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INFORMATION
RELATIVE T"

NEW ZEALAND,
COMPILED FOR

THE USE OF COLONISTS,

BY

JOHN WARD,
-MHL Esq.
SECRETARY TO THE NE W-ZEALAND COMPANY.
\ _,_.__w_.., _. ..

THE FOURTH EDITION.

LONDON:
JOHN w. PARKER, WEST STRAND.
MJK'I‘CJH I.

Lennon:

HARRISON AND 00., an'rmns,
ST. MAn'rlu’s LANE.

.4

CONTENTS.
Puss

Preface to the First Edition
Preface to the Second Edition
List of Publications relating to New Zeulsnd, and to the
New System of Colonization

V
VI!

CHAPTER I.

Position and Extent of New Zealand—Mountains—Face of
the Country
CHAPTER II.
Rivers and Harbours
CHAPTER IIL
Climate and Soil
CHAPTER IV.
Natural Productions—Timber, Flux, Corn, and other Vege
tables—Minerals—Animal Kingdom—Birds, Fishes - 33
CnAPrzR V.
The Native Inhabitants—Their Numbers, Character, and
Manners—Their Capacity for Civilization and Disp' '1
tion towards British Settlers—Opinions in Favour of tn. 3
Introduction of a. British Colony CHAPTER VI.
Former Attempts to Colonize New Zealand.—-Existing State
of British Interconrse.-The New-Zealand Association
of 1837.—The present New-Zealzmd Company—Its
Objects and Proceedings.-Preliminary Sales of Town
~ 105
Lamb-Committee of the First Colony
CHAPTER VII.

Realization of Land Fund.——The Surveying StaflZ—List of
Emigrant Ships and Passengers—Property of the Set
tlers.—Provision for first wants on arrival.—Pub1ic
Library.—Schools.—Clergy.—Bsnk.—Progress of Pub
lic Opinion—Meetings at Glasgow and Duhlin.—~Plnns
of the Company
a2

iv

CONTENTS.

APPENDIX.
Page

Psi-vs.—

Prospectus of the Now-Zealand Company Committees in Scotland and Ireland
List of Provincial Agents Colonial Establishment
The Union Bank of Australia Terms of Purchase for Lands in the Company’s
ments

7‘

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Settle
-

- 147
150
- 150
151
- 152
- 153

Regulations for Purchasers of Land claiming free Pas
sage

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

- 156

Regulations for Labourers wishing to emigrate
Dietary of Steeragc Passengers Treasury Minute for appointment of Consul and Lieute
nant-Governor
Instructions to Captain Hobson, R.N., regarding Land
in New Zealand -

158
162
163
165

PREFACE
TO THE FIRST EDITION.

THE following pages have been compiled with the
view to convey, within a small compass, to the reader

who may have paid little attention to the subject, such
information as may enable him to form a general
notion of the advantages which the islands of New
Zealand now ofi'er as an emigration field. Our notices
are necessarily brief, and often very imperfect; but

they may still suflice to afford the requisite preliminary
knowledge to those who are desirous of making further
inquiry for themselves. At page x. of this Pamphlet
is a List of Works relative to New Zealand, and t0

the principles of Colonization, which may usefully be
consulted; and to which the reader is referred for

supplying the want of what we have not been able to
make room for here.
There is one point of some importance to Colonists,
to which we should gladly have adverted more expli
citly, viz., the course intended to be pursued by the
Queen’s Government for the permanent establishment
of British Law within the settlements now forming in
New Zealand. Early in the present Session, notice
was given by a Member of Parliament, connected

with the Company, of a motion for leave to introduce
a Bill to effect this object. At the request of the
Secretary of State for the Colonies, the motion was
withdrawn, upon a distinct understanding that some

a3

vi

runes.

measure, tending to the accomplishment of the same
desirable end, should be adopted on the part of the
Crown, with the least practicable delay. The Govern
ment has thus expressly recognised that the duty has
devolved upon it of affording the protection of English
laws and institutions to the intended Colony. \Vhilst
we write, the Settlers are making preparations for
their departure, and are on the point of transporting
t0 the spot most favoured by nature in the southern
hemisphere, the manners,—the arts,—the enterprise,
-and, we may hope, also, the moral feelings, and
public spirit, of their native land.

The plantation of a Colony has been called a heroic
work, and we believe systematic Colonization to be
emphatically the want of our age. But let no one be
seduced by the enthusiasm of noble thoughts to em

bark in an enterprise, of which he may not have
maturely weighed the motives and probable results.
The Colonist is deeply to blame if he does not make
himself master of all the information which he can

possibly acquire relative to the country which he is
inclined to choose for his future home. Let him care
fully read, and well digest, all that concerns both the

promised land, and the causes upon which the success,
or failure, of Colonies is dependent. He will then
discover that Colonization, in spite of much misunder
standing of its theory, and manifold abuses of its prac
tice, is nevertheless in itself a means of adding largely
to the happiness of our race, both in the present gene—
ration, and in those that are to follow.
Lennon,

91h June, 1839.

PREFACE
TO THE SECOND EDITION.

Tim rapid sale of the first edition of this little work

having rendered a second necessary, the compiler has
revised it, and made such additions as comprise all

that can be told of the progress of the infant colony
up to the present date.
It will be seen by the Treasury Minute inserted
in the Appendix, that the Queen’s Government has
taken a step towards the establishment of a British
authority in New Zealand, by the mission of an
officer in the capacity of “ Her Majesty’s Consul, and
eventual Lieutenant-Governor of such territory as
may be ceded to Her Majesty.” Captain Hobson,
R.N., was despatched accordingly in the Druid
frigate in August last. The Directors of the New
Zealand Company will derive gratification from
the success of his mission, and have instructed

their ofiicers to promote it by every means in their

power.

viii

PREFACE.

According to the Treasury Minute, the territories
of the Company will, upon cession of sovereignty
by the-native chiefs, become a part of the colony of
New South Wales.

The necessity of such cession,

however, is understood to be applicable only to the
relation between the Crown and the Natives, and

not as in any way waiving the rights of Great
Britain as against foreign powers. For the Queen of
England has, by the law of nations, an indisputable

title to the sovereignty of New Zealand, founded upon
the possession taken in the name of George III. by
the discoverer of those islands in 1769, and upon the
exercise of numerous acts of sovereignty in them at
subsequent periods. The Treasury Minute is not, of
course, to be construed as in any way repudiating the
actual rights of the Crown.
If the founders of the new colony have undertaken
an arduous enterprise, they have been encouraged in

a remarkable manner by the support of public opinion.
They have made New Zealand the theatre of a great
experiment in the art of self-supporting colonization;
and whatever may be the final result of that experi—
ment, its promoters may, at least, claim the merit of
acting upon principles of which every day’s experience

is serving to confirm the wisdom and truth.
It has been endeavoured to collect, within the
following pages, accounts from many sources, so that,
upon comparison with each other, their accuracy may

PREFACE.

ix

be in some measure estimated by the reader.

But if

these descriptions should, in any instance, turn out to

be exaggerated, the compiler does not, of course, hold

himself responsible for them.

On the contrary, it

has been his wish rather to understate than amplify
the advantages of the promised land ; as it is plainly
the duty of the advocates of emigration ‘to place, so

far as in them lies, the whole truth, and nothing but
the truth, before the eyes of the intending colonist.
LONDON,
23rd December, 1839.

List of Publications relating to New Zealand, and to the
New System of Colonization.

1770—80. Cook's Second and Third Voyages.
1807. Some Account of New Zealand, by John Sav

, Esq., Surgeon.

1817. Narrative of a Voyage to New Zealand, by J. ‘ddiard Nicholas, Esq.
1824. Journal of a Ten Months' Residence in New Zealand, by R. A. Cruise,
Es ., Major in the 84th Regiment of Foot.
1830. The ew Zealanders (Library of Entertaining Knowledge).
1832. Authentic information relative to New South Wales and New Zealand,

by James Busby, Esq.
1832. A Narrative of a Nine Months' Residence in New Zealand, in 1827, by

1835.
1836.
1837.
1838.
1838.
1838.

Augustus Earle, Drafisman to H.M. Surveying Ship Beagle.
An Account of New Zealand, by the Rev. W. Yate, Missionary of the
Church Missionary Society.
Polynesian Researches, by W. Ellis, Esq.
The British Colonization of New Zealand; published for the New
Zealand Association.
The latest Official Documents relating to New Zealand, with introduc
tory observations, by Samuel Hinds, DD.
Report of the Lords' Committee on the present state of the Islands of
New Zealand.
Journal of a Residence in New Zealand; by J. S. Polack.

1839. Emigration Fields, by Patrick Matthew, of Gourdie Hill.

1839. New Zealand in 1839 ; or Four Letters to the Right Hon. Earl Dur
ham, by John Dunmore Lang, DD.

1833. England and America. A comparison of the Social and Political State
of the Two Countries.
1834. The New British Province of South Australia; with an account of the
Principles, Objects, Plan, and Prospects of the Colony.
1835. Colonization of South Australia; by R. Torrens, Esq. F.R.S., Chain

man of the Colonization Commissioners for South Australia.

\

1836. First, Second, and Third Annual Reports of the Colonization Com

missioners for South Australia.

Ordered by the House of Commons

is be printed.
1886. Report from the Select Committee (House of Commons) on the Disposal
of Lands in the British Colonies, together with the Minutes of

Evidence and Appendix.
1837. Report of the Select Committee on Aborigines in British Colonies;
together with the Evidence.
1839. The History of the Rise and Progress of the New British Province of
South Australia, by John Stephens.
1839. Report and Despatehes of the Earl of Durham, Her Majesty‘s High
Commissioner, and Governor-General of British North America.
1839. The Debate upon Mr. Ward's Resolutions on Colonization in the House

of Commons, June 27th, 1889.

Corrected by the several Speakers.

Clpellorn.

Outline
Chart,
Zshowing
realatnidv.e
the
New
of
position
g“;
ocssm
PAC30551
IFIsoUTn
C

ZimAl-IA.
H
T
U
0 Cape
S
UOOdHOpQ.
on@-

Q57.“
ATLAANTIC
a“ocsss.

INDIAN 6)
OCEAN.

g

Earth‘s increase, and foyson-plenty,
Barns and gamers never empty,
Vines with clust'ring branches growing,
Plants with goodly burden bowing;
Spring come to you at the farthest.
In the very end of harvest!
Scarcity and want shall shun you,

Ceres' blessing so is on you .'—Tempcst.

NEW ZEALAND.
CHAPTER 1-.
POSITION AND EXTENT OF NEW-ZEALAND—“MOUNTAXNS—
FACE OF THE COUNTRY.

Turns is probably no part of the world which pre
sents a more eligible field for the exertion of British
enterprise, or a more romising career of usefulness to
those who labour in t is cause of human improvement,

than the islands of New Zealand.

The relative posi

tion of those islands, their soil, climate, rivers, harbours,

and valuable natural productions,—all invite English
men to settle there. And it is obvious that great
benefits may be conferred upon the natives, by the
introduction among them of the habits and arts of an
orderly and civilized British community.
The New Zealand group consists of two large
islands, called the Northern and Southern, a smaller
island, called Stewart‘s, to the extreme south, and

several adjacent islets.

The group extends in length,

from north to south, from the 34th,to the 48th

degree of south latitude, and in breadth, from east to
West, from the 166th to the 179th degree of east

longitude.

The extreme length exceeds eight hundred

miles, and the average breadth, which is very variable,

is about one hundred miles. The surface of the
islands is estimated to contain 95,000 square miles,
or about sixty millions of acres, being a territory
nearly as largeas Great Britain, of which, after allow—
ing for mountainous districts and water, it is believed

that at least tWo-thirds are susceptible of beneficial
cultivation. Even without assuming any extraordi

nary degree of fertility, New Zealand is thus capable
B

2

POSITION AND EXTENT OF NE“? ZEALAND.

of maintaining as large a population as the British
isles, which, however, it far surpasses in respect to soil

and climate.

This fine country was first seen by the

Dutch navigator, Tasman, in 1642, but, as he never
landed, supposing it to form part of a great southern
continent, the honour of its discovery belongs to

Captain Cook, who first proved it to consist of islands
by circumnavigating the group, and surveying the
coasts with such remarkable accuracy, that the sur—
veys have been relied on up to the present day. Cap
tain Cook was the first to appreciate the advantages
derivable from the mere geographical. position of New
Zealand, which is the land nearest to the antipodes of
England. The distance of Queen Charlotte’s Sound,

on the southern shore of Cook‘s Straits, from Sydney
and Hobart Town, is, in round numbers, about 1200

miles,-—from the New Hebrides and Friendly Islands,
‘ about the same,——from the Marquesas about 3000,—
from the Sandwich Islands 3600,-from South Aus
tralia [800,—and from China, or Valparaiso, about
5000 miles.
The length of the voyage from England is about
the same as that to New South Wales, or South
Australia. The westerly winds blowing steadily in
those latitudes for about nine months in the year,
the distance northward from Bass”s Straits to Port
Jackson is practically greater than from the same
point of separation to Queen Charlotte’s Sound. On
return-voyages to Europe by way of Cape Horn, the
whole distance between the places mentioned is gained
by ships c'oming direct from New Zealand, over those
from any part of Australia, which pass usually through
Cook’s Strait. In the not improbable event of the
establishment of regular steam-communication across
the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, with land-passage
by railway over the Isthmus of Darien, it is easy to
foresee that the voyage from England to New Zealand

POSITION AND EXTENT OF NEW ZEALAND-

3

may be reduced at no distant day to the compass of
a few weeks. And the recent formation of a company
for steam-navigation between the various Australian

colonies appears likely to increase the immediate faci
lities of intercourse between New Zealand, and those

settlements.
Although we have not yet any minute geograp
phical description of New Zealand, a mass of infor
mation has been collected, from which the natural
features of the islands are, in a general sense, suffi

ciently known. A chain of lofty mountains intersects
the whcle of the southern, and a great part of the
northern island. These mountains, like the Alps, are
covered with perpetual snow; some of them reach the

height of more than 14,000 feet above the level of the
sea, and their whole appearance is described as strik—

ingly rich and

rand.

forest-timber.

csides the chain which forms, as it

Their sides are clothed with

were, the back-bone of the islands, there are outliers,
and subordinate ranges of hills, covered for the most
part with wood up to the verge of the continual snow,
at in some instances clothed with fern.
Like most of the South Sea Islands, New Zealand

appears to be of volCanic origin. In the interior there
are several volcanoes in active operation, and a very
high mountain on the west coast, called Taranakee, or

Mount-Egmont, is also a volcano in an active state.
There is, however, no reason to believe that the

country is subject to earthquakes, there being no record
of any within the memory of man. Many extinct
volcanoes are visible, especially towards the north of
the northern island, and there are hot springs rising
sometimes to the temperature of boiling heat. “ The
tops and sides of these hills are studded with caves,
deep, dark, and frichtful. * * * Their openings
are overgrown with brushwood, so luxuriant as to
reach from side to side, and. cover the mouths of the
B 2

" -~~~
4‘

"n "

' i

MOUNTAINS—FACE OF THE COUNTRY.

cave.

*

*

*

We rolled large stones into one of

the caves, which bounded from shelf to shelf, till the

echo was lost in the distance, or distinguished in the
last sounds by the splash into a spring of water. into
which they had fallen at the bottom, and which dis
charges itself into the lake at the base of the hill. *
* * The whole of these caverns are of precisely the

same description, and terminate in the same opening '
to the lake. The diameter of the mouth of one which
we measured, (and our observation told us they were
nearly all of the same dimensions-1,) was nearly thirty
three feet. * * * That there are in the bowels of
the earth abundant materials for producing heat, is
evident from the numerous hot springs, and springs of
'diluted sulphuric acid, which here and there bubble
up within a few miles from the base of these hills.
* "' * Some of the springs on the margin of

Roturoa-f' are higher than boiling heat, and mest of
them of a sufficient temperature to cook any kind of
native food. A bituminous and sulphuric matter
floats on the surface of these springs, and the water is

all more or less tainted with it.

There is one spring

of a very remarkable quality; it is to the touch as soft
as oil, and without the use of soap, or any alkali

except what the water itself contains, will cleanse the
dirtiest garments, removing every particle of grease,
however sullied they may be with it: the lake itself
is quite cool, and in the middle of it is a rapid stream:

the water also is truly excellenti.”
“ The soil,” says Mr. Darwin, “is volcanic; in

several parts we passed over slaggy, and vesicular,
lavas, and the form of a crater could clearly be distin

guished in several of the neighbouring hills§.”
+ An extensive lake, from twelve to fifteen miles across, near the centre
of the northern island.

8 An Account ofNew Zmlana, by Rev. \V. Yarn.

London, 1835.

5 Narrative of 1he.8urveying Voyages of H. D!. S. Adventure and Beagle,

London,
1839
tion,
chap.
Xx: vol.

'- b y Camus DAnWiN, Es q . ,1“turalist to th e “Path'

FACE OF THE COUNTRY.

5

Another tourist in the northern island gives the
following description of the country about the river
W'aitangi, and in the neighbourhood of Waimate,

the inland mission-station: “As I went up the valley,
I saw a continual succession of falls. There are a few
huts on each side of the falls; the whole country is
up and down hill, evidently volcanic, as you see con
‘ tinually extinct volcanoes with a thin crust. People,
that have chosen to go up inside, say they are like a
wine-glass or funnel; and in one or two of them there

is water at the bottom. You can hear a stone rolled
down to an immense distance if you put your head to
the ground. The whole country is a rich volcanic
soil, composed of tufa, or pumice-stones, and I should
say, admirably adapted to the vine. The natives, in'
some places, where the stones seem most abundant,

have cultivated them for ages.

They pile up the

stones in the same way as in the Isle of France, to get
rid of them; and I have seen a look-out put up in a
kumera garden, upon a heap of tufa rock, six feet high,
and a beautiful soil for vines or hope. I had to cross
the \Vaitangi eight miles above the falls, and I found
it deep,—a very pretty country,-—till at last I got
\Vai m ate *.”

These accounts remind us of the soil of Italy,
the wines of which, such as the famous Lacryma
Christi grown near Vesuvius, as well as other wines
of the south of Europe, would without doubt be easily
produced in New Zealand. There is also a striking re~

semblance between the entrance to the Bay of Naples,
and that into Cook’s Straits, with Mount Egmont in
the horizon. The scenery at the Bay of Islands (of

which a panorama was lately exhibited in Leicester
Square) is also highly picturesque. The mountains
are less elevated, and the foliage somewhat finer, and

more variegated, than in the southern districts.
‘ From a MS. account of a residence in New Zealand, in 1834, communi

cated to the Company.

B 3

6
CHAPTER II.
RIVERS AND HARBOURS.

IN the mountains described, are the sources of nume

rous streams and rivers, flowing on either side to the
sea. The rivers do not, of course, run to any great
length. Their courses vary from one to two hundred
miles. The waterfalls are not only picturesque, but
important as affording mechanical ower in all parts
of the country. The falls of the erikeri, near the
Bay of Islands, are of the height of ninety feet per
pendicular. “ The Waianiwaniwa, or ‘ waters of the
rainbow,’ a singularly beautiful mountain-stream,
afterwards passes swiftly through a deep ravine for
nearly the space of a mile, when it joins another
stream, and rolls peaceably on for a few hundred
yards; the united streams then fall over another rock
about thirty feet high, and then rushing with great
velocity till it reaches the Kerikeri Settlement, it
dashes down a fall of ten feet, and rumblingly mingles
itself with the waters of the outhern Ocean‘.”
The Wairoa, another stream, falls at least sixty feet;
and the Hararu, and others in the northern island, are

throughout, a succession of rapids. There are also
some fine fresh-water streams in the southern island.
The Knowsley, which discharges itself at the south
western extremity, is said to be a majestic river with
numerous branches, one of which winds its course
into a beautiful lagoon, and another may be navio'ated
upwards of seventy miles, through a country which,
for grandeur of scenery, is unrivalled. About forty

miles from the lagoon, in a northerly direction, is a
fresh-water lake, of from sixty to seventy miles in
circumference. In an easterly direction, about thirty

miles from the latter, is the splendid “ Lake of Green
stones,” so called from the presence of the green sub- i
* YA'rs's New Zealmm'.

mvsns AND naseouas.

stance which will be afterwards noticed“.

7

The

mouths of the rivers mostly form harbours, which
in number, size, and depth of water, are not only un

surpassed, but appear to excel those of any country in
the world, of similar extent.
On the 1st of September, 1838, H.M.S. Pelorus

entered a river falling into Cook’s Straits on the north
side of the southern island, and sailed up it in a south
erly direction. for about forty miles; the ship’s launch,
or large boat, thence continued ascending for about
twenty miles further, when, owing to the freshes from

the mountains, banks of gravel prevented her proceed
ing without difficulty. The river is described as a fine
stream, the banks covered with ilex and magnificent
tree-ferns, the hills clothed with forests of the Cowdie

ine: large tracts of alluvial land spread around, and
in the distance the mountains rose to at least 2000 feet

above the sea.

Its outlet is on the shores of Admi

ralty Bay'l'.
Commencing to the northward, the harbour of
\Vangaroa, lying twenty-five miles north-east of the
Bay of Islands, is beautiful and capacious, the expanse
being about two miles. The entrance is narrow,
with deep water, and, within, the harbour is able to

contain the largest fleet in anchorage from five to
eleven fathoms, and completely sheltered from all
winds. It is thickly wooded, and is the seat of a
considerable native population. This harbour was
surveyed by
Alligator and Bufi'alo, in 183%.
The Bay of Islands, properly so called from the
number of rocky islands with which it is studded, is
a remarkably fine and capacious harbour, affording

security for an almost unlimited number of vessels,
in all weathers, and in all seasons of the year. Ships
* Observations on New Zealand, by Tnorus M‘DonneLL,R.N. ; London,
1834; published in the Transmztions‘ of the Geographical Society.

t See Transactions of the Geographical Society, November, 1839.

8

aivsns AND numouns.

enter with perfect ease and safety, the width of the
mouth being eleven miles, and lie at anchor at three

different places; Tipuna, Kororarika, and Kaua-Kaua.
At Kororarika there is a small beach. The water
is deep close to the shore. This is the spot which
has hitherto been most frequented by Europeans, who
occupy much of the surrounding land. A great
number of Whalers, and other shipping, are in the
habit of touching here for supplies. The total

number of ships which entered the Bay of Islands in
the year 183 6, was 151, exclusive of small craft engaged
in the coasting-trade.
The Bay of Houraki, or the Frith of the Thames,
contains within it several well-protected harbours,

with good anchorage. Amongst these is a harbour
called Kaihu, towards the head of the bay; a second
well-sheltered harbour called \Vaitemata; and a third
called Coromandel, or W'aihu. The tide flows to the

height of from eight to ten feet. There are several
surveys of Houraki Bay: the latest is that by
H.M.S. Bufalo, 1834:.
The Bay of Plenty, as it is termed, on the north

east coast, is an immense roadstead, affording a great
extent of anchorage, and comprising the harbour of
Tauranga and others, resorted to for the shipment

of flax and other produce.
Proceeding southward, Poverty Bay is remarkable
as being the first place where Captain Cook landed,
accompanied by Banks and Solander on Sunday even
ing, the eighth of October, 1769, and is described by
that great navigator as a safe anchorage.
Hawke‘s Bay comprises an extensive line of coast,
and is sheltered from the north and north-east winds.
According to recent surveys, the soundings show from
six to twenty-seven fathoms water in the bay.
Port Nicholson, at the southern extremity of the
northern island, is one of the best harbours in the

RIVERS mo nauseous.

world.

9

It is at least twelve miles long, and upon an

average three miles wide.

The shelter is perfect, and

ships may enter, or leave the harbour, with all winds.
The depth of water in the harbour is never less than
from seven to eleven fathoms.

The river Haritona,

which falls into the port, is said to be navigable for
nearly a hundred miles. The banks of the river rise a
to a considerable height, and are clothed with wood.
This part of the country is inhabited by the Kapiti
tribe, one of whom, Naiti, the younger brother of a

chief, has resided in Englandvfor two years, and has
lately returned in the ship Tory, in the service of
the New ZealandCompany.
On the West coast of the northern island, the

. prevalence of westerly winds seems to have made all
the ports more or less bar-harbours, but they are
notwithstanding extremely valuable to navigation.
\Vangapai, for instance, near the north end, is described
as a beautiful bay, narrow at the mouth, but running
several miles inland, and surrounded by a fertile
country. It has been very little visited by Europeans.
The river and harbour of Hokianga, more to the
southward, are better known, and are surrounded by

a population of at least 5000 souls.

The harbour

may be considered as extending thirty miles inland,
as the tide flows that distance; and receives many
small rivers, the principal of which are the Manga
muka, the Waima, the Widinake, and the Waihou.

The banks of these are partially cultivated.

There is

a bar at the entrance, the soundings overlwhich at
low water are from three to three and a half fathoms;

but the tide rises twelve feet, and the soundings
(lee en to seventeen fathoms within the mouth of the
bar our. Shi s of five hundred tons burden and
upwards, continually enter the river, and proceed as

hivh up as Lieut. M‘Donnell’s dock-yard, thirty
m1 es from the mouth. The lands adjoining the

10

iuvsns AND nannouns.

Hokianga, and its tributary streams, are represented
as a rich alluvial soil, with much fine timber.

The

waters abound with fish. It is on both sides of the
Hokianga that are situated a part of the lands pur
chased by the New Zealand Company from Lieut.
M‘Donnell, and which will be hereafter adverted to.

The following sailing directions, compiled by
experienced nautical men, are extracted from a recent
work*:—“Hol<ianga, a harbour on the western coast
of New Zealand, is situated in latitude 35° 32’ south,

and longitude 173° 27’ east, variation 149 46’ east. It
is 24 leagues 8.1!. of Cape Maria Van Dieman, and
may be known by a sand-hill on the n.w. side, and a

black head on the south, both moderately high.

The

land for five or six miles to the north is sand, not a

black spot to be seen, and terminates with high black
mountains. The land to the south is black and rocky.
About six or seven leagues to the south there is a. very

high perpendicular cliff which overhangs the sea.
This kept open will clear the whole coast of Hokianga,
which is generally flat, but soundings regular, and
may be approached by the lead in thirty fathoins
water, at a convenient distance from the shore.

In

running in for the harbour, come no nearer the heads

than three miles, or the high cliff above mentioned
will open off the land until the s.E. cape of the bar
bour bears E. N. a. or a. by N. k N. at a distance of
three miles from the heads; then steer in E.N.E. so as
to pass the s.s. cape at half a cable’s length, gradually
hauling for the east side of the harbour, but be
careful to avoid a rock lying two cables” length N.W.
from the s.a'. cape, with only three fathoms on it at
high water. After you pass the as. head, continue
to haul over towards the east side of the harbour,

until one cable‘s length from the shore, then steer up
the river about N. by w. There are three fathoms
on the bar at low water, and the tide flows, at the full
* YATE'S New Zualuml'.

mvsss AND nauseous.

11

and change of the moon, 9 hours 45 minutes; rises
from ten to fourteen feet; and runs from five to six

knots. The bar should not be taken with an ebb tide.”
About seventy miles south of Hokianga is the
noble harbour of Kaipara, thirty miles at least in
length, and affording secure shelter against all winds.
Three principal rivers discharge themselves into this
harbour,—the Kaipara, from which it takes its name,
-the Wairoa,—-and the Otamatea. The distance

between the two heads of the harbour is about six
miles.

At the entrance are two sand-banks, between

which is the broad channel.

Between the north

sand, and the land, is another narrower channel, but

which may be taken with a leading wind, either in or
out. The depth between the sands is such, that a
ship of any tonnage, even a three-decker, can work
either in or out of the harbour at dead low water.
The breadth of the channel for shipping within the
heads is about three miles. The following are recent
directions for entering the harbour:--“Sailing into
Kaipara, middle channel, go well to the southward of
the south head; then steer in E.N.E. for a green

patch on the sandy land, until you brin the middle
green patch on the northward N. by n. i: E., steer in
that course until you are clear of the north end of
the inner sand_bank, then steer direct for the inside

oint of the north head*.” The banks of this fine
liarbour are generally so deep that ships may go close
up to them; and a ship of four hundred tons may r0

ceed seventy miles up the Wairoa at half flood.

he

plains in this vicinity are peculiarly rich, and it is one
of the principal-districts of the Kauri, or pine forests.
The New Zealand Company has made an exten
sive purchase in this quarter from Lieut. M‘Donnell,

and it is unquestionably one of the most eligible spots
for settlement in the whole country.
It By the Master of the schooner Fanny, in 1836.

12

nivsas AND HARBOURS.

The harbour of Manukau, to the south of Kaipara,
is also a fine, well—sheltered bay.

There is a bar at

the entrance, with deep water on each side; the

southern channel is of the depth of from nine to
twelve fathoms. A few miles below Manukau is a
harbour at the mouth of the Waikato river, whose

bar precludes the entrance of large ships. But it is
believed, that by means of the river Awaroa, which
reaches to within a mile of Manukau harbour, that

harbour might be made the receptacle of the Waikato
and its tributaries, and an outlet be thus obtained for

the
whic

roduce of the rich undulating country, through
the YVaikato flows for about 150 miles, inclu

ding the tract surrounding the inland lake Roturoa,
one of the most valuable in the islands.
These are only a few of the harbours in the
northern island.

The harbours of Waingaroa, Aotea,

Kawia, Mokou, and several others, are likely to be
come of more or less importance to navigation and
commerce.
The southern island also contains several magnifi
cent harbours. Commencing with Cook’s Straits, we
find in succession, Blind Bay, Admiralty Bay, Port
Hardy in D‘Urville’s Island, Port Gore, and Queen

Charlotte’s Sound, the last of which runs thirty miles
inland. There is also, at the north-western extremity
of the southern island, Cloudy Bay, one of the locali
ties which appears to offer peculiar attractions to
European settlers. This bay runs inland about fifteen
miles, and its average width is about four miles. The

land is high, and the water deep, and the soil is repre
sented as very rich. Cloudy Bay is one of the best
stations of the black-whale fishery. The natives are

principally of the Kapiti tribe, as on the opposite
coast, and among them a few British Settlers have

already fixed their residence. The shores of Cook’s
btraits appear to be a highly desirable emigration
M— LB» E_..

RIVERS AND HARBOURS.

field, not only on account of the uniform fertility of ti.
soil, including much rich pasturage, but from the
excellent anchorage to be found in its harbours, and
from its position in the direct homeward voyage of
many merchant-ships from Australia, and of vessels
engaged in the whale fishery.

With respect to the south-east side of the southern
island, but little is accurately known. Captain Cook
describes Lookers-on Bay, as apparently a fine harbour.

About a hundred miles further southward is a safe
and excellent harbour called Angaroa, in Banks’s
Peninsula, which is connected with the main land by
a very narrow isthmus. From a recent American
survey, it appears that the soundings off the heads
shoal from forty-five to thirty; between the head
from fifteen to twelve; and in the numerous smaller

bays inside the harbour, from seven to five *. Birther
southward on the eastern coast is Port Otango, a bar
harbour, but with seven fathoms low water inside.

Knowsley Bay, at the southern extremity, forming the
estuary of the river of that name already mentioned,
and Dusky Bay, after rounding the south—west cape,
are both fine, spacious harbours, with deep water, and

containing within them many well-sheltered coves, or
smaller bays.

Stewart’s, or the southern island, also

boasts a fine harbour, stated to be superior to that of
Sydney, and commanding three safe entrances. The
line of the western coast from Dusky Ba to Cape

Farewell has not been thoroughly explore , but it is
known to contain many inlets and creeks in which

shipping may obtain shelter.
The above brief enumeration of some of the New

Zealand harbours will suffice to point out these islands
as the natural seat of a maritime population, and the
natural centre of a vast maritime trade, which last

would supply in its maturity, as in its progress it had
' Brilish Colonimtion of New Zeuland.

'

London, Parker, 1837.

c

RIVERB AND HARBOURS.

.éendered, the wants of millions at present strangers

to the civilizing influence of commerce.

On all sides,

there are safe and convenient outlets for the shipment
of reduce, brou ht by water-carriage from the interior.
hether we loo at Port Nicholson, and Cloudy Bay,
in the centre,-—to the Bay of Islands on the north-east
coast,—or to Kaipara harbour on the west, we are

warranted in saying that ports of greater security and
convenience are not to be found in the world. In this
res ect, New Zealand has greatly the advantage over
bot South Australia, and New South Wales. Then,
it is important to bear in mind that New Zealand
lies in the heart of the southern whale fisheries*; and

that so serviceable are these islands to that now ex
tensive and rapidly-growing branch of industry, as a
place for refitting and obtaining provisions, and also
for hiring native hands as sailors and Whalers, that,

what with the foreign demand for New Zealand p0
tators, wheat, flax, and timber, not less than four

hundred vessels are supposed to lie at anchor there in
the course of a twelvemonth.
It appears from a recently published list that the
arrivals at the Bay of Islands during the year 1838,

were:—
' The southern whale fishery consists of three distinct branches: first,
that of the spermaceti whale; second, that of the common black whale of the
southern seas; and third, that of the sea elephant, or southern walrus. The

sperniaceti, and black whale, both frequent the coasts of New Zealand. An
interesting statement of the extent to which the southern whale fishery has
been carried on from \l'nryear 1800 to 1834, will be found in the SuppIt-nwnt
to Macculloch'a Commercial Dictionary, (December, 1836,) It appears that,

in 1834, (a year below the average of preceding years) there were 126
ships engaged in the trade, of an average tonnage of 390 tons, and with
an average :rew of thirty-six men to each ship.

There were imported

6731 tons of sperm oil of the price of 651. per ton, and 2543 tons of common
oil at 231. per ton, since which, prices have, we believe, coneiderablv risen.

The total value of these imports was 496,004l. It appears also iron: the
work quoted that the Americans carry on the southern whale-iisherv to a
very considerable extent, having had no less than 273 ships engaged in it
Agatha year 1834. The French also participate in this fishery in a less
1'98

Waz=aqzzlauim¢m

v»; ‘. I"

. .1

"' W
J,
- FF... " --n—‘---——-—-——
-

nivsns AND nannouns.
American ships
English
,,
French

,,

.
.
.

.
.

.

.
.

.

Bremen
,,
.
.
.
New South Wales ships .

15
.

.
-

.
.

.
.

21

.

New Zealand ships and coasters .

56
23
1
24

.

6
__.

Total at one port alone

.

. 131

And the commercial intercourse already subsisting
with New South Wales may be imagined from the
fact stated by Dr. Lang, that, in the year 1838, there
were thirty-nine arrivals of vessels from New Zealand,
in the port of Sydney.

Many vessels from the Australian colonies now go
through Cook’s Strait, while others at present pass
New Zealand at either its southern or northern extre
mity, but all would prefer the midway of Cook’s

Strait, if that channel were properly surveyed, lighted,

and furnished with ilots; and, consequently, settle
ments in Cook’s Strait,-—at Port Hardy in D'Urville's
Island, Queen Charlotte’s Sound, Cloudy Ba , and
Port N icbolson,—would obtain stock-cattle, an other

supplies from New South Wales, with peculiar facility
and cheapness, since homeward-bound vessels would
naturally load in part or sometimes entirely with
stock-cattle for New Zealand (and especially on deck
in favourable weather, which prevails during nine
months of the year), discharging that cargo at New
Zealand, and reloading there with water and provi
sions for the homeward- voyage, as well as with a
New Zealand cargo for Europe, of fish-oil, flax, timber,
and other productions of the country. But this is only

a sample of the benefits which would accrue to British
settlements in New Zealand, from having, at the very
outset of their career, several kinds of commodities

suitable to distant markets, and from the peculiarly
favourable position of that country with respect to
trade. For, the great profits of wool-growing in the

c2

16

iuvnns AND HARBOURS.

