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CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION
I.1 The Background of the Study.
The glory of Nazi regime in its era influenced the growth of new fascist
movement in some big countries such as Germany, Britain and even in the United
States of America. The term Neo-Nazi began widely known in United States after the
British Skinhead movement spread overseas. The term Neo-Nazi means as the new
form of fascism. As it explained in Wikipedia: the term of Neo-Nazism is used to
refer to any social or political movement seeking to revive Nazism or a racist form of
fascism, and which postdated the Second World War (Wikipedia: 2004).
Neo-Nazi movement adopted the exact idea with an allegiance to Adolf Hitler.
The insignia of Nazi Germany extreme lack of tolerance features of specific
Germanys Third Reich1, Anti Semitism2, racism and xenophobia beside other
elements such as nationalism, militarism and homophobia. These groups above often
drew membership of people who blamed them as societys problem, such as the

Third Reich is the named that Hitler gave to the Nazi regime in Germany between 1933 and 1945.
Anti Semitism is political, social, and economic agitation and activities directed against Jews. The
term is now used to denote speech and behavior that is derogatory to people of Jewish origin, whether
or not they are religious.
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disintegration of national unity and culture and multicultural friction on non-white


immigrant and Jewish world conspiracy3.

In the United States, in 1990s, the Neo-Nazi became well organized. Their
members were usually youth people that can easily identified by the style and their
tattoos, which indicated their hatred to other races. In 1990s, the American Neo-Nazi
began to disturb American society. They attacked the immigrants and non-white
people.
In its movement, Neo-Nazi brought its own features that they used as their
own identity, like the style of the head, clothes, taste and kind of music. Then, those
features influenced some of American youth. In another case, it became a trend.
From the explanation above, the writer is interested in studying the influence
of Neo-Nazi movement to youth life. That is why the writer writes her thesis entitle:
The Influence of Neo-Nazi Movement to American Youth life in 1990s.

I.2 The Identification of the Problem.


3

Jewish World Conspiracy state that the Jews will concord the world, its declare in the Protocols of
Elders of Zion which is forged document containing supposed plans for Jewish world conquest,
alleged to have been submitted by Jewish writer Theodor Herzl to the first Zionist Congress at Basel,
Switzerland, in 1897 and published in Russia in 1905.

Based on explanation above, the writer is interested in studying the influence


of Neo-Nazi movement to American youth in 1990s. Therefore, the writer focus on the
following research questions in her study,
1. What were the causes of Neo-Nazi emergece in America?
2. What are the Neo-Nazi influences to American youth in 1990s?

I.3 The Objective of the Study.


The study aimed at finding out what was the dissemination pattern and
influences of Neo-Nazi to of American youth in 1990s.

I.4 The Limitation of the Problem.


This study focused on the causes of the emergence of Neo-Nazi and the
influence of movement Neo-Nazi in American youths lifestyle and behaviour in
1990s.

I.5 The Method of the Study.

In doing this thesis, the writer applies methods of collecting the data, studying
and analyzing them, and the making the conclusion. In collecting data, the writer did
library research. The data are taken from relevant books, papers, articles or journal
from Internet and other printed materials.
In analyzing and studying the data, the writer applies qualitative research
method. Qualitative research method is a method that interprets data by giving them
meaning, translating them or making them understandable (Bogdan, 1982: 24). By
using the qualitative method, the data that the writer collects is in the form of words or
pictures rather than numbers. Moreover, the result of the study contains quotation
from data to illustrate and substantiate the presentation (Bogdan, 1982: 28). The same
statement also mentioned in Pengantar Metode Penelitian Kualitatif: dari pengertian
sampai penulisan laporan written by DR. Afrizal, MA (2005: 14):
Metode penelitian kualitatif dikatakan sebuah
metode penelitian dengan data yang dikumpulkan berupa
kata-kata, gambar dan bukan angka-angka,.
(Qualitative research method is a research method
where the data that collects is in the form of words or
pictures rather than numbers...)

