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F a c e 2 F a c e U M AT P re p a r a t i o n C e n t re

Section 1

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Section 1 Logical Reasoning and Problem Solving


Section 1 Overview
Section 1 of the UMAT is arguably the most dynamic section of the exam, with changes
to the structure as well as the types of questions on a yearly basis. In order to prepare for
all possible changes in the upcoming UMAT exam, we believe that students need to be
competent at general logical reasoning skills as well as be familiar with the different
types of questions that may be examined.

Timing of section 1
Section 1 of the UMAT is arguably the most time consuming. There are 44 questions to
be done in 65 minutes, which calculates to about 1.47 minutes (or 88 seconds) per
question. Depending on the volume of reading required in any particular year, you may
have difficulty finishing the exam!

Hence, its imperative that you completely

understand the passage after reading it just once or twice. Here at Face 2 Face UMAT,
we will help you to achieve that without speed reading.

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Part 1 Logical Reasoning


Logical reasoning questions are the most dominant type of question in section 1 of the
UMAT. These questions often appear with a few sentences or a short paragraph as the
stimulus, which is then followed by a question relating to the contents of the text or what
you can extrapolate from the information presented to you.

In order to correctly answer logical reasoning questions, you need to first understand how
logic works and then eliminate the answer options that are logically flawed. There are a
number of common logical flaws UMAT question writers use to confuse exam takers. It
is best to express these using symbols.

Using Symbols to Represent Logic

The use of symbols to represent logical constructs is a very useful tool for understanding
as well as solving logical reasoning questions in section 1 of the UMAT exam. Letters
can be used to represent statements while symbols can be used between statements to
show the logical relationship between them.

Here are some important symbols you need to learn to use:

Symbol

Meaning

Example

Ifthen

If the bus is late, then I will catch a taxi.


(BL CT)

If and only ifthen

If and only if the number is 88, then I will


win the lottery.
(N88 WL)

Not

If he is not Jacob, then he is not guilty.


(J G)

X
Y

Includes; is part of

All mothers are women.


W
M

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Properties of Logical Symbols

Its important to note that the symbol has special qualities. Firstly, its a ONE WAY
arrow, meaning the logic cant go backwards. Going backwards in a one way arrow
relationship is one of the common logical flaws. In the example, if I catch a taxi, it
doesnt necessarily mean that the bus was late. Its possible that the bus was full, or
simply I just wanted to catch a taxi.

Secondly, we cant add to logical structures that have in their original forms. So
if BL CT is true, then BL CT, BL CT and BL CT cant be true. Pay
special attention to the last statement BL CT! If the bus is NOT late, then I will
NOT catch the taxi. This may sound reasonable, but the bus being late is not the only
condition that can be met in order for me to catch the taxi. Even though the bus is not
late, it might be full, so I MAY still catch a taxi. Again, this is another common logical
flaw present in many incorrect answer options.

Theres one exception to the above rule. Its logically sound to add to logical
structures once the has been reversed, ie . In the same example, if I didnt catch
the taxi, then its reasonable to conclude that the bus wasnt late (BL CT). This is
logically valid.

The symbol is a TWO WAY arrow and it only represents one rule if one side of
the symbol is true, then the other side must also be true, irrespective of which direction
the logic is going. In the mentioned example, if I won the lottery, then the number was
88. Here, the logic can go backwards. Also, you may add to both sides.

is a symbol that shows that one thing is completely included into another. Its
important to note that the objects or statements within each circle cannot be swapped.
We cannot move from particular to universal or prove anything definitive of the whole by
relying on knowledge of a part. Using the same example, its false to say that all women
are mothers. Its important to note that a variation of this symbol would be a Venn
diagram, where one component may share a commonality with another.

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Exercises Logical Flaws

Here are some exercises to test your ability in picking out logical flaws. For each
question, write down whether or not the conclusions are correct using the statements
provided. If they are wrong, write down why you think they are wrong.

1. Mandy only shops on Thursdays when theres late night shopping. Mandy didnt
go shopping today. Therefore, today is not Thursday.
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2. For one can assess a work of art only when there are accepted rules and
conventions. Modern art has no rules and conventions. Therefore, to make an
assessment of modern art is an impossible task.
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3. A living organism is classified as a vertebrate if and only if it has a backbone.
Therefore, if an organism doesnt have a backbone, it is not alive.
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Numeracy

The availability of the calculator has often forced our brains to regress to a state where
even simple calculations become difficult.

ACER has recognised this and has

implemented more numeracy-based questions in the UMAT to try and differentiate the
students.

Theres no reason to panic, even if you perceive yourself to be mathematically


challenged, if you follow these basic principles:

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If you are not good at doing calculations in your head, WRITE them down!

The UMAT will not ask you for exact figures to x number of decimal points, so
ESTIMATE and use ROUNDING.