Australian colonies have drawn capital from agricul
tural to pastoral pursuits, and to such an extent, that

the settlements do not reduce grain for their own
consumption, (New Soutli Wales being in part sup—
plied w1th flour from New England in North Ame
rica,) and, consequently, agricultural productions, for
which New Zeal-and is more peculiarly adapted, (and
especially potatoes and grain, which are already ex
ported from New Zealand to Australia,) would find
ready markets in New South Wales and South
Australia, being exchanged there, in all probability,
for British manufactured oods which the Australian
merchants had obtained by the sale of their wool in
London and Liverpool.

The 0 inions of all intelligent persons who have
visited New Zealand concur in anticipating great
future commercial pros erity, from the natural posi
tion of the harbours.
his is shown by the testimony
of several witnesses examined before the Select Com
mittee of the House of Lords, in 1838*.

We shall

only cite here a passage from the evidence of Captain
Fitzroy, R.N., who visited New Zealand in the course
of the surveying expedition of H. M. S. Beagle, in

1835.
Are you not of opinion, taking into consideration the posi
tion of that country, and the fertility of the soil, and the
salubrity of its climate, that it must grow into great import
ance ?——Certainly; it corresponds in that hemisphere to Great
Britain in this hemisphere; it must go on holding out tempta
tions to settlers of all descriptions.
Is it not well suited for the construction of ships P—Ex
ceedingly well.
Does the production of flax which grows in the country
lead you to suppose it would produce by cultivation very good
hemp?—No doubt it will. Very good hemp is now grown in

nearly the same latitude on the coast of Chili, from 30° to 4U°
south, where the climate is similar.
See articular] th

' ‘ Charles Enderhy, EH],
and *J'B'fionfifiomnyaiendenee
of Mr _ J , Watkins,

—-—-rw>.::-_______

RIVERS AND museums.

17

They have plenty of timber for ship-building P—Yes;
large forests.
Are not the natives now serving for hire on board the
British and American Whalers ?——Yes, they are.
Does not that lead you to suppose that the natives, as well
as the settlers who come among them, will be disposed to a
maritime life P—Yes; their islands are full of excellent har
hours.
Are not those harbours better situated than any other
station in the same seas for the command of those seas ?——
Considerably better situated than any other; they are a most
commanding situation in every way“.

CHAPTER III.
CLIMATE AND SOIL.

THE climate is peculiarly salubrious and delightful.
The temperature resembles (after an allowance of
about 7°, for the lower de roe of heat of the South—

ern Hemisphere), that of t 0 land between the south

of Portugal, and the north of France,—pervading,
We may say, but without exceeding, the most favoured
part of the temperate region; and numerous wit
nesses of ample experience concur in describing the
extremes of cold in winter, and heat in summer, as

being within peculiarly narrow limits; which is to
describe the climate as one of the most equable in
the world. New Zealand is neither exposed to the

scorching heats of summer, nor to the blasting frosts
of a severe winter. The climate is un uestionably
very congenial to European constitutions. he seasons
are as follows ;-—spring commences in the middle of
August; summer in December; autumn in March:

and Winter in July.

Droughts, such as afliict some

* Min. Ev. Lords‘ Committee, p. 174.
C 3

’ T-Tl-inaa law

18

CLIMATE AND SOIL

parts of Australia, are wholly unknown. A never
failing moisture is dispersed over the country by the
clouds which collect on the mountain-tops, without the
occurrence of rain seasons, beyond storms of a few
days” duration. T is refreshing moisture, combined
with the influence of the sea-breezes, renders the

climate very favourable to the health, and develope
ment of the human frame.

Vegetation is, fronrthe

same cause, highly luxuriant;.the verdure is almost

perpetual; and there is no instance on record of a crop
aving been lost for want of rain.
Mr. Yate, in his book already quoted, says:—
Thosc w
come here sickly are soon restored to health;
the healthy become robust, and the robust fat. North of the
Thames snows are unknown ; and frosts are off the ground by
nine o'clock in the morning. The country, during six months
in the year, is subject to heavy gales from the east and north
east, which generally last for three days, and are accompanied
with tremendous falls of rain. These gales generally com
mence in the east; and gradually haul round to the north-west,
where they terminate in a violent gust, almost approaching to
a hurricane; the clouds then pass away, and the westerly wind
blows again with some violence. In the winter season the
moon rarely either changes or wanes without raising one of
these tempestuous gales; and, during the whole year the wind

is sure to blow, though it may be only for a few hours, from the
east, every full and change of the moon.
The spring and autumn are delightfully temperate; but
subject to showers from the W.S.W. Indeed, howaver fine the
summer may be, we are frequently \‘isited by refreshing rains,
which give a peculiar richness to the vegetation and fertility
to the land. The prevailing winds are from S. W. to N. \V.,
which, within this range, blow upwards of nine months in the
year: more frequently the wind is due west. During five

months sea-breezes set in from either coast, and meet each
other halfway across the island.

Mr. Earle says*:—“ Although we were situated
* Narralive of 11 Nine ZlIonihr' Residence in New Zealmld, 1827; hv
£550“sz EAR-LE, Draftsman to H. M.surveying ship Beagle. Louder-i,

CLIMATE AND sou“

19

in the same latitude as Sydney, we found the climate
‘ of New Zealand infinitely superior. Moderate heats
and beautifully clear skies succeeded each other every
day.
We Were quite free from those oppressive
feverish heats which invariably prevail in the middle
of the day at Sydney, and from those hot pestilential
winds which are the terror of the inhabitants of New
South Wales;

nor were we subject to those long

droughts, which are often the ruin of the Australian
farmer. The temperature here was neither too hot
nor too cold, neither too wet nor too dry.”
Major Cruise*, who resided in New Zealand for
ten months, which period included the whole of the
winter season, but neither of the two finest months in

the year, namely, January and February, corresponding
to July and August with us, andwho kept a record
of the indications of the thermometer, informs us that

the lowest degree of heat, during his residence in
the islands, (though he does not say at what hour of
the day the observations were made,) was 40°, and

that only on three days;—the highest 78°. Another
writer informs us that the annual range is from 40°
to 80°.
Captain Cook says, that at Queen Charlotte’s

Sound, “ the agreeable temperature of the climate
contributes no doubt to the uncommon strength of the
vegetation ;--in February, the height of summer,
the thermometer did not rise higher than 66°; in

June, corresponding to our December, it never sunk
below 4:8"; and the trees at that time retained their

verdur‘e as if in the summer season; so that I believe
their foliage is never shed, till

ushed off by the

succeeding leaves in spring.” “ ‘he quality of this
soil,” he adds, “is best indicated by the luxuriant
growth of its productions;—superior to anything that
‘ Journal of a. Ten LII/nth! Residence in New Zealand, by R. A.CBUI5E,
Esq, Major in the 84th Regiment of Foot. London, 1824.
i

20

CLIMATE AND SOIL.

imagination can conceive, and affording an august
pros ect.”
r. Lang‘, who lately paid a short visit to New
Zealand, saysz—“I was particularly struck with the
glow of health exhibited on the-cheeks of the children

of Europeans at the Bay of Islands, compared with
the pale faces of children of the same age at Sydney,
in much the same latitude. It was quite remarkable.
At all events the climate of New Zealand is undenia
bly superior to that of New South \Vales and Van
Dieman’s Land in one most important particular, viz.,
in being free from droughts and hot winds; its insular

character, its chain of lofty mountains running from
north to south along the whole extent of the islands,
and its distance from any large continent, ensuring it
a constant and copious supply of rain. Indeed this
most favourable circumstance renders New Zealand

decidedly more eligible for the settlement of indus
triousfarnilies of the humbler classes, intending to earn
their subsistence by the cultivation of the soil, than
either of these two great pastoral colonies; for there
has never yet been a crop lost in New Zealand from
' want of rain, which, I am sorry to say, is not the ease
in New South Wales.”
The best evidence is afl'orded in the vigour and

plenitude of all animal and vegetable life.

All the

productions of the south of Europe flourish; and,
even in the extreme south, nearest to the pole, at

Dusky Bay, Captain Cook observed that various roots
and herbs which he had planted there, in a former
voyage, were still thriving and propagating themselves;

although they would certainly have perished if they
had been exposed in a similar way in England. At
Dusky Bay the climate is so mild, that “a great
number of aromatic trees and shrubs, mostly of the
I“; New Zealand in 1830; by JOHN Dcnuonz LANG, DD.

__

777,—...4_~___.i

~_..~

London,

CLIMATE AND sort.

it

myrtle kind, were found growing down to the water’s
edge.“ Now it is well known that the myrtle grows
only in very few, and scarcely thrives in the open
air in any, places in the south of England. The whole

of the evidence goes to prove that the coldest parts of
New Zealand, (except of course the snow-capped
mountain tops) are milder than either Devonshire
or the Isle of Wight. The latitude of Queen Char

lotte‘s Sound is about the same as that of Oporto,
Madrid, Naples, and Constantinople ; the temperature

being about 7° lower, for the reason before stated.
Mr. Yate has assured us that vegetation is scarcely, if
ever, suspended, and that most of the treesare ever

greens. The native grasses flourish throughout the
year.
In speaking of the climate, we should remark that
there are no diseases peculiar to the country; in fact,
none of any im ortance but such as have been intro
duced by the uropeans. Cook says, “ As there is no
source of disease either critical or chronic, but intem

perance and inactivity, these people enjoy perfect and
uninterrupted health,--we never saw a single person
among them who appeared to have any bodily com
plaint*.” Their wounds healed with an astonishing

facility; and “a further proof that human nature is
here untainted with disease, is the great number of
old men that we saw, many of whom, by the loss of

their hair and teeth, appeared to be very ancient, yet
none of them were decrepit ; and though not equal to
the young in muscular strength, were not a whit
behind them in cheerfulness and vivacity.” Unhap
pily, half a century of irregular European intercourse
' A recent writer(Mr. Matthew) hints at the favourable efl'cct which the
climate may be expected to have upon female beauty. “The rose tinge of the
cheek," he observes, “ is a direct consequence of moist air of n free“. stimulat
ing coolness. The British l'uir may rely that England's rose will not fail to

blossom in New Zealand in all its native richness, giving the unmatched tinge
of flowerbenuly, and freshness. The danger is, that it may even throw that
of the mother-country into shade.“

22

CLIMATE AND son.

has introduced disease, and done its usual destructive
work, in spite of the climate. Mr. Yate, writing in

1835, says: “There are comparatively but few old
people in New Zealand ;--scarcely any who have much
exceeded fifty years of age,-—the population in the

neighbourhood of the Bay of Islands has evidently
appeared to be on the dechne.
The soil is spoken of by all the writers in the
most favourable terms, from Captain Cook downwards.
After describing the fertility of many particular spots.
Cook sums up his account by saying that “the hills
and mountains are covered with wood, and every
valley has a rivulet of water; the soil in these val
leys, and in the plains, of which there are many that
are not overgrown with wood, is in general light but
fertile; and in the opinion of Mr. Banks and Dr.

Solander, as well as of every other gentleman on board,
every kind of European grain, plant, and fruit, would
flourish here in the utmost luxuriance; from the vege
tables that we found here, there is reason to conclude

that the winters are milder than those in England,
and we found the summer not hotter, though it was
more equally warm; so that if this country should be

settled by people from Europe, they would, with a
little industry, be very soon supplied, not only with
the necessaries, but the luxuries of life, in great abun
dance.”

Mr. Yate says, “ We have here almost every
variety of soil. Large tracts of good land, available
for the cultivation of wheat, barley, maize, beans, peas,
&c., with extensive valleys of rich alluvial soil, depo
sited from the hills and mountains, and covered with

the richest vegetation, which it supports summer and
winter.

We have alsoa deep, rank, vegetable mould,

with a_ stiff, marly subsoil, capable of being slakecl 0r
pulverized with the ashes of the fern. All English
grasses flourish well, but the white clover never seeds ;
“V

—'-!_==.—

CLIMATE AND son.

23

and, where the fern has been destroyed, a strong native
grass, something of the nature of the canary-grass,
grows in its place, and effectually prevents the fern

’rom springing up again. Every diversity of Euro
pean fruit and vegetable flourishes in New Zealand.”

Mr. Yate then enumerates all the most important
oroductions of Europe which are raised in New Zea—
land, and adds, “ \Vhere the rich alluvial valleys are

cultivated, the labourer receives an ample harvest as
the reward of his labour.”
Mr. Nicholas says*, “The lands in this country,

which are at present overrun with fern, might be
brought to produce grasses of every description; were
the experiment tried, I doubt not but it would prove
invariably successful, and that the islands in general
would afford as fine pasturage for sheep and cattle as

any part of the known world.” The experiment has
been successfully tried by the missionaries. Mr. Earle
says, “ In whatever direction I travelled, the soil

appeared to me to be fat and rich, and also well
watered. From every part of it which the natives have
:ultivated, the produce has been immense. Here,
where the finest samples of the human race are to be
found, the largest and finest timber grows, and every

vegetable yet planted thrives, the introduction of
European grasses, fruits, &c., is a desideratum. WVere

this done, in a very short time farms would be sought
after here more eagerly than they now are in New
South Wales. All the fruits and plants introduced

by the missionaries have succeeded wonderfully.
Peaches and water-melons were now in full season;

the natives brought baskets full of them to my door
every day, which they exchanged with us for the
merest trifies, such asa fish-hook or a button. Indian

corn was very abundant, but the natives had no means .
of grinding it.” Mr. Earle saw “a hundred head of
* Narrative of a Voyage to New Zealand, by J. L. Nrcnous, 159%
London, 1817.

24

CLIMATE AND sort. »

fat cattle at a missionary station,” and was surprised
to find “that, although they never tasted anything
but fern, they gave as good milk, and were in as
healthy a condition, as when they grazed on the rich
grasses of Lincolnshire.“
Mr. Yate says, in another place, “ The forest-land
is peculiarly rich; indeed, were it not so, it would be

utterly impossible for it to sup ort the immense vege
tation constantly going on.
n spring and summer,
and autumn and winter, there is no visible change in

the appearance of the woods; they are as beautiful in
the depth of winter as in the height of summer ; leaves

no sooner fall to the ground than others directly
assume their station ; no branch withers from its
trunk, but another, and a more vigorous one, puts out

in its stead. The fairest and most tender shrubs shrink
not from the southern blast, nor faint beneath the

rays of the sun, when he rides highest in the heavens.“
Though the greater part of the country was covered
with timber, Captain Cook observed an extensive
tract of open country, “ more like our high downs in
England,” between Hawke’s Bay and Queen Char

lotte’s Sound.
In fact, the whole country, excepting the regions

of perpetual snow, is covered with one or other of the
four following productions; viz. first, grass, of which
there are extensive ranges on the east side of the
south island, at least; secondly, the pkormium teams,

or New Zealand flax, which ap ears to grow univer
sally in low situations, and which, such is the strength
and fineness of its fibre, requires only care in gathering
and pre aration, to rival, if not supersede, European
flax m t e markets of Europe; thirdly, a plant, called
fern, which affords a wholesome food for cattle, and

now supports great numbers of wild swine in both
islands; and fourthly, a greater variety of finer trees——
timber of a finer quality, and adapted to a greater

CLIMATE AND 5611..

25

number of difi‘erent purposes, including all that relates
to ship-building—-than is produced in the forests, it
may be safely said, of any other part of the world;
which last production finds a ready and profitable
market, not merely with the British Admiralty, who

now regularly despatch vessels to procure spars in
New Zealand, but also in Van Diemeu’s Land, New

South Wales, various ports on the west coast of
South America, Brazil, and British India.
Before specifying the natural productions of New
Zealand, it will be appropriate to cite here some
extracts which we have made from the evidence taken
before the Lords” Committee of 1838, comprising the
testimony of various persons who have actually visited

the country, and unite in speaking in the highest
terms of the soil and climate.
Jenn LIDDIARD NICHOLAS, Esq., who was ten weeks
in New Zealand in 1814, examined:—
You went from New South Wales?—-We did; to the Bay
of Islands, where the first Missionary establishment was settled.
Upon that occasion had you opportunities of forming any

judgment as to the climate of the place ?-—We were there in
the middle of summer, and nothing could exceed the salubrity
of the climate, as it appeared to me, nor the beauty of it.

Was the heat then moderate ?——Very moderate. Ather
mometer belonging to one of the Missionaries, as I was in
formed by him, never rose higher than 73 or 74, nor went
below 64.
That was in the month of January ?—From December to
February.
Did you see much cultivation going onP—A good deal.
They are very industrious cultivators, for savages. I should
say they are an industrious people. Their plantations of the
common potato and the sweet potato are cultivated with very
great care; indeed, there isth a weed to be seen in them.

I

have seen between twenty and thirty acres in one place enclosed
and cultivated; their principal food, however, is the fern root.
That grows to a great heighLP—In good ground it grows
to six and seven feet high: there are between fifty and sixty
species of that plant.

D

26

CLIMATE AND soiL.
Did the soil appear productive, so far as you had an oppor

tunity of seeingP—Very productive.
Is it a. heavy soil; or what should you describe it, with
reference to any English soil?-—-It of course varies. but I
should say, generally speaking, it was a rich loamy soil. One
great proof of the great fertility of the soil is the magnificence
of its forest trees, many of which grow to an enormons size,
and afford very valuable timber.
What description of trees principallyP—Principally of the
pine species. There is a great variety of timber in the country
fit for all purposes; as for ship building, domestic, and other
purposes. The forests of New Zealand afi‘ord perhaps the finest
spars for masts and yards in the world, and which are ex
tremely valuable. In India, the wood being there very heavy,
they can. at get any description of wood to make good spars,
and those .alien from New Zealand find there a ready sale.
Is their a good deal of flax cultivated?——Not cultivated,
but it is SPI‘t ad over the country in great quantitiesv It would
form a very valuable article of barter to this country; it thrives
exceedingly well there, and when properly prepared, it has

been found to produce stronger rope than that made of the
hemp of Russo. or any other country, and also the canvass
made of it is of a. very superior description.
Is the northern part of the North Island a flat country or
mountainous P—It is a very undulating country near the coast,
and has hills in the interior, which, to the southward, rise into

very hi h mountains; there is a chain of hills extending from
North Cape, as far as I went down, to the river Thames, which

runs through the whole extent of the two Islands, dividing as
it were the breadth of the Islands, extending from north to
south.

Mr. Jenn WATKINS, Surgeon, who remained in
New Zealand for three months in 1833 and 1834,
examined :—
At what time of the year were you thereP—It was in
December 1833, and the spring of 1834.
That is in their finest weather?--—Yes, in very fine
weather,

_ Whatobservation did you make upon the climate?-—-The
climateis very delightful.

I was there in 1833, in March and

April; in 1834, in the beginning of January, and again in

May; the climate is very equable.
As you were there at difierent periods of the year, did

CLIMATE sun SOIL.

27

the vicissitudes appear great, as compared with European
climates?—-—Not anything like our climate. The frost was
there at one time a very gentle frost indeed; the ice was not
entirely over a small pool of water; they told me that they
saw ice sometimes in the bay the thickness of a shilling, but I
did not see anything of that thickness. I have slept out fre—
quently in the bush. The fern grows in very great abundance.
I found myself very comfortable and warm in my great coat

and a bed of fern, rather than sleeping in the houses, which are
very unfit fer English people.
In going through the country, did you observe any large
portion of it cultivated ?—Very small portions, indeed. Kaua
Kaua. is a fine spot; that plain is almost entirely cultivated by
the natives in gardens for potatoes, various kinds of potatoes.
They have three kinds of potatoes, or rather four; three sorts

of the sweet potatoes: one indigenous, and two others brought
there; what they call the white men's potato, which is one
kind, another the common potato, which we have here; but
the spots of cultivation are very small; perhaps half an acre
of ground cultivated in various spots. The large bulk of the
land is not cultivated; it is either in wild fern or forest.
Does it appear to you there was much uncultivated land
fit for cultivation P—There is a great deal fit for cultivation;
but about the Bay of Islands the land is such that they are not
able to cultivate it; it is too dry and hilly. At the top of the
hills there is only diminutive fern growing; in the vales I saw
large trees grow in great abundance. The forests of Kauri are
very fine; one I measured was twenty-one feetin circumference.
Of what nature is itP—Of the pine kind. That perhaps
had not a branch till it was divided into two, thirty or forty feet
above the surface; then the branches themselves were of im

mense magnitude.

That tree could be seen from a great

distance towering over all the others.
Where does the flax go toP—To Sydney chiefly; it grows
very luxuriantly in the marshy grounds.
Is it cultivated?—No; it grows spontaneously. The
blossom of the flax is very full of nectary.

Mr. Jenn FLATT, a skilful agriculturist, and late in

the service of the Church Missionary Society, who was
resident in New Zealand, from December, 1834, to
May, 1837, examined :—
What is your opinion of the climate of the country ?—It
is a. very healthy climate; superior to England.

2

n

28

cmru’rs AND soi L.

What is the nature of the soil?——-A very prolific fine stil’f
loam in one part, and fine vegetable mould in others.

In taking the surface of the Island. as compared with the
population, is there a great deal of land more than the present
population is likely to cultivate ?-——Yes, a very great deal in
deed; Ihave passed over fifty miles ofcountry with not an acre
cultivated. fine rich soil, from Puriri to Matamata. by land,

crossing the River Thames twice.
_
Do they not supply South America with timber for ship
ping sometimes?—-I have been informed that some timber
has been taken from Hokianga to Rio Janeiro; I was told that
at Rio Janeiro, last August, they had purchased some timber
from the ship Lord Gods-rich.
There is a good deal more rain in the Island than there
is in Australia, is there not,‘ it is not subject to the same
drouglit?—-No; it is not subject to the same drought.

Would it, in consequence of that, become of much impor
tance as a ColonyP—Very great for agriculture.
Do you know what sort of timber it was that was sent to
Rio Janeiro?—The Kauri, such as is brought to England for
the use of Her Majesty's navy. I saw the gentleman who

purchased it at Rio Janeiro.
Josarn Bannow Moivrsriona, Esq., who was for

four months in New Zealand, with mercantile objects,
in 1830, examined :—
During the time you were in New Zealand. had you an
opportunity of being on shore and communicating with the
natives P—Yes. The first harbour I landed at in the Island,
we entered by chance, a port called Kawia, on the western side,
which very few Europeans have visited.
What is the nature of the country round that; what is the
soil?-—-The soil in that particular part was generally good, and
the country bore a most beautiful appearance; it is rather a
sandy soil near the coast, but it is the most beautifully pictu
resque country I ever visited, and far surpasses any I have ever
seen, and I have been over most parts of the world.

Is there much cultivation going on there?—There is a
little cultivation in the harbour, but the natives cultivate only
sufi‘icient for the shipping or their own use; but they have large
villalges, I am told, in the interior where they cultivate exten
sive y.
In the part you saw, does there appear to be much land

capable of cultivation ?-—A great deal.

I went up several

CLIMATE AND so'IL.

29

rivers, and saw about eight or ten small villages; we want up
as far as our boat would allow us (drawing so much water). We
saw from 1000 to 1500 acres under cultivation; in fact, nature

has supplied them bountifully with every thing. They are the
most lazy idle people I ever saw. They have the fern root
growing there, which is their principal food, and that is almost
equal to flour; abundance of pigs, fish, and many vegetables
originally introduced by our great Cook, the navigator.
From Kawia Harbour to what place did you go ?—-We
then intended to make for a place called Terinaha, where there
is a most beautiful mountain, clothed almost all the year through

with snow, standing several thousand feet above the level 01‘
the sea.

Does it appear to you that the soil is adapted for the culti
vation of wheat ?——Yes; for the finest wheat in the world.
New South Wales is not awheat country; but I have seen

very large plump grain from New Zealand- New Zealand is
not subject to droughts.
Does wheat in New South Wales bear generally a high
priceP—A very high price. I furnished myself part of a
contract for the government, 20,000 bushels, in 1836, at the
time that starvation stared us in the face. I undertook the
contract. I imported it from Calcutta. The country has never
been able to produce sufficient wheat tosupply the inhabitants,
and it never will. It is a very fine country, but it is quite a
pastoral one. I have always compared New Zealand, and
still do so, to be just as Great Britain is to the rest of Europe,

-—-the great country of that part of the world. On accountot' its
climate and soil it must become an agricultural country. New

South Wales will contain a large population; but it will be
much dispersed.
Is the timber that they use for canoes likely to be a valu
able export?—--For spars and masts of ships.

In the progress of colonization a great deal of wheat would
be sent to Australia from New Zealand?-——-Yes; there is a
great deal now shipped. I see from some of my letters we had
last year several thousand bushels of maize from Poverty Bay.
Is the land good for wheat?——Yes.
\Vould New South Wales take nearly all which could be
furnished from New ZealandF—I think it would; we have
imported a great deal from Calcutta.
By whom was the maize you imported from Poverty Bay

cultivated?——By the natives.

_

You know that the land on which it was grown was culti
vated by natives?-——Yes; we are agents for the person who is
D 3

30

CLIMATE AND sort.

now carrying on such cultivation. I have no doubt he possesses
a very large territory there.
There is no indisposition on the part of the natives to work
for a compensation ?-—No.I think not.
They do produce agricultural produce without Europeans?
-——Yes, they do. It is a most beautiful country. I have
visited the Brazils, the whole of Van Diemen's Land, and New

South Wales, and been on the Continent, but I never saw a
country in the world that equalled it; in scenery, climate, and
productireness, it is a perfect paradise.
You state that large quantities of oil are imported from
Cloudy Bay; what is the sort of oil ?—Whale oil.
By whom is it caught?—By the natives; theyv mix in
the boats; they are very good Whalers.
New Zealand is in the heart of the South Sea fisheries, is
it not P—Yes, very near it; almost in the heart.

That is a very growing branch of industry P—Remark
ably so.
Do not vessels employed in that trade put in to refit and
to obtain provisions P—Yes, but not to repair; they are obliged
to come to New South Wales to repair. If it had not been for
the fishery in that part of the world there would have been no
oil for our lamps this winter.
Is it sperm oil?-—It is generally called black oil, but
there is sperm oil.
They go as far as the coast of Japan for sperm oil?-*Yes;
then to Torres' Straits, and all parts of the world; they follow

the course of the sun; Tongataboo and Otaheite, and wherever
they chance to find them.

The Rev. FREDERICK VVILKmsON, who was for

three months in New Zealand in 1837, examined :—
What observation did you make on the state of cultiva
tion ?—-—They cultivate potatoes very Well; the patches are very
neatly kept, and they are very particular in not passing across
the sweet potato grounds. They could have an abundance of
food; the country is rich, and extremely well watered, muoh
more so than New South Wales. They could irrigate in New
Zealand if there was a scarcity of rain, but in New South

Wales they would not have water sufficient to do it.
How is the climate?~—It is a beautiful climate; it is
never so hot as New South Wales, nor is it so cold; it is more
motst.

At what period of the year were you there?-——From
February to the 17th of May.

qu-w

CLIMATE AND SOIL.

31

That would be corresponding with our autumn P—Yes.
The summer was just over, and the stormy season was begin—
ning when we left the island.
Have you any opportunity of judging of the quantity of
land uncultivated with reference to the population?—There is
a very small quantity uncultivated, considering the populatio'n.
It is all in potatoes. A great quantity of potatoes may be
grown on a small space. They do not grow wheat; that is too
much trouble. They would grow it if they could cook it as
easily as potatoes, but they hate the trouble of grindin".
Are you able to give any information as to the interior of
the land one hundred miles from the sea-coast ?—I only went
across from Hokianga to Waimate; I went up the Kawa-Kawa
on one journey, and to Karakara, and back to Hokianga. A
person who came in the ship with us had been to Kaipara;
he told me it was a magnificent country; that the river was

navigable for one hundred miles, and one of the missionaries
has a purchase there.
\Vhen you spoke of the propriety of making a reserve of
land for the natives, are you aware whether the island afiords
land enough to make that reserve, and still to afford land for
occupation by a good many Europeans P—Yes, certainly. The
population, 1 have understood, at Kaipara, is very trifling; lbr

one hundred miles there are not above one hundred people; it
is a. very productive soil if it were well cultivated.

Captain ROBERT FITZROY, R.N., who visited the

Northern Island in 1835, in H. M. S. Beagle, ex
ami'nedz—

'

1

From what you saw of the missionaries' farms are you of
opinion the ground is fertile ?—Very fertile indeed; and there
is one very peculiar fact respecting New Zealand, which is, that
no one can starve there, because the root of the fern, which
grows all over the island, is eatable, and whenever the natives

, are hard pressed for food they have recourse to it.
Do they cook it in any way ?-——Yes; they roast it or bake it.
.From what you saw do you consider that the island, if
cultivated, would hear wheat crops ?———Yes; it has been tried.
The wheat I saw there, grown on the islands, was as fine look

ing wheat as I ever saw; and the missionaries told me it was
considered better than the wheat grown in Australia, near

Sydney.

Did you see any of the New Zealand flax there ?—-Yes, I
did see some.

32

CLIMATE- AND SOIL.

It grows wild ?—It does.
Have you ever had an opportunity, as commander of any
of Her Majesty's vessels, or any man of war you have served
in, of being able to ascertain the quality of rope made from New
Zealand flax ?—1 have; I have used it for three years suc
cessively.

What is your opinion of it ?-—I think that if it were pro
perly manufactured it would make very good rope, but that
there is some defect in the way in which it has been manufac
tured, for it breaks in the “ nip,” though it wears a very long
time in a straight line; but whenever it is frequently bent
much it gives way; yet, as the natives use it for nets three or
four fathoms deep, and sometimes two or three hundred
fathoms in length, and it lasts them for many years, there
must surely be some way of preparing it which would make it
available for our rope. A net made in that way is kept by a
family on the stump of a tree on a little frame made for it, and

it lasts them for many years.
Have you found that the rope increases much in size, and

becomes very stifi'?——-No, I have not found that effect; but it
does not work up afterwards, into smaller rope, for instance;
it is not soft, nor will it absorb water, like hemp; you cannot
make what sailors call swabs (the large rope mops for cleaning
the decks); but, as the natives make very fine cortlage of all
kinds, my impression is, that there is some defect in our way
of manufacturing it; either the plant is cut at a wrong time
of the year, which the natives perhaps have not told us, or it is
not worked up well afterwards.
Could it arise from its being packed up, and heating in its
way home; would that be likely to make it brittle in the way
you have referred to?—I think that it is very possible it may
lose some particular quality.

There is an immense quantity of it in the island growing
wild, is there notP—An immense quantity. It grows in dry
places, not like the flax of our northern countries; it is just
like the large iris of our gardens, having a long green thick
leaf. The only preparation it requires is stripping the outside
coat off the leaf, from the fibres, with a shell. The long fibres
run down, parallel to one another, through the whole leaf. The
natives take a shell in one hand and a leaf in the other, and so
strip it.

There is a great deal of timber in that countryP—It is
full of timber, and those who have tried it have spoken very
highly of it.

—s__-_. _.~ .s,_

.‘e_'.

33

CHAPTER IV.
NATURAL l‘R.ODUCT10NS—~TIMBER, FLAX, CORN, AND OTHER.
VEGETABLESwMINERALS—ANIMAL KINGDOM—BIRDS,
FISH.

THE excellence of the soil and climate of New Zealand
will be best proved by an enumeration of the principal
of its natural productions. Our space does not per
mit us to do more than notice those which stand pre
eminent in their usefulness and value to British
settlers.

The timber grows to a towering height, and in
a perfection equalled in few other countries. The ex
tensive forests offer an inexhaustible supply for the
wants of many generations, both for shipbuilding and
other purposes. The Cowdie, or Kauri, (Dammara
australis,) is a magnificent tree. “It is a splendid
tree,” says Mr. M‘Donnell, “growing to a stupen
dous height; even the majestic pines of America and
Norway dwindle into insignificance, when compared
with those of New Zealand. I have measured some
of them upwards of thirty feet in circumference, nor
did I go out of my way to do this; here are numerous
single sticks, as straight as an arrow, and fit for
masting any three-decker in the navy. Some of the
pines, though large, are really fit for any other purpose
besides that of sparring a. ship. The cowdie is a tough,
stringy, and generally a twisted spar; the very great
similarity between it and other pines, as they lie
mingled together, will prevent a superficial glance
from discriminating between them. To prevent mis
take, let a slice be taken from each sort, when it will
be found, on breaking, that the cowdie may be twisted

in every way, and some difficulty experienced in sepa
rating the parts: the others break off pretty short.

34‘

NATURAL PRODUCTIONS—TIMBER

“A great variety of hard wood grows at New Zea
land, admirably adapted for the timbering of any sized
ships: among them is the boride', réttzir, taraidé, mai,

totara, koi katoa, toa toa, tani raha, to wai, reiva reivé,
tanzi, and many others. I shall merely particularizc
the boridé and rattar, because my own ship was built
of these; as also another beautiful vessel, the New

Zealander. I have examined the timbers of the latter
(she had then been running upwards of seven years);
they were quite fresh and perfect, without the slightest
signs of decay; those of my own ship were as sound
as on the day they were first put in. The boride' is
a fine-limbed, large, and spreading tree; very crooked,
close—grained, stringy, and tough; much resembling
teak; of a darker colour, harder, and of an oily nature.

The rattar is a beautiful, lofty, spreading tree; very
hard, stringy, and tough; close grained, and in appear
ance not unlike the live oak. The others which I
have enumerated, so far as I could judge, seemed
equally well adapted for ship-building. There is a
great variety of other trees, of a lesser growth, that
are very closely grained, and which take a high polish,
bringing out beautifully variegated veins, and admi
rably adapted for fancy work and furniture. Dye
woods are in great variety and abundance.”
Many varieties of wood were collected by the New
Zealand Association of 1837, and Mr. M‘Donnell

states that he has sent above seventy varieties to the
Earl of Derby, Sir John Barrow, and other gentlemen
in England. They are adapted for almost every de—
scription of ship-building, house-building, cooperage,
carpentering, and cabinet-making. We subjoin ex
tracts from Mr. Yate’s account of the different trees
described by him in the work before quoted:—
The first tree which I shall notice is the Kauri (Dam—
mqra australts, or Pmus Kauri). This tree is of the genus
Pane, and has attracted much of the attention of Europeans,

NATURAL PRODUCTIONS—TIMBER.

b,

on account of its magnitude. and the exeellency of its wood;
answering every purpose of house-building, and being ex
cellently adapted, from its size, lightness, and strength, for the
topmasts of the largest East-Indiamen and men-of~war. It
grows, in some of the forests, from eighty-five to ninety-five
feet high, without a branch. The trunk of the tree is of im
mense girth, being sometimes twelve feet in diameter; and
when the bark and sap are removed, the circumference of the
solid heart of the log is thirty-three feet, being a diameter of
eleven feet. It will scarcely be believed by an English timber
merchant, that I have measured a Kauri tree whose circum

ference was forty feet eleven inches, perfectly sound through
out, the gum Oozing out of it when the bark was wounded, as

thou h it were a plant of only a few years' growth. The sap of
the

auri, as indeed of every other tree in New Zealand, is

the thickest on the shaded side; that is, on the south and
south-west side, or that portion of the plant which faces the
south or south-west: it is on that side, sometimes, seven inches

thick; while the opposite sides, those facing the north and
north-east, have only five inches of sap; and the heart, or solid
part. of the tree, is harder or more durable than the other side.

The sap soon rots, being very succulent in its nature, and when
Stripped of its bark, is immediately preyed upon by a small
brown worm,which reduces a great portion of it to powder. As
ashrub, and during its youthful days, the Kauri is not very
graceful; it is crooked and shapeless, and has a few, long,
narrow, pale green leaves, scattered here and there upon its
branches, but when it comes to years of maturity, it stands
unrivalled for majesty and beauty. Its top is crowned with the
most splendid foliage, and its immense height raises its head far
above the other trees of the forest, over which it stands the
undisputed monarch, and afi'ords, under its crown, an umbra

geous retreat for many of the more humble plants.