DR. Afrizal MA also stated that by using the qualitative method, we could
easily analyze condition, event, character and relationship among them by using
library research. (2005:28)

In presenting the analysis, the writer uses the descriptive methods, attempt to
present the phenomena in detail and help the writer to analyze the problem objectively
based on the data and information from the sources.

CHAPTER II
REVIEW OF RELATED STUDIES
2.1 Reviews on Related Studies.

In doing this thesis, the writer also analyze work and studies that to Neo-Nazi.
The first is a journal from one of Czech Republic Newspaper , The New Presence
entitled: The Evolution of Neo-Nazis in the Czech Republic, written by Cyrus
Philbrick and Jessica Wakeman that explains the history and the characteristic of NeoNazi in Czech Republic. This journal also and analyze the Neo-Nazi loyalty and why
it occurs in Czech Republic. In this journal, the writers also mention about how police
in Czech Republic handle these group and what people should do to prevent this
groups. This journal will also help the writer in her analysis ( Philbrick: 2004).
The second is a paper in Patterns of Prejudice Magazine, Vol. 38, No. 1,by
Fabian Virchow, a sociologist at the Fachhochscule Kiel, lecturing the far right, its
ideology, recruitment strategies and organizational development, entitled The
Groupuscularization of Neo-Nazism in Germany: the case of the Akitonsbro
Norddeutschland (Virchow: 2004). In this paper analyzes the development,
organization structure and movement of German Neo-Nazi from its emerge in the era
of post World War II. This paper focus on analyzing one of the biggest Neo-Nazi
organization in Germany. This organization was motored by Akitonsbro
Norddeutschland. This paper consists many information that later needed by the
writer.
The third is a journal by David Michaels, entitled Neo-Nazi Terrorism, in this
journal he gives us some kind of reports about some violence incidents that caused by

the Neo-Nazi that happened in British, Germany and America. In this journal he also
explained far right movement like Neo-Nazi has turn into terrorism that caused many
violence incidents. This journal explains how the organization like Neo-Nazi
movement had spread in many big counties all over the world. This journal also helps
the writer to see how the Neo-Nazi movement contributes violence to American
society.
The fourth is a paper by Eric Olsen, entitled 'White Power' music targets teen
(Olsen: 2005). In this paper, Olsen explains about the Neo-Nazi music and how the
music became widely spread and gained attention of youth people in America and
Germany. In this paper, Olsen explains that there has been music for racists since the
eighteenth century. The Racist music consists of racist lyrics that admit the white
supremacy and underestimate colored people. Olsen also learned about an up-andcoming leader of neo-Nazi music and recording company to record and labeled the
Neo-Nazi music. This paper will help the writer to explain that Neo-Nazi also
influence American youth music.
The last is a book by Harun Yahya 4, entitled: Menyingkap Tabir Fasisme. In
this book, Yahya explain about the background of the reoccur of fascism in 20 th
Century that became the major cause of racism in many countries including America.
The Neo-Nazi as one of the example of American racism became the major focus in
4

Harun Yahya is a famous Moslem researcher that research world phenomena with science and Koran.

this book. This book discusses about the reoccurance of fascism and its dangers to the
world. Firstly, how racism still exists in Europe, and then focus on the development of
Neo-Nazi organizations. Finally, the identification of the ideology behind this
phenomenon and the hidden agenda in the rising of racism.
This book describes the development of Neo-Nazi, since it existed until it
becomes well organize in 1990s. This book also gives complete information about the
incident that caused by the Neo-Nazi and the activities of Neo-Nazis organization.
Unlike with the writer thesis, this book sees the problem in religion perspective.