Often, you will be asked to compare two figures and determine which one is
larger or smaller. Its important to note that the exact number of these figures is
irrelevant. Once youve determined that one figure is larger or smaller than the
other, answer the question.

KEEP TRACK of whether youve rounded up or down so youll know if your


final answer is slightly higher or slightly lower than the correct answer.

Points to remember

Only eliminate answer options if illogical reasoning or incorrect content can be


found.

Accept all presented information as fact, unless otherwise stated.

Never assume or use any information that is NOT presented to you.

Keep the scope of the argument in mind. Remember that the answer must be
relevant to the passage and the question stem.

Be wary of answer options that are too extreme. They often contain the words,
all, never, always, none, permanently etc.

Make sure you answer the question being asked!

Always read ALL answer options before committing to an answer.

Use symbols and diagrams when appropriate.

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Sample Questions

1. No national productivity measures are available for underground industries that may
exist but remain unreported. On the other hand, at least some industries that are run
entirely by self-employed industrialists are included in national productivity measures.
From the information given above, it can be validly concluded that
a) There are at least some industries run entirely by self-employed industrialists that
are underground industries.
b) There are at least some industries run entirely by self-employed industrialists that
are not underground industries.
c) No industries that are run entirely by self-employed industrialists operate
underground.
d) There are at least some industries other than those run entirely by self-employed
industrialists that are underground industries.

2. The medical faculty of a Sydney university conducted a survey of first year medical
students and found that 95% of the students believed that UMAT tutoring works. Out of
the 127 students surveyed, 72 were female and 55 were male. However, 28% of the
female students and 14% of the male students believed that a UAI of more than 99 was
the main determining factor in gaining entry into medicine.

According to the above, out of those who were surveyed,

a) 20 female students believed that a UAI of more than 99 was the main determining
factor in gaining entry into medicine.
b) 52 female students think that UMAT tutoring works.
c) More male students than female students believe that a UAI of more than 99 was
the main determining factor in gaining entry into medicine.
d) 99 students believe that UMAT tutoring works.

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Part 2 Logical Games


Logical games questions involve numerous characters and/or scenarios to which a set of
criteria or rules are applied to determine one or more outcomes. Usually an incomplete
set of characters and/or scenarios are given to assist the exam taker in setting up the
question. It may initially take some time to set up the scenarios in this type of question,
but once you have all the information in front of you, it usually takes little time to answer
all the questions.

The key to quickly answer logical games questions is to represent the given information
more simply and set up the scenario correctly. Lets try this question.

Three doctors work for the same hospital.

Their names are: Michael, Nathan and

Anthony. Their surnames are: Smith, Anderson and Fergusson but not respectively.
Their ages are: 40, 45, and 50 but not respectively.

It is known that:
1. Mr. Smith is 10 years older than Anthony.
2. Mr. Fergusson is 45 years old.
3. Nathan is younger than Mr. Smith.

From the above, we can conclude that


a) Mr. Anderson is 45 years old.
b) Michael is 50 years old.
c) Mr. Michael Fergusson is 45 years old.
d) Mr. Anthony Fergusson is 40 years old.

Here are the steps to approach this type of question:


1.

Use a table or some form of diagram to represent all the information

First name

Last name

Age

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2.

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Simplify and then place all the given information into the table or diagram, starting
with the most specific information

First name

Last name

Age
40

3.

45

50

Complete the table or diagram with hidden information that can be inferred and
make sure all the given information is represented. If the table or diagram is not
complete, write down all the different possibilities for all the components of the
question.

First name

Last name

Age

40

45

50

4.

Use the table or diagram to answer the question

First name

Last name

Age

40

45

Michael

Smith

50

Therefore, answer = B

Points to remember

Spending the time to set up a logical game question correctly will pay off later

Use abbreviations or initials to speed up the process

Make sure ALL the given AND hidden information are presented on your table or
diagram

Dont worry if the table or diagram is incomplete, additional information may


emerge in the individual questions to help complete it.

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Sample Questions

1. Six friends, Chris, Emily, Jason, Jennifer, Michelle and Tom are each with one of four
mobile phone providers Telstra, Optus, Vodafone and 3. These friends are restricted to
these four companies but they do not necessarily use all four networks. Only Optus and 3
allow their customers to call each other for free for the first 5 minutes while Telstra and
Vodafone do not. Some of these six people have recently run out of credit, so they cant
call out, even if they call their friends on the same network, but they can receive calls.

Answer the question below using the following information:

Emily can call Tom for free for the first 5 minutes.

Chris can only call Michelle for free but she cant call him back.

Jennifer can call Jason, but not for free.

Jason is with Telstra but he ran out of credit.

If Tom is with 3, then we can conclude from the above that

a) Jennifer is with Vodafone and she has credit.


b) Tom has no credit.
c) Chris is with Optus and he has credit.
d) Michelle is with 3 and she has credit.

