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# 1.

Question :
Explain what central tendency and variability are. In
variance, and standard deviation are. What is the
difference between the descriptive standard
deviation and the unbiased estimate of the standard
deviation? When would you use the unbiased
estimate?

## Central tendency: is the number which describes the bulk of

scores in a given distribution, there are three measures of central
tendency and each one of them play a different role. Mean - is a
set of numbers is the sum of all the numbers of the set divided by
the number of items in the set. Mode - is the number that occurs
the most frequently. Median - is simply the middle most
occurring number. The difference between standard deviation and
unbiased estimate of the stand deviation is that in SD is very
straight forward it is a measure of variability, it helps to compare
score from different distributions it is an estimate of the populate,
while the unbiased estimate standard deviation is only when we
subtract 1 from n, and it is larger. We should use unbiased
estimate for an estimate of a population parameter.

Instructor
Explanation:
Measures of central tendency give the location of the
distribution
Mean The arithmetic average. It equals the sum of
the scores divided by the number of scores.
Median The middlemost score in a distribution.
Mode The most frequent score in a distribution.
Measures of variability tell how spread out the scores
are.
Range The highest score minus the lowest score.
Variance The standard deviation squared. It is the
sum of the squared deviations divided by the number
of scores.
Standard deviation -The square root of the variance.

## The unbiased estimate uses n-1 rather than n when

calculating the variance.
The unbiased estimate is used when we use the
sample data to estimate the population parameter.

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Question 2 Question :
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## This question has two parts with multiple items to answer.

You are a psychologist who has collected the subjective wellbeing scores of a number of elderly people aged 90 or above who
are residents of an independent living facility or who are still
living independently in their homes.
A. For each group calculate the values listed below:
a. Mean
b. Median
c. Mode
d. Range
e. Variance (for describing the data)
f. Standard deviation (for describing the data)
g. The unbiased estimate of the variance
h. The unbiased estimate of the standard deviation
B. Which data set has a mean that is more representative of the
data? Why?
Independent Living
Facility

At
Home

70

60

88

70

70

70

70

75

71

72

80

68

## independent Living Facility = A Home = B MEAN A B

74.83333333 69.16666667 MEDIAN A B 70.5 70 MODE A B 70
70 RANGE A B 18 15 VARIANCE A B 56.96666667
25.76666667 STANDAR DEVIATION A B 7.547627
5.076087732 UNBIASED DEVIATION A B 6.89000887
4.633812925 UNBIASED VARIANCE A B 47.47222222
21.47222222 Part 2 I think set A has a more representative mean
because you can clearly tell what your mean is going to be.

Instructor
Explanation:

Independent Living
At Home
Mean =

74.83
69.17

Median =

70.50
70.00

Mode =

70.00
70.00

Range =

20
15

Variance =

47.47
21.47

Standard deviation =
6.89
4.63
Unbiased estimate variance = 56.97
25.77
Unbiased estimate SD =
7.55
5.08
B. 2 pts.
The data for the elderly living at home are more representative of
the data because the standard deviation is smaller.
The mean scores for the Independent Living group are higher, but
the median scores for both groups are equal. The mean scores may
differ due to one very high score in the Independent Living group

and one relatively low score in the At Home group. The median
scores would make the best comparison and they indicate no
difference between the two groups in subjective well-being of the
two groups.

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Question 3 Question :
.

Instructor
Explanation:

## Describe the normal curve.

Normal curve is a visual representation of a symmetrical
distribution score with an equal number of scores above midpoint
and below the midpoint.
The normal curve is symmetrical with asymptotic
tails.
The mean, median, and mode are equal to one
another and located at the center of the curve.

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Question 4 Question :
.

## This question has two parts.

A. Describe what a z score is.
B. Explain why they can be used to compare scores
from different distributions.

## standard form where the transformation is based on the

knowledge about standardization sample's mean and standard
deviation. Part B Z score can be used to compare scores from
different distributions because it tells you where the score lies, it
compares with the rest of the data above, below the mean and it
compares scores from different normal distribution.
Instructor
Explanation:

## A . A z score tells the distance between the mean and

a raw score in units of standard deviation.
B. Because it is based on units of standard deviation,
they can be used to compare scores from different
distributions.

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Question 5 Question :
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## Compute the z scores for the following raw scores

where
= 78 and the standard deviation =

4.
a. 72
b. 82
c. 78
d. 87
e. 71
Instructor
Explanation:

## Z score = raw score - mean/standard deviation Mean =78 raw

score = 78 standard deviation =4 78-78/4 = 0 z
A. 72
B. 82
C. 78
D. 87
E. 71

* z = -1.5
* z = + 1.0
* z = 0.00
*z = +2.25
*z =-1.75

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Question 6 Question :
.