2.2 Reviews on Related Theory.


In analyzing this thesis, the writer uses the perspective of cultural studies.
According to S. Hall in his book The Work of Representation: cultural studies is a
discursive formation means a formation of ideas, images and practices which include

the way to talk about, the form of behavior and knowledge that associated with a
topic, social activity or certain institutional area of society. (Hall: 1997: 84).
Dealing with the topic, of the influence of Neo-Nazi movement, the writer will
see the idea of Neo-Nazi and compare it with the original Nazis ideology and how
this Neo-Nazis knowledge and behavior develop in particular society, that the writer
mention here is the American youth.
In order to conduct this thesis, the writer uses the Subculture theory, stated by
Prof. M. Brake. The subculture theory is a systematic way to analyze gang, group or
subculture activity and behavior (Thrasher: 1927: 46). In this case, subculture means
as the distinctive culture within a culture, so its norm and values differ from majority
culture but not necessarily represent a culture deemed deviant by the majority
(Wikipedia: 2004). So, the Neo-Nazi movement is an example of a group movement
that developed became one of American youth subculture where the Neo-Nazi
develops their own music, style and activity that particular with youth, as it stated by
Chris Barker in his book Cultural Studies: Teori dan Praktik (2000: 432):
Subkultur-subkultur anak muda dicirikan dengan
perkembangan gaya-gaya tertentu. Di sini terjadi
pengorganisasian aktif berbagai benda dengan aktifitas dan
sikap-sikap melalui cara-cara berpakaian, musik, ritual dan
jargon/ semboyan.
(Youth subcultures are characterized by the
development of some specific styles. In this case, there is an

active organizing over activities and attitudes through way of


dress, music, ritual and jargon.)

According to Prof. M. Brake, the Subculture Theory state that: a subculture


existed where there is some form of organized recognized constellation of values,
behavior and action which is responded to as differing from the prevailing set of
norms.(Brake: 1985: 24). This statement means that in the formation of a subculture,
there are acts of resistance, protest and refusal, which seek to differentiate from the
mainstream. Therefore, by using the subculture theory, the writer will explain the
background and the influence of Neo-Nazi as one subculture influenced its major
culture, in his case the American youth society.
Furthermore, in analyzing the data the writer use the cause and effect
explanation by stating the fact and the giving reason to explain why and how the facts
come about. Here the writer will explain how the Neo-Nazi movement emerged then
how and why this movement influence the American youth ways of life.

CHAPTER 3
BRIEF OVERVIEW OF NEO-NAZISM

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The term Neo-Nazi refers to any social or political movement seeking to


revive Nazism or a racist form of Fascism (Wikipedia: 2006). To understand deeper
about Neo-Nazism, we must distill the essence of Nazism. In common, the essence of
Nazism comprises two fundamental beliefs: (1) that some people are genetically and
morally inferior forms of life; and (2) that genetically and morally superior forms of
life, to survive, must "purify" their race by eliminating genetically and morally
inferior groups (Encarta: 2006).
Historically, The National Socialist Party (Nazi) emerged in post World War I
era, was one of the biggest fascist parties at that time. In 1918, German defeated by
the Alliance (American, British and Russia) and forced to sign the Versailles
Treatment5. As the result of that, life became so hard in German, inflation rise;
economic fall down and many people died in suffer. People in German were
desperately expecting a new hope that later offered by Adolf Hitler, born on April 20,
1889 in Brunay. As a brilliant orator, Hitler successfully gained mass sympathy by his
propaganda and formed the National Socialist Party or later well known as Nazi.
Hitler grown the German nationalism and convinced German people that the pure
German were Aria, the superiority race that chosen to be the best (Purcell: 2004: 34).
5

Versailles Treatment or Treaty of Versailles is the peace treaty signed at the end of World War I
between Germany and the Allies. This agreement state that German Republic replaced by the imperial
German government at the end of the war, was excluded from the parley. Included in the first section of
the treaty was the Covenant of the League of Nations, the world's first peacekeeping body, which was
given the responsibility for executing the terms of the various treaties, negotiated after World War I.