Its leaves

are small, but very numerous, and not unlike those of the

English box. The bark is thick, white, and smooth, and very
soon hardens after the tree is cut down; if not stripped a short
time after it is felled, the task becomes difiicult, from the per—
tinacity with which it adheres to the trunk. The wood is very
light in its colour, is beautifully grained, planes up smooth, and
otherwise works well. From the trunk of the tree oozes a gum,
insoluble in water, and, I believe, in rectified spirits of wine;
also a kind of resin, which will answer the purpose of that

useful article in ship-building. Both emit a strong, resinous
smell: the gum is, however, very fragrant, and is chewed vby

the natives, for hours together, on account of the taste which

56

NATURAL PRODUCTIONS—TIMBER.

it leaves upon the tongue'. The gum and resin diffuse them
selves over the whole tree. The cone and the leaf are equally
tinctured with it, and it may be seen exuding from the tips of
the leaves on the highest branches. This tree flourishes on the
sides of steep hills and in the bottom of deep ravines, and
always on a stiff, hard, clayey soil. The roots of the Kauri, as

of every other tree in New Zealand, are very much upon the
surface of the earth, with here and there a fibre striking deeply
into the ground. This is a difficulty which those have to con
tend with, who are passing through a working in a forest.

Tanekaha (Podocarpus asplenifolius, or Phyllocladus
trichomanoides).—This regular, beautiful, and highly ornamen
tal tree. is found on hilly lands, or in dry, shaded woods. Its
general height is about forty-five feet; and its girth, or circum
ference, tWO feet. The bark is plain, and light coloured, ringed
at about six inches, and forming distinct flakes up to the
branches of the tree: the leaf-stem is about four inches; and
each one has nine or eleven small umbelliferous leaves, like

those of the parsley, growing upon it. The wood is a shade
darker than the Kauri; it has a closer grain, smells strongly
of turpentine, is less affected with wet than any other pine, and
is an exceedingly valuable wood. It is used for all kinds of
outside work, such as posts, and floors for verandahs; and is

much sought after for the decks of vessels. The tree is not so
plentiful as the Kauri: and is not of sufficient magnitude for
masts of any but small craft.
Totara (Tammy—This tree, when full grown, is about
twenty feet in circumference, and from fifty to sixty feet high
in the trunk. It has a coarse light-coloured bark, very thick
and heavy; and has the appearance of having been chopped
through, at small intervals, with an axe.

It flourishes in

‘dry soil and on rising ground, but is sometimes found on the
banks of rivers. The wood is inclining to red, splits freely, is
very hard, but works well. Its foliage forms a thick handsome
crown at the top of the tree, and is much like that of the yew.
This tree does not appear to be subject to the same diseases as
others of the same species, as it is mostly found in a very round
and perfect state. Its roots are high out of the ground, and
the fibres are remarkably thick and strong: they spread them
selves over a great surface of earth, and are detrimental to the
growth of the underwood, with which most of the forests in

New Zealand abound.
‘ Mr. Darwin states that the resin is collected and sold at a penny 3
round to the Americans, bntits useis kept secret.

NATURAL 'PRODUCTIONS—TlMBER.

Kahikatea (Trem'perus, or Dacrydium excelsum).——This
tree only flourishes in low, swampy, or alluvial soils; and
never in thick and shady woods. It has a very imposing
appearance when it stands alone, having atrunk branchless
for seventy or eighty feet, and then a beautiful head rising to a
point; the leaves being sharp and prickly, of the same cha

racter as those of the Totara, only longer and narrower. It
bears a red berry; of which the natives are particularly fond,
and which has latterly become an article of barter among them
selves. The first visitors to New Zealaud were much disap
pointed in this tree. It is, what has commonly been called, the
white pine ; but it is of so soft and spongy a nature, as to rotin
a few months, if exposed to the weather. It absorbs so much
wet, that, in the damp climate of New Zealand it is almost

impossible to season it; and from its having been exported.
and strongly recommended for building purposes, it quickly
brought the pines of this country into disrepute. Now, how
ever. it is never out down for use, except by these persons who
are not acquainted with its nature, or who have no scruples
in substituting it in the place of more durable woods, which,

in many situations, it is more difficult to obtain. The tree
grows with great rapidity, quickly comes to perfection, and as
quickly decays.
Rimu ( Dacrydium eupressimum).—This elegant tree comes
to its greatest perfection in shaded woods and in moist rich
soil. lts topmost branches are not more than eighty feet from
the ground; and the diameter of its trunk seldom exceeds
four feet. Its foliage is remarkably graceful and beautiful,
especially in its shrubbery days. Its leaves are only small
prickles, running up a long stem, from which, towards the top,
branch out several other small stems, whose united weight
causes the main stem to hang like the branches of the weeping
willow, or acluster of ostrich feathers; and the beauty of the

whole is heightened by the liveliness of the colour with which
it is decorated. It has a dark scaly bark, and its wood is in
clining to red, without any particular marks of grain. It is
hard and difficult to work, being brittle; but its qualities are not
sutiiciently known, to make it, as yet, much sought after.
There is, however, no doubt that it will be found a serviceable

and enduring wood. Itemits a. strong resinous and turpentine
smell; and a little resin sometimes eozes from the upper
branches.

The tree is plentiful in the forests, where the soil

is not clayey.
Main, a tree of the Podocarpus species, growing from forty
to sixty feet high, but never arriving at a larger circumference
r:

38

NATURAL PRODUCTIONS—TIMBER.

than twelve feet. Its bark is peculiarly clean, and resembles
that of a healthy young oak, or the Tanekaha, when a shrub.
It produces a brittly, close-grained, durable wood, of a red
colour, planes up smoothly, and appears capable of receiving

a high polish.

It flourishes best in rich soils, and seems to

require much moisture.

It has a spiral leaf, long and narrow,

of a. pale bright green. The wood is too brittle for the cabinet
maker, or it would not be a bad substitute for mahogany.
Another objection to its use, for articles of household furniture,
except fixtures, is its weight.
Tarairi (Lam-us macrophylla).—This tree grows to the
height of from fifty to seventy feet, and its trunk measures

in diameter not more than thirty-six inches; its wood is light
and spongy, and by no means durable; it grows in all soils.
but seems to prefer those which are dry and gravelly ; it flowers
and bears fruit in September, October, and November.

Its

berries are black, exactly resembling the damson in size and
appearance; they are fed upon with avidity by the Wild pigeons,
but are noxious to man; these berries have a very inviting
appearance,—their beauty, however, is only superficial, for
immediately under the surface is a hard rough husk, prickly to
the touch and disagreeable to the taste; its bark is smooth and
inclining to gray ; its leaves are like those of the finest, largest,
and most brilliant English laurel; and the tree is, altogether,
one of the most splendid ornaments of the woods.
Tawa (Laurus town), is a frequenter of damp and deeply
shaded woods, with leaf" and branches similar to those of the
Mairi tree, the branches a little more straggling, and not quite
so robust; its wood is light, and on account of the facility with
which it splits, is used by the natives for their short fences;
they use it by pointing the end and driving it into the ground.
It decays in the course of two years, and becomes perfectly
useless; but as the Aborigines of this country seldom cultivate
one spot for a longer period than two successive years, they do
not experience the inconvenience which must otherwise accrue
from the rapid decay of the Wood ; it would make good lining
for weather-board houses, or would answer in any situation

where not exposed to damp; it produces a berry about the size
of a small sloe, which is eaten, when boiled, by the natives: the

process of boiling extracts the poison which abounds in this
fruit in its native state.
Puriri (Vite: littoralis).—This tree, from its hardness

and durability, has been denominated the New Zealand Oak;
and indeed it seems to answer all the purposes of that prince
oftrees.

The wood is ofa dark brown colour, close in the grain,

NATURAL PRODUCTIONli—TIMBER.

and takes a good polish; it splits freely, and works well; and
may be used with advantage for all outside work, as it does
not injure from exposure to the damp; and twenty years' ex
perience has proved that in that time it will not rot, though
in a wet soil under the ground. For ship-building it is a most
valuable wood; as the injury which it has received from being
perforated in various places by a large worm peculiar to the tree,
does not essentially diminish its value for the timbers of ships
or for the knees of boats. On first examining a Puriri log,

you wuuld be inclined to reject it, on account of the many
large holes that at once present themselves to notice; but, on
further examination, it is found that the perforations do not
proceed from the rot, and that the wood which remains is of
great value, though it must sometimes be cut up to disad
vantage. These defects in the trunk of the tree make it una
vailable for working up into household furniture or for boards;
but no plant in New Zealand furnishes such excellent mate
rials for the ground-plates of houses, or for posts and rails for
fences: it also answers well for the wood-work of a plough.
It grows from fifteen to thirty feet without abranch, and varies
from twelve to twenty feet in circumference. The branches are
crooked, ditfuse, and robust: the leaves are large, and of a deep

bright green, growing three and live together; its bark is rough
and gray, and is generally covered with a short dry moss; it
flowers in September and October, and flourishes" best in a
deep rich soil. Its roots are‘much on the surface; and it is
more liable than any other tree to be prostrated to the earth by
a g ale.
Rewarewa (Km'ghtia' excelsa).-—This tree is found in dry
forests, and where the soil is loose and gravelly in its texture.
It flowers in November and December, and is a fine umbra

geous tree, with large pale-green leaves, rough, and jagged, like
a saw at the edges. The wood is beautifully variegated, being

mottled with red, upon a ground of light brown. It splits
freely, and were it of sufficient dimensions, would make elegant
furniture, or cabinet articles. Its bark is clear, and of a light
brown colour. The height of the tree when full-grown, is from
fifty to sixty feet, and its diameter from eighteen to thirty
inches. From the freeness with which it splits, it is of much
use for paling-fence, but never for shingles, on account of its
so readily twisting with the sun: indeed, the tree is not of suffi
cient magnitude to answer at all the purpose of shingles. It
is durable for all inside work, and would everywhere he consi

dered a handsome wood.

0
E ..

40

NATURAL PRODUCTIONS—TIMBER.

Kawaka (Dacrydium plumosum), is a tree growing about
thirty feet high, and from one to three feet in diameter, with a
rough dark bark, and a foliage not very unlike fern. It is a
beautifully grained wood, close and heavy, and would make
elegant picture frames, where they were required of a deep
stain.

It is, however, only the lower part of the trunk of the

tree which is so dark and close in the grain; the higher you
ascend toward the branches, the lighter both in weight and
colour, and consequently, for the purpose above mentioned, the
less valuable. The wood in the lower part of the tree much
resembles the tulip-wood of Moreton Bay, New South Wales,

though not quite so dark and heavy.
Miro (Podocarpus_ferruginea).—This plant grows to the
height of from forty to fifty feet, with a diameter of not more
than thirty inches, except in extraordinarily large specimens.
It flourishes in all the forests, and in every description of soii.

It produces a fine red berry, the principal and most nourishing
food of the wood-pigeon during the season. The wood is smooth,
close-grained, and dark, for a pine splits freely, and has a large
long grain similar to that of the mahogany. The smallness of
the dimensions of this tree subtracts much from its utility as
timber, to which name, perhaps, it scarcely can be said to make
any pretensions. The leaf is like that of the fir tree; and its
bark is clear and smooth as the bark of the ash. For durability,
as a species of the pine, it far exceeds any other, and would be

much sought after and preferred, were it not for the scantiness
of its circumference.
Towai.-—A tree ofthe Podocarpus species, with adark-brown
bark, and a leafsimilar to, and about the size of, the moss rose.

It grows from twenty to thirty feet high,without abranch, and
then becomes thickly foliated. Its bark is smooth, and similar
to that of the ash. It produces a heavy close-grained red wood,
answering all the purposes of the New South Wales cedar, but.
much more durable and weighty. It grows in all the small
forests where there is no Kauri, and where the soil is light and
vegetable in its nature.

This tree is also but of small dimen

sions, and is, consequently, generally allowed to remain an un
disturbed occupier of its native woods.
Pohutukaua (Callistemon ellipticus).--This is a tree of
remarkably robust habits, and difi'use irregular growth, and
is found on the rocky shores of most of the bays and harbours
of the Northern islands of New Zealand. Indeed, it flourishes
best on these rocks where it would appear impossible that a
plant of such large dimensions should receive any sustenance,

NATURAL PRODUCTLONS—TIMDER.
41
aeinothing is visible but the barren rock. to which it has
attached itself: its leaves are large and of a very deep green:
in December and January it puts out large quantities of
flowers of the most splendid crimson colour, larger than a
good-sized rose, and of the class Polyandria, having an im
mense number of stamens, with a little dust clingingto the top
of each. The bark of this tree is gray, and the wood brittle,
hard, heavy, and dark. It is very dilficult to work, from its
hardness, as it breaks or turns the edges of almost all the tools

used in preparing it. It receives the finest polish, and would
be taken for a very handsome rosewood—as a substitute for
which it answers well.

It is one of the most durable, as well

as the darkest and hardest woods of New Zealand. It some
times grows to four or five feet in diameter, but is crooked and
mis-shapen.
Aki, called the Lignum vita: of New Zealand, from its
hardness, weight, and colour, is useless for all common pur
poses, and is very difficult to Work. It is a crooked short tree,
scarcely more than a useful shrub, being not of larger diameter
than from six inches to a foot. lts wood takes the most beau
tiful polish, and its grain seems to be only acontinuation of
hard knots, which gives it a peculiar but very beautiful ap
pearance when wrought. 1t resembles the tulip-wood of Aus~
tralia. If sent to England, it would be a most valuable wood
for making elegant cabinets and Work-boxes; but the patience
of the artist would be severely put to the test, from the hard

ness and brittleness of the material which he would have to
work.
Kahikatoa (Leptospermum scoparium).—A tree of stunted
growth, flourishing in clayey barren soils, and producing a
hard red wood.

From the berries which it hears, it has been

designated the tea-tree. It does not grow above eighteen
inches in diameter. It is sometimes used by the natives for the
corner posts of their larger fences, but it would not answer
for this purpose if nails were used by them, as the wood is so

hard as to resist a hail of large dimensions. It is a sure sign
of a barren soil when the Kahikatoa is found in plenty; for
though it grows to its greatest size in rich woods, it is very
rarely seen but upon the most barren and useless plains, which
will scarcely produce any other plant or shrub. It has a very
small leaf, and bears a white blossom all the year round. The
pertume which it exhales is very fragrant, and spreads itself
for a long distance from the place where the plant grows.
Kohekohe (Laurus kohekohe.)-——A fine handsome tree,

with a trunk free of branches to a height of forty feet, and a
E3

42

NATURAL PRODUCTIONS—TIMBER.

diameter of three feet, producing a fine-grained red wood,
closer than the cedar, and rather heavier than that wood.

Its

bark is clear, it splits freely, and will no doubt answer well for
all common household furniture. Its leaf has the colour, the
shape, and the gloss of the laurel; and its roots are more
expansive, and cover a larger surface, than those of any other
tree of this country. In cutting roads through the woods, this
plant forms a great obstruction, on account of the immense size

and hardness of its roots.
Mahoe (Melicytus ramiflorus), has a thin, spiral, and

elegant leaf, and grows to a height of not more than fifty feet,
with a circumference of about six feet. The bark is smooth
and light, and the wood which it furnishes is rather heavier
than the Rima; it works short, and will not take a. good
polish. Its habits are not robust, and it requires a rich alluvial
soil to bring it to anything like perfection.
Hinau (Dicera dentata).—This tree is also partial to a
rich alluvial soil; it grows to the height of sixty or seventy feet,
having a circumference of about twelve feet. The wood of this
plant is remarkable for its whiteness, but is almost useless on
account of the way in which it splits when exposed to either
wet or warmth.

lts chief use is, that it makes an excellent

dye, either a light brown or puce colour, or a deep black, not
removable by washing. The natives use it, (that is, the outer
skin of the bark.) for the purpose of dyeing the black threads
of their garments. It only requires to be pounded and thrown
into water, and the article to be dyed immersed in the infu
sion ; of course according to the strength is the deepness of the
colour. The leaf of this tree is spiral, and of a bright green;
and the bark rough-looking and unsightly.
Matai (Tazus malai).—-A plant with a small yew-tree leaf,
a strong smell, and a rough bark. Its wood is peculiarly
coloured, being a mixture of red and white, forming a few
shades deeper than the grain of the kauri. Its habits are
rather robust; it prefers a rich alluvial soil; grows to a height

of fifty feet; and measures in diameter from three to five feet.
The wood is considered durable, and has the advantage of
being easily worked; it is not, however, as yet much known.
Rata (genus unknown).‘—This a fine and useful tree,

producing a heavy, close-grained, durable red“ wood, capable
of being turned to almost any purpose of household work, and
valuable to the ship-builder, who may find its branches curved
to his hand, and requiring but little of the labour of the axe to
ft Rafa, according to Mr. M‘Donnell, is rather brown than red, and like
the live oak.

NATURAL PRODUCTIONHIMBEB.

_- 43

form it to his purpose. It. is found in perfection, of all sizes
and heights, from twenty to seventy feet high, and from eight
een inches to seVen feet in diameter. 1t prefers a. dry stony
soil, and varies the pleasantness of its appearance, according to
the regular or irregular shape of its trunk. Its branches gene—
rally shoot from the top of the main stem, and put forth to
some height before a leaf appears. The leaves are small, in
the shape of the box, tufted at the top of the tree, forming
a crown, and in the distance appear like a cluster of palms
growing out of one large stem, rising far above the parent
stock by which they are supported.
Besides the trees already mentioned, there are many others
of the same character, differing but little in the nature of the
wood, and in the purposes for which they can be used. It would
require years to discover the nature of the various trees which
flourish in this land; but it will appear from the short and very
imperfect description given above, that though the Kauri is the
monarch of the forest, and the tree most sought after on account
of its immense size, there are others whose qualities for parti
cular purposes excel this. The Kauri would never alone answer
the purpose of ground-plates for a house; but when they are
laid of Puriri, a strong and enduring foundation for a weather
board building is obtained, and the whole superstructure, with
all the finishings, inside and outside, may be supplied with
advantage from the mighty trunk of this valuable pine. 1t
possesses also a value of which but few other trees can boast;
that is, the facility with which it can be worked, from the first
stroke at its roots with the axe, to the touch of the master
carpcnter, or the last finish of the accomplished artist.

‘Ve should add that the attention of the British
government has for some years past been turned to
the capabilities of the New Zealand woods, especially

the cowdie, which has been ascertained to be entirely
suitable to the important purposes of ship-building.
The cowdie is excellently fitted for masts and spars
for large ships, and has been found, on trial, to be of
equal gravity with Riga spars, and to ossess a greater
degree of flexibility, as well as strength, than the very

best species of fir procured from the north. The wood
is finer grained than any timber of the pine tribe,
and the trunks are of a suflicient size to serve forthe
main and’fore top masts of the largest three-(lockers,

4

NATURAL PRODUCTIONS-"FLAX.

The Board of Admiralty has lately been in the
frequent habit of procuring supplies of cowdie timber
by contract, for the use of the royal navy. Establish
ments have been formed for the purpose of procuring
spars for shipping, as well as timber for house-build
ing, and several vessels have been built in the New

Zealand rivers by English merchants, assisted by the
natives.
Flax, or the Pkormz'um tenaw, is another staple of

the country; it grows wild in all parts, and appears
to be indigenous and inexhaustible. It is of a. good
quality, and never fails in the European market, except
from the improper manner in which it is dressed by
the natives, who have no machinery, and satisfy them

selves with separating the fibres of the vegetable, and

rolling them upon their thigh with the hands.

The

fibre is, in fact, twice as strong as that of the common

flax, and very nearly equal in tenacity to that of silk.
At Sydney it is manufactured both into cordage, and
canvass; and if pro or machinery were introduced
into New Zealand, t ere can be little doubt that per~
sons livin upon the spot, and superintending their
own estasthments, would produce a very market
able commodity. It is now introduced into the
British navy, and experience has proved it to be very
serviceable. But this im ortant article of commerce
is now becoming so wel known, even in England,

that it is unnecessary to quote more authorities in
its favour.

Mr. Yate says, “The flax trade, on the

present system, cannot last long. The natives” wants
are supplied, and idleness will prevail over their desire
for luxury. Could the flax be properly prepared, it
would be an almost incalcnlable source of riches to
those engaged in it.” The same water-power appli
cable to saw-mills would propel the machinery neces
sary for dressin and spinning the flax.
‘fThe flax-p ant,” says Mr, M‘Donnell, “ grows in

xs'rumu. PRODUCTIONS—FLUK-

45

wild luxurianre throughout the three islands of New
Zealand; it is indigenous to the country, and peren
nial : the leaves averaging. from six to ten feet in
length. The plant throws an abundance of seed. The
hill-flax is of a finer texture, whiter, and stronger, than

that grown in the valleys, though the staple may not
be quite so long. W'ith attention to the cutting of
the flax in the proper season, and common care paid to
its cultivation, I feel convinced of its superiority over
that of Russia and Manilla; it possesses all the flexi—
bility of the former, it is free from the wiry brittleness
of the latter. I can have no hesitation in asserting
that thousands of tons of this valuable article of com

merce may be shipped 01? annually from New Zealand
to the mother-country; nor do I assert this merely
from my own observation and knowledge ofthe country,
but I am borne out by the information that I have
received from several of the chiefs and intelli ent
natives, with whom I have conversed on this subJect.
I might safely say, that New Zealand could supply
all Europe with ease. Fair play has not generally
been given to the flax sent home m'zi Sydney; in many
instances the plant has not been cut in the proper
season—a very material point, for then the flax. is
coarse and wiry, the fibres ragged and not easily
cleaned, the staple short, and the colour foxey. Ano
ther cause that has operated to render the New Zealand
flax objectionable at home, is the twisting of the sta la

in packing, which prevents the flax hackling free y:
not packing it thoroughly dry, and allowing the pres
sure of the screw to be on the bend. Out the plant
at the right season, let the flax be well dried, carefully
packed in lengths, and screwed; then the superiority of
the New Zealand hemp over that of Europe will be
manifest, and those prejudices that once existed will
vanish for ever. All the standing and part of_ the
running rigging of the Sir George Murray, a ship of

46

NATURAL Pnooucrioms~rmx.

400 tons, belonging to myself, was laid up from New
Zealand flax: it had been over the mast heads for
nearly three years. I can state, that better rope never
crossed a. ship’s mast-head. I have experienced some
very heavy gales in the Sir George Murray, conse
quently the rigging had been well tried ; when lifted
and examined, it was found (barring being slightly
chafed) as good as when first put over: the running
rigging wore uncommonly well. Her spars, one and
all, were of New Zealand pine (cowdie); they were
faultless. Cordage and fishing-lines, made from good
New Zealend flax, has been proved to be far more

durable
any made
from Euro
can M‘Donnell
hemp.”
The than
preceding
statement
of illir.
is
confirmed by the evidence of Charles Enderhy, Esq.,
before the Lords“ Committee, from which the follow

ing is an extract :—
Has the New Zealand flex been within your knowledge
used for cordage ?———It has; we have used it of our own manu
facture, and we use it now. It is brought over in a very rough
state. It has not been generally introduced, from its having
been imported in a very indifferent state. This is the state in
which it comes over (producing a sample).
Is it not like ordinary flax P—No, it is not; it is the

Phorinium tenax.
You say you have manufactured it; to what purposes have
you applied it?—For rope. It has been manufactured in a
variety of different ways; it has been manufactured with tar
alone. The fibre is naturally a Very harsh and hard fibre;
with tar it is still border. It has been manufactured with a
species of ceoutchouc or Indian rubber; when immersed in
water the caoutchouc separates from it and floats at the top;
the fibre is no longer protected. We have combined a compo
sition of caeutchouc with the tar, and find that answer; but

there has been a great prejudice against the flax in consequence
of its having been badly prepared.

1t retains a sort of brittleness ?--It does if prepared in a
particular way.
Did-you ever try it with Kyan’s patent P—No, I have not.
We use it forsvhale lines; we prefer it for whale lines to any
other description of rope, and the whale lines fire the must 1m.

NATURAL PRODUCTIONS—FLAX.

47

portant lines we have in our vessel. A whole school of whales
may be lost by the parting of a whale line: property to the
amount of 20001. or 30001. may depend perhaps on a whale
line.
New Zealand flax does not fetch so good a price as other
flax, does it?———I think it does not; the greater part we have
purchased, and we have purchased extensively, varied from 171.
to 24L per ton.
Captain-Harris of the Navy was one of the persons that
took great interest in attempting to bring it into use in the
Navy, was he not?-—Yes; it was at his instance we first com

menced rope-making, using that flax.
Do you conceive that the objection to the New Zealand
flax has arisen from the inferiority of the article, or its having

been badly prepared ?———Its having been badly prepared.
Do you conceive that it will become an article of consider

able export ?—-I have no doubt of it; the last year there has
not been a single bale imported into this country.
Do you think any has been sent to any other country?
-—I think some has been sent to France, but I do not think
it has been sent in any great quantity; some has been sent
from this country to France.
Do you, in your firm, make use of New Zealand fiax?
——VVe do ; we prefer it to Russian hemp.
Can you get it much cheaper than the Russian hemp?
——It costs us less than the Russian hemp does; not per ton,
but because the same length is lighter; it does not weigh so
much per ton ; it is more costly, but we can get for the same
weight an increased length and an'increased strength.
Are you aware whether the Yacht Club have used any of

this hemp P—They have.
Do you know whether they are satisfied with it ?——I
believe not.

Do you know whether it was prepared properly ?——It was
prepared under Captain Harris‘s patent. We worked Captain
Harris's patent for some time. The Vernon frigate had some
manufactured on Captain Harris's principle; we used it our
selves; we were the first year extremely favourable to it; the
fibre was extremely soft, and the cordage softer than cordage
usually is; but we found the whole of the solution separate
from the flax, and it was condemned.

Afterwards we intro

duced tar, but the prejudice was so strong against the flax, that
it is a very difficult thing to introduce it again to parties who

are so prejudiced against it; but I should particularly impress

48

NATURAL PRODUCTIONS—CORN, are.

upon your Lordships, that for whale lines it is considerably
preferable to any other, and those are most important in our
trade. I prefer it on account of its strength and its pliability
also.
Is'_it to be bought manufactured into cordage P—Yes, we
make it ourselves; but there has not been a bale imported this
last year.
There might be a great quantity bought?——Yes, an un—
limited quantity.
Has there not been a strong opinion expressed that it might
be grown in parts of Ireland ?——I believe it is growing now in
parts of Ireland.
Do you think it might be improved by cultivation ?—I do
not know that it might be improved by cultivation; I believe it
might be improved by treatment immediately after it was cut.
Does it suffer from the way in which it is picked ?——In
doubling it, the part outside. if wet gets to it, is destroyed.
There are two descriptions of New Zealand flax; some growing
on the marshes and some on the hills.

Is there a difference in the colour ?——-There is a consider
able difierence.

The fern root, of which there are some fifty or
sixty species, covers the plains very extensively, and
formerly was a more important part of the ordinary
food of the New Zealanders than it is at present, when

so many other articles have been made available for
that purpose. “The New Zealand potato (red and
white),” says Mr. M‘Donnell, “ needs no praise of
mine; there are two crops of them annually.

There

are also two crops of the kumera. (red and white): it
is a species of the sweet potato, smaller, though far
superior in every way; it may be eaten either raw or
bailed, is very nutritious, and contains a great portion
of saccharine matter.” Large quantities of Indian corn
are now raised; and there is no lack of cabbages, greens,
turnips, a particularly fine species of the yarn, with

other esculent roots.

Peaches are plentiful in the

season at Hokianga; figs, grapes, oranges, melons, and

the Cape gooseberry, thrive uncommonly well. There
are several species of the native fruit, very pleasant

NATURAL PRODUCTIONS—THE vmr, are.

49

and grateful to the taste. Strawberries and raspberries
grow in abundance.
Among the edible lants, for which we are in
debted to New Zealand, is the summer spinach (Tetra

gom'a ezpansa), which was discovered in Cook’s first
voyage, by Sir Joseph Banks.

Its chief advantage

lies in the leaves being fit for use during the summer,

in dry weather, when the common spinach is useless,
though, perhaps, not of so fine a flavour asthat plant.
There are also many other indigenous shrubs, and
fruits, among which is a spruce-tree, from which Ca
tain Cook made beer; and a tea-tree, which is said

to form a good substitute for tea.
New Zealand is fitted by nature for the production
in abundance of those three articles, which have always
been regarded as the especial signs of the plenty,wealth,
and luxury of a country,—-corn, wine, and oil. Its

fertile plains adapt it to the eas cultivation of grain,
for the surplus production of which it will possess a
ready market, from its vicinity to New South Wales
and Van Diemen’s Land, where, from the high profits
of wool-growing, grain from foreign countries will
always find a ready demand. And the New Zealand
harvests may be safely anticipated to be free from the
influence of those destructive droughts, which must
ever be ruinous to the prospects of agriculture in Aus
tralia. The vine has been already found to thrive
luxuriantly in the islands, and the possibility of its
successful cultivation, both for home consumption and
commerce, admits of no doubt. We have previously

cited the proof of a strong resemblance to the volcanic
Soil of Italy, in the Northern Island; and there is good
reason to believe that the wines, not only of Italy, but
of Spain, Portugal, and the South of France, might be

brought to as great perfection as in those countries.
Finally, the latitude and climate are suitable to the
olive, the plant, par ewvellenee, of the sweet South,
F

50

NATURAL PRODUCTIONS—MINERALS.

and the ancient emblem, at once of plenty, and oi
peace*.
Among the mineral productions actually disco
vered are, iron in abundance, coal, bitumen, freestone,

marble, and the urest sulphur. The natives use 2
blue igment, which would seem to be manganese, and
a va uable greenstone is found exclusively in the
Southern Island, which has thus received from the

natives the name of “ Tewai Pounamu,” or the place
of greenstone. This substance is soft when first dug
up, but by exposure to the air, becomes as hard as

a ate, and semi-transparent. The whole country
a ounds in clay, fit for brick-making, and other pur

ses. Beyond these facts, we are at present able to
afford little positive geolo ical information. But a
skilful geologist accompanied the expedition to New
Zealand, from whose reports we may acquire a more
correct and extensive knowledge of the strata, and

mineral wealth, of the country than had previously
reached Europe.
'I' The following suggestions will be them] worthy the attention of mi
grants. The chief articles of produce to be first thought of are such as, 1. call
for little labour; 2. are not bulky for exportation; 8. suitable for consumption
in the colony; 4. afl‘ording aquick return.

Fruit-trees have the first requisite. Ifan emigrant takes out a few bushels
of almonds (which we now import from Sicily) they will soon be hearing
trees, and either the fruit or the oil is a good article of export. From a
hundred Weight of raisins of the sun, (from the seeds of which a good vino has
been known to be raised) he might sow several acres: it would be needful

only to plant out the seedlings at the end of the year, and then let them stay
till they had borne fruit enough to judge of: perhaps one in a hundred would
be worth keeping, and the rest being rooted up, their places might be supplied

with cuttings from the good sorts, and in a few years there would be a flourish—
ing vineyard. Or from any of the wine countries the more might be procured
in a dry state, (it is for fuel they keep it,) which contains all the grape stones.
Of walnuts the some may be said as of almonds; very profitable in Switzerlandv
The kumera or sweet potato, which is well known in New Zealsnd, has been
found in America, to make beer exactly like malt; five bushels being equi.

vnlent to three.

The olive when once established may be propagated quickly by Cuttings;
as also the fig.

l’limis to be transported by sea should be covered over with a glass her
metically sealed; and never uncovered till they arrive.

NATURAL PRODUCTIONS—ANIMALS.

It is remarkable that there are no native quadru

peds.

The first pigs were left in the islands by Cap

tain Cook, and are now numerous, and highly valued.

Some of the hogs grow to an enormous size,

Dogs

abound, especially at the Bay of Islands; but these

animals are not natives, and from the Spanish name
pro, assigned to them, have been supposed to have

been introduced by Juan Fernandez. The cat (pubilsi)
is eaten by the natives, and its skin is highly prized.
The New Zealand rat, (More) which is also an article
of food, was probably imported by European vessels.
The cattle that have been introduced thrive well, and
the soil being Well adapted for grasses, would unques
tionably supply provender for stock to almost any

extent.

Whether New Zealand is destined to com

pete with the Australian colonies, as a pastoral country,
may perhaps be questionable; but there is much open
country, such as the plains about Cook’s Straits, which
is favourable both to the constitution of the sheep, and

the growth of wool.

Dr. Lang mentions that ten

bales of wool of superior quality had been forwarded
to Sydney, from a missionar estate in the Northern
Island, and had fetched a big price: and that wool of
equally good quality had been produced in the Island
of Manha, Cook’s Straits. A small consignment of
New Zealand wool has also lately arrived in London,
which has been pronounced, by competent judges, to

surpass both in length of staple, and fineness of tex
ture, any wool ever produced in New South Wales.
The abundance of water in New Zealand, will afford
peculiar facilities for washing and sorting wools for
foreign markets.

There do not appear to be any indigenous reptiles,
with the single exception of a species of lizard. No
snakes, or venomous creatures, of any description,

have hitherto been seen.

The native birds are very numerous, and the
F ‘2
\ .

52

NATURAL PRODUCTIONS ——BIRD8.

music of the woods is dwelt upon with rapture by
travellers. Captain Cook says, “ The ship lay at the
distance of somewhat less than a quarter of a mile
from the shore (in Queen Charlotte‘s Sound), and in

the morning we were awakened by the singing of the
birds; the number was incredible, and they seemed
to strain their throats in emulation of each other.
This wild melodywas infinitely superior to any that
we had ever heard of the same kind; it seemed to be

like small bells most exquisitely tuned; and perhaps
the distance, and the water between, might be no

small advantage to the sound. Upon inquiry we
found that the birds here always began to sing about
two hours after midnight, and continuing their music
till sunrise, were, like our nightingales, silent the rest

of the day.”

The feathered tribe, especially of the Southern
Island, is yet imperfectl known to naturalists. The
wild-fowl, however, suc as ducks, geese, woodcocks,
curlews, and snipes, are consumed in abundance; and

the pigeons are described as peculiarly beautiful in
plumage, and exquisitely delicious to the taste. The
most com lete account that we have met with of the
New Zea and birds, is that of Mr. Yate, from which

we have abridged the following list.
Tull—This remarkable ,bird, from the versatility of its

talent for imitation, has, by some, been called the “Mocking
Bird ;“ and, from its peculiar plumage, has by others been de
nominated “the Parson Bird." It is so restless in its dispo
sitionI as to seem incapable of remaining in one situation, or
unemployedyfor a single moment. There is not a note of any
bird of the woods but what it exactly imitates; and, when con
fined in a cage, it learns with great ease and correctness to
speak long sentences. It imitates dogs, cats, turkeys, geese,
and, in fact, every sound which is repeated a few times in its
hearing. Its size is that of the thrush; and its plumage a
beautiful glossy black, with a few very fine white hairy‘fea
thers, scattered about the head and breast, a wa stronger

NATURAL

PRODUCTIONSwBIRDS.

ones about the nostrils, and two small clusters of long white

feathers hanging down from the neck upon the breast, resem
bling a pair of clerical bands. Its eye is penetrating, and its
voice peculiarly mellow. Its general food is flies and small
insects, which it is very expert in catching, supplying itself in
a very short time with great abundance. It also feeds upon
the berries of various plants, and will not reject earth-worms.
This bird seems to associate with every other warbler 0f the
woods; and, next to the grouiid-lark, is found in the greatest
number of all the birds in New Zealand. It is delicious eating.
It seems to be of a tender constitution, short-lived, and not

ub‘e to bear the extremes of heat or cold.
Koukou.—The bird so called is a small owl, a native of
New Zealand, and partakes of all the characters of a common
British owl. Its habits are the same; concealing itself in holes
of trees, or in the deep recesses of the woods, during the day,
and going out at night to seek for its prey. Its name has been
given to it as an imitation of its cry.
Powaitere.—A Parrot, or Paroquet. Of these birds there
are several kinds, all of them small, though differing in size;
and, with the exception of the Kaka, are nearly the some in

plumage; a bright green, yellow or red under the throat and
tail, and red or yellow about the head. They build their nests
in holes of trees, and associate in flocks.