2. Inspector Morgan is currently investigating the murder of Harry and there are three
suspects, Wilson, Ahmed and Nakata. If Wilson didnt commit the murder then Ahmed
did. If Ahmed didnt do it then Nakata did. Who murdered Harry?

a) Morgan
b) Wilson
c) Ahmed
d) Nakata

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Part 3 Reading Comprehension


Reading comprehension involves perceiving and understanding the meanings
communicated by texts. In section 1 of the UMAT, reading comprehension questions test
your ability to comprehend, evaluate information and draw logical conclusions by
identifying relevant facts. Here at Face 2 Face UMAT, we have developed a unique
method in processing reading passages that would ensure maximum recall of detailed
information.

The following steps should be followed while attempting a reading

comprehension question:

1.

Getting to know your text

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2.

Previewing the question stem

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3.

Reading with a purpose

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4.

Evaluating the information and choosing the BEST answer

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Points to remember

Preview the questions and look for keywords, which you can then underline in the
passage for quick reference.

When a passage line number is given as reference, often it is not where the answer
is. The answer may be a few lines before or after the referenced line number, read
carefully.

Unless you are proficient at speed reading, DO NOT try to speed read!

Main points of the paragraph tend to be at the beginning or the end of the
paragraph.

Supporting evidence tend to be in the middle of the paragraph.

Be wary of answer options that provide information supported by the passage but
not actually answering the question.

Eliminate answer options that run contrary to the passages overall theme or are
outside the scope of the main ideas of the passage.

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Sample Questions

More Scholars Focus on Historical, Social, and Cultural Meanings of Food, but
Some Critics Say It's Scholarship-Lite
Article from The Chronicle of Higher Education
July 9, 2007 Toronto
By JENNIFER K. RUARK

On a recent Friday afternoon at Rubes, The Rice Mavens Haven in the St. Lawrence
Market here, yuppies toting cell phones scooped up wehani brown for $4 a pound, black
Japonica for $2.95, and fragrant pecan rice for $4.95.

Several blocks away, Warren J. Belasco smiled to think that rice, long associated in
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Anglo culture with despised immigrants, drooling babies, and toothless old people, had
become fashionable. Its marketed as hip and sexy, in contrast to the square potato, he
said.

At the conference where he was speaking, it was clear that Mr. Belascos specialty,
food studies, is much like rice: Once shunned as too ordinary, its now a hot
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commodity, available in countless varieties.

A professor of American studies at the University of Maryland-Baltimore County, Mr.


Belasco is one of a growing number of scholars interested in the historical, social, and
cultural meanings of food. Most of the panels at the conference a joint meeting of the
association for the Study of Food and Society and the Society for Agriculture and Human
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Values were filled by nutritionists, rural sociologists, and political economists, who
talked about sustainable agriculture, food security, and farmers rights. But many of the
participants were historians, philosophers, folklorists, or literary scholars, discussing
what we can learn about human nature and particular societies from the way people cook,
eat, market, and talk about food.

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Mr. Belasco, for example, didnt give advertising all the credit for rices rebirth. He also
pointed to the modernist search for authenticity, a postmodern desire to incorporate the
Other, and the recent tendency to think of meals as medicine. Grains have been recast as
protective and life-sustaining, he said.

At panel sessions and over elegant meals featuring organic produce or one of Toronto's
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80 different ethnic cuisines, other scholars talked about food as a symbol of power, an
aesthetic display, a community ritual, and an expression of ideology or identity.

1. The writer in the first paragraph lists the different varieties of rice and their cost to
highlight

a) How fashion has made ordinary food become a luxury item.


b) How vegetarian and cultural yuppies have become.
c) How popular rice has become among the Canadian people.
d) How cheap and popular rice has become among the modern generation.

2. According to Mr Belasco (line 4), the popularity of rice is due to

a) The fact that it had become a symbol of power and it is available everywhere.
b) Marketing techniques, a desire for organic, healthy food and a philosophical and a
cultural attitude.
c) The power of immigration from the East to the West.
d) The fact it enhances your identity and authenticity.

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Part 4 Graphs and Tables


Interpreting graphs and tables require similar analytical skills that are applied to reading
comprehension and logical reasoning questions. However, there are a few unique steps
you should follow to correctly answer questions involving graphs and tables:

1.

Identifying the type of graph or table

Graphs can come in various forms: bar, pie, column, line and even 3D. Its important to
be able to identify the different types so you can correctly interpret them. Tables usually
come in one standard form and they are relatively easier to interpret, so we will be
concentrating on graphs.

2.

Analysing the title, caption, axes and the scale of measurements in a graph

The title and the caption will establish the context of the graph, while the axes and the
scale of measurements will give a further indication of what is being measured and their
measured values. Beware of the units of measurement, especially when multiple axes are
present.

3.

