993

49.645

48.290

46.928

45.559

44.181

42.796

41.401

26.757

28.299

29.819

31.319

32.801

34.267

35.718

37.156

38.582

39.997

7.879

10.597

12.838

14.860

16.750

18.458

20.278

21.955

23.589

25.188

0.005

For more information, call 1-800-238-1512 or visit us online at videoaidedinstruction.com.

46.979

45.722

44.461

43.194

41.923

40.646

39.364

38.076

36.781

35.479

21.920

23.337

24.736

26.119

27.488

28.845

30.191

31.526

32.852

34.170

5.024

7.378

9.348

11.143

12.833

14.449

16.013

17.535

19.023

20.483

0.025

This study guide should be used along with a program published by Video Aided Instruction, Inc.

43.773

42.557

41.337

40.113

38.885

37.652

36.415

35.172

33.924

32.671

19.675

21.026

22.362

23.685

24.996

26.296

27.587

28.869

30.144

31.410

3.841

5.991

7.815

9.488

11.071

12.592

14.067

15.507

16.919

18.307

0.05

In this program, Dr. Levine uses a table of the 2 Distribution like that shown below.

For a particular value of degrees of freedom df, each entry in this table represents

the critical value of 2 corresponding to a specific upper-tail area .

For larger values of freedom df, the expression Z = 2 2 2(df ) 1 may be used and the resulting

upper-tail area can be found from the Cumulative Standardized Normal Distribution.

11.160

11.808

26

10.520

25

10.196

9.260

9.886

23

24

9.542

8.034

8.643

21

22

3.053

3.571

4.107

4.660

5.229

5.812

6.408

7.015

7.633

8.260

2.603

3.074

3.565

4.075

4.601

5.142

5.697

6.265

6.844

7.434

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

0.020

0.115

0.297

0.554

0.872

1.239

1.646

2.088

2.558

0.99

0.010

0.072

0.207

0.412

0.676

0.989

1.344

1.735

2.156

0.995

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

df

19

(where = 0.05)

df1

1 = 0.95

= 0.05

10

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

161.40

18.51

10.13

7.71

6.61

5.99

5.59

5.32

5.12

4.96

199.50

19.00

9.55

6.94

5.79

5.14

4.74

4.46

4.26

4.10

215.70

19.16

9.28

6.59

5.41

4.76

4.35

4.07

3.86

3.71

224.60

19.25

9.12

6.39

5.19

4.53

4.12

3.84

3.63

3.48

230.20

19.30

9.01

6.26

5.05

4.39

3.97

3.69

3.48

3.33

234.00

19.33

8.94

6.16

4.95

4.28

3.87

3.58

3.37

3.22

236.80

19.35

8.89

6.09

4.88

4.21

3.79

3.50

3.29

3.14

238.90

19.37

8.85

6.04

4.82

4.15

3.73

3.44

3.23

3.07

240.50

19.38

8.81

6.00

4.77

4.10

3.68

3.39

3.18

3.02

241.90

19.40

8.79

5.96

4.74

4.06

3.64

3.35

3.14

2.98

254.30

19.50

8.53

5.63

4.36

3.67

3.23

2.93

2.71

2.54

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

4.84

4.75

4.67

4.60

4.54

4.49

4.45

4.41

4.38

4.35

3.98

3.89

3.81

3.74

3.68

3.63

3.59

3.55

3.52

3.49

3.59

3.49

3.41

3.34

3.29

3.24

3.20

3.16

3.13

3.10

3.36

3.26

3.18

3.11

3.06

3.01

2.96

2.93

2.90

2.87

3.20

3.11

3.03

2.96

2.90

2.85

2.81

2.77

2.74

2.71

3.09

3.00

2.92

2.85

2.79

2.74

2.70

2.66

2.63

2.60

3.01

2.91

2.83

2.76

2.71

2.66

2.61

2.58

2.54

2.51

2.95

2.85

2.77

2.70

2.64

2.59

2.55

2.51

2.48

2.45

2.90

2.80

2.71

2.65

2.59

2.54

2.49

2.46

2.42

2.39

2.85

2.75

2.67

2.60

2.54

2.49

2.45

2.41

2.38

2.35

2.40

2.30

2.21

2.13

2.07

2.01

1.96

1.92

1.88

1.84

df 2

21

4.32

3.47

3.07

2.84

2.68

2.57

2.49

2.42

2.37

2.32

1.81

22

4.30

3.44

3.05

2.82

2.66

2.55

2.46

2.40

2.34

2.30

1.78

23

4.28

3.42

3.03

2.80

2.64

2.53

2.44

2.37

2.32

2.27

1.76

24

4.26

3.40

3.01

2.78

2.62

2.51

2.42

2.36

2.30

2.25

1.73

25

4.24

3.39

2.99

2.76

2.60

2.49

2.40

2.34

2.28

2.24

1.71

26

4.23

3.37

2.98

2.74

2.59

2.47

2.39

2.32

2.27

2.22

1.69

1.67

27

4.21

3.35

2.96

2.73

2.57

2.46

2.37

2.31

2.25

2.20

28

4.20

3.34

2.95

2.71

2.56

2.45

2.36

2.29

2.24

2.19

1.65

29

4.18

3.33

2.93

2.70

2.55

2.43

2.35

2.28

2.22

2.18

1.64

30

4.17

3.32

2.92

2.69

2.53

2.42

2.33

2.27

2.21

2.16

1.62

3.84

3.00

2.60

2.37

2.21

2.10

2.01

1.94

1.88

1.83

1.00

In this program, Dr. Levine uses a table of the F Distribution like that shown below.