Kaka.—-A bird of the parrot kind, much larger than any
other New Zealand parrot, but possessing all their mischievous
qualities, and capable of learning to imitate the human voice to
an astonishing degree. lts feathers are of a dark russet colour;
round the neck, upon the thighs, and under the tail, beautifully

tinged and spotted with deep red. It has a large round dark
eye, and the feathers encircling it are shaded with a mixture
of yellow and red. This bird feeds upon all kinds of fruit, ber
ries, and farinaceous roots.

It bites holes in trees, in which it

makes its nest; laying four, and sometimes five eggs, per
fectly white. The cry of this bird, when ranging at large in
the woods, is harsh and disagreeable in the extreme.
The Kokorimako is about the size of the sparrow, with a

small, oblong, dark eye; plumage, a dark brown, tinged with
green; with a long beak, gradually coining to a sharp point,
and a little curved in the middle. The male is larger, has
brighter colours, and more green in its plumage, than the
female.
Tataiat0.—-A small bird, about the size of the wren; its

feathers very fine in texture, of a. dusky brown colour; the

head and breast inclining to white.

3
1,

5 4:

NATURAL l’RODUUl‘IONSJ—BLRDS.

Tiaki, or Purourou.-—This elegant bird is about the size
of the sky-lark; and its plumage, for which it is remarkable,
is of a glossy black, except the outer feathers on the back and
wings, which are of a deep dusky red, and give it:a peculiar
appearance. Its legs are strong and black, and its beak like
that of the sterling. Its flesh is delicate.
Ngirungiru.—It is a very small bird, not larger than the
tom-tit: its plumage is black and white, having awhite breast,

and some of the near feathers of each wing tinged with white.
It has yellow feet, and a short round black beak.
Toutuuwai.—-This bird is nearly the siZe of the sparrow;
a little more round in its figure. but about the same length. It
has a short strong beak, dark eye, and a short straight tail: its
feathers are dark, tinged with white about the breast and tail,

with small light-coloured downy feathers hanging over the
wings and tail,which give the bird a'peculiarly plump appear
ant-c.
Piripiri.—A small bird, three inches long; with brown

plumage, tinged with yellow and dark purple.
Its beak
is half an inch long, and very slender. The outer feathers
on the breast are white; legs of a dark brown; and the feet
l'ellow.
Parera, or Wiltl-Duck.-Tliese birds exactly resemble the
common English wildduck.

They are of a fine flavour, and

abound in all the rivers and lakes in New Zealand. In the
Thames they are particularly tame, and plentiful. In almost
every other river, north of the Thames, they are remarkable

for their timidity and wildness.
Piwakau'alca, or Tirakaralca.—This restless little bird is

continually on the wing, or hopping from twig to twig. It has
a head like the bulfinch, with one black and one white streak
under the neck, coming to a point in the centre of the throat.
Its wings are very sharp and pointed, and as it hops from

spray to spray, it spreads its tail in the form ofa fan.

Its

plumage is black and white; and its food, flies and small leaf'

insects, which it pursues and catches with astonishing rapidity.
It is a very bold and daring bird, and will fly so close to you,
as to allow you to strike it down or catch it with the hand. The
natives seldom harm them, as they destroy so many sandflies
and musqnitoes.
.Riroriro.-—-A very small brown bird, with white feathers
under the wings and tail. The plumage on the breast is of a
lighterbrown than on any other part of the body.
_ P_Ih¢_)th0i.-—This bird resembles the canary in shape and
file: it is, however, no songster, and its plumage'is a spotted

Wi

NATURAL PRODUCTIONS-Drill" )8.

brown. It would not be improperly designated, if called the
Ground-lark, which it very much resembles.
Kiwi.—The most remarkable and curious bird in New
Zealand. It is about the size of a three-months'-old turkey,
and is covered with feathers, coarse, long, and slender, similar

to those of the emus of New Holland. Its beak is precisely
the same as that of the curiew, and is used to thrust into the
ground for earth-worms, upon which it feeds. The eyes are
always blinking; the head is small in proportion to the bird,
and from the nostrils grow out several long black hairs or feelers,
like the whiskers ot' a cat; its legs are short. remarkably strong
for the size of the bird, and are of the gallinaceous character.
It has no appearance of either wing or tail. It makes a kind
ofhissing noise when in search of prey, and strikes the ground
with its strong heavy feet, to rouse the earth-worms, and put
them in motion. Its sense of smelling appears to be very acute.
These birds hide themselves during the day, and come out, of

their retreats, which are generally small holes in the earth, or
under stones, at night, to seek for their food. They run very
i'ast and are only to be caught by dogs, by torch-light, which
they sometimes kick and bruise severely. They are highly
prized, when taken, which is very rarely, by the natives, and
their skins are kept, until a sufiicient number are collected to
make a garment. The flesh is black, sinewy, tough, and taste~
less. There are but few of these birds to be met with north
of Hikurangi, a large mountain at the East Cape; but in this

place they abound, and are generally larger than in any other
part of the island.
Malata.—A smell dusky-coloured bird, with a white and
brown spotted breast; is beak like that of the canary-bird;

head long, and covered with light and dark-brown spotted
feathers.
Kauaua.-—A sparrow-hawk, nothing differing from the
sparrow-hawks of England. It is exceedingly swift of wing;
and but few birds that it pursues can escape its talons. It is
very elegant in its form and plumage; and but for its tiger-like
propensities would soon become a petted favourite.
Kahu.-—A large and poWerful bird, of the hawk species.
It has great strength of wing and talon; and alights with such
force upon its prey, as at one blow to sever the head from a
duck. or to slay outright a full-grown turkey.
Tatariki.—A small brown bird, with a white head. short

black beak, black legs, and brown feet, with four claws. It
resembles the tom-tit in shape; sings sweetly; but altogether
ceases its song during the three winter months.

56

NATURAL PRODUCTIONS—BIRDS.

[him—This bird is found only in the mountainous districts
of Taranaki, and further south than Waipu, or the East Cape.
It is a black bird, about the size of a nightingale, with long,

slender, yellowish legs and feet.

The plumage is of a glossy

black, and very fine: it has for its tail, four long, broad, black

feathers, tipped with white at the extremity, which gives it a
very liVely appearance. These feathers are much valued by the
natives. and are sent as presents to the natives of the Bay of
Islands, to ornament their hair, on grand occasions, or when

going out to battle.

The most remarkable feature in the ap

pearance of this bird, is the form of its beak. which is slender,

and resolves itself into an exact semicircle. It resides in deep
long grass; its food is worms and insects, with a small berry
called ponga. After the skin is taken oil“, which is always
done for the sake of wearing a tuft of feathers in the ear, the

flesh is delicious.
Pukeko.—~A species of water-hen, the size ofa well-grown

capon. It resides in the swamps; has very long red legs, with
three long toes and one short toe on each foot. The eye is
particularly small; the beak broad, very strong, and of a deep
crimson: the forehead bare of feathers, and of the same deep

crimson colour as the beak. The plumage of this bird is rather
coarse, ofa dark shaded brown, tinged with green, except the
neck and breast, which are of a deep and brilliant purple; it

has also a small tuft of fine white feathers under the tail, which
is very short. These birds are not strong in the wing, but some
times fly from their native retreats in the mot-asses, and rob the
potato-fields nearest their abode, at which time they are easily
snared, and great numbers taken.

The New Zealanders say

that the flesh is coarse and bitter, and is rejected by them as food.
Kukupa.—A large wood-pigeon, very plentiful in New Zea
land. This is one of the most beautiful birds the country pos
sesses. [t is much larger than the largest wild or tame pigeons
in England, and has a plumage unrivalled among the extensive
family of doves for splendour and variety; green, purple, and
gold are, however, the prevailing colours. It is a heavy-flying
bird, which makes it an easy prey to the hawks, with which
the woods abound. They are easily killed with a spear or a
musket; and if two birds are found upon the same tree, they
are either so sluggish or stupid as not to fly when one is either
killed or wounded. They feed upon the berries of the miro,
which are most delicious eating, and in season from January to

June. The natives destroy vast numbers of these birds, and
value.
them
much I on account of both the q uantit- y and q ualit y
of their
flesh.

NATU RAL PRODUCTIONS—Bl RDS.

57

Kotihe.—Tbis bird is about the size of the gold-finch ;‘ but
has a slender dark beak, nearly an inch long.

It is as beau

tiful as the linnet in plumage, and surpasses him in the delicacy
and elegance of its shape.
Kokako.—Called by some the New Zealand crow. Its
plumage is a very dark green, and is not much varied in any
part of the body.
Pipiwawaroa.—This is a bird of passage, and only remains
here during about three months of the high Summer. It is a
small bird, of very beautiful and varied plumage.

K0haper00.-—This bird is remarkable for its long body, and
short cook’s beak. Its plumage is spotted. This bird is one of
the sweetest songsters of the wood; but it is only seen or heard
for about four months in the height of Summer.
Tuturiwata.—This is a small delicate bird, not much
larger than the thrush. Its plumage is spotted brown.
The Takahikahi is nearly of the same size as the Tuturi
wata, with beak and legs precisely the same. It difiers from
it, however, his plumage, and in its general habits. It has
most beautifully spotted feathers, gold, light brown, and purple.
K otaretare.—This bird is a species of the king-fisher. It
is about the size of the jay, and its plumage is rich and varied.
Matuku urepo.-—This bird is a species of the crane; and
is upwards of three feet long and three feet in height. 1t
dwells in swamps and marshes, and is very timid.
Putot0.—A small black bird, about the size of the thrush,

found in the swamps of New Zealand, which it appears never
to leave.
Pukrmui.-—A bird so called from the largeness and rotun
dity of its breast, about the size of the crow. and remarkable for
the deep red with which the feathers are tinged upon the back
and under the wings.
Kannual—This birds answers nearest to the godwit of any
I am acquainted with. It feeds upon the sea-shore, and in
sandy grounds. It is much sought after by the natives; but
it is most difficult to procure, being roused by the slightest
noise, and very swift of wing.
There are not any sea birds, or birds which are confined to
the beach, that are peculiar to New Zealand. The rocks in the
bays and rivers abound with feathered inhabitants, who come
to make their nests, and rear their young. There are the petrel,
cormorant, curlew, a great variety of the shag and the alba
tross. the gannet and the penguin, the great auk and tern,
wrth all the variety of gulls. The albatross has been seen
measuring from tip to tip of the wing, sixteen, and from that

'

58

NATURAL PRODUCTIONS-FISH.

to nineteen feet, with a plumage most splendidly profuse, white
tinged with light pink. The natives of New Zealand are very
anxious to obtain these birds on account of their feathers.
They will remain out in their canoes many days, and think
themselves amply repaid if they should shoot or otherwise take
one. The down on the breast is the part must sought after.
They skin the bird, and hang the skin, with the feathers on it,

to dry in the sun; then cut the feathers off to ornament their
canoes, and cut into round tufts the skin with the down on,
which they place in their ears. the beautiful whiteness of the
down forming a striking contrast to the dirty face and black
hair of the wearer. The gannet and the penguin are the other
birds in the greatest request for their feathers. All the war
canoes are ornamented from stem to stem;

and when the

feathers are first laid on, look remarkably neat. Those with
which the handles of clubs are ornamented, are taken from
under the wing of the kaka, or great brown parrot.

From the accounts given by Captain Cook, and
reiterated by all subsequent writers, every part of the
coast, and all the inland waters, abound with excel
lent fish. “ The ship,” says Cook, “ seldom anchored
in any station, or with a light gale passed any place,

that did not afford us enough, with hook and line, to
serve the whole ship‘s company, especially to the
southward. Where we lay at anchor, the boats, with
book and line, near the rocks, could take fish in any

quantity, and the nets seldom failed of producing a'.
still more ample supply; so that, both times when we
anchored in Cook’s Strait, every mess in the ship, that

was not careless and improvident, salted as much as
lasted many weeks after they went to sea. Of this
article the variety was equal to the plenty.” He then
goes on to enumerate mackerel, lobsters, oysters, 830.,

including nearly all the most delicate fish of Europe,
and a great many which he had never seen or heard of
before. The lakes produce conger-eels, of an enormous
size and excellent flavour, which the natives dry and

preserve in an ingenious manner.
“ We have,” says Mr. Yate, “a rich supply of
" ' _"*_‘ Wk
.

NATURAL momentous—rise.

59

excellent salt-water fish; but nothing more than eels
in any of the fresh-water streams or lakes in New
Zealand. Those most plentiful, and of greatest note,
are, soles, mackerel, cod-fish, a species of salmon,
whiting, snapper, mullet, bream, skate, gurnards, and

a few smaller kinds, some not so large as a sprat;
with an abundance of cray-fish, oysters, shrimps,
prawns, mussels, and cockles. An immensely large
mussel, measuring from eleven to thirteen inches, is

found in great abundance at Kaipara, a harbour on
the western coast; and some few of this fish are

picked up in the Bay of Islands. These inhabitants
of the deep form a never-failing resource for the supply
of native food : but fishing is now not much regarded,
except in the mackerel season, when several tribes
go together to the little creeks where these fish frequent,
and always succeed in capturing some hundreds of
thousands before they return, the greater part of which
they preserve for winter stock. They always catch
these fish in the darkest nights, when they are able to
see the direction the shoal takes, from the phosphores—
cent appearance which their motion causes upon the
water. They surround them with their nets, which
are several hundred yards long, and drag them in vast
numbers to the shore, where the contents are regularly

divided among the people to whom the net belonged.”
Lastly, New Zealand is, as has already been stated,

the head-quarters of the whale fishery inv the South
Seas. The whales resort to New Zealand for the pur
ose of calving, and are captured in great numbers.

l‘he ordinary shipping lists of vessels engaged in the
trade between Sydney and the Bay of Islands, do not,
by any means, comprehend the whole of the shippin
which resort to the New Zealand Seas, or w ic

frequent the harbour in Cook’s Straits, or those of
Kaipara, Hokianga, or Stewmt’s Island. The whole
extent of shipping, considerable as it now is, would,

60

NATURAL PRODUCTIONS-“FISH.

without doubt, be greatly augmented, if the causes
were removed which now prevent so many ships from
entering the New Zealand ports. These causes have
consisted in the absence of proper police regulations,
and of the requisite legal authority to su press mutiny
and desertion. But it is to be hoped, t at the mea
sures about to be adopted by the British Government,
will efl'ectually check these evils, and render the
harbours of New Zealand, as inviting, in all other
respects, as they are in respect of position and natural
advantages.

CHAPTER V.
THE NATIVE INHA'BITANTS.-—-THEIR NUMBERS, CHARACTER,
AND MAN'NERS.—'THEIR

CAPACITY

EOR CIVILIZATION

AND DISPOSITION TOWARDS BRITISH SETTLERS.——- OPI
NIONS IN FAVOUR OF THE INTRODUCTION OF A BRITISH
COLONY.

THE actual number of the natives of New Zealand
is very small,-—quite insignificant, indeed, in propor
tion to the extent of the country they inhabit. \Ve
do not know the number accurately, but we believe
the entire population of both Islands does not, at the
utmost, exceed 160,000. Mr. Foster, who accom~
anied Ca tain Cook, estimated the population of the
orthern sland at 100,000: and in a letter from the
Rev. Wm. Williams, one of the Missionaries of the

Church Missionary Society, to the Secretary of that
Society, dated 10th February, 1834, it is stated, “ I

believe the population of this (the Northern) Island
does not exceed 106,000, of which, about £000 are

in connexion with our station at Kaitaia t0 the north
ward, 6,000 with the Wesleyan station at Hokianga,
and 12,000 connected with our four stations in the

THE NATIVE “murmurs.

Bay of Islands.

61

The number in the Thames is about

4,800; while those at Waikato, a district in the same

parallel with the Thames, and on the western coast,
are about 18,000. Along the coast of the Bay of
Plenty, and as far as Hicks’ Bay, are about 15,600.

From Hicks1 Bay to Hawke’s Bay, the number is
about 27,000 concentrating in two principal places.
There are now no other inhabitants in the southern
part of the Island, except in the neighbourhood of
Entry Island, where the number is about 18,000*.”

Comparing this estimate with other statements,
particularly those of Mr. Nicholas and Mr. Polack 1',
there is reason to think the opinion of the last
mentioned writer to be pretty correct, in supposing the
population to be in the proportion of five persons to
every three square miles, which, taking the extent, in
round numbers, at 95,000 square miles, gives 158,300

as the total number of the aboriginal inhabitants of
the New Zealand Group.
“ The New Zealander,” says a recent writer,

“possesses a character which, at no distant period,
may become an example of the rapidity with which

the barbarian may be. wholly refined, when brought
into contact with a nation which neither insults nor
oppresses him, andwhich exhibits to him the'iufiu
ence of a benevolent religion, in connexion with the
force of practical knowledge]? We shall endeavour,

briefly, in the first place, to describe his habits and
character as a savage; and then cite some facts which
prove that his capacity, intelligence, and moral feel
ings, are undoubtedly such, as to afford the most pro

mising hopes, both of his own civilization, and of his
future usefulness as a member of British Colonial
Society.
The New Zealanders seem to belong to the same.
* Minutes of Evidence—Lords' Committee, 1838.
1' Ibitl.
G

62

run m'rrva INHABITANTB.

race as the other islanders of the South Seas*, and
their language is radically similar to that of the
inhabitants of Otaheite and the Sandwich group.
Their colour varies from black to an olive tinge.
They are both physically and intellectually superior to

the New Hollanders; but although their capabilities
of cultivation are great, they are yet essentially a
savage people. We will not attempt to disguise the
black side of the picture. They are dirty in their
persons, and sometimes overrun with vermin. They
ave hitherto scarcely known the meaning of arts,
trades, industry, or coin; they have no roads, beyond
footpaths, from place to place. Their liberty depends

upon the protection which each individual can give
himself; consequently, although the territory is divided
among various independent tribes, there is no regular
system of law, or government in any. Their most
conspicuous passion is war, and they kill, and some
times eat their vanquished enemies, scalping and ex
hibiting their heads as trophies. This latter practice
may remind us that the head of Oliver Cromwell
was exhibited for several years over the doors of
Westminster Hall, and that it is not a century since
the heads of the rebel lords of 1745, were exposed to
the public gaze on Temple Bar-1'. But we regret to
add, infanticide is still not uncommon, particularly

of the female offspring. The spirit of revenge is
implacable in their breasts; the law of retaliation
is their only rule for the reconcilement of differences,
and their hatred of their enemies is deep and deadly.
'* Dr. Lang considers them to he of Asiatic origin.
at p. 60 of his New Zealand in 1839

See an ingenious note

+ “ If," Says Gibbon, in his Decline and Fall, “in the neighbourhood of
the commercial and literary town of Glasgow, a race of cannibals has really
existed, we may contemplate in the period of the Scottish history, the
opposite extremes of savage and civilized life. Such reflections tend to
enlarge the circle of our ideas, and to encourage the pleasing hope, that New

zenllfll‘l may Pmduce, in some future age, the Hume of the Southern
l'lleSYllGTG-n

'

THE NATIVE INHABITANTS.

63

Many of them are covetous of accumulating property,
and thieve with little sample. The licentiousness of
the women is subjected to no restraint until after
marriage. Polygamy prevails, and it is usual for the
head wife to commit suicide after her husband‘s death
They have a propensity for ridicule and insult; and in
short, with the physical powers and passions of men,
they have at present the intellect of children, and in

moral principle, are too often little above the level of the
brute creation. Such are the unhappy characteristics
of a. thoroughly savage nation. Their religion is a
confused Pantheism, which has no moral influence.
They entertain a superstitious dread of an “Atua,”
or supreme being, and adore the sun, moon, and stars,

with many minor divinities. It is curious, that they
regard the Creation as the work of three principal

Deities operating together, and also hold, that the first
woman was made from the first man’s ribs, their term

for bone being ecee.

They have an order of priests, or

tohungas, who are “keepers of the Gods,” and act as

physicians; in which respect, however, their labours
are light, as diseases are stated to be almost unknown.

“'hen the body of a chief killed in battle is to be
eaten, the priest gives the first command for roastiu
it, and when roasted, eats the first mouthfuls of flesh
as the dues of the Gods. The priests also exercise
very summary powers ;—-one of them is represented
as killing, with his own hands, a woman who went
on board a ship contrary to his orders, and a man, on
another occasion, for stealing potatoes.
Their personal appearance is, for the most part,
very fine; both men and women are very tall and
well made, and some are very handsome, although
their faces are disfigured by tattooing. The chil
dren, according to Mr. Earle, are so fine and power
fully made, that each might serve as a model for an
infant Hercules.

The forms of the men are athletic,

e2

64

was NATIVE mmsrrm'rs.

and those of the young women are graceful, and their
limbs delicately rounded. The latter have expressive
eyes, and a profusion of long silky hair. Mr. Nicholas
says, in describing a chieftain,-—“ There was an‘ easy
dignity in the manners of this man, and I could not

behold, without admiration, the graceful elegance of
his deportment, and the appropriate accordance of
his action. Holding the pattoo-pattoo in his hand,
he walked up and down along the margin of the
river, with a firm and manly step, arrayed in a plain
mat, which being tied over his right shoulder,
descended with a kind of Roman negligence, down to
his ancles; and, to the mind of a classical beholder,
might well represent the toga, while his towering
stature, and perfect symmetry, gave even more than
Roman dignity to the illusion.” In'another place, he
says, “ Duaterra’s two sisters were the most remarkable among these, one of whom was distinguished for
her uncommon beauty, and the other for the facetious

vivacity of her manners. The former appeared about
seventeen, and would have been deemed, even in

England, where there are so many rivals for the
palm of beauty, a candidate of the strongest pre
tensions. Her regular features, soft and prepossessm ,
displayed an engaging delicacy, 'the effect of whic
was heightened by the mild lustre of her eye; and

her cheek, lightly tinged with the roseate hue of
health, needed not the extraneous embellishment of
paint, to which some of our finest belles are so fond

of resorting. In her figure she was slender and grace
ful, while the artless simplicity of her manners gave
additional interest to her charms.
'
Lieut. Breton says,-—“ They are a fine race of
people, being well formed, athletic and active.” He

then gives some extraordinary instances of their acti
VIty and strength, while employed as sailors on board
of English vessels. Mr. $avage says,-—-“ The natives

THE NATLVE INHABITANTS.

are of a very superior order, both in point of rsonal
appearance and intellectual endowments. T e men
are usually from five feet eight inches to six feet in
height, well pro ortioned, and exhibit evident marks

of great strengt . The colour of the natives, taken
as a mean, resembles that of an European gipsy;
but there is considerable difference in the shades,

varying between a dark chestnut, and the light agree
able tinge of an English brunette.”
Their food is simple, consisting chiefly of vege
tables and fish; they had no flesh meat, or fermented

liquors, till they became acquainted with British set—
tlers; they naturally dislike intoxicating drinks, and,
indeed, drink very sparingly of any liquid. This sim
ple diet, their freedom from care and laborious occupa~

tion, their constant habit of living in the open air,
and the natural salubrity of their climate, keep their

bodies in admirable health, as is proved by the rapidity
with which they recover from severe and dangerous
wounds. Their superstition is, however, fatal to the
increase of their numbers; for example, no sick person
is allowed to remain in their cabins. A patient seized
with inflammation of the lungs, rheumatism, or any
disease, is obliged to live in the open air day and
night, at all seasons; and the most tender females are

delivered of their children out of doors.

Many of

them are, no doubt, killed by exposure in this manner

to cold and rain. On being remonstrated with against
thus exposing themselves to cold, they have made
answer, “ If Atua wished it, so it must be; they could

not strive with the great Spirit.” The practice of
polygamy, and that of occasional suicide, by females

under the influence of jealousy, have also tended to
diminish the population.
Their dress consists of a great many different
articles, made chiefly of the flax of the country, and

suited to different seasons of the year; the outer gar—

G3

06

THE NATIVE INHABH'ANTS.

ment, which they use in cold and wet weather, is very
warm, and completely impervious to the rain.
When not at war, they are engaged in the cul
tivation of their vegetables, or getting in the harvest,

or in fishing, or in making distant excursions, or in
the social festivities and amusements with which the
tribes frequently entertain each other. Many of them
possess great humour and liveliness, and they will

converse in their animated manner for hours together.
If a New Zealander is struck, even in jest, the blow

must be returned. A curse is considered as an un
pardonahle iniury, and they often relieve themselves
y suicide, from a sense of disgrace. Their affections
are very strong. When they meet, after a long sepa
ration, they join their noses together, (which is a usual
mode of salutation,) and will remain in that posture,
sobbing and crying, for half an hour: the same takes
place, as might be supposed, previous to a separation;
the women cry, and cut themselves with sharp shells,
till the blood flows profusely. Intheir war dances,
the sounds of scorn and hatred which they utter,
added to the ferocious expression of their countenances.
and the violent motion of their frames, are calculated

to ins ire the highest degree of terror.

T eir character, according to Captain Cook, is
distinguished by modesty from that of the other inha
bitants of the South Seas. They are as ardent in
friendship and love, as they are cruel in jealousy and

revenge.
There is a natural politeness and grandeur in their
department, a yearning after poetry, music, and the
fine arts, a wit and eloquence, that remind us, in

reading all the accounts of them, and in conversing
with those who have resided among them, of the
Greeks of Homer. Their language is rich and sono
rous, abounding in metaphysical distinctions, and they
uphold its purity most tenaciously, although they had
“We. ‘; J,
-

...__ .__,,.-, 5A

'rnc NATIVE isiiAerrAN'rs.

67 1

no knowledge of writing, until the missionaries reduced
their dialect to a grammatical form. It is radically
the same with that of Tahiti, and of the kindred

nations. They have an abundance of poetry, of a.
lyrical kind, of which we have seen many specimens,
in a metre which seems regulated by a regard to
quantity, as in Greek and Latin. They are 'passion- ‘
ater fond of music. Mr. Nicholas speaks of “ a
plaintive and melodious air, which seemed not unlike

some of our sacred music in many of its turns, as it
forcibly reminded me of the chanting in our cathe
drals.” They excel in carving, of ,which their war
canoes, carrying one hundred men, are specimens—
they display their natural talents also in their pursuit
of astronomy.

Mr. Nicholas assures us, also, that

“they remain awake during the greater art of the
night in the summer season, watching t e motions
of the heavens, and making inquiries concerning the
time when such and such a star will appear. They
have given names to each of them, and divided them
into constellations, and have, likewise, connected with

them some curious traditions, which they hold in
superstitious veneration. If the star they look for does
not appear at the time it is expected to be seen, they
become extremely solicitons about the cause of its
absence, and immediately relate the traditions which
they have received from the priests concerning it.”
Baron Hiigel, a distinguished botanist, who visited
the island, affirms, as do the missionaries, that there
is not, in the Northern Island at least, a single tree,
vegetable, or even weed, a fish, or a bird, for which
the natives have not a name; and that those names

are universally known.

Baron Hiigel was at first

incredulous about this; he thought that, with a ready

wit, they invented names; but, on questioning other
individuals in distant places, he found them always to
agree.

68

Tue NATIVE INHABITAN'I‘S.

The most striking of their social institutions is
that of chieftainship. Society is divided into three
principal gradations; the Areekees, or chieftains; the
Rangatiras, being the gentry, or middle class; and
the Cookees, or slaves. The Rangatiras are bound to
serve the Areekees only in war; but the Cookees are

held in complete slavery by the combination of the
other two orders. Prisoners taken in war, if permitted
to live, are reduced to the condition of slaves. The
ransom of a slave is easily effected, but slavery is, not

withstanding, a source of grievous evils to the lower
classes of natives, which the introduction of British

laws appears to be the only efl'ectual mode of suppress
ing. The upper classes, whilst they have a certain
feeling of honour, often treat their inferiors with great
barbarity, against which there is, at present, no ade—
quate control.

The habitations of the natives are in little villages,
or groups of huts, scattered thinly along the coast and
harbours; the mountains of the interior not being
inhabited. The villages are sometimes on the to of
a hill or promontory, and within a rude fortification,

called a pah. Wars are constantly occurring between
the different tribes; and when once begun, they pass
from one tribe to another, till the whole country is in
an uproar. Feuds are prolonged by the custom of
every chief exacting payment in kind for the relatives
whom he may have lost in battle. There is, however,
an officer, bearing the venerable character of herald,

or peace-maker, whose mediation is employed to bring
about reconciliations.
The practice of the taboo, though productive of
some inconveniences, has been found of great use in
dealing with the natives. It is a superstition by
which persons or things are invested with a sacred
character: The tabooed person is obliged to separate
himself from the rest of the community; and the

THE NATIVE lNllAlll'l‘AN'l‘S.

69

tabooed thing, whether it be a heap of provisions, a
burial-place, an article of domestic use, or a tract of

land, is invariably defended against even the touch of _
a New Zealander.
In considering the New Zealanders as under the
influence of a civilizing process, they will appear to be
susceptible and desirous of improvement to a remark
able de ree.‘ They have exhibited curiosity, ambi
tion, an

powers of observation and imitation, which

render them admirable learners; they manifest, espe
cially, discernment in their estimation of the value of
things. They know full well the difference between
a mere trinket, and what is really useful. Although
ignorant of the art of Writing, they make a good fac
simile of European penmanship. They are fond of
trying to speak English, and their desire of European
clothes, and other comforts, is represented as very
general. They are well acquainted with the geography
of their own country, and their curiosity to see distant

lands. is proved by the frequent instances in which
natives have made voyages to England, and elsewhere.

The progress they make in learning to read their own
language, together with the construction of their arms,
and of their war-mats, which are very elegantly bor
dered, alone indicate a higher capacity for civilization,

than that of the helpless New Hollanders, or the gene
rality of the islanders of the Pacific. ’

With such a foundation to begin upon, it is not
wonderful that the labours of the missionaries should
have met with great success. The missionaries have,
in fact, accomplished a revolution in New Zealand,

and have prepared the way for an enlightened colony,
that would not only protect, but co-o erate with their
labours. They have taught their C ristian converts
a knowledge of agriculture, and the mechanical arts,
and have organized schools for both sexes, in which

several thousands have been taught to read, and have

70

THE NATIVE INHABITANTS.

acquired the elements of Eur0pean instruction. As
a proof of the thinking powers of the natives, they
have been known occasionally to dispute the mission
aries’ interpretation of the Scriptures. Their eager
ness, indeed, to be taught anything and everything,
is attested by every writer, and by all the voyagers
that have held intercourse with them.
Dr. Lang assures us, that “the best helmsman,
on board a vessel by which he once returned to Eng
land, was Toki, a New Zealander.” “ Nothing,” says
Dr. Lang, “ could divert his attention from the com
pass. or the sails, or the sea: and whenever I saw him

at the helm, and especially in tempestuous weather at
night, I could not help regarding it as a most interest
ing and a most hopeful circumstance in the history of
man, that a British vessel of four hundred tons, con

taining a valuable cargo, and many souls of Europeans,
should be steered across the boundless Pacific. in the
midst of storm and darkness, by a poor New Zealander
whose fathers had, from time immemorial, been eaters

of men.”
When among civilized people, either in England,
or in New South \Vales, they have accommodated
themselves, with wonderful facility to the habits of
civilized life, and have even excited surprise by the
propriety and gentleness of their manners; nothing,
it is said, meets with a more ready sale, at the mis
sionaries” stations, than a cargo of soap and English
blacking. The natives enter largely into commercial
transactions, in the sale of flax, timber, potatoes, and
pork, with the ships that visit their coasts; and such

is their credit, that some of them have been trusted
with 1500!. worth of goods.
'

{kt the missionaries‘ stations, their moral character

is said to be greatly improved; it is so far certain,
that they observe Sundays with decency, and exhibit
propriety of behaviour during divine service. The

THE NATIVE INHABITANTS.

influence of' the missionaries among them is so great,
that they have occasionally succeeded in preventing
hostilities between rival tribes: the missionaries are
regarded as the harbingers of eace and good order,
and when they pay occasion visits to distant vil
lages, they receive assistance from the natives, who
are anxious to receive them. Before the arrival of
the missionaries, they had no written language; but
several portions of the Bible and other books have
been translated into their language, and many have
learnt both reading and writing, and the elements of
arithmetic.

Our space does not permit us to detail the cha
racters of the various New Zealanders who have at
different times visited England. Anecdotes of them
will be found in other ublications". But we cannot
omit referring to the instance of Naiti, who is well
known as having resided in London, and mixed much
in the society of the capital for a period of two years.
He is a younger son of a chief of the Kapiti tribe,
who are settled on both sides of Cook’s Straits; his
immediate family residing on the island of Mana,
in Queen Charlotte’s Sound.

Rauparo, the chief

of this tribe, was notorious for his cruelty, but
Naiti, his young kinsman, abhorred his ferocious
habits, and always spoke of him as a very bad man.
Naiti is about twenty-five years of age, five feet eight
inches high, and of a stout, well-made figure: he is
slightly tattooed. He came to Europe in a French
Whaler, having been attracted by a promise that he

should see Louis Philippe; but although he landed in
France, he never enjoyed the promised gratification.

After a short time, he was brought to England, and
resided with a private family during the Whole of
his stay. His behaviour during this period has been
* See particularly The New Zealandcrs, [Library of Entertaining
Knowledge .'1 - and The British Colonization of New Zealand.

72

run mrrvs mmsrmn'rs.

uniformly decorous and gentlemanly, adapting himself
with facility to the customs of this conntry, neat in
his dress, and polite to everybody. Naiti latterly found
his way about London without difficulty, paid visits
like other gentlemen to his acquaintances, and was
noticed by persons of rank and distinction, and often

received into the first society of the metropolis.

He

had acquired the English language with tolerable
fluency, as well as all the habits of a civilized English
man; he was remarkable for his unvarying adhe
rence to truth in the most trifling matters, as well

as for an amiableness of character that scarcely ever
permitted him to speak ill of any one. Naiti, how
ever, though in the midst of the luxuries and con

veniences of .the British metropolis, and receiving
uniform kindness and attention from a large circle of
friends, was never for a moment tempted to withdraw
his affection from his native land. When the New
Zealand Company despatched their preliminary
expedition in May 1839, Naiti was selected for
the office of interpreter to the expedition, which
he gladly accepted, as an op ortnnity of returning
home in an honourable station in the English service.
His gratitude, however, to his English friends was
unbounded, and when the ship left G-ravesend, where

a number of the promoters of the expedition had
assembled to take their last farewell, Naiti left the
shore in the boat in a flood of tears, unable to con

trol the emotion he felt in parting from his kind
benefactors. He has carried with him the regard of
all who knew him, as an excellent and amiable

specimen of a race whose national qualities only
require to be cherished and cultivated, in order to
raise them to that grade in the scale of humanity to
ghich aphey are, at no distant day, evidently destined

rise .
' The following is a copy of News farewell letter from Plymouth»

THE NATIVE INHABITANTB.

73

The views of the natives in regard to the settle
ment of a large body of Europeans amongst them,
must of course form an important point for the consi‘
deration of emigrants. But their cordial reception of
the missionaries, and their ready intercourse with
British settlers and others concerned in trade and
shipping for many years past, appear to place beyond
a doubt the desire they entertain to welcome British
settlers amongst them. New Zealand is, in fact,
already a considerable, though an irregular, British
Colony. Settlers who have both injured and insulted
the natives. continue to reside there, under, we may
say, the forbearance of the natives, whose vengeance

they have, over and over again, justly provoked.
If these lawless settlers have received from the
aborigines the utmost degree of toleration ;-—-if, as we
have already shown, the missionaries have always
been, and still are, regarded with a respect bordering
on veneration,—is it not reasonable to suppose that
an orderly and peaceablc British Colony, carrying
with it the arts, conveniences, and comforts of Euro

pean civilizationreacting on uniform principles of
justice, fair dealing, and kindnes, in all transactions
with the natiVes, and regarding their welfare as an
object inseparably connected with that of the pro
sperity of the Colony itself,—should be cordially
u, a gentleman in London, to whose kindness he was vary considerably
indebted :—
Ship Tory, Plymouth Sound, May 12, 1839.