Reading the question

Although most of the questions relating to graphs and tables ask you to make
conclusions, some questions will be asking for very specific details in the graph or table.
Make sure you are answering the right question.

4.

Choosing the right answer

Again by the process of elimination, choose the most correct and the most relevant
answer. Unlike logical reasoning questions, incorrect answer options involving graphs
and tables are wrong due to, almost exclusively, incorrect content. Hence the things to
look out for include:

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Different date or time period

Incorrect figures or measurements

Percentages versus absolute values

Misinterpreting the scale of measurements

True facts that are not related to the graph or table

False assumptions

Large generalisations (ie. move from particular to universal)

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Points to remember

Always read the additional information accompanying the graph or table because
they often provide you with important information thats not shown in the actual
graph or table

Always be careful of the units and scale of measurements on a graph.

Analyse the graphs separately if more than one is combined into one diagram.

Notice any trends in graphs with a time component.

DO NOT bring previous knowledge about the subject of the graph of table into
your decision making process when choosing the correct answer

Sample Questions

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1. Which one of the following statements can be concluded from the figure above?

a) Post school job training is a waste of resources.


b) Human capital investment should be concentrated on the preschool period to
maximise rate of return.
c) The opportunity cost of funds during preschool is relatively higher than the rate of
return to investment in human capital.
d) Preschool programs are more effective in training future CEOs compared to
schooling or job training.

2. Provided that the Australian population is growing, it can be concluded from the
above table that

a) On average, the percentage of sedentary Australians has increased between 1995


and 2004-05.
b) There will always be more males than females engaging in moderate exercise in
Australia.
c) The number of Australians engaging in high exercise in 2004-5 has increased
compared to 2001.
d) 12.7% of females engaged in high exercise between 1995 and 2004-05.

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Part 5 The Scientific Method


Section 1 of the UMAT has often included questions that represented aspects of the
scientific method. Before we explain the intricacies of the scientific method, please be
familiar with the following scientific terms:

Variable factor in a situation

Independent variable the variable you purposely manipulate or change

Dependent variable the variable that changes in response to a change in the


independent variable

Extraneous variables variables that are not or cannot be controlled that could
interfere with an experiment

Controlled or constant variables the variables that are kept the same during an
experiment

Control group or situation a group or situation in which no variable is changed.


Its used to compare the results of the experiments and to ascertain that a change
has indeed occurred.

Hypothesis a tentative explanation for an observation, phenomenon, or scientific


problem that can be tested by further investigation

The scientific method is a series of steps scientists take to acquire, test, and describe the
natural world. Below is a simple version of the steps involved in the scientific method:

1. Ask questions in the form of a hypothesis


2. Look for patterns in observations.
3. Formulate a theory
4. Design experiments to test theory
5. Repeat steps 3 and 4 until there are no discrepancies between theory and
experiment and/or observation.

Most of the questions that involve the scientific method concentrate on step 4, which is
the designing of the experiments. The questions usually ask about the following aspects:

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Reasoning behind the experiment (ie why was the experiment conducted?)

Conclusions of the experiment

Control group or situation

Flaws in experimental design

Possible improvements to the experiments presented

Remember that a good scientific experiment meets the following criteria:

All variables except the independent variable must be kept constant

The experiment must be repeated and repeatable

For experiments dealing with cause and effect, random selection is the best and
most unbiased selection method

Points to remember

Make sure you understand all the scientific terms we have mentioned.

Try to understand what the experimenter is attempting to find out before


answering any of the questions.

Prior knowledge about famous experiments is not required and should not be
applied to answer questions in the UMAT.

Some questions involving the scientific method may incorporate diagrams, graphs
and tables. Make sure you analyse these components of the question as well as
any texts.

Remember the essential components of a good scientific experiment so you can


identify possible flaws in the experiments presented to you in the UMAT.

They may present to you a number of experiments and ask you to compare them.
You must understand each individual experiment first before you attempt to
analyse them collectively.

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Sample Questions

In 1604 Galileo proved theoretically that falling bodies obey the law of uniformly
accelerated motion. This states that all objects fall at the same rate, whatever their mass.
To prove that, he dropped two lead balls of different masses from the leaning tower of
Pisa numerous times and found them landing on the ground at the same time.

Centuries later on the Apollo 15 mission, astronauts David Scott and Jim Irwin performed
the famous feather-drop experiment and found that in the absence of air, a feather and a
wrench fell to the ground at the same time from the same height.