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In 1933, Hitler suspended the constitution, abolished the presidency, and


declared himself Germanys Fhrer6. Like T. L. Jarman states in his book, The Rise
and Fall of Nazi Germany (Jarman: 139):
When Hitler, with the Cabinet, appeared on the
balcony, the crowd went wild with delight. Again and again it
shouted, Heil Hitler! By the new law, the government was
given power for the next four years to make law without
Reichstag; such laws were to be drafted by the Chancellor, and
they might modify the constitution. Hitler was independent of
the Reichstaghe was a dictator.

Once in control, Hitler was able to insert his fascist vision of the new Germany into a
highly receptive political culture, this made German became the largest fascist country
in Europe. The Third Reich quickly created the technical, organizational, militaristic,
and social means to implement its far-reaching schemes for the transformation of
Germany and large parts of Europe.
Furthermore, the word fascism came from Italian word fasces that mean
union or league. This word firstly introduced by Benito Mussolini, an Italian
Fascist leader, who inspired Hitler in his movement at that time. On 1935, fascism had
dominated Italy and Germany (Purcell: 2004: 4). In both Italy and Germany, the
backgrounds of the emerging of fascism are almost the same. There are: the poverty
that happened after the World War I, disappointment of democracy, fear of
6

Fhrer or Fuehrer originally from German language that means a leader who is regarded as autocratic.

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communism will occurred in both countries and high nationalism of German and
Italian people (Purcell: 2004: 25).
As an ideology, fascism means modern political ideology that seeks to
regenerate the social, economic, and cultural life of a country by basing it on a
heightened sense of national belonging or ethnic identity. Fascism rejects liberal ideas
such as freedom and individual rights, and often presses for the destruction of
elections, legislatures, and other elements of democracy (Encarta: 2006). Fascism has
seven basic thoughts that often seen in almost fascist text; those basic thoughts are
Irrationalism, Social Darwinism7, Nationalism, State, Leadership principal, Racism
and Anti-Communist (Sargent: 1984: 156). In all of those basic thought, racism is the
most powerful. Hitler believe that the Aria, or the Nordic, or the white dominate above
others. He used this to grow the German nationalism so that German people had
something in common to be proud of (Hitler: 1973: 393).
The political movement and ideology of Nazi was complete because in this
ideology found the essence of left and right ideologies8 (Macridis: 1992: 163). Those
essences could be dividing as negative and positives themes are sometimes blended
and were address to the immediate situations. Nazi negative themes are: (1) against
class struggle, it means that Nazis thought that the notion of class which developed by
7

Social Darwinism is a discredited social theory stating that the political and economic advantages in a
developed society are derived from the biological advantages of its collective membership.
8
Ideologies are defied into two there are the Left ideologies and the Right ideologies which Right is
grow along the mainstream like Nationalism and Left is against the mainstream like Communist.

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Marx and endorsed by all Communist parties, was inconsistent with national unity and
incompatible with communitarian values of the German people and German nation.
(2) Against parliamentary government, the Nazis thought that parliamentary
government leads to fragmentation of the body politics into parties groups jockeying
for position, compromising their particular interest, and forming unstable
governmental coalitions. This make the real national interest neglected. (3) Antitrade
union, the Nazis thought that the workers also German citizens who also should also
integrated into society instead of pitting themselves against others Germans. (4)
Against political parties, like the parliamentary government, political parties also
expressed special ideological or interest particularisms that they think could split the
nation. (5) Against the Treaty of Versailles and the last is (7) Anti-Semitism and
racialism (Macridis: 1992: 164).
Moreover, the positive themes of Nazism are: (1) Nationalism, the Nazi
ideology put the German Nation as the highest priority so that every citizen must
willing to sacrificed everythings they owned to their country. (2) Leadership, as we
had already discussed above that Hitler as the leader of the Nation rule every aspect of
life. The concept of Nazis leadership is closely related to totalitarianism9 concept
where the absolute highest position is on the hand of the one leader. (Macridis: 1992:
168).
9

Totalitarianism is dictatorship, despotism, absolutism, tyranny, autocracy, authoritarianism, that Nazi


regime often consider as on of totalitarianism example.