My dear Sir,
. I am very much obliged to you for giving mes watch;—I hope
I shall think all about you ;+-I shall take great care of it;-—-I am very

much pleased to see in the paper about more ships come to New Zea
land;—I like my ship very much ;——vcry good peo is on board. I have
been at Plymouth four days, and I Went up a hil called Mount Edge
cumbe.
I hope people will soon make in New Zealand a plore
like Plymouth and Devonport.
Remember me to all my friends, and
believa me
'
Your friend,
Nun.
H

74

THE NATIVE INHABI'I'ANTS.

welcomed by the natives of New Zealand?

The

question, we think, admits of an easy solution ; but to
place the matter in the clearest light, we proceed
to cite testimonies and opinions bearing upon this
particular point.

\Ve shall first quote the sentiments of the Rev.
William White, of the Wesleyan mission, who has
for many years lived in intimate connexion with the
natives, especially on the west coast. In a letter to
the Rev. Dr. Hinds, dated 11th September, 1837, Mr.

White says" :—
The next question in order, viz., Have you any anecdotes
illustrative of the capacity, intelligence. and moral feelings of
the natives ?—I can adduce a great number of anecdotes,
tending to illustrate all and every one of the points to which
your inquiry refers, and I shall proceed to name a few.
O

t

l

l

O

A person, with whose transactions I had an opportunitybf
being acquainted, was so thoroughly satisfied, from previous
experience, of the moralintegrity of the Christian natives in the
Hokianga river, that he let them have, on credit, about fifteen

hundred pounds' worth of goods. I would, however, remark,
by the way, that in my opinion, this is not the most judicious
plan, even Were there no other objection than simply the difii
culty of teaching men, emerging from a state of barbarism and
ignorance, the importance of punctuality in the time of making
their payments. I have by me anumberof' written testimonies
bearing on this point, from a number of respectable Europeans.
The most valuable and important is contained in a letter ad
dressed by the most respectable, intelligent, and experienced
merchants in the Bay of Islands to a Mr. Woon, a subordinate
agent employed in the Wesleyan mission. In speaking of the

comparative moral honesty of the Christian New Zealanders
and the English settlers, he states he would rather trust the

former with one hundred pounds than the latter with one
pound.
The next instance which I shall name has an important
bearing on the re-acquisition by the New Zealand chiefs of the
, landed property of the English in that country. A short time
prior to my leaving Hokianga to return to this country, a
' See The British ('olanizaIilm of New Zmland.

THE NATIVE INHABITANTS.

75

number of Christian chiefs waited upon me, for the purpose
of entrusting to me a commission, to be executed for them in
England, the substance of which is as follows: first, find out
the persons who purchased Okara, (Herd's Point.) an estate

purchased by Captain Herd for the late New Zealand Company
in 1826 or 1827, and ask them if they intend to occupy their
land; secondly, in case they do not intend to occupy it, ask
them to allow you, on our account, to remit to them the price
which they originally paid for it, that we may again occupy the
place ; thirdly, tell them, if they will not accede to either, We
will take possession of it.
There is still another fact, which may be of sufficient
interest and importance to introduce here, showing the kind
and extent of confidence placed by the New Zealanders in those
whom they know to be their friends.
When they were fully satisfied that it was necessary and
expedient that I should visit England, a number of chiefs, say
fourteen, at different times waited upon me, and stated that

they had no hope that any other European would interest
himself to the same extent, and in the same way, that I had

done in their temporal welfare, and having no confidence in
themselves or their friends, that they should be unableto resist
the tempting offers which would be made to them in my absence
to sell their estates, and alive to the ultimate misery of being
disinherited, they requested me to accept of the guardianship
of their estates. This I most cheerfully acceded to, taking care
to make ample provision for their security in case of my decease.
Many more than. this number I have named made the same

offer, but I had not time to finish the necessary arrange

ments.

"

'

In reply to the query, “ Have you any reason to believe
that a settlement from England would be well received or op
posed by the natives ?" Mr. White adds :—Taking it for
granted, that I clearly understand the project of such a settle
ment, and the principles by which it would be governed, or to
speak more clearly, such a settlement as I should conceive
would be most in accordance with the honourable, great, and
Christian nation whence the project emanates, 1 should say,
that such a settlement, most certainly, would not be opposed by
the natives; but, on the contrary, I have the most substantial

reasons to believe, that such a settlement would be hailed by
the natives generally, if not universally, as the greatest boon
which the British people could confer upon them.
The foliowing facts form the ground of my opinion on
this interesting subject. 1st. I am not aware of the existence
H ‘2

76

run NATIVE INHABITAN'I‘H.

of one tribe in New Zealand, who does not wish for the residence

of Europeans amongst them. 2nd. All the tribes with whom
I am acquainted, are not. only anxious forthe residence of white
men amongst them, but will generally expend much time, and
be at great pains, to secure them to reside with them; even
men of the lowest grade, rather than be without them.

3rd. I

have been personally and repeatedly applied to by all the prin
cipal chiefs on the western coast from 35° to 38° 30’ south
latitude, to use my influence, if possible, to secure respectable
Europeans to reside amongst them; and in some cases, the
applications have been so frequently and urgently repeated,
that I have been ashamed to meet parties who have made the
applications. And I have frequently been reproacbed, “be
cause," said they, " you have got white people for other tribes,
and why can you not do so for us?“
The preceding statements, however. do not, I conceive,
meet the present case, inasmuch as the numerous chiefs, in

their various and urgent applications for Europeans to reside
amongst them. never, I believe, embraced in their views on
Ilie subject, such a settlement as that which the New Zealand

Association now proposes to establish. Nevertheless,I have
conversed freely with some of the most influential chiefs on
the western coast, on the subject of a British colony; and
have stated, that should such an event ever take place,
New Zealand customs and usages. would most certainly fall
into disuse; and that British law would as certainly be esta
blished on the island: and to the best of my recollection, I

never heard the slightest whisper of disapprobation. But on
the contrary, and especially at Kaipara, by far the most impor
tant dislrict on the western coast of New Zealand, and certainly
the very best harbour yet discovered, the chiefs proposed, a
short time before I left New Zealand, thatI should, if possible,
on my arrival in England, induce at least a hundred families

to go out and settle with them in a body. “ Then," said they,
“ we shall have a pah—a place of refuge—and quietly pursue
our several nvocations, without the various interruptions which
occur in the present state of things :" plainly intimating, that
should such a colony be established, wars and rumours of wars
would cease.
This is also my opinion; not of one day's growth, or sug
gested by the occurrences of yesterday, but imbibed and
matured by observation and experience through a course of
many years. Let it, however, be distinctly understood, that
my observations not only refer to particular tribes and districts,
‘ or to the whole island,v on which I lived, with some iinerrups

rm: NATIVE masmrmv'rs.

77

tions, from May, 1823, to January, 1837. And I further observe.
that it has long been my most ardent wish, in behalf of the

natives of New Zealand, that such a colony as is now contem
plated should be formed; and that a perfect establishment: that
is, the British nation in miniature, governed by equitable laws;
influenced by truly Christian principles, and prompted by

evangelical and philanthropic motives.

Provided always, that

the British government distinctly recognize and guarantee to
the aboriginal inhabitants of New Zealand, their rights and
independence as a nation. Such an establishment, I hesitate
not to say, is not only what the present circumstances and con

dition of New Zealand requires, but what is most ardently and
universally desired by the natives themselves.
i

i

I

i

"

But there is another view of the subject to be taken, and
that view eXclusively concerns those who contemplate the
transplantation of themselves and familiesto the shores of New
Zealand. I mean their personal safety. This I think is satis
factorily answered by the fact, that since the first residents took
up their abode in New Zealand, in 1814,up to the period I left
the island to return to this country, not one single instance which I can recollect, or have heard of, has occurred, of any

European or any other foreign settler having lost his life. In
stances of plunder have occurred, in which a loss of property
has been sustained; but in most cases, when this has taken
place, the persons who have sustained loss of property have
been in fault. This, however, has not invariably been the
case, as some cases of oppression have occurred on the part of
the natives of a very aggravated character. Such cases have
been rare, nor are they likely to Occur again, even should no
British colony be established on the island.
There is another question which has lately been put to me,
and as it has a bearing on this point, it may not be amiss to
meet it here. When replying to the question of personal
safety, by referring to the fact of so many missionaries and their
families living for so many years on the island in perfect
safety, it has once and only once been asked, “But is it not
to be attributed to the superstitious respect which the ignorant
New Zealanders pay to the persons of those who sustam the
priest's office?" In reply to this, I hesitate not to say. No, it
is not. And if missionaries are more secure in New Zealand
than other persons, it is to be attributed exclusively to the
character which they have established in the understandings
and consciences of the New Zealanders, for disinterestedness
of motive and benevolence of heart in their general intercourse
H 3

78

THE NATIVE INHABITANTS.

with them for many years.

If this be considered a fair repre~

sentation of the fact, the inference is unavoidable, that if

settlers and colonists take care to be governed and influenced
by truly Christian principles and motives, they will secure to
themselves the same respect, confidence, and safety.

“ The New Zealanders,” says Mr. Yate, “ are by
no means suspicious of foreigners. It is true they
dislike the French, and have done so ever since the

destruction of Captain Marion, in the Bay of Islands;
but the English and Americans, notwithstanding the
many injuries they have inflicted on the natives, are
always cordially welcomed, and in most instances
sought after and encouraged. I have known a thou—

sand Europeans and Americans in the Bay of Islands
at one time; it was the case in March, 1834, yet no

jealousy was expressed by the natives that, from their
numbers, they intended to take possession of the
island, or that they wished to do so. I believe a.
severe struggle would ensue before they would allow
any force to take possession of their soil, or of any por
tion of it, without what they deemed an equivalent.“
“ We spoke frequently,” says Mr. Earle, “ to our
friend George, as well as to several others of their
powerful chieftains, respecting the erection of a small

fort, with a British garrison, and of permanently
hoisting the English flag. They always ex ressed the
utmost delight at the idea? and from all have seen
of them I feel convinced it would prove a most politic
measure. George (wh had visited Port Jackson)
said, ‘This country is liner than Port Jackson? yet
the English go and settle there. Our people are much
better than the black natives of New South IVales;

and yet you English live amongst them in preference
to us.’ ” ‘ This is curious and important.

The most

powerful chieftains of New Zealand consider it almost
a personal insult that we settle among the Australian
ncgrces rather than amongst them.

They are offended

T7 "" mm}

THE NATIVE INHABI'I‘ANTB.

79

that we do not colonize their country; and with good
reason, for they see the substantial benefits that would
accrue to them from the establishment of our laws and
the rest of our civilization“.
All the labour in these islands is undoubtedly at

the command of those Europeans who should establish
in them just laws and government, and be willing
to treat the natives with liberality. The missionaries
have demonstrated this; they have shown that the

natives have an inherent curiosity and industry, which
lead them to work under Europeans voluntarily for
their own amuement and improvement. To show
their great thirst for knowledge, we might quote the
accounts of their thronging round the missionary

mechanics with ex ressions of amazement and delight,
when they saw t e wonders of the anvil, and the
forge, the saw, the lever, and the axe, and thus ex

plained the idolatry with which the ancients cornme
morated the authors of those now common, but once
novel, and always admirable, inventions. One chief

tain burst into tears on being introduced to a rope
walk at Sydney, and exclaimed, in the bitterness of

his regret, “ New Zealand, no good!”

Another

worked his passage to En land purely from a desire to
carry back knowledge to is countrymen; but unf'or
tunately he was not ermitted to go ashore. These

were not irreclaimab e minds in which such noble
sentiments existed.
' \Ve have been favoured with an original letter written in the New
Zealand language, by a chief at Coromunllel Harbour, addressed to Captain
Nagle of the ship Neptune, in March, 1838. The following is a literal
translation:—
“ Friend Captain Nugle, bring me from England a pair of very large
thick blankets and likewise a double-barrel gun; bring'plenty of them,
friend; be quick, and come; do not deceive us; and friend, be certain and
001110 here and do not belong, and bring our child home; and frieud,do not

be long, and bring us plenty of casks of tobacco to buy land for yourself.
“ Coromundel Harbnur, New Zealand,
March 27th, 1838."

Na Purn'ra.

80

me NATIVE INHABITANTS.

At the suggestion of the missionaries, roads have
been formed, many substantial wooden bridges have
been erected over broad rivers, ships of several hun
dred tons burden have been built, and all with the
superintendence of only two or three Englishmen.
The numerous and extensive buildings of four or five
missionary settlements have been completed, and the
agriculture of several extensive farms, as well as the
operations of several flaxvdressing manufactories, rope
walks, and other establishments, are now carried on

by means of the voluntary hired labour of the New
Zealanders.
The extent of real civilization which the mission
aries have been the means of introducing among the
natives will be seen by the following descri tion of the
missionaries’ farming establishment at Walmate, from

the pen of Mr. Darwin, the naturalist to the late
surveying expedition of H. M. ship Beagle, in the
South Seas*:—
At length we reached Waimate. After-having passed over
so many miles of an uninhabited, useless country, the sudden
appearance of an English farm-house, and its well-dressed
fields, placed there as if by an enchanter's wand, was exceed
ingly pleasing. At Waimate there are three large houses,
where the missionary gentlemen reside; and near them are the
huts ol' the native labourers. On an adjoining slope, fine crops
of barley and wheat in full ear were standing; and, in another
part, fields of potatoes and clover. But I cannot attempt to de
scribe all I saw; there Were large gardens, with every fruit and
vegetable which England produces; and many belonging to a
warmer clime. I may instance asparagus, kid ney-beans, cucum
bers, rhubarb, apples, pears, figs, peaches, apricots, grapes,
olives, gooseberries, currants, hops, gorze for fences, and Eng
lish oaks; also, many different kinds of flowers. Around the
farm-yard there were stables, a thrashing‘barn with its winnow

ing machine, a blacksmith‘s forge, and on the ground plough
shares and other tools; in the middle was that happy mixture
of pigs and poultry. which may be seen so comfortably lying
together in any English farm-yard. At the distance of a few
* See The Narraliro, Vol. III., being the Journal and Remarks of
‘ muss mem, Esq. (1832-4836.)

'rnm NATIVE INHABITANTS.

81

hundred yards, where the'water of a little rill was dammed up
into a pool, a large and substantial water-millhad been erected.
All this is very surprising, when it is considered that five
years ago, nothing but the fern flourished here. Moreover,
native workmanship taught by the missionaries, has effected this
change:—the lesson of the missionary is the enchanter's wand.
The ‘honse has been built, the wmdows framed, the fields
ploughed, and even the trees grafted by the New Zealander. At
the mill, a New Zealander may be seen powdered white with
flour, like his brother millerin England. When I looked at this
whole scene, I thought it admirable. It was not merely that
England was vividly brought before my mind: yet, as the even
ing drew to a close, the domestic sounds, the fields of com, the

distant country with its trees now appearing like pasture-land,
all might well be mistaken for some part of it. Nor was it the
triumphant feeling at seeing what Englishmen could effect, but
it was something of far more consequence; the object for which
this labour had been bestowed—the moral efi‘ect on the abori

gines of this fine country.

The following extracts, from original letters, will
be read with interest by intending emigrants. The
former was received by Mr. Stunt, of Southerham,
from a man who worked on his farm, and left this

country for Sydney in May, but since removed to
New Zealand:—
New Zealand, Dec. 15, 1838.

Sir,—I have taken the opportunity of sending the letter by
the Coromandel, loading with timber here, but expect it will

be March before she sails.

Sir, We hope please God to find

you, friends and relations, in good health, as it leaves us per

fectly well. Sir, we are in a beautiful climate, which agrees
uncommonly well; more like England than Sydney, little
warmer; black soil, clay beneath; much before Sydney to my
thinking, which you may see in the natives.

The natives here

are strong-looking people, brown coloured, and the natives at
Sydney are black, thin, bagged people. We have plenty of
hogs wild, the natives catch them with dogs; you may have a
large hog for a blanket, or a little tobacco, but we have every

thing of our masters the first year. Pork 4d. per pound, tlonr
411., sugar 611., tea 3s., potatoes 2s. 1001bs. Gooseberries we
gather wild like nettles; the gooseberries 'grow in shucks as
filberts, they are something like a green cherry; we have
peaches, oranges, melons, lemons, onions, cabbage, all good.

82

ms NATIVE lNHABlTANTS.

If please God we live another year, we shall go on in a different
way. We got land set out for us to sow wheat to keep us, and
I shall be for breeding my own hogs. Our masters got hogs in
abundance, and goats, ducks, geese. fowls, cows, a bull, two or'
three horses. We have not yet got'our houses built, they are
almost out out and begun to build, so will soon be up. Mary

does not like the cottage we are in, we are so thick, three
families. I think we shall have every comfortable house; my
mate one end, we the other. There is no fear of having to buy
fire wood, there is plenty close to our house. We cut board
for ourselves, fell what we like of any sort there is: we made
each a table of pine, and I begun a chair, but I got many
jobs; the saw-pit we work in is thirty-one feet long; some
timber is six feet deep, and it seems a pity to burn such good
timber as we burn down, counted as worth nothing.
Feb. 3rd.—We are about twenty miles up the river. The
next place to us is Wymath, tWelve miles, in cultivation, beau

tiful for corn and flocks of sheep belonging to the Church mis~
sionaries; they are Wesleyans. The next place, the Bay of
Islands, is avery drunken blackguard place, thirty miles from
us. There is no place in the world scarce with such timber for
masts for ships and other things as here. Our master by the
Coromandel will clear, by all we can find out, 7,000l. or

8.0001. ; the whole value I am told is 24,0001. or 25,0001" and
they have it cut up for almost nothing; but they begin to get
more awake. They will saw no more for their 4s. a week;
they work in this way three or four pair, so keep a European
to sharp, and line, and look after them.

Feb. 10th.—The only thing that seems venomous is the
lizard. Many of them are about the trees, and you know they
are harmless enough.

The winters are cold and rainy, but

little frost and no snow. I have a beautiful place my end for
a garden, the weather and sun coming in front all open. I
began to make a hedge, the first ever made, I suppose, in New
Zealand, and am going to sow some turnips and plant beans.
In this country almost any time will do. By the next time
I send I shall be able to tell you a little better about what
chance there is here when I have seen more about it. A
person came from England with us. by the name of Josh.
England, and is living with missionaries at Wymath, gets 12s.
a-week, provisions for self, wife, three children, good house free,

water, wood brought by the natives to his door, only as servant

out doors to job about the stores. He is a shoemaker by
trade.

So no more at present from your humble servant,

C. SHAW.

\
THE NATIVE INHABITANTS.

The next is an extract from an original letter,

dated Matukaraka, (on the Hoki-anga River) New
Zealand, 10th March, 1838 :—
I have but little in the way of news to impart; the last
twelve months have been monotonously employed. Increasing
my stock of cattle has been my chief employment. I have
made several visits to the British Consul on the other side of
the island ; who has always kindly received me, and from whom
I have made a valuable addition to my stock. My principal
object in visiting him has been to obtain his sanction and
interest in petitioning the governor of the colonies, as well as
the Home Government, to grant us a representative here.

We

are now becoming very numerous, and it is high time that
laws and protection should be afforded us. We are daily ex
pecting a vessel with 400 Irish emigrants; which, together
with the number we already have in the river, increases the
necessity of introducing something in the shape of government.
I am very anxious to obtain information from England relative
to the colonization of this part: we hear so many various re
ports, that I am quite at a loss what conclusion to come to

relative to the intentions of the Home Government. At present
this is, undoubtedly, only a poor man’s country ; whether he is
industrious or not. he can get plenty to eat; but at present
there is no field for a large capitalist. There is no one whose
pursuit is similar to my own: my object and view is to secure
as much land, and to obtain a good and extensive dairy, and
send its produce to the colonies. The climate is so moist here
compared to Sydney, that I have ever been of opinion a dairy
farm would be profitable; in Sydney particularly, where money
is very abundant, and the supply (owing to the great proportion
ofdry months in the year) of dairy produce so scarce and dear.

I intend now to wait patiently till I have about forty head of
milking-cows, and then I will have suitable persons about me
to manage the dairy. I know not how soon that time will
arrive, but it will not exceed ten months: I have twenty-six

now, and I have sent up to Sydney remittances for ten more,
and I expect daily to close with a person (whose stock consists
of nine) that is about leaving this part of the globe. So it is
most probable in a few months I may be making some valuable
remittances, together with the produce of my piggery, which is
more numerously filled than many in Herefordshire. ‘ “ '
I am in contemplation of building in a more central part of the
river, on land that I purchased some time since, either this

8'1

Tna NATIVE INHABITANTS.

summer or early in the spring. a house with considerable stores,
for everything that is wanted either by Europeans or natives :
and shall be fully occupied for many months in preparing for
it. I purpose being my own carpenter and shall get natives to
saw me my own timber. Wood is the only material we have;
stone is scarce; but I think I can manage to make some bricks
for the chimneys. For the last two months, I have been
labouring very hard to get in a few acres of barley; for my
only beverage, ever since I have been here, is occasionally a

little tea, which is often not to be purchased. Some time since,
I sent to Sydney for a good supply of both sugar and tea. as
well as many little wants that I cannot procure here; and in
future I hope to keep want away. I assure thee, the most rigid
economy has been kept with me. 1 devote the proceeds of my
poultry towards keeping my house, my clothing, and every
personal expense: whatever I make by bartering and trading,
is most carefully preserved, to increase by stock of cattle and
land. I had almost omitted saying. that I look forward with
no small delight that the time will arrive when I can have a

tankard of ale. I purp0se malting and brewing all the barley
I can grow.
I am sure it will afi'orcl thee much pleasure to learn that I
now feel myself freer from care and anxiety than at any period
of my life. Iam getting weaned from home, and certainly
have every prospect of prOViding a sufiiciency for old age should
I be favoured with it. We can none of us foresee what this
country may eventually prove: for a limited number there is
great scope, but at present we are dependent upon foreign
markets.

The following passages, extracted from the evidence
of persons who have actually visited New Zealand,
taken before the Lords” Committee of 1838, are con

firmatory of the preceding views.
J. L. NICHOLAS, Esq. examined :—
You have stated that the New Zealanders appeared anxious
to have Europeans among them; do you suppose that was
merely for the purpose of instructing them in religion and the
arts, or for the purpose of giving them laws. and acting with
authority ?——_-For the purpose of bettering their condition, lll
giving them greater comforts of life, and introducing the arts
of civilization.

'rnn NATIVE INHABITANTB.

85

Do you think that the interference of the British between
tribe and tribe would have the effect of checking the influence
of the missionaries ?-—No, I think not. A colony composed
of men of moral and respectable characters would tend very
much to promote the labour of the missionaries.

Mr. JOHN VVATKINS examined:—
Did the natives assist you at all in your researches P—
They assisted me in directing my attention to plants and flowers;
where they thought there was a particular plant I had not seen,
they would bring it, expecting some little remuneration ; tobacco,

for instance. They were particularly civil and hospitable ;
wherever I went they ofi'ered me the best things they had,such
as pork and potatoes, the two things they had of eatables, with
fish.
Did you meet with any difficulties from the conduct ofthe
chiefs P—Not the slightest. I never met with any difficulty
at all: they used to esteem me as the surgeon of the mission
aries; the missionaries are the only people there to give one any
consequence ; they used to esteem me as their friend ; I used to
be admitted into their best societies; wherever the chief was,

I made it a point to go to him and put myself under his pro
tection, and presented him with various little trilles; a little
tobacco, or whatever would amuse him.

Mr. JOHN FLATT examined :—
Do the natives evince much willingness to be taught ?-—
They have a very great desire to be taught to read and write.
You spoke of superintending native labour; what was the
work P—Clearing of the ground, sawing timber, gardening,

and fencing, 8:0.
For what employers?—-—For the Church Missionary Society,
subject to Mr. Brown, the missionary.
On what terms were your workmen paid; did they receive
wages ?—-We paid them monthly with duck trowsers, or shirts,

or blankets, with potatoes for their daily food, and occasionally
flour.
Do you mean that you engaged labourers for hire in that
way ?-—The Rev. Mr. Brown engaged them, and I super
intended them. We employed them by paying them monthly,
and giving them so much in clothes, or tobacco, or slates and

pencils. or knives, or razurs, and other small articles.
Different articles were given them in the nature of wages?
——ch; and blankets, and so on.
I

86

run NATIVE INHABITANTS. _

Were you yourself present at any of those engagements?
—-I agreed myself with three natives.
Did they appear thoroughly to understand what the nature
of the agreement was you were making with them i—Perfectly
so? they entered into my service, as they called it.
Did you find them when they had made the agreement to
work with you on certain terms, generally speaking, ready to
' fulfil those terms ?—-Yes.
Have you conversed with the natives, at different times,

relative to the arrival of settlers there ?——Frequently.
What did you collect to be' their opinions or their wishes
about that P—They wish to have some protection.
What did they mean by protection?—They seemed to
feel, as they stated to me, that if they were left to themselves,
they would by their own countrymen soon be dead.
Do you mean that they should destroy each other ?—
Yes; they had no safety of their lives; they had, as far as we
were able to protect them, fled to us; when we receive them

into our employ, the natives look upon them as devoted to us,
and that makes them sacred; they think that if they touch
them they are touching us.
'
Were you present and privy to any purchases of land ?———
Yes; I was present at one in January. 1836.
By whom was that purchase made ?——By Mr. William
Fairburn. catechist of the Church Missionary Society.
Was that to a large extent ?——It was a purchase very
large; it is termed, by some of the Europeans in New Zealand,

a whole county; it was purchased for his children.
Do you find the natives generally intelligent ?—Very in
telligent; not at all inferior in point of intellect to Europeans.
Can you tell what is the amount of land that has been
purchased by Europeans, not only residing there, but residing
in this country ?—I cannot say how much is purchased by
gentlemen residing in this country; no more than what Mr.
Fairburn had purchased. I am informed that had been pre
viously purchased.
Have not the New Zealand Association, as it is called,

made extensive purchases of land ?——Not any, unless it was
the purchase l have alluded to. It was purchased in the year
1825, or thereabouts.

Do you know of any Company that has purchased land in
that country ?-—I simply know from the native report and con
versations with Europeans that Tamaka had been purchased
by Europeans, or by some Company.

That is sold againZP—Yes; it was bought by Mr. Fairburn.

THE NATIVE INHABITANTS.

Do you conceive, if he does not proceed immediately to

plant that tract of country, the chief will sell it again, if he is
tempted to do so ?——-Not while he remains; but if he came to
England and left it in that state, it is probable it would be sold
a g am.
Are the chiefs hereditary ?—-Yes.
Is it always the eldest son who succeeds ?—Not always;
it depends very much upon whether it was the head wife's son.
He may have an elder son by a slave wife, who would not rank
with the son of a head wife.
As it is the custom that the son should succeed the father,

would they not, if they knew this gentleman had a son, think

he had a title to the land P—Yes, if the purchaser took pos
session of it, and remained upon the spot; if he left it wholly,
as Tamaka was left, they would probably sell it again, and the
whole tribe share in the payment.
Can you state in round numbers the amount of acres pur
chased in that sale P—It appeared to me to be quite a county;
an immense large tract.
Is it 2000 or 3000 acres P—More than that.
What was given for it P—Large quantities of blankets;
there were two small cart-loads of blankets; there was a large
pile of them as they were thrown in a heap. There were also
axes, adzes, razors, scissors, and knives, tobacco and pipes, and
many other things.
What did they want razors for ?-—To shave themselves
with.
Do you suppose that it cost the'individual who gave those

things 100l. to purchase this estate P—I should think not more
than 1501.
To purchase nearly what you would call a county ?-——Yes. '
Do you think that if the natives hereafter should find
that was a very small sum for the purchase of that land, they
would be satisfied ?—-1 have no reason to believe but that they
would be perfectly satisfied; they seemed surprised to think
that they should have so large a payment.
The land, in the state in which it was sold. did not produce
the value of l00l. to the seller ?—It produced nothing except
fern and Wood ; it is in part a timber district.
A timber district is valuable ?—-Yes ; and that was what
occasioned the payment to be so great, or they would not have

had more than $01. worth of property.
The Europeans barter for wood; they do not pay them
in money ?—There is a gentleman near Tameka. who has been
employed in sending wood to England ; he has natives and

1

88

Tue NATIVE INHABITANTS.

Europeans employed by him to cut the timber down. The
natives wish the Europeans to employ them as well as Euro
peans. I believe they would not sufi'er Europeans to go and
cat down wood, and bring it away, without employing
t em.

Do you think it would be very popular with the natives in
that country if people were to purchase l0,000 acres of them,
and then cultivate that by Europeans ?———I believe it would be
the means of breeding discontents between the natives and
Europeans; they would consider that it was not right that
Europeans should be employed in preference to them; but, if
they were included, you might employ as many Europeans as
you pleased.
Is it not a native feeling, in selling their land, that they
shall get employment from the Europeans ?—-Itis that they
will become gentlemen, to use their own word, in selling it and

in working it ; that is the term may of the young chiefs have
used to me.
Do you think that in selling their land they have the
slightest idea of the probability of this country taking the
sovereignty of their island ?—-—They do not think anything of
sovereignty. I have no reason to think that they take that.
view of it. Their simple view is, that their land may he cul~
tivated, and that they may be benefited by that. At present
they cultivate no more than is necessary for their daily food,
except cultivating potatoes round the Bay of Islands and other
parts for the shipping; this is by slaves.
Do you think that if it was put to a New Zealand chief,

that it was the intention of this country to make laws which
should coerce him, he would like the plan ?-—--Some few of the
head chiefs, the elder chiefs, who have been at war many years,

perhaps might state their objections to it; but the young men,
I am confident, Would be anxious for it; they see the propriety
of it; they say there would be no fear of a party coming and
falling upon them then, and that unless something is done they
would be all dead; this has been stated to them by all the
missionary body, that such a thing will be the consequence of
their going on as they are doing, viz., be all dead.
You showed them very properly the evils of war P—Yes ;
and that if it goes on, and one-half of the island was to rise up

against the other, they would be exterminated
Do you conceive it would be also essential, that, in certain
parts of the country, districts should be assigned for any

natlves, so that they should not be driven out of the country

by the chier selling the whole of the land ?-—If the natives

'rua NATIVE masmranrs.

89

would cultivate it; but they are not in the habit of cultivating

any more than is absolutely necessary.
Do you not think, if the regress of civilization continues to
increase, seeing the great a vantages the Europeans make by
their land, they would perhaps be induced to follow the ex
ample of the EuropeansP—I have no doubt that they would ;
that they would be willing to purchase again in the same way
as the Europeans.
How could they find the money P—They would procure
it by honest labour, which they have done already in some in
stances. I have known a New Zealander take U. to the Bay
of Islands, to lay out in articles for himself and his family,

which he had earned from the missionaries and difi‘erent
settlers ; that man I refer to was employed as a carpenter.
When you employed native labourers at Matamata, was
there any consent obtained from the head chief for their em
ployment?
There was no consent required ; I hired them
from their friends, the same as I_should in England.

In England you generally hire the labourer himself?—
Young men we hired from their parents.
Did you pay some value to the parents or relations of the
young men for those servicesP—No; exeept when a slave was
purchased, then there would be a remuneration given to the
chief, and he would become the property of the European ; he
would not expect so large a payment as those that were not
purchased. In other cases it is the practice to go to their
native places, and ask for men that can work; and they come
forward and ofi'er themselves. The parents and friends are out
of the question; they would not object to it. If they did, that
would put a stop to further proceedings.
Those persons, if of full age, have the power of hiring
. themselves, without requiring the consent of the chief of the
district?
We simply went to their native village and hired
them; there was no objection made to it by any one.

CHARLES ENDERBY, Esq., examined :—
Have you ever mixed any New Zealanders with the crews
of your ships?—--We have; and have some at the present
time

What is the character your captains give of them ?—
Generally, steady good seamen.
What do you consider the average duration of a voyage
from hence to New Zealand and back; how long would it take
to get a communication?
About four .months out and four
months home.
13

90

Tile mmva mamrrm'rs.

Do they usually return by the same course they go out?
-—The trading vessels generally return by Cape Horn.
What sort of characters do the captains report of the New
Zealanders as to their general conduct and behaviour ?—-We
find the New Zealanders in our service behave much better
than the British seamen: we have invariably found them well
behaved good seamen. I am sorry I cannot say the same of
the British in all cases.
You say that the New Zealanders are mixed with the
crews in your ships sometimes: have any of them ever come
home to this country?——We had two at home about six months
a '0.
5 Had you an opportunity of conversing with them P—Yes,
a good deal.
Was the subject ever discussed as to the chance of Euro
peans settling there in large numbers ?—-—I have conversed
with them upon the subject, and they have always expressed
themselves favourable to it.

Mr. JOEL SAMUEL POLAGK, examined :-—
Did you understand the language of the New Zealanders?
-—-I did.
Did your conversation turn at any time upon the chance of
Europeans settling there in larger numbers ?——-Yes, often.
Did the natives appear to understand what was meant by
colonization, or by Europeans settling there; and what ap
peared to be their feeling and wish about it ?-—-—In the first
place, the missionaries have been invariably against Euro

peans settling there; of course the natives regard the mis
sionaries ideas on the subject much, but, as far as I have heard
from other Europeans, many of them would like it much, be

cause, it' they plant, they do not know whether they will reap .
what they have planted, in consequence of the continual wars
amongst them.
Do you think that they would look to the introduction of

more Europeans as a mode of introducing quiet in the countrv?
—-They Would undoubtedly.
'
Are they intelligent with respect to the cultivation of their
lands?
There is no nation more intelligent on land or any
other subject.

As a proof of that, there is at the present

moment sailing out of SydneyI a Mr. Bailey, a New Zealander,
chiefof the tribe of Waitangi, in the Bay of Islands; he is chief

officer of the Earl Stanhopc whale ship; and if he had not
been a foreigner, as a New Zealander, he would long since
have had the command of the vessel. There are at the

mmtn

V

g

THE mam: INHABITANTS.

91

present moment sailing on the Pacific Ocean, ships with cargoes
worth from 20,000l. and upwards, steered by New Zealanders
day and night. Where they had an opportunity of being in
structed they have shown great ability ; their farms have
astonished every stranger who has seen them.
Have you visited any of the schools at the Wesleyan
Missionary stations P—The missionaries behaved in the
kindest manner to me,—showed me their schools and improve
ments ; but there was a crusade at the time among the
natives, so that everything was at a stand-still; they had no
opportunity of getting on with anything. That was occasioned
by a new religion which has sprung up, called Papahurihia.
It has been said the captain of a ship first introduced it, but it
is impossible to believe it. They have made their Sunday on
the Saturday, and work on the Sunday.