1. In Galileos experiment, what was the independent variable (the factor he changed
purposely to prove his theory)?

a) The location, ie the leaning tower of Pisa


b) The rate or speed at which the two masses fell
c) The air resistance
d) The mass of the two objects

2. A feather and a wrench would NOT fall at the same rate on Earth because

a) The surface of the Earth has air resistance


b) The feather is much lighter than the wrench
c) The feather and the wrench are composed of different materials
d) The law of uniformly accelerated motion only applies on the moon

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Section 1 Logical Reasoning and Problem Solving


Homework
Comprehension
The following extract relates to questions 1-4
The auction is a market mechanism. It consists of unique transactions between willing
sellers and eager buyers who have been brought together by the auctioneer to determine a
price at which the items for sale will be sold. As a method for determining price, auctions
are easy, accurate, and fair. However, auctions are occasionally marred by certain bidding
practices that conflict with fairness and openness in business deals. Some of these
practices involve negotiations behind the scenes.
Two of the more common types of illegal bidding practices in auction circuits are
puffing and stifling competition. The objective of puffing is to buoy the price of
the item for sale. Two puffing practices are common: having the seller, or the sellers
agent, bid on an item the seller himself has put up for sale; or having the seller in some
way exempt the person bidding from being held responsible for the full amount of the
bid. Sellers bid on their own property because they want to get the highest price possible;
they do not want the property to be sacrificed.
When puffing is suspected, it is important to establish whether the person suspected of
puffing is indeed the seller of the item. Ownership interests may be divided among
several persons, each of whom must agree to the sale. Those persons, as a group, then
constitute the seller. An individual with ownership interests can bid as an individual
without being a puffer so long as the sellerthat is, the group as a wholecan hold that
person responsible for the full amount of the bid. If the person bidding is even partially
immunised by the seller from being held responsible for the full amount of the bid,
puffing has occurred.
Buyers engage in stifling competition, the other common illegal bidding practice, to
dampen competition so that they can purchase an item for less than the amount it would
have brought in an auction uninfluenced by such conduct. Stifling competition can take
several forms: agreements among prospective buyers not to bid, words or actions that are
meant to discourage others from bidding, or bidding techniques that diminish the price
ultimately paid for the item being auctioned.
Puffing and stifling competition are opposite sides of the same coin. When they occur,
buyers and sellers, respectively, complain that the others conduct has prevented the
auction from being fair and open. In those instances when the complaints have been
found to be justified, the courts have held puffing to be a fraud on the buyers and stifling
competition to be a fraud on the sellers. Both practices are fraudulent because they
undermine the fair, open, and competitive determination of price that is meant to be the
distinguishing characteristic of auctions as market mechanisms.

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1. According to the information in the passage, each of the following is an accurate


statement about auctions EXCEPT:
a) Puffing is considered an illegal practice at auctions.
b) Sellers are generally able to get higher prices through auctions than through other
market mechanisms.
c) The prices paid at a fair auction are the result of competition among buyers.
d) The price that is determined at a fair auction is not always acceptable to the seller.
2. Which one of the following statements about competition in auctions is best supported
by the information in the passage?
a) Competition among buyers that results from puffing is artificial.
b) Competition among sellers can be undermined by the practice of puffing.
c) Competition among sellers is more likely in auctions than in other market
mechanisms.
d) Competition among sellers is the critical element in the determination of a fair
price.
3. According to the passage, which of the following practices is illegal at an auction?
a) Bidding for a house even though you partly own it.
b) As a seller, privately negotiating the price with the highest bidder at the end of
the auction.
c) As a buyer, intimidating other buyers while privately negotiating with the highest
bidder before the auction ends.
d) As a seller, asking friends to attend the auction to increase the number of
buyers.
4. What is the main point of the passage?
a) The auction is a fair, open and competitive market mechanism.
b) Illegal practices such as puffing and stifling competition undermine the fair,
open and competitive determination of prices in an auction.
c) Buyers should be wary of auctions because they are subject to puffing and
stifling.
d) Consumers should buy items from eBay because it is immune to fraudulent
practices such as puffing and stifling competition.

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Logical Reasoning
5. The laypersons, and sometimes the doctors, emergency treatment of choice when
someone goes into cardiac arrest is the cardiopulmonary resuscitation, or CPR. CPR
involves using the heel of the hand to push deeply into the victims chest, while
administering periodic mouth-to-mouth breaths. But the sobering fact is that the
procedure doesnt work very well; in fact, almost 95% of cardiac-arrest victims die
before they reach a medical centre.
If follows that
a) A layperson is better at doing CPR than a doctor.
b) 95% of cardiac-arrest victims die before they reach a medical centre is due to
incorrect CPR procedures.
c) The CPR procedure requires some improvements to increase its effectiveness.
d) Mouth-to-mouth breaths may not be as effective as pushing deeply into the
victims chest when performing CPR.
6. A yearlong study in the Annals of Behavioral Medicine reported that dieters who
weigh themselves daily lose more weight than those who dont. After reading the report,
Jane decided to start weighing herself everyday in order to lose weight, but she did not
change her diet or the amount of physical activity.
Which of the following conclusions from the report misguided Jane in believing that she
will lose weight if she weighed herself everyday?
a) With the combination of a healthy diet and regular exercise, monitoring your
weight everyday will help you lose more weight.
b) Dieters who weigh themselves daily are more aware of their weight and hence
will try more actively to lose it.
c) Dieters often avoid the scale because they fear their weight would not go down
despite various effects.
d) Dieters will lose weight by weighing themselves daily.
7. In his hometown of Dzuljunica, Bulgaria, he is known as Kaloyan Stefanov
Mahlyanov. But in Japan, he is Kotooshu, the countrys hottest sumo wrestler. After a
brilliant performance in last months Kyushu Grand Sumo Tournament (which included
his decisive defeat of Japans top-ranked wrestler), the Japan Sumo Association promoted
the 22-year-old to ozeki, the sports second-highest rank. The 143-kg former amateur
wrestling champ is the first European to hold the title.
It can be concluded that
a) Kotooshu is now the top-ranked sumo wrestler in Japan.
b) The Japan Sumo Association has never awarded any other European sumo
wrestler the title ozeki.
c) The Japan Sumo Association was bitterly divided in the decision to award a
foreign sumo wrestler with such a high honour.
d) Kotooshu is planning to defend his title at next years Kyoshu Grand Sumo
Tournament.