For a particular combination of numerator degrees of freedom df 1 and denominator

degrees of freedom df 1, each entry in this table represents the critical values of F

corresponding to an upper-tail area equal to 0.05.

20

This study guide should be used along with a program published by Video Aided Instruction, Inc.

7.60

7.56

6.63

30

4.61

5.39

5.42

5.45

5.49

5.53

5.57

5.61

5.66

5.72

5.78

3.78

4.51

4.54

4.57

4.60

4.64

4.68

4.72

4.76

4.82

4.87

6.22

5.95

5.74

5.56

5.42

5.29

5.18

5.09

5.01

4.94

3.32

4.02

4.04

4.07

4.11

4.14

4.18

4.22

4.26

4.31

4.37

5.67

5.41

5.21

5.04

4.89

4.77

4.67

4.58

4.50

4.43

5,625.00

99.25

28.71

15.98

11.39

9.15

7.85

7.01

6.42

5.99

3.02

3.70

3.73

3.75

3.78

3.82

3.85

3.90

3.94

3.99

4.04

5.32

5.06

4.86

4.69

4.56

4.44

4.34

4.25

4.17

4.10

5,764.00

99.30

28.24

15.52

10.97

8.75

7.46

6.63

6.06

5.64

3.41

3.36

4.89

4.64

4.44

4.28

4.14

4.03

3.93

3.84

3.77

3.70

3.64

3.59

3.54

5.07

4.82

4.62

4.46

4.32

4.20

4.10

4.01

3.94

3.87

3.81

3.76

3.71

3.26

3.23

3.42

3.39

3.36

3.33

3.30

2.64

3.59

3.56

3.53

3.50

3.47

2.80

2.41

3.07

3.09

3.12

3.15

3.18

3.22

3.26

3.30

3.35

3.40

4.63

4.39

4.19

4.03

3.89

3.78

3.68

3.60

3.52

3.46

6,022.00

99.39

27.35

14.66

10.16

7.98

6.72

5.91

5.35

4.94

2.32

2.98

3.00

3.03

3.06

3.09

3.13

3.17

3.21

3.26

3.31

4.54

4.30

4.10

3.94

3.80

3.69

3.59

3.51

3.43

3.37

6,056.00

99.40

27.23

14.55

10.05

7.87

6.62

5.81

5.26

4.85

10

1.00

2.01

2.03

2.06

2.10

2.13

2.17

2.21

2.26

2.31

2.36

3.60

3.36

3.17

3.00

2.87

2.75

2.65

2.57

2.49

2.42

6,366.00

99.50

26.13

13.46

9.02

6.88

5.65

4.86

4.31

3.91

2.51

3.17

3.20

3.29

3.32

3.50

3.46

3.67

3.63

3.45

3.51

4.74

4.50

4.30

4.14

4.00

3.89

3.79

3.71

3.63

3.56

5,982.00

99.37

27.49

14.80

10.29

8.10

6.84

6.03

5.47

5.06

5,928.00

99.36

27.67

14.98

10.46

8.26

6.99

6.18

5.61

5.20

5,859.00

99.33

27.91

15.21

10.67

8.47

7.19

6.37

5.80

5.39

1 = 0.99

This study guide should be used along with a program published by Video Aided Instruction, Inc.

7.64

7.77

25

29

7.82

24

28

7.88

23

7.72

7.95

7.68

8.02

21

22

7.21

6.93

6.70

6.51

6.36

6.23

6.11

6.01

5.93

5.85

5,403.00

99.17

29.46

16.69

12.06

9.78

8.45

7.59

6.99

6.55

In this program, Dr. Levine uses a table of the F Distribution like that shown below.

For a particular combination of numerator degrees of freedom df 1 and denominator

degrees of freedom df 1, each entry in this table represents the critical values of F

corresponding to an upper-tail area equal to 0.01.

27

9.65

9.33

9.07

8.86

8.68

8.53

8.40

8.29

8.18

8.10

11

12

13

14

15

16

17

18

19

20

4,999.50

99.00

30.82

18.00

13.27

10.92

9.55

8.65

8.02

7.56

26

4,052.00

98.50

34.12

21.20

16.26

13.75

12.25

11.26

10.56

10.04

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

df 2

df1

(where = 0.01)

= 0.01

21

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