There was a quarrel

between those who had embraced the tenets of the Wesleyans
and those new lights; there was some skirmishing among them,
and many lives lost. I was there when the wounded were
brought in ; they were relieved by the Europeans; but the in
fiuenee of the Wesleyans over the natives had caused a cessation
of that war.
Are you aware whether the native children have been ed u
cated, so as to be able to read and Write ?------In their own lan
guage, many of them. I have some of their letters, which I

shall be happy to produce.
Does the Church Missionary Society possess much land ?
—Yes; and the members belonging to the mission.
Do you know whether that has produced an injurious efi'ect,
so far as their labours go ?——No.
Do you think that leads them away to secular pursuits?
—No; I have always been inclined to think that secular pur
suits have been of service to the New Zealanders, for they are
constantly active, more in mind than in body : they must have
something to do or they would be thinking of harm. A coloni
zation would employ their minds as well as their bodies. Now,
when they sit idle, they think how their forefathers have been
conquered and have been eaten, and so 0n, and that causes

quarrels. It is impossible to prevent colonization; but it will
be colonization of the worst kind, which must annihilate the

people. The generality of the present European population,
now residing in New Zealand, will destroy, will extirpate. and
annihilate the people; it cannot be otherwise. Many of those
men are superior to the missionaries in their influence. A
native looks to the people who will give him most payment.
What is a man who understands Greek or Latin, or drawing,

92

Tim mmvr. muasrrmrs.

or music, or has superior manners? the native does not like
him so well: but those who come nearest to themselves will
have most influence. They take the natives‘ daughters, and a
native gets a certain payment for that concubinage; no respect
for the missionaries creates an influence like this.
They make native canoes P—Yes. They build the largest
principally in Hawke's Bay; and in the Bay of Islands they
are generally inferior.
Do they attempt to build larger vessels ?——No. There
are districts of clever men, such as at the East Cape: they
make handsome mats. and in carving they are peculiarly
clever. As a race of people they are totally difl'erent; they
are black, and their courage is accounted below par. All the
other natives say that any one of them can beat several natives
of the East Cape.

Have they never expressed a wish to imitate the building
of European vessels ?——-No ; but they have bought them.
One especially I remember being in the war at Tauranga.
Pomarée had the use of one to himself. He went a distance,
perhaps of 120 miles, on a coast where I have felt four different

gales of wind from every quarter of the compass in a single
trip; so that they were not fearful, but able to take command.

If they were so intelligent, do you see any reason why
they should not become a marine population ?
Why should

they not?

Look at the number there are in the whale ships,

and who get a good lay, as the remuneration is termed, unless
they get an unworthy captain; if they get a good captain they
do very well. There are many employed by the Americans
as well as by us; many are boat-steerers in the American
vessels.
Why do you conceive that colonization would be beneficial
to the natives; do you mean by having commercial factories in
different parts of the island, or taking the territorial possession

of it ?—-From the want of commerce the territory is perfectly
useless.
Would you confine your colonization to commercial facto
ries, or have tracts of land?-—I would have tracts of land,
and let it be sold to respectable emigrants ; persons that
would be serviceable to the native people; and let persons
amenable to her Majesty’s government reside there, and the
natives be under their power.
Do you mean that they are to interfere to prevent the

natives doing what they please ?——No; that they should be
guardians of the native people, and do justice to either nation.
You state them to be very intelligent and active as mariners

THE NATIVE INHABITANTS.

93

and agricultural servants; do you believe they could not culti
vate their own land and navigate their own seas, provided there
were not Europeans, and without the Europeans taking posses—
sion of any of their territory ?—-No; they must have Euro
peans, and they must be employed by Europeans; they must
have civilized persons to employ them.
If the Europeans will purchase the produce, will they not
raise it 9—Yes; but they have raised only sufficient for their
daily wants, not putting by anything for a future day. They
have immense tracts of land lying useless.
They are willing to provide for themselves all that they
consider necessary and useful, provided they can find a market
for their goods ?--Yes.

The Rev. FREDERICK WILKINSON, examined :-—~
Did the distinction of property appear to be understood
among themselves P—Perfectly ; and they are particularly
scrupulous in not infringing on another‘s property. For
instance, in returning from Waimate I was going to take some
peaches from a tree that was there; the native that was with
me told me I must not do so; when I had gone a little way
further be allowed me to take from another peach tree belong
ing to a relation of his; it appeared that he could take that
liberty with a relation.
Had you an opportunity of knowing whether the natives
had any ideas on religion ?-—I saw the greatest display, I
think, of Christian feeling that could be imagined among such
people. I have seen five hundred of them assembled at one

time at public worship, and particularly attentive and decorous
in their manners.
That was probably where the missionaries have carried on
their labours ?—-—Yes; they go down generally—the mission
aries have service every Sunday—I am now speaking of the
Wesleyan missionaries—they come down on a Saturday to

attend the service on the Sunday, they remain there till the
Sunday night, and then a good many go away—the rest on
Monday morning; there are frequently five or six hundred who
attend. I went with the Wesleyan missionaries to make their
calls at the different principal stations they have when they
delivered their tickets to them, and I had an opportunity of
seeing a good many congregations: they generally averaged
from about 100 to lGO—three or four up the Maugumuka.
Do you think that the missionaries have_been_of great
service in New Zealand ?——Of very great service ; immense

94'

THE NATIVE INHABITANTS.

service. I look upon the northern part of the island as a
Christian people. There are individuals who are not Christ
ians, but they, generally, are Christians. They observe the
Sunday very strictly.
What should you think would be the feeling of the chiefs,
if, on any plan of occupation and colonization. they were to
be invited to give up all their territorial and sovereign rights P
—I think they would be very glad of it.
And to live under a system that was established by a
foreign government ?—Not all foreign governments, but the
British government; that they would be very happy to give
up what little authority they possess, for they possess very
little; they would be very glad to give it up to the British
Government. They would not know what they were doing,
but they would take for granted that they were safe in trusting
to honourable people. They know the higher classes of English
people, and they take the character of the English from them
more than they would from the convicts who go there.

Mr. J. D. TAWELL, examined :—
Did you observe to what extent the missionaries had suc
ceeded in imparting religious instruction ?—Yes; I had an
opportunity of seeing all their congregations on the river.
How did the people conduct themselves upon those occa_
sions?——Iu a way that I have never seen in any part of the

world, not excepting this country.
Well P—Yes, exceedingly well.
You consider that the missionaries have been very suc—
cessful in their labours there ?—-To an extent I have not
witnessed anywhere else.
Could you judge whether, previous to their intercourse with
the missionaries, the natives had any religious creed of their

own; any notion of the existence of a supreme power P—
I am only enabled to answer that from the present condition
of the heathen natives, biassed as that is perhaps by their
contiguity to the others, and having imbibed opinions from
them.
Were you in any part of the island in intercourse with
natives among whom the missionaries had not been at all ?—
No; not where they had not made elforts of some description
or other.
In those parts in which their efforts had made the least

progress, what sort of disposition and feeling did you witness
among the natives relative to Europeans ?-—A very kindly

THE NATIVE INHABITANTB.

feeling indeed, produced entirely by the moral influence the
missionaries have obtained among them.

Captain R. FITZROY, R.N., examined :—
With regard to the general condition of the natives as
moral beings, had you an opportunity of knowing whether the
work of the missionaries had told much upon their character?
-—Very much indeed; I should say that the population of the
northern part of New Zealand (which is small compared with
the whole extent of that island) was as well conducted and as

moral as an equal number of our own population. vWhere the
missionaries had gained an influence (which was then from
the mouth of the riVer Thames northward) the natives were

as well conducted as an equal number of the lower classes of
our own population.
Would it be your opinion, that if the misconduct of those
other Europeans to which you have alluded could in any way
be restrained, the efforts of the missionaries as ministers of

religion would eventually tend to civilize the whole of that
population ?-—-I do not think they would, if left to themselves,
at present, because they have so much to struggle against;
but if they were assisted, if they were supported by the govern
ment, they would, no doubt; but left as they now are I think

that the majority will go against them, because there are at
least three quarters of the three islands untouched, and in

those quarters ships of other countries go, Americans, French,
as well as many of our own, who do all they can to oppose the
efforts of the missionaries, and to set them at defiance.
Are you aware whether the natives have been much em
ployed in felling timber of late _?———I believe in large numbers.
Did you hear whether they had given up the cultivation
of their land for the purpose of employing themselves in going
to the woods and felling timber ?—-I heard so. It is a great
temptation when they are offered muskets and powder, and
axes and tools of various kinds; and for this inducement they
will leave their potato-grounds, and go to cut down timber.

96

rrrnass roe oohomzarron.

We must here close the present chapter by re
cording the deliberate opinions of several writers, who,

at different periods, have recommended the coloniza
tion of New Zealand :—
CAPTAIN COOK—~1773.
If the settling of this country should ever be thought an
object worthy the attention of Great Britain, the best place for
establishing a colony would be either on the banks of the
Thames, or in the country bordering upon the Bay of Islands.
In either place there would be the advantage of an excellent
harbour: and, by means of the river, settlements might be
extended, and a communication established with the inland

parts of the country; vessels might be built of the fine timber
which abounds in these parts, at very little trouble and expense,
fit for such a navigation as would answer the purpose.

Mn. Savaoe*—1807.
From the preceding pages I imagine it will be seen that
New Zealand is a country highly interesting; the part of it
whichl have attempted to describe is of greater importance
to Europeans than any other, on account of the ocean in its
vicinity being very much frequented by spermaceti whales, and
the ample supply of refreshment it affords. The harbours are
safe and capacious, the country beautiful, the soil favourable to
cultivation, and the natives are, in all respects, a superior race.

These advantages hold out great inducement for coloni
zation, which may hereafter deserve the attention of some
European power. The exorbitant price of European labour in
new colonies, it is extremely probable, would be obviated by the
assistance of the natives; their intelligence is such as to render
them capable of instruction, and I have no doubt but they
would prove as essentially useful to a colony established in
their country, as the natives of India prove to our Asiatic
dominions.

MR. NrcnoLasT—ISI 7.
Reverting now to the subject of forming an European
colony in the fine and fertile country of New Zealand, I shall
* Snme Account of New Zealand, by John Savage, Esq., Surgeon, Src.
+ Nurrutire of a Voyage to New Zealand, performed in the years 18“
and 1815, in company with the Rev. Samuel Mursdeu, Principal Chaplain of

New South “'ales

liy John Liddiard Nicholas, Esq.

FITNESS FOR COLONIZATION.

97

proceed to submit those additional remarks with respect to it
which the restricted order of the narrative precluded me from
oti‘ering in the first instance.
"
'
*
It cannot be
suppOsed that a colony of Englishmen (for such I should wish
them to he) would proceed to New Zealand without the strongest

inducements; yet, from what has been already made known of
that country through the medium of the Church Missionary
Society, a considerable number of persons in England are
become desirous of going out there as settlers. Without
hazarding any opinion inconsiderately, I have no doubt but an
English colony in New Zealand might soon become flourishing
and happy; the space being so ample for their industry, the
soil so fertile, the climate so salubrious, they would have every

natural advantage in their favour.

And I shall new state some

particulars in detail, which certainly hold out a rational encour
agement.

The whole of the northern part of New Zealand, and much
of the southern likewise, are admirably adapted for the growth
of every kind of grain, as also of various other productions;
and the vine, the olive, the orange, the citron, with all the
choicest fruits of the countries in the south of Europe, might be
produced here in the greatest abundance by proper cultivation.
In fact, there is scarcely any production that can stimulate man
to exertion by rewarding his industry, which this country, with

moderate labour, could not furnish, if we except those plants
which require the heat of a tropical sun to bring them to perfec
tion. The immense surplus of the native productions of the
country, above what would be required for the use of the colo—

nists, would be extremely valuable in a commercial point of
view. The timber of its extensive forests finds at this time a
quick sale in the market of Port Jackson, where it is cut up
into scantling, and preferred to the timber of that place, which,
from its hardness, is difficult to be worked, and, from the

quantity of its gumweins, occasions a considerable waste.
When a free communication is opened with the Spanish colo
nies on the south-west coast of America, which, from the present

posture of affairs in that part of the world, may be reasonably
anticipated as an event very likely soon to take place, a fine
field for speculation would present itself to the colonists of
New Zealand, from which country timber has been already
carried thither, and I believe with considerable advantage to
those commanders of vessels who have taken it. Wood being
scarce, in these colonies, is always sure to bear a. high price;
and the settler at New Zealand, receiving his payment in
specie, would be enabled to purchase those European commo
K

98

FITNmS FOR COLONIZATION.

dities which are necessary for the comforts of life, as well as
for its more refined enjoyments. For the smaller timber which
abounds here, a ready market is open at Calcutta, where the
heavy native wood is not adapted for the yards and top-masts of
vessels; and when I left Port Jackson, Mr. Marsden had it in

contemplation to have always a supply of spars for the ships
that came from India. Though the timber in the part of the
country that we visited is not fit for the purposes of ship
building, which requires wood of considerable firmness and
solidity to resist the destructive action of the worm, and the
violence of the elements, yet on the Southern Island the timber
is much stronger and of a closer grain. A vessel of one hun
dred and fifty tons burden is said to have been constructed some
years back in Dusky Bay, but I have not been able to learn
how far it answered the expectation of the builder. However,
from what Captain Cook states respecting the timber in this
quarter, I am disposed to believe that ships both durable and
substantial might be built from it.
The fisheries of this country would be an invaluable source
of wealth in themselves; and the vast quantities of fish which
they would supply for exportation might be sure, I should
think, of finding a market in the Spanish and Portuguese
colonies. The two species of the whale, so very valuable, the
one for its sperm or head matter, the other for its oil, are fre

quently met with in these seas, so much so, that New Zealand
has been for many years accounted one of the best stations for
procuring those prodigious animals.
"
'
'
That singular species of the flax-plant, which I have
already described as peculiar to this country, is, from the
strength and firmness of its fibre, the great abundance that
each plant produces, the little trouble required in preparing it,
and the facility with which it may be cultivated, another very
considerable resource of which the colonist might avail himself.
From this plant, which I do not hesitate to pronounce the most
valuable of its kind of any ever yet known,he would not only be
enabled to supply himself with an excellent material for the
fabrication of linen, canvass, and cordage for every purpose, but
would, when a regular intercourse was established with the
mother-country, find it a most advantageous article of export,
2s tlhle sale of it in England would be always certain and pro
ta e.

When in the course of time thesettlers would be enabled,
from the augmented strength of their numbers, to search for
new sources of wealth in the bowels of the earth, it is very pro

hable that the long chain of hills which I have before adierted

FITNESS FOR COLONIZATION.

to as likely to contain metallic ores, may yield treasures far
beyond what the most sanguine hopes of the miner could Ven
ture to anticipate. But without at all considering these trea
sures, which are only contingent, New Zealand possesses so
many obvious resources which are defined and certain, as

would render it one of the fittest places in the world for an
industrious and enterprising colony.
It may be urged, perhaps, as an objection against forming
any considerable settlement in this country, that the natives,
being a brave and warlike race, would look with jealousy on
the colonists, as threatening at some future period to destroy
their liberty and independence, and would therefore take every
opportunity to harass them in the progress of their acquisitions,

by continued acts of hostility and depredation; but from what
I have seen of the disposition of the New Zealanders, I do not
believe that there would be any cause for apprehension in this
respect. The security of the colony would entirely depend upon
the settlers themselves; for, by conducting themselves towards
these people in a kind and conciliatory manner, they might
easily secure their attachment and prevent their suspicions;

but if,‘by adopting a contrary demeanour, they should have the
imprudence to provoke their resentment, the very worst conse
quences might be expected to ensue.

As landed property is accurately defined in New Zealand,
there being among the chiefs a mutual recognition of their
respective territories, and an understanding that no encroach
ment is to be made on any without the general consent, it
would be necessary to enter into a regular agreement with one
of the Arekees for a certain portion of land; which, in the
absence of a legal obligation, should be secured to the colonists
by the superstition of the taboo, and the limits properly ascer
tained. In this purchase there Would be no difficulty, as they
might get a very extensive tract of ground ceded to them for a
small number of axes and implements of agriculture, their
natural wants rendering these articles much more precious in
the estimation of the New Zealanders than specie is with us as
a circulating medium. Their neXt measure should be to gain

the confidence and friendship of the Arekee from whom the
purchase was made, and also to enter into alliances with the
chiefs in the vicinity of the settlement, who would feel a degree

of pride in being admitted to a close intercourse with Euro
pearls, and would readily co-operate with them in repelling
any remote tribes. who might come for the purpoee of rapactons

aggression.
K 2

100

rirNirss r01: COLONIZATION.

These chieftains might readily be prevailed upon to assist
them with their people in the cultivation of their lands; and,
for this purpose, houses should be built for them, rations regu
larly served out to them, and they should be treated with
respect upon an equality with the white inhabitants; care being
taken at the same time that the labour required from them
should not be exacted with severity, as their present desultory
mode of living could not be expected to be changed at once
into a constant and regular habit of application.

MAJOR CRUISE, 841th Regt. of Foot*—182=i.
Exclusive of the harbour of Wangaroa and the Bay of
Islands, shelter for shipping is to be found in the immediate
neighbourhood of the mouth of the River Thames. The
Coromandel lay many months in Wy-yow, and on the opposite
side is Kuaneekée and several lesser harbours, where vessels
of moderate tonnage may ride in safety; nor is there a part
of the eastern coast, that we examined, that presents so fair

3. field for the agriculturist as the western bank of the River
Thames.

Here the ground is level, and clear of wood, inter

sected with deep and navigable rivers; and the people are well
disp0sed and most anxious for Europeans to settle among
them :—as long as they are impressed with a notion (as they
were by the numerical strength of the Dromedary), that there
is a force capable of punishing an outrage, it is but reasonable
to conclude, from what we experienced in our own persons,
that the European may go in perfect safety among them ; may
trust himself and his property to their honour; and by a mode
rate share of conciliation and liberality on his part, may ensure
to himself an ample return on theirs.

Mn. AUGUSTUS Earns—1832.
The colony of Scotch carpenters, who had formed a settle
ment at the head of the river, and of whom I made honourable

mention on my first journey, finding themselves so close to
what they considered might become the seat of war, and having
no means whatever of defending themselves, made an arrange

ment with Mooetara, the chief of Parkunugh (which is situated
at the entrance of the same river), and placed themselves under
his protection. They accordingly moved down here, which
* Journal ofa Ten Months' Residence in IVew Zealand. By R. A. Cruise,

Esq., Mayor m the 84th Regiment of Foot.

FITNESS son COLONXZATION.

101

gave great satisfaction to that chief; neither could their former
protector. Pationi, feel offended at their removal, from the

peculiar nature of the circumstances they were placed in.
These hardy North Britons were delighted to find areasonable
excuse for moving. their former establishment being situated
too far from the sea for them to reap any advantage from ships
coming into port.
Nothing can be more gratifying than to behold the great
anxiety of the natives to induce Englishmen to settle amongst
them: it ensures their safety; and no one act of treachery is
on record of their having practised towards those whom they had
invited to reside with them. Mooetara is a man of great property
and high rank, and is considered avery proud chief by the
natives, yet he is to be seen every day, working as hard as any
slave, in assisting in the erection of houses for the accommo
dation of his new settlers. He has actually removed from his
old village of Parkunugh (a strong and beautiful place), and is

erecting huts for his tribe near the spot chosen by his new
friends; so that, in a very short time, a barren point of land,
hitherto without a vestige of human habitation, will become a

thriving and populous village; for it is incredible how quickly
the orders of these chiefs are carried into effect. I was fre
quently a witness to the short space of time they took to erect
their houses, and though small, they are tight, weather-proof,

and warm; their store-houses are put together in the most
substantial and workmanlike manner. _

LIEUT. Harmon *—-1834.
If proper means were adopted to reclaim the New Zea
landers, a point under existing circumstances (alluding to the
corrupting influence of the convicts, 8:0.) not very easy to ac

complish, we have no reason to doubt of their becoming even
tually a people of some consideration, as the country possesses
advantages which ought to enable them to hold a respectable
situation among the nations of the earth; it has materials for
building ships, (we may add rigging, manning, and victualling
them.) a salubrious climate,a fertile soil, and the coasts swarm

with fish ; and finally, an area of nearly one hundred thousand
square miles, which is more than equal to that of Great

Britain.
' Elcuraiona in New South Wales, Ste.

By Lieutenant Breton.
K3

102

rrmnss roe COLONIZATION.
CAPTAIN ROBERT FITZROY, R.N.*-1835.
New Zealand much requires assistance from the strong

huthumane arm ofa powerful European government. Sensible
treaties should be entered into ily the head of an over-owing
European force, and maintained by the show, not physical
action, of that force until the natives see the wonderful elfects

of a changed system. Finding that their protectors sought to
ameliorate their condition, and abolish all their practices which
hunger, revenge, and ignorance probably caused, and alone
keep up: that they neither made them slaves, nor took away
land without fair purchase; and that they did no injury to their
country, or to them, except in self-defence—ey'en then reluc

tantly—would give the natives satisfaction and confidence, and
might, in a few years, make New Zealand a powerful, and
very productive country. I say powerful. because its inhabi
tants are very numerous, and have in themselves abundant

energy, with moral as well as physical materials: productive
also, because the climate is favourable; the soil very rich;
timber plentiful, and very superior; minerals are probably
plentiful: flax is a staple article; corn and vines are doing
well; and sheep produce good wool.

JOHN "'DUNMonE LANG, D.D.'f'—1839.
Supposing, therefore, that the principles of colonization
above mentioned were established in the case of New Zealand.
either by Act of Parliament or by Royal Ordinance, and Com—
missioners appointed. as in the case of Southern Australia, to
carry these principles into effect, a Joint Stock Company could
immediately be formed in London with the most favourable pro

spects of success for the prosecution of the Black Whale Fishery
along the coast of New Zealand; for the fishermen to be em
ployed in the Fishery, the carpenters to build their boats and
small coasting-vessels, and the rope-spinners to manufacture
their whaling-gear from the native flax, could all be carried out
to the Colony, with their wives and children, their ministers
* Narrative of the Surveying Voyages of H. M._Ships Adventure and
Ifeagle, beltvcen the years 1826 and 1836. London,1839. (Vol. ii., chapRZL)
baptam Fitzroy's visit to New Zealand, however, does not appear in haw
3:13:23“ beyond ten days, and was limited to a small part of the Nut-ln'fll
+ New Zealand in 1839.

Lonlon, 183B.

ri'rxuss FOR COLONIZATION.

103

and schoolmasters, free of cost to the Company, and at the
expense of the Land Revenue. Such a community would
obviously be strong enough to protect its individual members
from all attacks from. without, on whatever part. of the coastjt
might be settled; it would constitute, moreover, a valuable

market for the agricultural and dairy produce of the other
Colonists; and, by preserving,' the moral restraints of the
mother-country, it would exert a salutary influence on the sur
rounding natives; many of whom would gladly join the Euro
peans in their different occupations, and be at length amalga
mated with them in the same Christian community. It is evi
dent, at all events, that such persons would prove feimidable

competitors with the Americans and the French in the Fisheries
of New Zealand.
Independently altogether of agricultural emigrants, or
rather. in addition to such emigrants, the cutting and collectin;I
of spars and other timber for exportation, and the gathering and

preparing of the native flax for the home market, as well as for
Colonial manufacture, would likewise afford immediate, perma
nent, and profitable employment to a considerable European
population; which could also he carried out free of cost, in
addition to agricultural emigrants properly so called. There
would thus be a considerable variety of employment for the
industrious portion of the Colonial population—a state of things
which is always advantageous to society, as it enables its dif
ferent constituent parts to afford each other mutual support.
Much of the beneficial influence to be hoped for from
European colonization in New Zealand, as far as the natives
are concerned, would depend on the number and concentration

of the colonists, and on the moral and educational machinery
with which they should be attended from their first landing on
the island. The settlement of a few straggling European ad
venturers among the uncivilized aborigines of any country is
always unfavourable to the moral 'welfare of both parties. It

would therefore be of importance to the New Zealanders to
prevent such dispersion, and to induce the Europeans settling
in the island to concentrate themsehes in suitable localities.
In a pastoral country like New South Wales, this Would
doubtless be both absurd and impracticable; but in a maritime
and agricultural country, like the northern parts of New Zea
land. it would be comparatively easy. Besides, the Govrrnment
Commissioners, and Board of Protectors, would have it fully in

their power to prevent any European colonist from acquiring
property in land wherever his settlement might be deemed
likely to prove unfavourable to the natives.

104

FITNESS FOR COLONIZATION.
As the climate and soil of the northern parts of New Zea

land are similar to those of the South of Europe, it would be

extremely desirable, in the first instance at least, to encourage
the emigration and settlement in the island of agricultural
emigrants from Germany, Switzerland, and France; to intro
duce those branches of culture that are peculiarly suited to
such a climate, but with which the natives of the British islands
are unacquainted: such as the culture of the vine, the fig-tree,
the olive, the mulberry, and the tobacco plant, &c., with the

making of wine, the preparation of dried fruits, the rearing of
silkworms, and the manufacture of tobacco. These branches
of agriculture and manufacture, the mere English farmer is
slow to learn. He will never learn from books; and they can
never be expected to be introduced into a new country colonized
from England, unless by an agricultural population imported
expressly for the purpose, and accustomed to them in their
native land. Besides, the actual condition of the native popu
lation of New Zealand renders it peculiarly desirable that there
should be introduced into the island, as speedily as possible,
branches of agricultural labour or manufacture suitable for
women and children; which, it is well known, the branches I
have just enumerated peculiarly are.
In short, while the state of things which subsists at present

in New Zealand,—where every European adventurer is at per
fect liberty to treat the natives as he pleases, and to do whatever
he deems right or profitable for himself, and where the natives
are consequently oppressed, and trodden down, and extermi
nated, in every direction—afi'ords a complete eXemplification of
the uniform character and results of British colonization in all
times past; I am confident that the colonization of New Zea
land, on the principles and in the manner I have stated, would
prove an inealculable blessing to the natives, and would not
only afford a suflicient guarantee for their protection and pre
servation, but Would greatly hasten their adoption of the manners
and religion of Christian Europeans, and their final amalgama
tion with the other subjects of the British crown,—a consum
mation, my Lord, which, even in remote anticipation, I am sure

your Lordship will regard as incomparably more gratifying to
a philosophic mind than all the dreams of poetry or the visions
of romance.

Colonization in New Zealand, to be of any real benefit to
the natives, must be engaged in vigorously, and pursued to a
great extent; and it is gratifying to reflect that there is no
conceivable amount of British capital which might not be ex
pended in efl'ecting that object, so as to afford a handsome rc

FORMER ATTEMP'IS AT COLONIZATION.

105

turn to the capitalist, and to be productive of much real benefit
to all others concerned. At all events I am confident there is
no country in which all the necessaries of life can be procured
with gréater facility by industrious free emigrants on their
arrival, or in which moderate labour would meet with a more

certain or plentiful return. There are thousands and tens of
thousands of the half-starved semi<maritime population of the
north and west of Scotland in particular, who, if suffered to
remain in their native country, will only he a dead weight to
the community, neither adding to its strength, nor increasing
its resources; but who, if transplanted into the more genial
soil and climate of New Zealand, would not only arrive in due
time at comfort and independence themselves, but would secure
for Great Britain and her colonies, what they are otherwise

so likely to be deprived of, the riches and the empire of the
Southern Seas.

CHAPTER VI.
FORMER ATTEMPTS T0 COLONIZE NEW ZEALAND.—-EXIBTING
STATE or BRITISH INTERCOURSE.~—THE NEW zssmnn
ASSOCIATION OF 1837.—Tnn NEW ZEALAND COMPANY
or 1839—1'rs omso'rs AND PROCEEDINGS.—-PRELIMI
NARY SALES or TOWN LAND—COMMITTEE OF THE
FIRST COLONY.

SINCE the period when New Zealand was made known
to Europe, by Captain Cook, many projects for its
colonization have been formed. The earliest scheme
was suggested by the celebrated Benjamin Franklin,
who, in 1771, published proposals for forming an

association to fit out a vessel by subscription, which
should proceed to New Zealand, with a. cargo of
such commodities as the natives were most in want
of, and bring back in return, so much of the Produce
of the”; country as should defray the expenses of the

adventure.

The main object of the expedition, how

106

FORMER ATTEMPTS AT COLONIZA'I‘ION.

ever, was stated to be, to promote the improvement

of the New Zealanders, by opening for them a means
of intercourse with the civilized world. The expense

attending this attempt, according to the estimate of
Mr. Dalrymple, who was to have commanded the
expedition, was to have been about 15,000!., but the

requisite funds were not raised, and the plan conse
quently never took effect. In 1825, a commercial
company was formed in London, under the auspices
of the late Earl of Durham, which despatched

two vessels to New Zealand, and acquired land at
Herd’s Point, in the Hokianga river, and also at the

mouth of the river Thames *. The company was pre
vented by circumstances from pursuing its intention
of forming a settlement, but its land was set apart,

and res ected by the natives who have never ques
tioned its right to the property, up to the present
time. The Rev. Mr. White, (as we have seen by his
letter,) previous to his late visit to England, was
requested by the chiefs to find out the owners of the
land at Herd’s Point, and ask them either to occupy
it, or return the price to the original proprietors.

This is a striking instance of the habitual good faith
of the New Zealanders, and of their disposition to
respect the rights of property. There have been
various individual adventurers, both from England
and other countries, amongst whom, a Frenchman,

[the Baron do Thierry,] has been conspicuous of late
years, for his extravagant pretensions, founded upon
the right to a very extensive territory which he
claimed to have acquired. He professed to rely
upon moral influence, for exercising a kind of assumed
sovereignty among the New Zealanders. The baron,
however, made no adequate provision for the accom

plishment of his objects.

He was abandoned by the

* These lands are now vested in the present New Zealand Company.

EXISTING STATE OF BRITISH INTERCOURSE.

party who followed him from Sydney, and, in fact,
was so far from really acquiring either territory or
sovereignty, that, according to late accounts, he was
living on the bounty of the natives and Euro ean set
tlers. But, what has really been done for t e civili
zation of the natives is chiefly due to the missionaries,
who, for the last twenty years, have made New Zea
land a princi a1 field of their religious labours. The
Church Missionary Society has now ten stations in
the Northern Island *, thirty-five persons being em
ployed as missionaries, catechists, 8m. ;

there are

fifty-four schools of the same society, containing 1431
scholars; and the total number of persons forming the

ten congregations, are stated to be 2476, of whom 178
are communicants. There are five Wesleyan mission
aries, besides teachers of the same denomination, and

the establishments of that sect are represented as
growing in importance.
The missionaries are land-owners to a large extent,
and by their farming improvements, and commercial
enterprises, have benefited themselves, as well as the

natives.

The following statement is made on the

authority of Mr. Flatt, recently a catechist of the
Church Missionary Society, whose evidence before the
Lords” committee of last year, has already been noticed.
Church Missionaries who have purchased Land on private
account in New Zealand.
1. The Rev. Henry Williams, Chairman of the committee,
not less than four thousand acres, at Titrianga, near Waimate,

fifteen miles from the Bay of Islands. Mr. Williams has com
menced farming there; has sheep, cattle, and horses; farm
buildings built by natives, and an American superintendent.
He employs about thirty natives. He visits the establishment
two or three times a week. He sells the produce to the Mission.
2. M r. James Kemp. Cutechist, has purchased at least five
thousand acres at Kii'ikidi and Wangai'oa.
* Evidence of Dandeson Coates, Esq., Lords' Committee, 1838.

108

EXISTING STATE or BRITISH INTERCOURSE

3. Mr. James Davis,Catechist, has purchased at least four
thousand acres at Waimate, adjoining the land of the Society.
Mr. Davis has a farming establishment; buildings, sheep,

cattle, and horses.

He employs about twenty natives.

snperintends the farm himself.

He

His father is the superin

tendent ot‘ the Society‘s farm at Waimate.
4. Mr. James Shepherd, Catechist, is supposed to be
(exeepting Mr. Fairburn) the largest English land-owner in
New Zealand. His property extends from Kirikidi nearly to
the Hokianga forest, a distance of more than fifteen miles.
He has no farming establishment, but is about to commence
one under the superintendence of his eldest sun.
5. Mr. Charles Baker, Catechist, has a large landed pro

perty at Wangaroa, but no establishment.
6. Mr. George Clerk, Catechist, has purchased a large

tract of land at Waimate, adjoining the Society's land on the
west side.

He has a farming establishment, with buildings,

including a large barn; and cattle, sheep, and horses. He
employs above twenty natives. He lives at the Mission sta
tion, and attends to the private property himself.
7. Mr. William Fair-burn, Catechist, owns small tracts of

land at the Bay of Islands, adjoining the Mission station of
Paihia. He has recently purchased a very extensive tract,
supposed to extend for thirty miles in its greatest length, at
Tamaka in the Frith of the Thames. This purchase took place
in January, 1836. The contract was drawn up in native and
English, by the Rev. Mr. Williams, Chairman of the Com

mittee, and was signed by him and myself, as witnesses. Mr.
Fairburn has obtained leave from the Committee to commence
a larming establishment on this purchase, with the assistance
of his eldest son.
8. Several other members of the mission have purchased
smaller tracts.

We have already referred to the civilizing influ
ence of the missionaries“ schools, and to the beneficial

results which have attended their teaching and ex
ample. _ But, unhappily, the intercourse of the New
Zealanders with Europeans has not been confined to

their religious teachers.

The country has been par—

tially colonized by other Englishmen of a very dif
ferent description. There are upwards of two thou
sand British subjects now settled in different parts
2‘

E” “'8'. mam-.-

~_

EXISTING STATE OF BRITISH INTERCOURSE.

of the islands, of whom several hundreds consist of

a most worthless class of persons,--such as runaway
sailors, convicts who have escaped from the penal
colonies of New South Wales and Van Diemen‘s
Land, keepers of grog-shops, and other vagabonds of
dissolute habits.

Besides these settlers,

there are

always many temporary sojourners,-—the crews of
trading and whaling vessels, some of whom are gene
rally to be found in the bays and harbours of both
islands. From the want of regular laws, the presence
of British subjects just described has proved a curse
to the natives. The crimes committed by some cap
tains of British vessels, have been so atrocious as to
be hardly credible.
With the exception of a few missionaries in one
corner of one of the islands, and a few well-disposed

settlers in various parts of both islands, the British
colonizers of New Zealand have seemed to vie with
each other in counteracting the good which the natives
have unquestionably derived from their intercourse
with civilization. There is scarcely a harbour of either
island, not infested with lawless Englishmen of one
class or other. They encourage the natural vices of
the natives, and teach them new ones.

In making

bargains for land, for labour, and for the natural pro
ductions of the country, they practise upon the natives
every species of delusion and fraud, not unfrequently
gaining their ends by pretending to have authority
from the British government. They promote and
take part in native wars and massacre. They have
spread disease over all the coasts of New Zealand, and
have also infected the natives with a taste for ardent
spirits. They really deserve a name which has been
given them—that of “ Devil‘s missionaries.”
The lawless doings of Englishmen in New Zea
land so far attracted the notice of our Government,

that Acts of Parliament were passed in 1823, and
L

110

nxrs'rmc STATE or BRITISH lNTERCOURSE

1828*, whereby the jurisdiction of the Courts of Jus
tice in New South Wales, (of which colony New
Zealand had, in 1814:, been proclaimed to be a de
pendency'f‘,) was extended to all British subjects
living in New Zealand, though not to the natives.
In 1833, Mr. Busby was appointed British Resident
in New Zealand, “ in order to check the enormities

complained of, and to give encouragement and pro
tection to the well-disposed settlers and traders.” Mr.
Busby’s principal and most important duty is pre
scribed to be, to conciliate the good-will of the native
chiefs, and establish good understanding and confi
dence upon a permanent basis
W'ithout any phy
sical force, however, to sustain his authority, if he had

any, the Residents well-meant efforts have been of
little or no avail. He is described by an eye-witness,
as resembling “a man-of-war without guns.” The
only function that he can exercise,——that of reporting
to the governors of neighbouring convict colonies upon
the conduct of British subjects in New Zealand,-—is
confined to one corner of one of the islands. His
appointment, therefore, has proved a most inadequate
means of puttin a stop to the evils of lawless British
colonization.
hose evils have increased since his
appointment, and are steadily increasing. Considering
the rapid growth of British fisheries in the South Seas
generally, of the facilities for obtaining repairs and
provisions in New Zealand, and the attraction which

the settlement of runaway convicts and other despe
radoes furnishes to more people of the same class, it
was really high time that the attention of the legis
lature should be seriously turned to the subject.
Recent ofiicial documents have abundantly con
' 4 Geo. IV., cap. 96; 9 Gen. IV., cap. 93.
+ Proclamation of Governor Macquaw'ie, dated Nov. 9, 1814.
3 Qfi‘icial Instructions in Mr. Busby, dated April 13, 1833.