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The ideology of Neo-Nazi was the genealogy of Nazism that had been
influenced by many beliefs, ideology and other factors, like it describe in scheme
below.

Source: http://www.publiceye.org
The Neo-Nazism is surely influence by the Nazi so they have similarities
among them. The most specific similarities among those two are racism, the concept
of master race, anti-Semitism and Nazi concept of leadership were also used by the
Neo-Nazi, for example in the American Nazi Party which have George Lincoln
Rockwell as the American Fuhrer for their leader. The Neo-Nazism also has the same
fundamental believes which are: Irrationalism, Social Darwinism, Nationalism, State,

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Leadership principal, Anti-Communist and the most powerful is Racism. Both Nazism
and Neo-Nazism are clearly racial, those two agreed about the concept of master
race and racial supremacy, which argued that only the highest race, deserves to live
in the world (Heywood: 1992: 185). In his book, Mein Kampf10, Hitler describes racial
purity as an iron law of Nature where the Nazi believed that biological purity is the
key to racial greatness and fear of inter-marriage would pollute the pure race their
Nation (Hitler: 1973). Other similarities state that Neo-Nazism also
However, among those similarities there are also some differences that state
the line between them. The Neo-Nazis concern were mostly about the immigration on
their country that later caused unemployment. The Neo-Nazi do not have the highly
priority of Nationalism. Beside that the background of German Nazi and American
Neo-Nazi emerge are different.
Historically, the Neo-Nazi emerged in America in1950's, while racism still
became the unsolved problem in America and the world was still coming to terms with
the Holocaust and fighting Cold War Communism. At that time, George Lincoln
Rockwell, born March 9, 1918 in Bloomington, Illinois, formed American Nazi Party
(ANP). He brought the ideas of white male racial superiority and the implied right to
power over all others-ideas and their underlying rationale were the basis of Hitler's
10

Mein Kampf is Hitler famous book, he used it as the bible of Nazi fascism that contained many of
his basic ideas. Hitler believed that history was the record of struggles among races. He held that the
superior Aryan race, centered in Germany, would be the final victor and would rule the world.

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National Socialism (Nazi). George Lincoln Rockwell combine Nazi ideology with
Christian thought where one of the foundational beliefs of Christianity is that Jews are
the "seeds of Satan," and conspired to eradicate "God's chosen people," the Aryans.
Christian Identity holds that one of the historically recent means that Jews did this has
been by perpetrating the lie of the Holocaust (Schamalz: 1999: 48).
From the late 1950's until 1967, Rockwell became the seminal force of postWorld War II National Socialism (Nazism) in America and the originator of the
"Holocaust Denial" movement. In 1967, Rockwell was assassinated by a disgruntled
party member in the parking lot of the local Laundromat. This movement later
inspired the growing of various Neo-Nazi organizations in America like: the National
Socialist White People's Party (NSWPP), Aryan Nations, Aryan Brotherhood,
National Alliance National Socialist Movement (NSM88), White Aryan Resistance
and many others (Schamalz: 1999: 64).
Later on 1980s, Nazi-Skinhead appeared on the streets of America. This
movement originally from the United Kingdom, which is the revival of the skinhead
subculture11, which had originally died out in 1972, came as a sort of backlash against
the commercialization of punk12 (Marshall: 2005: 64). The Nazi-Skinhead invested
11

12

Skinhead subculture is one of a group of young white men with closely-cropped or shaven hair,
characterized by extreme right-wing views and aggressive behavior.
Punks are youth movement of the late 1970s, characterized by loud aggressive rock music,
confrontational attitudes, body piercing, and unconventional hairstyles, makeup, and clothing

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their music, style, and culture to American youth and others American Neo-Nazi
organizations. As the result of this, the mainstream media started to label the whole
skinhead style as the Neo-Nazi. In late 1980s, the Neo-Nazi group and organization
has become well organized and responsible for many violence actions.