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8. The ancient Romans understood the principles of water power very well, and in some
outlying parts of their empire they made extensive and excellent use of water as an
energy source. However, the Romans made do without water power in regions dominated
by large cities.
Which of the following provides a sound reason for this apparent discrepancy?
a) The ancient Romans were adept at constructing and maintaining aqueducts that
could carry quantities of water sufficient to supply large cities over considerable
distances.
b) Water power was relatively vulnerable to sabotage, but any damage could be
quickly and inexpensively repaired.
c) In most areas to which the use of water power was not extended, other, more
traditional sources of energy continued to be used.
d) In heavily populated areas the construction of water power infrastructure would
have caused large scale disruptions, which may have lead to social unrest.
9. Photovoltaic power plants produce electricity from sunlight. As a result of astonishing
recent technological advances, the cost of producing electric power at photovoltaic power
plants, allowing for both construction and operating costs, is one-tenth of what it was 20
years ago, whereas the corresponding cost for traditional plants, which burn fossil fuels,
has increased.
Therefore, it can be concluded that
a) Twenty years ago, the cost of producing electric power at photovoltaic plants was
less than 10 times the cost of producing power at traditional plants.
b) Photovoltaic power plants offer a less expensive approach to meeting demand for
electricity than do traditional power plants.
c) The cost of producing electric power at traditional plants has increased over the
past 20 years.
d) The cost of producing electric power at photovoltaic plants is expected to
decrease further, while the cost of producing power at traditional plants is not
expected to decrease.

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10. In recent years several cases of epiglottitis have occurred in Sydney. Epiglottitis is a
condition that often follows a sore throat that then deteriorates rapidly in such a way that
the throat becomes quite swollen, thus restricting breathing. Sometimes the only way to
save a patients life in these circumstances is to insert a plastic tube into the throat below
the blockage so that the patient can breathe. It is highly advisable in such cases that
sufferers seek medical attention when the first symptoms occur, that is, before the
condition deteriorates.
It follows that
a) It is recommended that patients with a sore throat seek medical attention before
the condition deteriorates into epiglottitis.
b) No one who has a sore throat need to consult a doctor, because sore throats will
recover without medical intervention.
c) A sore throat usually leads to epiplottitis and difficulty in breathing.
d) Epiglottitis is very common Sydney in recent years and it has dramatically
increased the number of cases of sore throats in the city.
11. In 2006, investing guru Warren Buffet pledged $US 37 billion in stock to charity. In
the same year, he donated $US1.5 billion to the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation,
doubling the organizations annual budget. If the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation
receives $US1.5 billion every year from Buffet, which of the following statements would
be true?
a) The Foundations 2008 annual budget is double its 2007 budget.
b) If the Foundation was to invest the extra $US1.5 billion from Buffet at an annual
rate of 20% at the beginning of 2007, by the end of the same year, the Foundation
would have an annual budget of approximately $US3.3 billion
c) After 10 years, the Foundation wouldve collected more than $US30 billion from
Buffet.
d) After 35 years, the Foundation wouldve collected more than $US52.5 billion
from Buffet.
12. Since December 2001, there have been 3278 US military deaths in the wars in Iraq
and Afghanistan. 50% were killed in Baghdad, Iraq, 27% were killed in the rest of Iraq
while 23% died in Afghanistan. On average, 85% of the soldiers were killed in combat,
14% died of their wounds and 1% of the soldiers were killed by friendly fire in both
theatres of war.
We can conclude from the above that since December 2001,
a)
b)
c)
d)

More than 700 US soldiers died in Afghanistan from enemy fire.


More than 1500 US soldiers were killed in combat in Baghdad.
33 US soldiers were killed by friendly fire in Afghanistan.
77% of Allied forces died in Iraq, of which 85% of the soldiers were killed in
combat.