Mr.

M‘Dnnnell was also appointed, in 1835,10 be a temporary British Resident
st Hokmnga, with similar instructions to those of Mr. Busby.

>.___-__

__.'.._...4 .. -

.

m. aa..._..__.-,_

_ a - "when" , win.

nxrsrnvc STATE or BRITISH m'rnscoussn.

Ill

firmed the existence of the evils mentioned as result—
ing from irregular and lawless colonization. In the
documents to which we now refer*, the following

statements will be found respecting New Zealand :—
that the natives have been lately engaged in sanguinary
war, likely to recur on every slight ground of quarrel,
——that a desperate class of men, some of them con
victs escaped from our penal colonies, are introducing

amongst them habits of intemperance, and all its
attendant calamities,—that these men are living chiefly
by robbery, and actually carrying fire-arms,-—that from
these and other causes, the New Zealanders are fast

diminishing in numbers, so as to make their exter
mination no improbable event,—that our missionaries

and traders are thus exposed to serious evils, and have
their lives and roperty endangered ;—-and lastly, that
the only Britisli authority established in the island,
that of the Resident at the Bay of Islands, is wholly
inefficient as a check on these enormous evils. These
are statements deliberately made, on unquestionable
authority.
' Connected with these statements, the following
suggestions will also be found :—-that British govern
ment should be established in the island—that a mili
tary force should be maintained there—that factories
should be settled along the coasts—that the British
subjects already settled there, amounting to more than
five hundred, “ north of the River Thames alone,” and
possessing extensive tracts of land, obtained by pur—
chase from the natives, should be organized into one
regular Society—in other words, that a Colony, or
' Delpatch from Governor Sir R. Bourke, to Lord Glenelg, dated
Sydney, Sept. 9, 1837.—Lclter from Captain IV. Hobaon, R.N., to Sir
Richard Bourke, Governor, dated H. M. S. Rattlesnake, Port Jackson,
August 8, 1837.——Letter from James Busby, Esq., British Resident at New
Zealand, to the Colonial Secretary of New South Wales, dated Bay of

Islands, June 15, Rial—Petition to His late Majesty from British Settlers
in New Zealand.——See these documents, with introducwa observations, by
Samuel Hinds, D.D. London, Parker, 1838.
L 2

112

NEWv-ZEALAND ASSOCIATION or 1837.

settlements which would grow into Colonial establish
ments, are to be considered as the appropriate and
only remedy for the frightful disorders that now pre
vail. These su gestions likewise carry with them all
the weight which experience, and opportunities for
forming a judgment, can give.
The petition to the Crown, praying for protection,
comes from all the difi'erent descriptions of British
subjects now there—Church Missionaries, Wesleyan
Missionaries, Merchants, and Traders.

Before these representations and complaints found
their way to England, an association was in existence,

which, dee ly impressed with the evils in question, as
well as wit the importance of New Zealand as a field
for systematic colonization, had formed a deliberate

project of organizing a colony, upon approved princi
ples, and an enlarged plan. 'lhe “New Zealand
Association” consisted of two classes of members:
first, heads of families and others, who had deter

mined to establish themselves in the proposed colony;
secondly, public men, who, for the sake of public
objects alone, were willing to undertake the respon
sible task of carrying the measure into execution.
The acting committee of the association consisted
entirely of the latter class of members, whose names
Were as follows :—
Thc Hon. Francis Baring, M.P. (Chairman)
Rt. Hon. Earl of Durham.

Philip Howard, Esq., M. P.

Right Hon. Lord Petre.
Hon. \V. B. Baring, M.P.

William Hutt, Esq., M. P.
T. Mackenzie, Esq., M.P.

W. F. Campbell, Esq., M.P.

Sir W. Molesworth,‘Bt., M.P.

Charles Endcrby, Esq.

Sir George Sinclair, BL, M.P.
Capt. Sir W. Symonds, R.N.
H. George Ward, Esq., M.P.
W. Wolryche Whitmorc, Esq,

Robert Ferguson, Esq., M.P.
Rev. Samuel Hinds, D,D.

Benjamin Hawes, Esq., M. P,

The aim of the association was to induce the go
vernment and the legislature to apply to New Zealand

NEW-ZEALAND assocmrrou or 1837.

113

the peculiar system of colonization which has proved
so successful in South Australia, and to make provision
for guarding the natives from the evils to which their
previous intercourse with Europeans of every class had

exposed them. The Government, in December 1837,
expressed‘its willingness to entertain the proposal of
establishing the colony, and offered to the association
a royal charter, incorporating and committin to its
members, the settlement and government of t e pro—
jected colony, for a term of years, according to the
precedents 0f the chartered colonies established in
North America in the sixteenth and seventeenth cen
turies.

But to this offer a condition was attached, that

the association should become a trading joint-stock
company, which condition the association was unable

to comply with, having especially excluded from its
object all purposes of private profit. The associa
tion, however, persevered in its original views;
and Mr. F. Baring, the chairman, introduced a bill

into parliament, in 1839, entitled, A Bill for the
provisional Government of British Settlements in 6110

Islands of New Zealand.

The bill proposed to a -

point commissioners under the Crown, to treat wit ,
and purchase land from the natives, and convert it into

British territory, to be governed by British law;
making, however, exceptional laws in favour of the
natives, to protect them from their own ignorance, and

to promote their moral and social improvement. It
proposed, also, to exercise legal authority over all law
less British subjects in all parts of the islands. The
colonial government was to afford an adequate provi
sion for religious worship of every denomination; and
a bishop of the established church was to be appointed
by the Crown to reside in New Zealand. In conse
quence of the opposition of Her Majesty’s ministers,
the bill did not pass the House of Commons; but the

speeches which were delivered in the course of the
L3

11%

-

NE\V-ZEALAND COMPANY

debate on the second reading, attracted a large share
of public attention to the subject, and very general
regret was expressed by the enlightened friends of
colonization at the failure of the bill. The speech of
Mr. Hutt, M.P., on this occasion, is well worthy of

reference, as containing an unauswerable argument,
drawn from the success of South Australia, in favour

of founding a similar colony in New Zealand*.
On the dissolution of the New Zealand Associa’
tion, some of its members formed the plan of con
tinuing the prosecution of its leading objects, by
means of a joint-stock company, with a subscribed
capital. Other friends of colonization gradually joined
them, and in the spring of the year 1839, the funds
raised were sufficiently ample to enable the Company
to purchase an extensive territory in New Zealand
(principally surrounding the harbours of Hokianga
* The question of the success of South Australia must, we think, be

pretty well determined by the following facts. The precursor surveying
expedition left England little more than four years back, for the purpose of
selecting the place for the first and principal settlement. The spot chosen
was a complete desert, distant about a thousand miles from the nearest
abode of civilized men. The population of the settlement in 1889 was about
10,000 souls; nearly 8,000 having emigrated from this country during the
three years, of whom a considerable portion were young couples recently
married. These were conveyed to the colony by means of the sums paid for
land. The land sales, which, for the first five months of 1837, did not pro
duce more than 740l., had risen in the same period of 1838, to 4,0001.,—-—and

in the course of the year 1839, actually produced more than 150,0001. The
population ofthe colony being 10,000, in 1889, that oftbe town of Adelaide ex
ceeded 4,000 souls; and this town contained above 800 houses, of brick or
stone, 6 stone church, a dissenting chapel, a theatre, and other public build

ings. There were twobanks in Adelaide, both prospering, and two weekly
newspapers, The number office-wooled sheep'iu the colony exceeded 30,000.
The increase in the value of land in and near Adelaide almost passes belief,
averaging more than 100, and occasionally reaching above 1,000 per cent. for
hard cash. On the 4th December, 1838, the twentieth part of an acre in
Rundle Street, Adelaide, fetched at a public auction the sum 0f 70!. cash.

Several similar recent instances may be cited. The rapid rise in the value of
land at Port Phillip, is carcer less remarkable. The first lend sold in the
township of Melbourne was on the 1st of June, 1837; and allotments which
were then bought at prices of 7l., 271., and 251., have since realized tn the

original lpurchasers respectively, sums of 6001., 9301., and 9501-!
orig-ma] louncnts have fetched 1,0001. and upwards!

0018f

rusummxnr EXPEDITION.

115

and Kaipara, in the Northern Island), and to fit out

and despatch an expedition for the purpose of making
further purchases, fixing the site of a town, and pre—
aring for the early arrival of a body of settlers from
ngland. The Company did not, however, announce
its operations to the public until the 2nd of May,

1839. Its objects are described in the published Pro
spectus, which will be found in the Appendix.
The first expedition sailed from Gravesend, on
Sunday, the 5th of May, 1839. A London newspaper,
of the 11th, contained the following statement:—
PLYMOUTH, MAY 9.-—Among our last shipping arrivals
is the barque Tory. from London, bound to New Zealand,
which reached the Sound early yesterday morning. She is
a fast-sailing new vessel of four hundred tons, having been
only one previous voyage, and is the property of the New
Zealand Land Company, lately formed in London. The
present voyage is a remarkable one, being the first expedition
despatclied by the Company, with the view of exploring the
country, in order to the establishment of regular British settle
ments in New Zealand. The Tory left Gravesend on Sunday,
at six o‘clock, P.M., (where a party of gentlemen connected with
the Company had assembled, to take leave of their friends in
the expedition,) amidst the cheers of the spectators on the
shore, which were answered by a salute of eleven guns from
the ship. She was _towed by a steamer to the mouth of the
Thames, and bad a very quick run of thirty-eight hours from
the Downs to Plymouth Sound. The Tory carries eight guns,
and is'equipped in a very superior style. She carries only
specie, and such articles of merchandise as are fsuitable for
barter with the natives for land. The expedition is under the
orders of Colonel Wakefield, a very distinguished oflicer; and

the ship is commanded by Mr. Chafl'ers, R.N., a skilful nauti—

cal surveyor, who was master of his Majesty‘s ship Beagle. in
Captain Fitzroy's surveying expedition in the South Seas.
The Tory carries a surgeon, another gentleman devoted to
medical statistics, a naturalist (Dr. Diefl‘enbacb, of Berlin), is

draftsman (Mr. Heaphy), a few young gentlemen as volun
teers, and an interpreter, Naiti, a New Zealand chieftain,

who has resided in England for two years, and has acquired

116

new-2m LAND COMPANY.

the English-language and habits. It is understood that this
expedition is a preliminary one, for the purpose of selecting
the site of a town. and acquiring correct and scientific informa
tion in regard to the country. The Tory is ordered to proceed
to the Company's territory on the west coast of the Northern
Island, which embraces the harbours of Kaipara and Hoki

anga, and also to Cook's Strait; where it is probable a settle
ment will also be formed in the neighbourhood either of Cloudy
Bay or Port Nicholson. It is said the Company are fitting out
another vessel to follow the Tory in a. few weeks, and that a
large body of emigrants, consisting of most respectable families,
will embark from London in the course of the present summer.
The wind being now favourable for sea, the Tory is to sail from
the Sound this evening, or early on Friday morning, at latest.
The final instructions from the Company in London. reached
Colonel Wakefield, on board the Tory yesterday“. [The Tory
left Plymouth on the 12th of May.]

In order that the views of the Company may be
distinctly understood, both as regards the acquirement
of territory for colonization, and as to the treatment of
the native race, we subjoin extracts from the official
Instructions issued to Colonel Wakefield, the Com

pany’s principal agent in command of the expedi
t10n:—The objects of the present expedition may be divided into
three distinct classes :—lst, the purchase of lands for the Com
pany;—2ndly, the acquisition of general information as to the
country :—-and, 3rdly, preparations for the formation of settle
ments under the auspices of the Company.
I.—In the pursuit of the first object, you will constantly
bear in mind that the profits of the Company must, in a great
measure, depend on the judgment which you may eXercise in
selecting places of future location. As all the world is free to
purchase lands in New Zealand upon the some terms as the
Company, it should be your especial business to acquire spots
which enjoy some peculiar natural advantage ;. lands, the pos
session of which would bestow on the Company, or hereafter
on those who may purchase from the Company, some valuable
superiority over the owners of ordinary lands. Uf merely
lei-tile land there exists so great an abundance, that its posses
sron, however Useful and valuable, would not be peculiarly
advantageous. Mere fertility of soil, therefore, though not to

NE\V-ZEALAND COMPANY.

117

be overlooked, is afar less important consideration than natural

facilities of communication and transport. There is probably
some one part of the islands better suited than any other to
become the centre of their trade, or commercial metropolis.

when they shall be more fully inhabited by Englishmen: and
there must be many other spots peculiarly eligible for the sites
of secondary towns. The shores of safe and commodious
harbours, the sheltered embouchures of extensive rivers com
municating with a fertile country, the immediate neighbourth
of powerful falls of water which might be expected to beeome
the seats of manufactures,-—these are the situations in which

it is most to be desired that you should make purchases ofland.
And especially you should endeavour to make an extensive
purchase on the shores of that harbour, which, all things con
sidered, shall appear to offer the greatest facilities as a general
trading depot and port of export and import for all parts of the
islands,-as a centre of commerce for collecting and exporting
the produce of the islands, and for the reception and distribu
tion of foreign goods. In making this selection, you will not
forget that (looks Strait forms part of the shortest route from
the Australian Colonies to England, and that the best harbour

in that channel must inevitably become the most frequented
port of colonized New Zealand. A mere harbour, however,
whether there or elsewhere, might be of but little value. There
is not in the world. perhaps, a safer or more commodious
harbour than Port Hardy in D‘Urville‘s Island; but the small
ness of the island renders its harbour of less importance than
several others on the shores of Cook's Strait. That harbour in
Cook's Strait is the most valuable, which combines, with ample
security and convenience as a resort for ships, the nearest
vicinity to, or the best natural means of communication with,
the greatest extent of fertile territory. So far as we are at
present informed, Port Nicholson appears superior to any other.
As to the relative ad vantages, however, of the difi'erent harbours
of Cook‘s Strait, you will probably be able to obtain useful
information from captains of whaling-ships and trading-vessels,
or from permanent English settlers in Queen Charlotte's
Sound or Cloudy Bay ; and with this view, as well as for
the purpose of comparison on your own observation, we suggest
that you should visit one or both of those harbours before you
proceed to Port Nicholson. You are at liberty to engage,either
at those harbours or elsewhere, the services of any Englishmen

or natives, whom you may wish to accompany you in your visits
to other harbours.
It is far from being intended that your purchases of land,
on behalf of the Company, should be confined to that harbour
- J»q_-——_\ -

118

NE\\'-ZEALAND COMPANY.

which you may consider superior to all the others. While you
will endeavour to acquire as much land as possible in that
spot or neighbourhood, it is also desirable that you should
effect purchases in any part of Cook's Strait. which shall
appear highly eligible for commercial settlements, or for agri
cultural purposes within easy reach of a good harbour. And,
in particular, we must express our anxiety that you should
obtain land around one good harbour, at least, on each side
of Cook's Strait.
It will be necessary for you to touch at Entry Island, the
seat of the tribe to which, as we are informed, both sides of

Cook's Strait belong, and at the island of Mama, which is the
residence of the family of the Company’s interpreter. N aiti.
In the conduct of negotiations for the purchase of lands in
Cook's Strait, you may meet with difiiculties which no longer
exist in the more northern parts of theNorth Island, where the

numerous and extensive purchases by servants of the Church
Missionary Society, and others, have established a. regular
system of dealings for land between the natives and Euro
peans. The chief difficulty with which, as we imagine, you
may have to contend, is that of convincing the natives that the
expedition under your orders has no object hostile to them.
They are necessarily suspicious in consequence of the ill-treat

ment which they have often received from Europeans.

We

recommend that you should, on every occasion, treat them
with the most entire frankness, thoroughly explaining to them
that you wish to purchase the land for the purpose of estab
lishing a settlement of Englishmen there, similar to the nume
rous English settlements on the Rivers Thamesland Hokianga,
and in the Bay of Islands; or rather on a much larger scale,
like the English settlements in New South Wales and Van
Diemen‘s Land, with which the natives of Cook‘s Strait are

Very Well acquainted. And you will abstain from completing
any negotiation for a purchase of land until this, its probable
result, shall be thoroughly understood by the native proprietors,
and by thetribe at large. Above all, you will be especially
careful, that all the owners of any tract ofland which you may
purchase, shall be approving parties to the bargain, and that
each of them receives his due share of the purchase-money.
You will find many ofthe inhabitants of Cook's Strait, who have
visited the Thames and the Bay of Islands, well acquainted

with the nature of the exchanges for land which have taken
place in those districts, between native owners of land and

Englishmen of various classes; and it is not improbable that
they may inquire, whether, as you represent a Company, the
"11 which you may purchase will belong to a public body,

NE\V-ZEALAND COMPANY.

l 19

and be inalienable, like that which has become the property of
the Church Missionary Society, or will be the property of pri
vate persons liable to frequent change of hands, like those
lands which have been purchased by individual missionaries
and other settlers. Whether or not they ask this question, you
will fully explain to them that the Company intends to dispose
of its property to individual settlers, expected from England,
and that you purchase, if at all, on the same terms as have
formed the conditions of private bargains for land in other parts
of the islands.
But, in one respect, you will not fail to establish a very
important difierenee between the purchases of the Company
and those which have hitherto been made by every other class
of buyers. Wilderness land, it is true, is worth nothing to its
native owners, or worth nothing more than the trifle they can
obtain for it.

We are not, therefore, to make much account of

the utter inadequacy of the purchase-money according to
English notions of the value of land. The land is really of no
value, and can become valuable only by means of a great out
lay of capital on immigration and settlement. But at the same
time it may be doubted, whether the native owners have ever

been entirely aware of the consequences that would result from
such cessions as have already been made to a great extent of
the whole of the lands ofa tribe. Justice demands, not merely

that these consequences should be as far as possible explained
to them, but that the superior intelligence of the buyers should
also be exerted to guard them against the evils which, after
all, they may not be capable of anticipating. The danger to
which they are exposed, and which they cannot Well foresee,
is that of finding themselves entirely without landed property,
and therefore without consideration, in the midst of a society
where, through immigration and settlement, land has become a

valuable property. Absolutely they would suffer little or
nothing from having parted with land which they do not use,
and cannot exchange; but relatively they would suffer a great
deal, inasmuch as their social position would be very inferior to
that of the race who had settled amongst them, and given value
to their new worthless territory. 1f the advantage of the na
tives alone were consulted, it would be better perhaps that they
should remain for ever the savages that they are. This con
sideration appears neVer to have occurred to any of those who
have hitherto purchased lands from the natives of New Zealand.
It was first suggested by the New Zealand Association of l837;

and it has great weight with the present Company. In ac
cordance with a plan which the Association of l837 was

120

NE\V-ZEALAND COMPANY.

desirous that a legislative enactment should extend ‘to every
purchase of land from the natives, as well past as future, you
will take care to mention in every booka-boolca, or contract for

land, that a proportion of the territory ceded, equal to one
tenth of the whole, will be reserved by the Company, and held
in trust by them for the future benefit of the chief families
of the tribe. With the assistance of Naiti, who is perfectly
aware of the value of land in England, and of such of the
more intelligent natives as have visited the neighbouring
colonies, you will readily explain that after English emigra
tion and settlement, a tenth of the land will be far more valu

able than the whole was before.

And you must endeavour to

point out, as is the fact, that the intention of the Company is
not to make reserves for the native owners in large blocks, as

has been the common practice as to Indian reserves in North
America, whereby settlement is impeded, and the savages are
encouraged to continue savage, living apart from the civilized
community—but in the same way, in the same allotments, and
to the same effect, as if the reserved lands had been purchased
from the Company on behalf of the natives.
A perfect example of this mode of proceeding will occur
soon after your departure from England. As respects a terri
tory purchased from the natives by Lieut. M‘Donnell, the late
British Resident at Hokianga (who is well known to some of
the chiefs of the tribe occupying both sides of Cook's Strait),
and from him purchased by the Company, we intend to sell
in England, to persons intending to settle in New Zealand
and others, a certain number of orders for equal quantities
of land (say 100 acres each), which orders will entitle each
holder thereof, or his agent, to select, according to a priority

ofchoice to be determined by lot, from the whole territory laid
open for settlement, the quantity of land named in the order,
including a certain portion of the site of the first town. And
one-tenth of these land-orders will be reserved by the Company,
for the chief families of the tribe by whom the land was origi
nally sold, in the same way precisely as if the lots had been
purchased on behalf of the natives. The priority of choice
for the native allotments being determined by lot as in the
case of actual purchasers, the selection will be made by an
officer of the Company expressly charged with that duty, and
made publicly responsible for its performance. Wherever a
settlement is formed, therefore, the chief native families of the
‘ tribe will have every motive for embracing a civilized mode

of life. Instead of a barren possession with which they have
Pulled, they will have property in land intermixed with the

NEW-ZEALAND COMPANY.

121

property of civilized and industrious settlers. and made really
valuable by that circumstance. And they will thus possess the
means, and an essential means, of preserving in the midst of

acivilized community, the same degree of relative consideration
and superiority as they now enjoy in their own tribe, This
mode of proceeding has been fully explained to Naiti. He
perfectly understands that if the Company should purchase
lands, and establish a settlement in the island which belongs
to his family, then his father and brothers, and himself, would

share equally with all purchasers of land from the Company
to the amount of a tenth without purchase, including a tenth
of the site of a town. He is quite alive to the advantages of
possessing land where land has a high value, and will have
no difficulty, we believe, in explaining them to his people.
You are aware of the distinctions of rank which obtain amongst

them, and how much he prides himself on being a rangatira,
or gentleman. This feeling must be cultivated if the tribes
are ever to be civilized; and we know not of any method so
likely to be efi'ectual for the purpose, as that which the Com
pany intends to adopt, in reserving for the rangatiras inter
mixed portions of the lands on which settlements shall be
formed.
The intended reserves of land are regarded as far more
important to the natives than anything which you will have
to pay in the shape of purchaso-nioney. At the same time,
we are desirous that the purchase-money should be less ina
dequate, according to English notions of the value of land,
than has been generally the case in purchases of territory

from the New Zealanders.

Some of the finest tracts of land,

we are assured, have been obtained by missionary catechists

and others, who really possessed nothing, or next to nothing.
In case land should be offered to you for such mere trifles as
a few blankets or hatchets, which have heretofore been given
for considerable tracts, you will not accept the ofl'er without
adding to the goods required, such a quantity as may be of
real service to all the owners of the land. It is not intended
that you should set an example of heedless profusion in this
respect; but the Company are desirous, that in all their trans
actions with the natives, the latter should derive some im
mediate and obvious benefit from the intercourse.
We have reason to believe, that you may rely on the
good faith of the natives. in any transactions for the purchase
of land. The known instances are numerous, in which con- ~
tracts of this sort have been strictly observed, and Very few in

which they have been questioned.

It appears, however, that
M

‘m

'—"_'-'_'-III__—-__w .
'“W...

122

-_

NEW-ZEALAND COMPANY.

the natives expect the land to be used by its English purchasers.
The tribe from which some land was purchased in 1826, on the
Hokianga river, by a London Company, (which despatched
an expedition under the sanction_of Government, similar to
that which you will command,) sent a message to the Di

rectors of the Company to the effect, that unless they took
actual possession of the land which they had purchased, it
would be resumed by its native owners. The object of the
natives is to attract English settlers, by means of whose capital

they may obtain goods in exchange for their labour and the
natural productions of the country. We, therefore, think it
desirable that, whenever you can do so without much inconve

nience, you should leave some one on more persons in posses
sion of any very eligible tract you may have purchased.
This, by assuring the natives of the intention of the Com
pany to form a settlement amongst them, will tend to the
security of' the property acquired. With this view, we autho
rize you to engage at New Zealand, in addition to those who
will accompany you from England for tlyat purpose, any other
persons equally familiar with the native customs, who may
consent to be left alone in possession of purchased tracts. We
doubt not that this authority will be errercised with becoming
moderation.
In whatever purchases you may make, it is most expedient
that the boundaries of the land should be most clearly set
forth, not merely in words, but in a plan attached to the writ
ten contract. A neglect of this very simple precaution has
led, in some cases, Without any wrong intention perhaps on
either side, to disputes between English settlers and native
buyers in various parts of the country.
It appears, that Englishmen who buy land in New Zea
land,>consider it advantageous that their own signatures, and
those of the native sellers on the booka-booka, should be attested

by a member of one of the religious missions.

Mr. Williams,

the chairman of the Church Mission, drew up, and signed as

a witness, a contract for land purchased at Tamaka, in the Frith
of the Thames, by Mr. Fairburn, a Church Missionary Cate
chist; and you will observe, that Lieut. M‘Donnell's contracts

for land at Hokianga, are attested by members of the \Ves
lcyan Mission. The natives probably attach some peculiar
importance to the attestation of a missionary, in consequence
of the peculiar respect in which they hold that class of settlers.
If you should find this to be the case, you will, of course,
endeavour to obtain, whenever the opportunity may Occur,

such higher degree of authenticity for the contracts into which
on may enter on behalf of the Company.
M
i.“Jaw,

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"'rm“ rs" -- v-i- J

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~~- /~—*

NEW—ZEALAND comm NY.

1 23

II. Our instructions, as to the acquisition of general in

formation respecting the country, may be briefly given. It is
impossible that you should furnish the Company with too much
information, or with information of too varied a character. \Ve
shall be anxious to know all that you can possibly learn upon
every subject of inquiry. The subjects of inquiry comprise
everything about which it is possible to inquire. No matter
should be deemed unworthy of examination,—no particulars,
however minute, will be unacceptable. We suppose that
you will keep a daily journal of observations, and that in this
journal you will, as far as possible, mention whatever may
attract your notice. Those points even which may appear to
you on the spot as of the least importance, will not be thought
insignificant by us. Besides contributing as largely as your
time will permit to our stock of knowledge respecting New
Zealand, you will take care that the scientific gentlemen
attached to the expedition have every possible facility of ex
ploring the country at the places at which you may touch or
sojourn. They are instructed to make separate Reports to
the Company, each in his own department of science; and
these Reports will pass through your hands, in order that
you may be satisfied of their copionsness and accuracy. This
rule applies to drawings made by the draftsmen of the Com
pany. And we must now mention another rule, which you
will not fail to impress on all your subordinates; namely, the
propriety of carefully avoiding anything like exaggeration in
describing the more favourable features of the country. Let
the bad he stated as plainly and as fully as the good; so that
the Company, learning the whole truth as well as nothing but
the truth, may run no risk of misleading others.

For fear of inducing you to attach undue importance to
particular branches of inquiry, to the neglect of others, we are
almost unwilling to specify those which appear to us to deserve
the greatest attention. Yet we must remark, that, in the
allotment of the time devoted to general observation,

the

largest portion should be given to those spots where you may
make purchases on behalf of the Company. This is due to the
shareholders, by means of whose capital the enterprise is under

taken. But we by no means wish to confine the reports to such
spots. Let the fullest inquiries be made wherever it is prac
ticable; and assure all the gentlemen attached to the expedition,

not only that the information supplied by them will be con
veyed to the public of this country, but also that each of them

will receive public credit for his share of the contribution.
Nor is it as respects locality, merely, that the interests of the
M 2

124

NEW-ZEALAND COMPANY.

Company should be first considered. The subjects upon which
information will be most acceptable, are those which relate to
the eligibility of places for settlement; such as the qualities of
a harbour, its facilities of communication, the form and cha

racter of the neighbouring country, and the quality of the soil
and of any rivers that may flow into it, the natural productions
of the land, more especially those which would be fit for expor
tation, and the numbers and character of the native tribe inha
biting the spot: all those particulars, in short, which you may
suppose would prove most interesting to persons who contem
plated settling in New Zealand. General information relating
to navigation, geography, geology, botany, zoology, and the
traditions, customs, and character of the natives, will be highly
appreciated, and will be communicated from time to time
to the scientific societies in England: but this must be con
sidered an object secondary in importance to those inquiries
which more immediately concern the Company and its coloniz
ing operations.

0
0
o
1:
III. Considering the excellent sailing qualities of the Tory,
and that you are amply supplied with provisions and water,
we trust that you may reach Cook's Strait, without touching
anywhere, by the end of August. As soon as you have com
pleted your business there, which we are in hopes may not oc
cupy you more than two months, you will proceed to Kuipara,
and thoroughly inspect that harbour and district. You will also
take the best means in your power of ascertaining whether
there is, to the southward of Kaipara, a spot more suitable than

that port to become the seat of the commercial capital of the
North Island ; and if you should discover such a spot, you will
endeavour to make an extensive purchase there.
At Kaipara you will exhibit to the natives theoriginal con
tracts of Lieut. M‘Donnell, and will claim, on behalf of the
Company, the lands therein named. You will also inform the
natives, that Lieut. M‘Donnell intends to proceed

to New

Zealand ere long: you will deliver to the chiefs the letter,
whereby he informs them of his having transferred his lands
there to the Company ; and you will take whatever steps you
may think most expedient, to obtain possession of this tract in

the name of the Company.
Supposing you to have selected from any purchases that
you may make in Cook's Strait, or the neighbourhood of Kai

para. or in the district ofthe Company‘s lands at Kaipara, that
spot which you shall deem the fittest for a first settlement,—

"liat spot which shall present the most satisfactory combination

NEW-ZEALAND COMPANY.

1 25

of facility of access, security for shipping, fertile soil, water
communication with districts abounding in flax and timber,
and falls of water for the purpose'of mills,—and where the
native inhabitants shall evince the greatest desire to receiie
English settlers, and appear most anxious to obtain employ
ment for wages ;—there you will make all such preparations
for the arrival of a body of settlers, as the means at your dis

posal will allow. Amongst these it occurs to us that the natives
should be employed at liberal wages, in felling the best kinds
of timber, taking the logs to the place which you may have
marked out for the site of a town, and also in collecting and
preparing flax and spars as a return freight for vessels which
may convey settlers to the place. You should also make the
natives thoroughly aware of the nature and extent of the
intended settlement, so that they may not be surprised at the
subsequent arrival of a number of large ships. And at this
spot, when you quit it, you will of course leave such persons
as you may be able to spare, and shall be willing to remain,
for the purpose of assuring the natives of your return, and of
pursuing the labours of preparation. On quitting this spot,
you will proceed directly to Port Hardy, in D'Urville's Island,
where you will remain until some of the Company's vessels
shall arrive from England. By the first and subsequent vessels
you will receive further instructions. It is of essential con
sequence that you should, if possible, reach Port Hardy by the
10th of January next, or, if that should not be possible, that

you find means of transmitting to the Company's vessels, that
will be directed to touch there by that time, a full account of

the spot on which you may have determined as the site of the
first settlement.
*
'
'
*
'
You will consider any act of aggressions or afi'ront from any
of the Company's servants towards any native of New Zealand,
as a suflicient reason for immediate dismissal from the Com
pany's service, and in the most public manner.

Drunkenness, though in this case the same publicity may
not be necessary, should be invariably visited with a similar

penalty.
You will take care that the servants of the Company show
every mark of respect to the missionaries with whom you may
meet, and also in'conversation with the natives respecting them.
This is due to their calling; is deserved by the sacrifices they
have made as the pioneers ofcivilization ; and will, moreover, be

found of service in your intercourse with the natives, whoin the
northern part of the North Island, at least, regard missionary
settlers with the greatest respect.
M 3

126

NEW—ZEALAND COMPANY.

Except in cases of unavoidable necessity, the servants of
the Company will perform no work; on Sunday; and you will
always assemble them for public worship on that day. You
will find that the natives who have had much intercourse
with missionaries, draw a marked distinction between those
settlers who work on Sundays, and those who do not, regarding
the former as inferior people, and the latter as rangatiras, or
gentlemen.
.
You are aware of the objections of the ofiicers of the Church
Missionary Society in England to any legislation for the pur
pose of the systematic and well-regulated colonization of New
Zealand. We are assured that the members of the difi'erent
missions established in New Zealand, whether Churchmen,
Catholics, or Wesleyans, by no means share in these objections,
but are, on the contrary, most desirous that a British authority

should be established, as well for the protection of the natives
from the aggressions of lawless Englishmen, as for the general
security of person and property throughout the settlements
already formed, and the islands in general. Upon this point,
however, and with respect to the feelings of the native} chiefs
on the subject, you will endeavour to obtain, and will trans

mit to us, from time to time, the fullest and most accurate
information.
We shall be particularly anxious about the fate of Naiti.
He is no longer a New Zealander in manners, habits, or tastes,

but has acquired those of a well-bred Englishman. This result
of his sojourn in England has occurred, we believe, chiefly by
means of the peculiar treatment which he has received in this
country. Though a complete savage when he arrived, he was
at once placed on a footing of equality with the family who
brought him to England, and has never, by any body, been
treated as an inferior being. You are acquainted with his
sterling good qualities, and aware of the respect in which he
is held by numbers. He is very proud of having been invari
ably treated with respect, and of the estimation which he has
obtained in England. By cultivating this sentiment, by ad
mitting him to all the privileges of an officer of the Company,
by constantly availing yourself of his services as an interpreter,
and consulting him as to the modes of establishing friendly
relations with his countrymen, and by exhibiting him to them
as your coadjutor and friend, you will not only,we are assured,
prevent him from wishing to return to the usages of savage life,

but you will hold up a most useful example to the young men
of superior families in his own tribe, and others.

The great

hstacle to the civilization of a barbarous people is the diff!

PRELIMINARY sanss.

127

culty of providing for the continued relative superiority of their
chieffamilies.» If these can be made persons of consequence
in the settlements established by a civilized race, they will be
able to protect and improve the lower orders of their country
men. This object, we believe, may be accomplished by syste
matic pains-taking. It is an object to which the Company
attach the highest importance ; and one which, we trust, may
be promoted, by holding up Naiti to his countrymen as conclu
sive evidence of their capacity for performing useful parts, and
occupying respectable positions in a community of British
emigrants. And you will not fail to seize any opportunity that
may occur, of inducing other natives of the chief families to
follow Naiti's example, by qualifying themselves for: superior
employments, and {for enjoying the really valuable property
which all such persons may hope to acquire, if the Company‘s
plan, with respect to reserves of land for the natives, should be
generally esablished by means of a legislative measure.

In accordance with the plan indicated in the pre
ceding instructions, the Company in the first instance
offered for sale to the public, a limited portion of the

lands to be comprised within the first settlement to be
founded in New Zealand. The following is an extract
from the conditions, dated lst June, 1839, under

which these preliminary sales were made.
The site of the town will consist of eleven hundred acres,
exclusive of portions marked out for general use, such as quays,
streets, squares, and public gardens. The selected country
lands will comprise one hundred and ten thousand acres. The
situation of the whole quantity of acres constituting the first
settlement, will, accordingly, be determined by a double selec
tion :—first, of the best position with reference to all the rest
of New Zealand, and secondly, of the most valuable portion of
the land acquired by the Company in that position, including
the site of the first Town. The lands of this first and principal
settlement, therefore, if both selections are properly made, will
be more valuable, and will sooner possess the highest value,
than any other like extent of land in the Islands.
These doubly-selected lands will be divided into eleven
hundred sections, each section comprising one town-acre and
one hundred country-acres. One hundred and ten sections
will be reserved by the Company, who intend to distribute the
same as private property amongst the chief families of the tribe,
from which the lands shall have been originally purchased.

128

TERMS son PURCHASE or LANDS.