Source: Klanwacth, the Nation Magazine, Page 82-107. July 16th /23rd, 1990.
The picture above is produce by the Klanwatch Project of the Southern
Poverty Law Center (S. P. L. C) in Montgomery, Alabama. The Klanwatch Project
discovered that the Neo-Nazi groups have spread and the number of the members have
increasingly over years and have reach huge numbers about 10.000 up to 20.000

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members all over America, beside that the Neo-Nazi groups has had their own record
company, TV shows, weekly magazine and official site to help them spread their
propaganda. Moreover, the picture above shows the spreading of the Neo-Nazi groups
and other white supremacist groups that also have same goal, share same ideas and
cooperate with the Neo-Nazi groups. Those groups are: Klu Klux Klan13, this group
has been Nazified which means that they began have same goals, share same ideas
and mutually cooperate each others. Posse Comitatus, a decentralized, antistate and
largely rural movement which also appears as American Freemen Associations, whose
adherents believe that all government should be rooted at the country level and
cooperated with any higher authority is wrong. The Christian Identity movement
which is an Aryan religious denomination descended which holds that chosen
people of the Bible are white Anglo-Saxon, that Jews are descended from Satan and
that all non-white are pre-Adamic or lower species than white. The Christian
Identity movement is also known as the religious movement that often
indistinguishable from a political one.

13

Klu Klux Klan is a secret terrorist organization that originated in the Southern states during the period
of Reconstruction following the American Civil War (1861-1865) and was reactivated on a wider
geographic basis in the 20th century.

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CHAPTER 4
ANALYSIS.
4. 1. The Background of Neo-Nazi Emerge in America.
According to the writer perspective and analysis, the backgrounds of the NeoNazi emerge in America defied into two major causes. The first is American racism
that has been conserved in American life until now. The second is American liberalism
for every citizen to form any organization that they think as their way of life.
As we know, the Neo-Nazis hope to build a global movement, and rely on this
central element of racism to create a doctrine of white supremacy for all over places
with substantial populations of white people like United States. While in America,
racism began since the early colonial time, when the African Black people forcedly
brought to America to become slave. After the abolishment of slavery in 1860, the
unsatisfaction of white people that refused to life side by side with the Black
American made them still have to life in racism. In 1960s, the Civil Right Movement
era was the consequences of the segregation policy, Jim Crow System, to separate the
black and white people in every of life and to achieve supremacy over blacks. This

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policy made black, as the second-class citizens, cannot share school, restaurant, seat in
the bus or others public facilities in America, mostly southern America. Even the Civil
Right Movement had ended with the abolishment of Jim Crow policy, Blacks right for
vote and equal right for Blacks, racism until now still exists in United States (Encarta:
2005).
Actually, racism began from the religion conflict where the Christian beliefs
state that the Jews are responsible to the cruelest sin on earth, and later the concept of
slavery determine black people into the second race (Fredrickson: 2003: 67). The
concept of racism where the sinful Jews and the Black as the second race cannot live
side by side with the White as the superior race adopted by the Neo-Nazism. In the era
of Neo-Nazi emerging, the American people were still faced on racism conflict and the
concept that brought by the Neo-Nazi was suitable for some white American people
and made them easy to accept Neo-Nazi.
The American liberalism and freedom of speech also another factor of NeoNazi emerges in United State. The American society had live in concept of democracy
since their independent on July 4, 1776. In America and other counties, democracy is
political system in which the people of a country rule through any form of government
they choose to establish (Cincotta: 1950: xx). In modern democracies, supreme
authority is exercised for the most part by representatives elected by popular suffrage.
Democracy allowed people to have freedom to speak or to create any kind of