## This question has multiple parts.

For a distribution of scores with

= 82 and

## standard deviation = 2.5, find the following:

visualize what you are trying to find.)
A. What is the percentage of scores falling between
the mean and a raw score of 84?
B. What is the probability of a score falling above a
raw score of 86?
C. What is the probability of a score falling between
the raw scores of 83 and 87?
D. The percentile rank of a score of 79.
E. The percentile rank of a score of 89.

Instructor
Explanation:

## A z-score = (84.5 - 82)/2.5 = 1, % of scores = 34.13% B z1 =

(85.5 - 82)/2.5 = 1.4 z2 = (86.5 - 82)/2.5 = 1.8 probability = .0448
C z1 = (82.5-82)/2.5 = 0.2 z2 = (87.5 - 82)/2.5 = 2.2 probability =
.40.68 D z-score = (78.5 - 82)/2.5 = -1.4 percentile rank = 8 E zscore = (88.5 - 82)/2.5 = 2.6 percentile rank = 99
A. What is the percentage of scores falling between
the mean and a raw score of 84?
* 20 points = 4 pts. each
* Probability = 28.81%
B. What is the probability of a score falling above a
raw score of 86?

* Probability = .0548
C. What is the probability of a score falling between
the raw scores of 83 and 87?
* Probability = .3218
D. The percentile rank of a score of 79.
Percentile = .1151
E. The percentile rank of a score of 89.
Percentile =. 9974

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Question 7 Question :
.

Instructor
Explanation:

## What would be the cutoff score to indicate a score

that is in the top 15% of the scores on a test with a
mean of 100 and a standard deviation of 15?
mean = 100 sd = 15 z score corresponding to top 15% is
1.036433 now, I know that, Z = (X-mean)/sd hence, x =
(1.036433*15) + 100 = 115.5465
* 115.6

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Question 8 Question :
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## This question has multiple parts.

Use the following information to answer the

questions below:

Mean
Standard
Deviation

Raw Scores
Juan
Lucinda

Spatial Ability
Test
80
6

Musical Ability
Test
74
3

Spatial Ability
82
86

## A. On which test did Juan do better?

B. On which test did Lucinda do better?
C. James had a z score of -1.2 on the spatial ability
test. What was his score?
D. Ming Lee had a z score of +1.56 on the musical
ability test. What was her score?

Instructor
Explanation:

## A On which test did Juan do better? Spatial Ability B On which

test did Lucinda do better? Spatial Ability C James had a z score
of -1.2 on the spatial ability test. What was his score? Z = (Xmean)/sd -1.2 = (X 80)/6 X = 72.8 D Z = (X-mean)/sd 1.56 =
(X 74)/3 X = 78.68
* A. Musical ability
*B. She scored equally one standard deviation
above the mean for each
*C. 72.8
*D. 78.68

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Question 9 Question :
.

Instructor
Explanation:

distribution.

## To make an histogram you need to identify the cells that contains

the data from which the histogram will be created, identify the
bins in which you want to put the data. select the histogram tool
from the toolpack to make it. 1.Divide the results into intervals,
and then count the number of results in each interval. In this case,
intervals range of 2,5, 10 or 20 are appropriate. 2.Create a table
similar to the frequency distribution table but with 2 columns.
To make a frequency distribution, you need to make a
table of each number and a tally mark by the number
for each time the number appears in the data set.
To make a histogram, first make a frequency table.
Then make a graph with values on the x-axis and
frequencies on the y-axis. Make bars to represent the
frequency of each value.

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Question 10 Question :
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data.

## Column Chart: A column chart is a graphic representation of data.

Column charts display vertical bars going across the chart
horizontally, with the values axis being displayed on the left side
of the chart. B Pivot Table: Pivot tables allow you to quickly
summarize and analyze large amounts of data in lists and tables
dragging and dropping columns to different rows, columns, or
summary positions.

Instructor
Explanation:

## Student answers will vary but may include histogram,

frequency polygon, stem & leaf plot, etc.

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Instructor
Explanation:

## Why are graphs and tables useful when examining data?

Graphs and tables are useful when examining data because you
need data first to do calculation. The graphs and tables can give
you an insight into the relationship between variables , what kind
of descriptive statistic is the right one to use to describe the data
and so on.
Graphs and tables allow you to examine the shape of
the distribution as well as the presence of outliers.

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Question 12 Question :
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## A researcher is comparing two middle school 7th

grade classes. One class at one school has
participated in an arts program (involving putting
on a musical play) which emphasized training in
group cooperation skills. The class at the other
school also put on the same musical play, but did
not participate in the cooperation skills training.
One month after each group performed the play,
they took a paper and pencil social skills test and
the scores are shown below. Compare the two
groups in terms of measures central tendency,
variability, skewness, and kurtosis. What do these
measures tell you about the scores in the two
groups?