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Logical Games
13. Three friends planned to meet at Central station at 9:30. Their first names are
Andrew, Bridgette and Martina and their last names are Burns, Gin and Whitlam nonrespectively. The three friends arrived at different times, 9:25, 9:30 and 9:35 nonrespectively. If Burns arrived 10 minutes later than Martina and Whitlam arrived at 9.30,
which of the following statements is true?
a)
b)
c)
d)

Andrew Whitlam arrived at 9:30.


Bridgett Burns arrived at 9:35.
Andrew Burns arrived at 9:35.
Martina Gin arrived at 9:25.

14. Camela and Henry were excitedly describing the result of the shot put final in the
Osaka Athletics World Championships. The three contestants on the podium were
Lenny, Roland, and Johnson. Camela reported that Lenny won the contest, while Roland
came in second. Henry, on the other hand, reported that Johnson won the competition,
while Lenny came in second.
In fact, neither Camela nor Henry had given a correct report of the results of the shot put
final. Each of them had given one correct statement and one false statement. What was
the actual placing of the three contestants?
a)
b)
c)
d)

Lenny won, Johnson came in second and Roland came in third.


Johnson won, Lenny came in second and Roland came in third.
Johnson won, Roland came in second and Lenny came in third.
Lenny won, Roland came in second and Johnson came in third.

15. There are three boxes of vegetables in front of you. One contains just tomatoes, one
contains just cucumbers, and one contains a mixture of both. Each box is labelled either
tomatoes, cucumbers or tomatoes and cucumbers. However, it is known that none
of the boxes are labelled correctly. You want to label the boxes correctly but you are
only allowed to take and look at just one piece of vegetable from just one of the boxes.
Which box would you choose to look at?
a)
b)
c)
d)

Tomatoes
Cucumbers
Tomatoes and Cucumbers
Any one of the boxes.

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16. You have three boxes, box 1, 2 and 3 that hold 6, 9 and 21 oranges respectively. How
do you move the oranges in three moves to get exactly 12 oranges in each box? All the
moves must double the number of oranges of the receiving box.
a) Take 6 oranges from box 3 and put them into box 1. Finally, take 3 oranges from
box 3 and put them into box 2.
b) Take 6 oranges from box 3 and put them into box 1. Take 9 oranges from box 3
and put them into box 2. Finally, take 6 oranges from box 2 and put them into
box 3.
c) Take 6 oranges from box 3 and put them into the box with 6 oranges. Take 8
oranges from box 3 and put them into box 2. Finally, take 5 oranges from box 2
and put them into box 3.
d) Take 6 oranges from box 3 and put them into box 1 and then take another 3
oranges from box 3 and put them into box 2.
17. Just like in question 16, you have three boxes, box 1, 2 and 3 that hold 6, 9 and 21
oranges respectively. This time, you have to move the oranges in exactly two moves to
get exactly 12 oranges in each box. How did you complete this task? Again, each move
must double the number of oranges of the receiving box.
a) Take 6 oranges from box 3 and put them into box 1. Take 9 oranges from box 3
and put them into box 2. Finally, take 6 oranges from box 2 and put them into
box 3.
b) Take 6 oranges from box 3 and put them into box 1 and then take another 3
oranges from box 3 and put them into box 2.
c) Take 9 oranges from box 3 and put them into box 2, then take 6 oranges from box
2 and put them into box 1.
d) Take 6 oranges from box 3 and put them into box 2, then take 6 oranges from box
2 and put them into box 1.
Use the following passage to answer questions 18 to 21
Alex, Bolton and Cameron flew into Sydney to attend a conference. Their last names
were Daman, Ellen and Fleming non-respectively. They stayed at three different hotels,
The Orient, Castle Towers and PMs lodge, which had three different ratings (three to
five stars). Determine the full name of each person, the name of the hotel each stayed at
and the hotels rating using the following conditions:

Alex stayed at a hotel that had a higher rating than where Mr Daman stayed.
Cameron stayed in a five star hotel but it wasnt the PMs lodge.
The four star hotel was not The Orient.

18. According to the above, it would be true to say that


a)
b)
c)
d)

Cameron stayed at Castle Towers.


Boltons last name is Daman.
Alex stayed in a three star hotel.
Mr Ellen did not stay at the PMs lodge.

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19. If Bolton stayed at The Orient, which of the following statements is true?
a)
b)
c)
d)

Mr Daman stayed in a four star hotel.


Mr Fleming stayed at Castle Towers.
Mr Ellens first name is not Cameron.
The Orient has a rating of three stars, PMs lodge has a rating of four stars and
Castle Towers has a rating of five stars.

20. If you knew further that Alexs last name is not Fleming, then you have discovered
that
a)
b)
c)
d)

Cameron Fleming stayed at The Orient.