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organization. In America, this concept known as Civil liberties is used to refer to


guarantees of freedom of speech, press, or religion; to due process of law; and to other
limitations on the power of the state to restrain or dictate the actions of individuals
(Encarta: 2006). This concept of liberty and freedom of speech seem to overlapping
and interacting for some of American citizen.
Moreover like it had been discuss in previous chapter, the Neo-Nazi had gain
huge number of member on its organization and had also develop official net-sites,
magazine, TV shows, etc that can easily consume by the public. And because of
American concept of liberty some of those programs that Neo-Nazi used to spread
their movement became legal (Nation Magazine: Langer: 82: 1990).

4. 2. The Influence of Neo-Nazi Movement to American Youth in 1990s.


Since one definition of subculture is: "subcultures are meaning systems, modes
of expression or life styles developed by groups in subordinate structural positions in
response to dominant meaning systems, and which reflect their attempt to solve
structural contradictions rising from the wider societal context" (Brake: 2005). The
writer sees the Neo-Nazi subculture also create modes of expression or life styles give
influence the American youth society. These influences were in, the rising of new
style, the emerging of hate music and the formation of violence behavior which finally

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result a new ideology for the American youth that was the Neo-Nazism. Moreover
there were cause and effect relationship between the changes of American youth and
the development of the Neo-Nazi in 1990s.

4. 2. 1. The Rising of new style.


Peoples personalities can reflect from their appearance of fashion. Each
person has their own characteristics in the fashion to symbolize who they are. NeoNazi subculture has its own style to identified them among others group or gang. The
most significant style of the Neo-Nazis is baldhead. Beside that the Neo-Nazis has
their own style in clothing which mostly influence by the British Skinhead (Marshall:
2005: 37). Those styles are: branded button-up or polo shirts, tailored suits to events
such as soul dances or ska concerts, favour tonic suits (also known as shark-skin
suits), so named for the shiny material, MA-1 type Flight Jackets (popular brands
include Warrior and Alpha) in black or sage green; blue denim jackets (Levi or
Wrangler); Harrington jackets; Monkey jackets; Crombie-style overcoats; sheepskin
3/4 length coats; Donkey jackets, Men: Blue Levi's or Wrangler jeans, straight leg
with rolled cuffs (turn-ups) to show off the boots, often with the seam cut off and sewn
to give a neater, flatter turn-up, and "properly" fitted; Sta-Prest flat-fronted slacks and
other trousers; bleachers (jeans splattered with household bleach to resemble

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camouflage trousers), and the most important is Boots, originally regular army or
workboots, and also Trilby hats; pork pie hats; scally caps,"flat caps" or a driver's caps
(Wikipedia: 2006).
This style seems not related to their ideology or activity. This style is one of
British skinhead influence to Neo-Nazi, that later found that in America this style
belong or identified a Neo-Nazi.

4. 2. 2. The Emerge of Hate music.


Along with the development of Neo-Nazi movement, the Hate music has
been instrumental in the formation of the Neo-Nazi subculture. The Hate music gave
the major contribution to influence and to attract the American youth into their
movement. As we know, most of the young people had great attraction to music,
moreover the Neo-Nazi used the Hate music to gain and maintain their membership.
Additionally, hate music also has become an important source of income for the NeoNazis. Mostly, they receive a substantial amount or even a majority of their funding
from distributing hate music, promoting hate music concerts, and selling accessories
and clothing. Significant portions of these materials distributed in Europe, even in
countries where they may be illegal.