Cooperation Skills
Training
103
104
105
110
98
97
120
124
114
108
101
96
102
112
108

No Cooperation Skills
Training
100
96
94
85
82
98
101
102
85
88
82
101
98
98
94

Descriptive statistics for the the two variables are given below.
Cooperation Skills Training No Cooperation Skills Training
Mean 106.8 Mean 93.6 Standard Error 2.10938944 Standard
Error 1.869046 Median 105 Median 96 Mode 108 Mode 98
Standard Deviation 8.169630172 Standard Deviation 7.238784
Sample Variance 66.74285714 Sample Variance 52.4 Kurtosis
-0.015199963 Kurtosis -1.28997 Skewness 0.705539281
Skewness -0.57248 Range 28 Range 20 Minimum 96 Minimum
82 Maximum 124 Maximum 102 Sum 1602 Sum 1404 Count 15
Count 15 Mean is sum of all observations divided by total
number of observations. It is observed that the group with
Cooperation Skills Training has a higher average as compared to
the group with No Cooperation Skills Training. The median in an
ascending series is the value at which there are just as many
values less than it as there are greater than it. Here the group with
Cooperation Skills Training has a higher median as compared to
the group with No Cooperation Skills Training. Mode is the
number which occur maximum number of times. Here mode is
for the group with Cooperation Skills Training is 108 which are
higher as compared to mode is for the group with No Cooperation
Skills Training. The variance and the standard deviation are both
standard deviation measures how concentrated the data are
around the mean; the more concentrated, the smaller the standard

## deviation. Standard deviation measures spread in the same

physical unit as the original data. Standard deviation and variance
is given in the table above. The low value of standard deviation
implies that my mean is reliable. The group with no Cooperation
Skills Training has lower standard deviation which implies than
its mean is more reliable as compared to that of group with
Cooperation Skills Training. Literal meaning of Skewness is lack
of symmetry. We study Skewness so as to have an idea about
shape of the curve. Here data for group with Cooperation Skills
Training is positively skewed implying there are a very few
students with high scores. And the data for group with no
Cooperation Skills Training is negatively skewed implying there
are a very few students with low scores. Kurtosis quantifies
whether the shape of the data distribution matches the Gaussian
distribution. A flatter distribution has a negative kurtosis. Here
both groups have flatter distribution.
Instructor
Explanation:

## Cooperation skills tr.

No cooperation skills tr.
Measures of central tendency
Mean
106.8
93.2
Median
105
94
Mode
108
94
Measures of variability
Range
20
Variance
51.03
Standard deviation
7.14
Kurtosis

28
66.74
8.17
-.02

- 1.33
Skewness

0.71
- 0.42

## 8 points (2 pts each)

*Central tendency: Cooperation Skills Training group
scored higher on social skills
*Variability: There was more variability in the

## Cooperation Skills Training scores

*Kurtosis: Both groups had relatively peaked
distributions. No Cooperation Skills group was more
peaked.
*Skewness: The scores in the Cooperation Skills
Training group were positively skewed. No
cooperation Skills training scores were negatively
skewed. Cooperation Skills training group had more
skewness in scores.

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Question 13 Question :
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## What type of correlation coefficient would you use

to examine the relationship between the following
variables? Explain why you have selected the
correlation coefficients.
A. Reading ability (converted to ordinal rank in
class) and number of friends in class (converted to
ordinal rank).
B. Political party (Democrat or Republican) and rank
C. IQ score and subjective well-being score.
D. Gender (male or female) and score on a test of
musical-ability.

Instructor
Explanation:

## A Spearman rank correlation coefficient B Rank biserial

coefficient C Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient D
Rank biserial coefficient
A.
B.
C.
D.

## Spearman rank coefficient

Rank biserial coefficient
Pearson correlation coefficient
Point biserial coefficient

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Question 14 Question :
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## A researcher was interested lowering the high

school dropout level in his county. He measured the
reading level of students entering middle school
(based on a standard test) and their academic
performance at the end of 10th grade (as measured
by overall GPA).
Use the following data to:
A. Compute a correlation coefficient using Excel.
B. Create a scatterplot using Excel.
C. Determine the coefficient of determination.
Explain what it tells you.
D. Explain in words what the correlation coefficient
level when entering middle school and 10th grade
academic performance as measured by GPA.
E. What does it not tell you?

Student
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10
11
12
13
14

100
110
80
75
91
124
95
82
104
95
88
95
107
112

Instructor
Explanation:

## A. Compute a correlation coefficient using Excel. Corr coef =

0.788265138 B. Create a scatterplot using Excel. Unable to paste
the scatterplot. C. Determine the coefficient of determination.
Explain what it tells you. Coefficient of determination =
correlation coefficient ^2 0.621361928 D. Explain in words what
the correlation coefficient tells you about the relationship
between reading level when entering middle school and 10th
implies that there is a strong positive linear relationship between
10th grade academic performance and GPA. that is as the value of
reading level score increases, the GPA also increases. E. What
does it not tell you? Correlation doesnt necessarily mean
causation. It measures the degree of association between the two
variables. Whereas causation means the change in one variable is
caused by other.
A. r = +.7882 = +. 79
B. r2 = .624 or 62.4%
62% of the variance in GPA is accounted for by