Alex Daman stayed at the PMs lodge.
Alex Ellen stayed at the PMs lodge.
Bolton Ellen stayed at Castle Towers.

21. It can further be concluded that


a)
b)
c)
d)

Boltons last name was not Fleming and he did not stay in a four stay hotel.
Alexs last name was not Ellen and he did not stay at the PMs lodge.
Boltons last name was not Daman and he did not stay in a five star hotel.
Camerons last name was not Daman and he did not stay at Castle Towers.

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Graphs and Tables


The following table relates to questions 22 - 24
Compare the cases of tuberculosis (TB) in China and India.

*note ss+ indicates smear positive (a diagnostic test used to detect TB)

22. According to the above two tables, Compared to India,


a)
b)
c)
d)

China has a smaller population.


China has more people suffering from TB.
China deliberately under reports its TB epidemic.
China has fewer adults (15-49y) with TB who are also HIV positive.

23. From the tables above, it can be concluded that


a) There are multiple drugs available to treat TB.
b) TB can not be cured completely.
c) China will replace India as the number 1 nation with the greatest cases of TB in
10 years time.
d) TB kills more than 210 000 000 people in China.

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24. According to the second table, in India


a)
b)
c)
d)

The incidence of smear positives is more than the incidence of smear negatives.
More people die due to smear positive results than being infected with TB.
4.6 % of the HIV positive population die due to TB.
The amount of new smear positives is less than half the amount of all cases for
TB.

The following graph refers to questions 25 - 26


Main causes of death in low-income countries in South-East Asia and Africa, estimates
for 1998

25. From the above graph, we can conclude that


a) Infectious diseases kill more people than any other condition in South-East Asia
and Africa in 1998.
b) More people die from infectious diseases in South-East Asia and Africa than
Europe or America in 1998.
c) Infectious diseases are noncommunicable conditions.
d) Perinatal and maternal related death account for more than those caused by
injuries in South-East Asia and Africa in 1998.
26. We can also conclude from the above that in South-East Asia and Africa in 1998,
a)
b)
c)
d)

Meningitis (a form of brain infection) killed more people than heart disease.
Infectious diarrhoeal diseases caused more deaths than type 2 diabetes.
Head injuries killed more people than nutritional deficiencies.
None of the above.

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Scientific Method
The following extract relates to questions 27 - 28
In 1900, Walter Reed and his assistant surgeons observed that the soldiers were dying of
a strange disease they called yellow jack (yellow fever). The soldiers would get a high
fever and jaundice (yellowish discolouration of the whites of the eyes and skin). Yellow
fever is a devastating viral disease that can cause bleeding from the eyes, nostrils, anus
and other mucous membranes. This terrible illness often also causes black-coloured,
blood-filled vomit, and the deterioration of the liver, kidneys, and heart. Those who do
not survive usually die between four and eight days after they first show symptoms.
They conducted experiments to narrow down what might have spread the disease to rats
or mosquitoes.
27. We can conclude from the above passage that
a) Mosquitoes caused yellow fever, which can cause bleeding from the eyes,
nostrils, anus and other mucous membranes.
b) Yellow fever is transmitted by rats, which contaminates food and water sources
that the soldiers consume.
c) Walter Reed and his assistant surgeons have systematically ruled out the
possibility of rats or mosquitoes spreading yellow fever.
d) Yellow fever is caused by a virus.
28. Which of the following would DEFINITELY prove that it was indeed mosquitoes
that have spread the disease?
a) They tried to show that mosquitoes could spread the disease from victims to
human volunteers.
b) They tried to show that the disease is NOT spread by personal
possessions/clothing of victims.
c) They tried to show that the disease is transmitted in the blood of victims.
d) All of the above.
The following extract relates to questions 29 - 30
Dr. Edward Jenner was credited with the discovery of the first vaccine. In 1796 he
carried out his now famous experiment on eight-year-old James Phipps. Jenner inserted
pus taken from a cowpox pustule on the hand of milkmaid Sarah Nelmes and inserted it
into an incision on the boys arm. He was testing his theory, drawn from the folklore of
the countryside, that milkmaids who suffered the mild disease of cowpox never
contracted smallpox.
29. Therefore, it follows that
a)
b)
c)
d)

Smallpox is transmitted via person to person.


Cowpox can affect both cows and humans.
Cowpox transforms into smallpox after a period of time.
Smallpox is a much milder version of cowpox.

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The immediate reaction to Jenners work was ridicule. Critics, especially the clergy,
claimed it was repulsive and ungodly to inoculate someone with material from a diseased
animal.
30. The main reason many critics rejected Jenners work at first was because
a) The practice of inoculating someone with material from a diseased animal was
seen to be ridiculous.
b) They were jealous of Jenners findings.
c) They did not believe it worked.
d) Jenner failed to impress the critics with his arrogance.

2009