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Originally, the Hate music came from the British Skinhead group where a
British singer Ian Stuart Donaldson transformed himself and his band, Skrewdriver,
into explicit promoters of racism and white supremacy and later know as the Hate
music. This music rapidly began increased its hold among young racists around the
world. When Ian Stuart Donaldson died in an auto accident in 1993, he became an
icon of Hate music in both British and America.
The Punk Rock, street punk, garage rock, rockabilly, and psychedelic rock
mostly affected the genre of this music (Wikipedia: 2006). Hate music fans refer their
music in different ways. They differentiated hate music into many subgenres that later
influence and blend into each other, and change over time. There are; Racist Oi is an
offshoot of punk music that originated in the 1970s and became heavily associated
with the emerging Neo-Nazi subculture (Marshall: 184). Hatecore is essentially a
racist version of hardcore punk, a musical subgenre that emerged in the U.S in the
early 1980s. Some hardcore punk musicians later merged the hate music with heavy
metal music to create thrash or speed metal. National Socialist Black Metal Music
(NSBM): A racist version of black (or death) metal music, itself descending from
heavy metal and hardcore punk. Nationalist Folk Music: Sometimes known as
folkish music or national socialist folk music, this term refers to songs and music that
hearken back to a mythical, often Aryan, Germanic, or otherwise nationalistic past. In
such music, racism is often implied rather than explicit, which is one reason why it is

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more popular in some European countries such as Germany, where explicitly white
supremacist lyrics may be illegal.
In 1990s, many of Hate music bands have existed, such as Jew Slaughter
(Oregon), Angry Aryans (Detroit), Max Resist, Aggressive Force (California), Max
Resist, Aggressive Force (California) and many others. Beside that, the labeling and
record companies also take part in the development of Hate music in America. Those
labeling and record companies are: Resistance Records, The first truly significant
racist music distributor to arise in the U.S, founded in 1993, based in Michigan and
sold as many as 50,000 CDs a year; Panzerfaust Records, started in 1998 by Anthony
Pierpont and former Resistance employee Eric Davidson, the company has strong ties
to American Neo-Nazi. Panzerfaust created special compilation CD of Hate music that
they offered for sale for just pennies, intending that Neo-Nazis would buy large
numbers of the CD and distribute them to children at schools, concerts, and other
venues (http://www.adl.org)
For the American youth, music is the most important aspect of their lives
and the most phenomenal media to express youth feeling, thoughts and idea. Since
the genre of Hate music is related to punk, rock and hard core which are liked by the
youth mostly in 1990s, the Hate music became easily accepted by the American youth.

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4. 2. 3. The Formation of violence behavior.


The violence behavior or known as Anarchists believe that the highest
attainment of humanity is the freedom of individuals to express them, unhindered by
any form of repression or control from without (Encarta 2006). Facts state that since
its existence the Neo-Nazi had been responsible for many violence action toward the
blacks, Jews and others non-white immigrants in America. For example like David
Michaels mentioned in his paper entitled Neo-Nazi Terrorism, that in this paper he
give like a report about some violence incidents by the Neo-Nazi:
.three bombs exploded in spring 1999, targeting the
capitals black, Asian and gay communities, the threat of neoNazi terrorism finally seemed to have become a reality. .Far
from being a loner as he was initially portrayed, David
Copeland is simply another demonstration of the direct line
between the incitement-filled, hate-driven ideology of the far
right, and the kind of murderous violence seen in last year.
(Michaels: 2000).

Moreover, those violence actions were cocked by many causes. Firstly, the
Neo-Nazi ideology which racist made they refused to life side by side with other race
this can clearly see on the propaganda that produces by the Neo-Nazi. Second, the
Hate music lyrics that consist of racial hate and invitation in doing crime that persuade
them to do the violence action.

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Related to the theory conduct in this thesis that state that: a subculture
existed where there is some form of organized recognized constellation of values,
behavior and action which is responded to as differing from the prevailing set of
norms.(Brake: 1985).

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Appendix:
Neo-Nazi pictures:
THE NEO-NAZI

THE RECORD LABEL COMPANY OF NEO-NAZI

THE CD COVER OF NEO-NAZI HATE MUSIC BANDS

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THE NEO-NAZI IN HATE MUSIC CONCERT

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THE NEO-NAZI PROPAGANDA OF HATE

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