. The remainder being nine hundred and ninety sections, of one
hundred and one acres each, are now offered for sale in sections,

at the price of 1011. for each section, or 11. per acre.
In return for the purchase-money, the Company will deliver
to the purchaser of each section, an Order on their officers in
the settlement, which will entitle the holder thereof, or his

agent, to select one town-acre, and a country section of one
hundred acres, according to a priority of choice, to be deter
mined by lot, subject to the provisions hereinafter named.
The lots for priority of choice will be drawn at the Com
pany's Office, in London, in the presence of the Directors, on
a day of which public notice will be given.
An ofiicer of the Company will draw in the same manner
for the hundred and ten sections reserved and intended for the
native chiefs; and the choice of these reserved sections will be

made by an officer of the Company in the settlement, according
to the priority so determined.
The choice of sections, of which the priority has been so
determined by lot in England, will take place in the settlement
as soon after the arrival of the first body of colonists, as the
requisite surveys and plans shall have been completed, and
will be made under such regulations as an officer of the Com
pany in the settlement, authoriZed in that behalf, may prescribe.
Neglect, or refusal. to comply with such regulations will occau
sion a forfeiture of the choice; and vest the right of selection
in such officer as to the sections in regard to which the choice
shall have been forfeited.
The land-orders will be transferable at the pleasure of the
holders; and a registry will be kept at the Company's Offices
in London, and in the settlement, as well of original land

orders, as of all transfers thereof.
Of the 99,9901. to be paid to the Company by purchasers,
25 per cent. only, or 24,9971. 10s. will be reserved to meet the

expenses of the Company. The remainder being 75 per cent.,
or 74,9921. 108., will be laid out by the Company for the exclu
sive benefit of the purchasers, in giving value to the land sold,
by defraying the cost of emigration to this Finn and PRiNCi
PAL SETTLEMENT.
Purchasers of land-orders intending to emigrate with the
first Colony, (which it is proposed shall depart by the middle of
August next.) will be entitled to claim from the Company, out
0ftbe 74,9921. 10s. set apart for emigration, an expenditure for
their own passage, and that of their families and servants,

equal
75 per cent. of their purchase-money, according to
regulations framed by the Company with a view to confining

PRINCIPLES or COLONIZATION.

129

the free passage to actual Colonists. But unless this claim be
made in London by written application to the Secretary, delivered
at the Office of the Company, on or beforea dayofwhich public
notice will be given, it will be considered as waived.
The remainder of the 74,9921. 10s. set apart for emigration,

will be laid out by the Company, in providing a free passage
for young persons of the labouring class, and as far as possible
of the two sexes, in equal proportions.

The main features of the system of colonization
thus adopted by the Company, are,——lst, the sale of

lands, at an uniform and suflicient rice; and 2dly, the
employment of a large portion of t e purchase-money,

as an Emigration Fund.

In these res eats, the princi

ples of South Australia have been fol owed as nearly
as circumstances would, in the present case, permit.
The grand object of the new, or improved, system
of the disp0sal of colonial lands, is to regulate the sup
ply of new land, by the real wants of the Colonists,
so that the land shall never be either superabundant,
or deficient, either too cheap, or too dear. It has

been shown that the due proportion between people
and land may be constantly secured by abandoning
the old system of grants, and requiring an uniform
price er acre, for all new land, without exception. If
the price he not too low, it deters speculators from
obtaining land, with a view to leaving their property in
a desert state, and thus prevents injurious dispersion:
it also, by compellin every labourer to work for wages,
until he has saved t e only means of obtaining land,

insures a su ply of labour for hire. If, on the other
hand, the price be not too high, it neither confines the
settlers within a. space inconveniently narrow, nor does

it prevent the thrifty labourer from becoming a land
owner, after working some time for wages.
A sufiicient, but not more than sufficient, price for

all new land, is the main feature of the new system of
colonization. It obviates every species of bondage; by
providing combinable labour, it renders industry very

130

PRINCIPLES or COLONIZATION.

productive, and maintains both high wages, and high
profits ; it makes the colony as attractive as possible,
both to capitalists and to labourers; and not merely

to these, but also, by bestowing on the colony the
better attributes of an old society, to those who have
a distaste for what has heretofore been the primitive
condition of new colonies.
The great object of the price is to secure the most
desirable proportions between eople and land ; but
the plan has the further result of)producing a revenue,
which will not only supply the requisite profit to the
shareholders of the Company, but furnishes the means
for an Emigration Fund,—a fund constantly applica
ble to the purpose of taking labour to the colony—that
is, in causing the best sort of colonization to proceed at

the greatest possible rate. And this is the second
feature of the new system.
The employment of the purchase-money, or the
principal part of it, in conveying settlers to the colony,
as the following effects. It makes the purchasers of

land see plainly, that their money will be returned in
the shape of labour and population. It tends, in fact,
to lower the necessary standard of price, because, with
a constant influx of people to the colony, the due pro
portion between people and land may be kept up by a
lower price, than if there were no such emigration.
It therefore diminishes the period during which the
labourer must work for hire, and by the rapid progress
which it imparts t0 the best sort of colonization, 1t ex
plains to the labouring class of emigrants, that every
one of them who is industrious and thrifty, may be
sure to become not merely an owner of land, but also,
in his turn, an employer of hired labourers, a master of

servants. Alto ether, it renders the colony as attractive
as possible, bot to capitalists and to labourers *.
‘ These principles will be found more fully explained in The Ih'iIish
’mization of New'Zealand.

-: “whim

PRINCIPLES OF COLONIZATION.

From these considerations, the Company has
adopted the same system of disposing of its waste
lands, as has already proved highly favourable to the
productiveness of industry in South Australia. In a
new colony, planted in a fertile and extensive territory,

it is obvious, that the establishment of such a system
is a matter of the deepest moment to the future welfare
of society. “ From it the best effects may with con
fidence be anticipated: a constant and regular supply

of new land in due proportion to the wants of a popu
lation increasing 'by births and immigration; all the

advantages to which facilities of transport and com
munication are essential; certainty of limits, and

security of title to property in land; the greatest
facilities in acquiring the due quantity; the greatest
encouragement to immigration and settlement; the

most rapid progress of the people in material comfort
and social impr0vement, and a general sense of obli
gation to the g0vernment. What a contrast do the
two contrary pictures present! Neither of them is
over-coloured; and a mere glance at both suflices to
show
the North
American
colonies of
of autigiority
En land,
as in that
the inUnited
States,
the function

most full of good or evil consequences, has been the
disposal of public land*.”
It will be perceived that the Company‘s regula
tions, offered, as they continue to offer, a free assage
to purchasers, who are actual colonists, of w atever
denomination, with their families and servants.

The

object of this provision is the encouragement of per
sons possessing capital, and belonging to the well
edncated classes, to settle in the colony, and there

become the instruments of diffusing the arts and man
ners of good English society.
The nucleus of a colony was speedily formed, com
prising persons of considerable property, and members
* Lord Durham's Report on British North America.

132

COMMITTEE or rm: rmsr COLONY.

of some of the oldest and most respectable families in
the kingdom. The following is a. copy of the first ad~
vertisement issued by the committee of the colonists.
Fmsr Comm' or New ZEALAND.

Committee, with power to add to their number.
George Samuel Evans, D.C.L., Chairman.
Hon. Henry Petre.
Francis Molesworth, Esq.
Captain Daniel.

E. B. Hopper, Esq.

Dudley Sinclair, Esq.

George Duppa, Esq.

Under the above designation a Society has been formed in
connexion with the New-Zealand Land Company, and con
sisting exvlusively of heads of families and others, intending to

settle permanently in New Zealand, on lands purchased from
the Company.

.

The object of this Society is to promote co-operation, in
the numerous measures of preparation requisite for establishing
a prosperous settlement.
The Society already numbers a considerable body of gen
tlemen, who have determined to emigrate with their families
and property. Others, who may entertain similar views, are
nvited to join them. Qualification of a member of the Society,

the purchase of one hundred acres of land; of a member of the
committee, five hundred acres; including, in both cases, part of
the first town. The greater part of the purchase-money to be
expended by the Company on the emigration of the purchasers,
their families, and servants. Members admitted by ballot

only.
The colony will depart in a body during August next, so

as to reach their destination about midsummer (in the southern
hemisphere), when the site of the first town will have been
determined and prepared for their reception, by a preliminary
expedition now on its way to New Zealand.
The Committee meets daily at the ofiices of the New-Zea
land Land Company, No. 1, Adam-street, Adelphi, where fur

ther information may be obtained on application (if, by letter,
nost paid,) to the Chairman of the'Society.
Illay 20, 1839.

133

CHAPTER VII.
REAIJZA'I‘ION OF LAND-FUND.——-THE SURVEYING STAFF.—
LIST OF EMIGRANT SHIPS AND PASSENGERS.——PROPERTY
OF THE SETTLERS.——-PROVISION FOR FIRST \VANTS ON
ARRIVAL.-—-PUBLIC LIBRARY.—SCHOOLS.-—CLERGY-—
BANK.-—PROGRESS OF PUBLIC OPINION.——MEETINGB AT
GLASGOW AND DUBLIN.-—-PLANS OF THE COMPANY.

THE plans adopted by the Company for the foundation
of their first settlement were received with remark
able favour by the British public. Intending settlers,
as well as capitalists not contemplating emigration,
came forward eagerly to purchase lands, and within
five weeks the Company had disposed of the whole of
the preliminary sections, and had actually realized a
land-fund of 99,99OZ., of which 75 per cent., or within

a fraction of 75,000Z., was pledged to be appropriated
to the sole purpose of emigration. The priority of
choice of the purchasers was determined by a lottery
held at the Company’s office on the 29th July, 1839;
and the Directors proceeded, without delay, to make
arrangements for the despatch of the emigrants, whose
applications were exceedingly numerous—Jar more so,
indeed, than the rules of the Company permitted a
compliance with. The directors had previously se
lected, with care, an efficient Surveying Staff, con
sisting of a first-rate Surveyor-General, (Captain
Smith, R.A.,) three assistant-surveyors, and twenty
two men. This corps, together with a Land—Com

missioner instructed to negotiate further purchases of
land, left Gravesend on the 1st Au

fast-sailing barque of 270 tons.

st in the Cuba, at

he following is an

extract from the Directors’ instructions to the Sur
veyor-General, relative to the laying out of the first
town.
N

134:

THE susvsvrue STAFF.

Your surveying operations should at first be entirely con
fined to the site of the town.
In laying out the plan of the town, you must as closely as
possible adhere to the conditions on which the land orders
have been sold, as expressed by the enclosed copy of the
terms of purchase,-—providing, at all events. that every holder
of a land order obtains one full acre of land within the
town.
The Directors wish that, in forming the plan of the town,

you should make ample reserves for all public purposes, such
as a cemetery, a. market-place, wharfage, and probable public
buildings. a botanical garden, a park, and extensive boulevards.
'It is, indeed, desirable that the whole outside of the town,

inland, should be separated from the country sections by a
broad belt of land, which you will declare that the Company

intends to be public property, on condition that no buildings be
ever erected upon it.
The form of the town must necessarily be left to your own
judgment and taste. Upon this subject the Directors will only
remark, that you have to provide for the future rather than the
present, and that they wish the public convenience to be con
sulted, alid the beautiful appearance of the future city to be
secured, so far as these objects can be accomplished by the
original plan,—rather than the immediate profit of the Com
pan yIt
. is of essential consequence that the town lands should
be made ready for allotment as soon as possible.
You will consult with Colonel Wakefield as to the day
when the allotment shall take place. It should not take place,
however, until a reasonable time shall have been allowed after
the plan is finished, for the settlers to compare the map with
the ground. Public notice of the day of allotment should be

given; and the Directors desire me to impress on you that
everything like concealment, or even the appearance of it.
should be carefully avoided in all the proceedings of your
department. The first ships with settlers will convey to you
instructions in duplicate, as to the mode in which the choice of
ice-pens is to take place, according to the priority determined
y 0t.

As soon as the survey and plan of the town are completed,
you will proceed to the survey of country sections.
You will observe by the “terms of purchase," that the
Company undertakes that the eleven, hundred country sections
shall consist of the most valuable land at the disposal of the
Directors in the first settlement.

THE sunvevnvo STAFF.

135

The Directors trust, at all events, that you will adopt that

mode of proceeding by which the holders of the preliminary
land orders will most surely obtain the most. valuable land in
the first settlement, and by which the priority of choice deter
mined by lot will be most strictly observed.
In case any order or orders should not be presented to
you at the time when the opportunity for choosing occurs, it
will be your business to choose for the absent holder. The
Directors feel assured that they need not impress on you the
necessity of being careful to select, in such cases, the very best
land then open to choice. This last instruction applies to the
town as well as the country acres. With respect to the town
acres, however, it seems indispensable that the whole should

be surveyed and mapped before any choice is allowed, and
that the allotment of the whole should take place at one
time.

It. will be your duty to choose the reserved sections
according to the priority of choice which has been determined
by lot.

The departure of the first colony took place
in the course of the autumn of 1839; and it is no

exaggeration to assert, that; it comprised a. body of
sctt ers who, for intelligence and energy of mind, as
well as for rank and character in society, have not
been equalled since the days of the early colonization
of North America. On Monday, the 9th September,
the colonists entertained the Directors at a farewell
dinner at the Thatched-House tavern; and on Satur—
day, the 14th, the Directors proceeded to Gravcsend
in the Mercury steam-vessel, accompanied by a large
party of friends interested in the infant colony, for the
final inspection of the ships. On this occasion articles
of agreement were signed by the emigrants, engaging
to observe certain rules, after landing, with a view to
the public safety, until provision should be made for

this object by the Queen’s Government. Parting
entertainments were afterwards given by the Direc
tors, both to the labouring emigrants in every ship,
and t0 the settlers assembled on board the Mercury;
and the scenes of the day were altogether such as
N 2

LIST OF EMIGRANT SHIPS.——-UAPITAL.
136
cannot fail to be memorable in the future annals of the
colon .
T e following table, compiled from authentic do

cuments, exhibits a. list of the Com any’s ships which

sailed in the season of 1839, with t e number of pas
sengers conveyed in each to New Zealand.
Clbin .

B

I,

s

.

_

E“
Sinr.

~

g

Adults.

E‘

Tory (Preliminary
C Expedition)
uba

Mn» L"

6

'

"

22

'

1839.

! London
oiiMayfi. ,

'

30‘ Aug. 1..

506 18 a
. 62 as 13 e2 154|{g;$’,5
. .
|
55014 6 1 .. so as 26 16 14s‘{:;;:’m
640 20 a 4 4 45 47 2a 20 17¢;{ggt‘lg'm

Duke of 1mmth 41715 11
Glenbervie (Store '
, .

387

Bengal Merchant

503 22

ship) .

vateShip).

"

*51l

London

m a

Oriental
Ami-s.
.
Adelaide .

Coromandel

" ' Fem Mele|LFem

_

Stsfl‘)

Bolton,

1i”"~‘iida
w m a. e .

n

|
Mlle r

382

(Surveying

mewhll

*5
Adan- 33:?

i

s

7 37 41 27 21 167%???“
London

3

.

8

“{Oet. 20. ,

9
4

5 53

as 21

_ _ 540 9 9 s s as 45

12

161%,?3°,“

44 mag???

(Pri-

i London,

i662 8

7

9 12

8

“\{Dech

4860:1913 45 23 25 an 249 1811143 [ii23l‘
1

The capital invested by the settlers in property
transported _to the colony is very considerable,

and Was estimated (Dec. 1839) at from.90,000l. to
100,090l. Machinery, mills, steam-engines, agricul'
tural implements, the frames of houses, and goods of
rip-1011s other descriptions, were then on their voyage.
1116 Company was, in fact, induced to charter one
“.1

lNSTlTUTIONS.—CLERGY.

vessel (the Gle'nber'cie) for the special purpose of con
veying the goods of passengers for which there was
not space in the emigrant ships. Nor were the
settlers unmindf'ul of the elements of knowledge
and civilization. They carried with them a collec
tion of books, as the foundation of a Public Library“;

formed a Literary and Scientific Institution; made
preparations for the early publication in the colony
of a “New Zealand Gazette;” and efi'ected arrange
ments for the immediate opening of an Infant School,
to which the children of natives, as well as of Euro
peans, were to be admitted without distinction.

The Company not only sent out a considerable
stock of provisions to supply the first wants of the
settlers, and

revent the possibility of scarcity, but

ship ed buildings intended for women, children, and
inva ids, sufficient to afford temporary shelter to
several hundred persons, art of which were intended

to form a Dispensary, w ere medical aid would be
afforded to all such as might need it.
By a resolution of the Directors, a free cabin pas
sage was offered to religious ministers qfecery donomz'na
tion, provided the grounds of application in each case
were satisfactory to the Board. Accordingly a clergy
man of the Church of England (Rev. J. F. Chur
ton,) proceeded in the “Bolton,” with an endow

ment from the Society for the Propagation of the
Gospel in Foreign Parts, to which the colonists
subscribed a considerable sum in addition; and the

“ Bengal Merchant ” conveyed from Glasgow, a.
minister of the Kirk of Scotland, (Rev. A. Mac
farlane,) with a liberal endowment from that church.
The Society for Promoting Christian Knowledge
evinced its interest in the moral welfare of the emi
" A mung the donors were the Archbishop of Dublin, Rev. Dr. Hinds, and

several other friends of the colony on public grounds.
N 3

138

Pnoensss or PUBLIC OPINION.

grants by a large donation of books placed at the
disposal of the Rev. Mr. Churton.
The Company effected an arrangement with
that highly respectable establishment, the Union
Bank of Australia, (No. 38, Old Broad Street, Lon
don,) for the opening ot' a Branch Bank in New
Zealand, and the manager and other officers
sailed in the Glenberm'e. A colonial currency was
thus brought into circulation, and settlers were

afforded the means of efl'ecting their pecuniary trans
actions with convenience and security. The Union
Bank issues bills on Sydney at 30 days’ sight, at a
charge of 2 per cent. redeemable in New Zealand in

the notes of the bank with a return of the 2 per cent.,
thus enabling colonists to transmit their funds without
any deduction.

The period of the sailing of the first ships was
marked by strong demonstrations of public opinion in
favour of the new settlement. The cordiality of
the assemblage at Gravesend already noticed, was
even surpassed by the burst of enthusiasm which
hailed the departure of the Scotch emigrants from

the Clyde. And a public meeting in Dublin ex
pressed its decided sympathy with the colony, and
approbation of the Company‘s proceedings.
The West of Scotland Committee, with purchasers
of land, intending colonists, merchants, and others,
dined together in the Trades” Hall, Glasgow, on the
22d of October,—the Lord Provost in the chair.

The

company included gentlemen of various professions
and all shades of politics—clergymen, lawyers. mer
chants, and land-owners. On this occasion, the
Rev. Dr. Macleod, in proposin the health of Mr.

M‘Farlane, then going out wit
capacity of chaplain, said :—

the settlers in the

q _ The occasion of our meeting here this night is singularly
\Ullghtrlll. We are met to celebrate the sailing of the first

omscow MEETING.

139

ship from Scotland to the great islands of. New Zealand; which,

as we are credibly informed, are equal to the whole of Great
Britain in extent, and are vastly superior to it in capability, in
climate, and in soil. Oh! my lord, centuries after this, when
we and ours have passed into oblivion, the occasion of this meet
ing will, if history stands true, he an occasion of intense interest

to generations yet unborn. Who can read the history of the
sailing of the ships of Columbus to the New World without
being filled with intense interest? And yet methinks that, in
the future history of New Zealand, antiquarians, a thousand
years hence, will be found tracing their descent from Scotland
and England ; and we may look to the time when people will
pride themselves on being descended from Highlanders, and
trace themselves up to another St. Columba, and talk of the
College of New Zealand as we now do of the College of Iona.
(Long-continued Cheering.) The occasion of our present meet
ing is indeed one of deep interest; and to me it is not the least
intensely interesting part of our proceedings, that I see my
much-beloved and excellent friend Mr. M‘Farlane, a clergyman
of the Church of Scotland, going out to that far colony, there
to be engaged in the sacred services of the sanctuary and the
worship of the God of our fathers. I will not detain you by
stating, what I trust no individual here is disposed tocombat,

that the greatness of every nation and the happiness of every
nation depend entirely on the moral and religious character of
that nation. To what do we owe our unrivalled position among
the nations of the earth? It needs not the researches of a
great historian, like him now in my eye, (Sheriff Alison,) to
tell us that it is because all our institutions, which are the envy
and wonder of the world, have been based on religious princi
ples, and that to this course we are to trace our greatness and
prosperity as a nation. That is the spring and secret of our
greatness as a people; and not only so, but it is the foundation
of our happiness and ourliberties as a people. And while we talk
of the great and good men that have passed away, we should
remember that to these devoted men of God does Britain owe
mainly her civil liberty. You now have, in carrying out a
clergyman of the Church of Scotland to the colony, shown not
only Christian feeling as Christian men, but you have exhibited
the wisdom and the common sense of British merchants; for
I thoroughly believe, that if any individual merchant here to
night may have no higher object than to make wealth by this
speculation, yet, even on that low ground, he could not have
adopted a more wise or prudent plan than that of establishing
the ordinances of religion among the people with whom you

140

PROGRESS or PUBLIC OPINION.

are going to associate. This is the only way to ciiilize them,
to establish the security of property, to raise a barrier against
violence—the only way by which you can get safely your goods
into the country, and promote the intercourse that through time
will take place between that country and the city in which we
are now assembled. But, taking higher ground than that——
Oh ! is it not a delightful prospect, that from our own beloved
city, we are sending forth a herald of the gospel to that be
nighted shore—that we may look confidently forward to the
day when the Sabbath-bell shall be heard in the land. and
when that interesting people shall have the doctrines of the
cross preached to them in purity.

The Lord Provost having proposed the health of

a gentleman, distinguished both as an historian
and as a judge,—Mr. Sherifi' Alison,—that gentleman

delivered an elaborate speech, from which the follow
ing are extracts. :—

y
We are now assembled to commemorate one of the most
interesting events in the history of our country—the coloniza
tion of a new and highly important island in the Southern
hemisphere, and the spread of the British race in the vast

Archipelago of the East. ‘ ' ' Gentlemen, we behold the
British race peopling alike the Western and the Southern he
mispheres; and can already anticipate the time, when two hun
dred millions of men. on the shores of the Atlantic and in the
isles of the Pacific, will be speaking our language, reading our

authors, glorying in our descent. Who is there that does not
see in these marvellous events the finger of Providence; or can
avoid the conclusion that the British race is indeed the chosen
instrument for mighty things, and that to it is given to spread
the blessings of civilization and the light of religion as far as
the waters of the ocean extend? "‘ * ‘ I will not attempt
to describe the fay'oured land to which our fellow-countrymen are
tending—I will not speak of its shady forests, or its noble har
bours, its tempered climate, or its fertile seil ; its snowy ridges,

rivalling the Alps in elevation, its perennial rivers, equalling our
own mountain-streams in sweetness. Gentlemen, it has many
oflhe capabilities and features of our land: its deeply indented

and rocky shores, its isles far stretching into the main; its soil
jeeming with coal and metallic riches; its torrents affording an

inexhaustible supply of water-power for machinery. But it
enjoys a very different climate—a perpetual spring fans its
‘ "tiy slopes, protected, by a vast interior range of mountains

GLASGOW MEETING.

141

and encircling ocean, alike from the shivering blasts of winter

and the scorching heats of summer.

Snow is never seen in

its valleys; drought is never experienced on its hills. No one
can doubt, from its physical situation, natural advantages, and
close proximity to the great continent of Australia, that it is
destined to become, at no distant period, the Great Britain of
the Southern hemisphere. I cannot doubt, gentlemen, that the
incalculable advantages of colonizing such a land will speedin
force themselves on the attention of government ; and that the

intrepid colonists now assembled with us, who have preceded
them in the march of civilization, will obtain the blessings of a
regular goVernment; and that, are long, they will find them
selves under the safeguard of English law and the protection of
the British name. But even if we should be disappointed in
this hope, I do not despair; I have no fear of the Anglo-Saxon
race, though thrown without natural rulers into the wilderness
of nature. Go where they will, they cannot settle without

having the English speech on their tongue, and the English
spirit in their hearts; without the energy of freedom in their
c iaracter, and the wisdom of experience in their recollections;
without the Bible in their hand and the axe by their side;
without the power of European art at their command, and the
blessings of Christian civilization in their train.
I

*

Q

.

After enforcing the policy of strengthening, conciliating,

and increasing the Colonial empire of Great Britain, Mr. Alison
proceeded :—
There is to be found the bone of our bone and the flesh
of our flesh; there are to be found the true descendants of the
Anglo-Saxon race; there the people who, already imbued with
our tastes, our habits, our artificial wants, must he chained for

centuries to agricultural or pastoral employments, and can only
obtain from the mother-country the immense amount of manu
factured produce which their growing wealth and numbers
must require. (Cheers)
"
"
"
Are we oppressed
with a numerous and redundant population? Are we justly
apprehensive that a mass of human beings, already consisting
of five-and-twenty millions, and multiplying at the rate of a
thousand souls a day, will ere long be unable to find subsist
ence within the narrow space of these islands? Let us turn to
the colonies, and there we shall find boundless regions capable
of maintaining ten times our present population in contentment
and affluence, and which require only the surplus arms and
mouths of the parent state, to be converted into gigantic em
pires, which, before a century has elapsed, may overshadow the

142

PROGRESS OF PUBLIC OPINION.

greatness of European renown. Are we justly fearful that
the increasing manufacturing skill and growing commercial
jealousy of the Continental states may gradually shut us out
from the European market. and that our millions of manufac
turers may find their sources of foreign subsistence fail at a
time when all home employments are filled up? Let us turn
to the colonies, and there we shall see empires of gigantic
strength rapidly rising to maturity, in which manufacturing
establishments cannot for centuries take root, and in which the

taste for British manufactures and the habits of British comfort
are indelibly implanted on the British race. Are we over
burdened With the weight of our poor-rates and the multitude
of our paupers, and trembling under the effect of the deep
rooted discontent produced in the attempt to withdraw public
support from the maintenance of the adult and healthy labourer ?
Let us find the means of transporting these healthy workmen
to our colonial settlements, and we will confer as great a bless—

ing upon them as we will give a relief to the parent state. Are
we disquieted by the rapid progress of corruption in our great
towns, and alarmed at the enormous mass of female profligacy
which, like a gangrene, infests these great marts of pleasure
and opulence?

Let us look to the colonies, and there we shall

find states in which the population is advancing with incredible
rapidity, but in which the greatest existing evil is the undue
and frightful preponderance of the male sex, and all that is
wanting to complete their means of increase is, that the pro
portion should be righted by the transfer to distant shores of
part of the female population which now encuinbers the British
isles? Are the means to transport these numerous and indi
gent classes to these distant regions wanting ; and has indivi
dual emigration hitherto been liable to the reproach, that it

removes the better class of our citizens who could do for them
selves, and leaves the poorest who encumber the land P

The

British navy lies between, and means exist of transporting, at
hardly any expense to the parent state, all that can ever be
required of our working population from that part of the empire
which they overburden, to that to which they would prove a
blessing. Gentlemen, I agree with my eloquent and esteemed
friend, Dr. Macleod, that it is astonishing the attention of

Government has not ere this been turned to this subject. And
why, I would ask, may not part at least of the British navy be
constantly employed in transporting emigrants of all classes to
our colonial possessions? (Loud cheers.) Why should two
hundred yessels of different sizes, that are now in commission

"ie British nary, be employed only in useless parades, when

DUBLIN MEETING.

143

hundreds of thousands on the British shores are pining for the
means of transport across the seas, and millions of acres on the
other side of the ocean, teeming with verdant fertility, await

only their robust hands to be converted into a terrestrial para
dise? Why should the British navy not be employed like the
Roman legions in time of peace, in works of public utility; and
why should their efforts not construct causeways across the
deep, which would bind together the immense circuit of the
British colonial dominions, as strongly as the highways con
structed by the legions cemented the fabric of their mighty
empire?

Professor Nichol took the opportunity of expound
ing the Wakefield princi le of colonization; and con

cluded by proposing “ T 1e health of Mr. Wakefield,
the Discoverer of the New System, with Success to

South Australia, and the neighbouring colonies.”

The meeting at Dublin was held in the Mansion
House of that city on the 2nd of November, for the pur

pose ofpromoting the improvement of Ireland by means
of emigration to New Zealand, under the auspices of

the Company, and was most respectably attended,—tlie
Lord Mayor in the chair. The Archbishop of Dublin
would have attended but for the etiquette which for
bids any of the Lords Justices, in the absence of the

LordéLieuteuant, from being present at any public
meeting. The following resolutions were passed.
lst. That in the present state of Ireland, it is highly
expedient to promote emigration, as a means of relieving the
destitution of the labouring people, and of improving the con
dition of all classes of society.
2nd. That, in the opinion of this meeting, it is unjusti
fiable to induce intending emigrants to take up their abode in
the midst of the vice and immorality which notoriously prevail
in the penal colonies; but that such persons should he encour
aged to settle in countries where they will he likely, not only
to thrive in fortune, but to lead good lives, and bring up their

children in virtuous habits.
3rd. That New Zealand appears to offer all the requisite
advantages ofa desirable emigration field: and that this meet

ing approves of the system of colonization pursued by the New
Zealand Company of London.

H4-

PROGRESS OF PUBLIC OPINION

4th. That a committee in Dublin be appointed, to be
called the New-Zealand Committee of Ireland, to act in con

junction with the London Association *.

The Rev. Dr. Dickinson, Domestic Chaplain t0
the Archbishop of Dublin, in moving the-second reso
lution, observed that—
There was nothing incompatible between emigration and
the developement of natural resources. He was desired by the
Archbishop of Dublin to state, that his grace intended to have

been present upon that occasion; but, finding that his appoint
ment as one of the Lords Justices of Ireland. in the absence of
the Lord Lieutenant, precluded him from attending any public
meeting, the archbishop had delegated to him (Dr. Dickinson)
the task of moving the present resolution. He regretted the
unavoidable absence of his grace, because it was well known
that his grace had given the subject of the penal colonies long
and serious consideration.

They were aware, he presumed,'that

the archbishop had written and published Letters to Lord Grey,
calling his lordship's attention, and that of the nation at large,
to the state of those colonies.

In the letters alluded to, he

demonstrated that the penal colonies were by no means a de
sirable place for emigrants or respectable families to live in.
It was well proved that transportation to those colonies was a
system got up in despite of all reason, and continued in despite
of all experience. There was scarcely a session or commission
at which the criminal did not supplicate to be transported—
exult in his sentence, and even commit crimes in order that he
might be so sentenced. (Hear, hear I) It was in vain to

think that a colony composed of such licentious, uneducated,
and vicious inhabitants would ever become respectable. It was
worse than impolitic to place the youthful delinquent in asso
ciation with the old and hardened criminal—to locate females

dragged from the worst haunts of our large cities together, and
expect that they Would become virtuous because they were
placed in another land. It was one of the wildest dreams that
ever entered into the mind of man to conceive. It was there
fore right that the respectable families should be warned of the
pernicious influence which prevailed in these colonies, to initiate
the young in vice, and perpetuate and increase the depravity
* List of the Dublin Committee :—-The Lord Mayor; The Lord Arch
bi drop of Dublin; The Provost of Trinity College; David C. Latouclie,
l : Roy. Dr. Dickinson; The O'Conor Don, M.P.; Cornelius O'Brien,
M.P.; George Hoyte, ‘Esqq Alderman; Patrick H. Fitzgerald, Esq.;
Kincaid, Esq.
>

DUBLIN MEETING.

145

of the old. For two sessions a Committee of the House of
Commons were engaged in considering the condition of those
colonies; but no full report ever emanated from the committee,
because the details of the evidence were so indecent that it
was declared unadvisable to circulate them. An elaborate
digest of the testimony given was prepared by the chairman,
(Sir William Molesworth,) to which a letter of his grace the

Archbishop was appended; and though the chief objectionable
portions of the evidence were expunged from this document,
some facts were preserved in it which proved the horrible
depravity of the colonies. He believed that a parent could not
commit a greater crime with reference to his offspring than to
take them to a colony where every feeling of virtue would surely
be extinguished, and vice of every kind openly indulged. To
remedy the necessity which would exist for persons'to emigrate
to those colonies, other colonies should be established and

pointed out to the poor or the enterprising capitalist, the pass
port to which would not be the perpetration of crime, but a
good character, virtuous habits, and a desire to engage in
industrious aVocations. He had heard from persons connected
with the army, that the children of the most respectable settlers
in the penal colonies displayed, at the tender ages of twelve or
thirteen years, a precocity of vice such as was scarcely to be

found in the worst haunts of London; and why? Because
they were associated with convicts and the most despicable
characters. Under these circumstances, he felt pleasure in
proposing the second resolution, warning the people and the
respectable inhabitants of the country against emigration to

the penal colonies—New South Wales and Van Diemen’s
Land.

(Cheers)

Mr. Ward, Secretary to the Company, having
explained to the meeting its objects and proceedings,
and pointed out the advantages offered by New
Zealand, in comparison with 0t er emigration-fields,

several gentlemen present delivered their sentiments
strongly in favour of the new colony.

The Company matured its plans for conducting
emigration on an extensive scale in the year 1840.
Sales to the amount of 7000 acres of country land
0

146

PLANS or THE COMPANY.

were effected at £1 per acre, in the few months suc
ceeding the period of the preliminary sales; and free

passages continued to be offered to purchasers u n
the terms which will be found in the Appendix. 'Fhe

Company also made an allowance of 60 per cent.
for passa e-money to purchasers not proceedmg direct

in the C%m any’s ships, granting them special land
orders, whic in such cases were not transferable.

The Ofiioes of the New-Zealand Company are
removed to N0. 9, Broad Street Buildings.

147

APPENDIX.
No. I.
NEW~ZEALAND COMPANY *.
Capital, 100,000l. in 4000 shares of 251. each—Deposit 10!. per share.
Govemor.—_THE EARL or DURHAM.

Deputy-Govenwr.—Jossrn Seuss, Esq.
Directors.

Lord Petre.

Alexander Nairne, Esq.

I-Ion. Francis Baring, M.P.

John Pirie, Esq., Alderman.

John Ellerker Boulcott, Esq.

Sir George Sinclair, Bart, M.P.

John ‘Villiam Buckle, Esq.

John Abel Smith, Esq., M.P.

Russell Ellice, Esq.
W. Thompson, Esq., Ald., M. P.
James Brodie Gordon, Esq.
Sir Henry Webb, Bart.
William Hutt, Esq., M.P.
Arthur Willis, Es .
Stewart Marjoribanks, Esq.
George Frederick (houng, Esq.
Sir W. Molesworth, Bart” M. P.
Bankers.
Messrs. Smith, Payne, and Smiths; and Messrs. Wright and Co.
Standing Counsel.-John Buckle, Esq.

Medical Director.—Sir John Doratt, M.D.
Solicitors—Messrs. Few, Hamilton, and Few.
Secretary—John Ward, Esq.

Oflice, No. 1, ADAM Smss'r, ADBLPHI 1-.

THIS Company has been formed for the purpose of employing
capital in the purchase and re-sale of lands in New Zealand,
and the promotion of emigration to that country.
A description of these islands as a field for British coloniz
ation, has been rendered unnecessary by the labours of the
New-Zeahnd Association of 1887, who collected and dissemi

nated very ample information on the subject. The sole aim of
that Society was to induce the Legislature to apply to New
' The Company for a, time used the name of “Land Com
pany,” to distinguish it from the Company of 1825. The last
mentioned body having since merged in the present Company, its
name is now the “ Ncw-Zeahmd Company."
1- Now removed to No. 9, Broad Street Buildings.
0 2

148

APPENDIX.

Zealand the peculiar system of colonization which has proved
so eminently successful in South Australia, and to make pro
vision for guarding the native inhabitants from the evils to
which they have hitherto been exposed by their intercourse
with Europeans of every class. Her Majesty’s Government,
however, objected to all legislation for these ends, except on

one condition, to which the Society could not assent. The
proposed condition was, that the Society, which had excluded
from its objects all speculation for private gain, should become

a joint-stock company and engage in undertakings with a view
to profit. This condition was declined, as being at variance
with the declared character of that Society ; and the result has
been the formation of the present Company, in a form consistent
with the condition thus required by Her Majesty’s Govern?
ment.

The purchase and improvement of waste lands in New
Zealand has been already carried on to a great extent, and with
much advantage, by missionaries and others, who have settled
in the country, as well as by persons residing in the adjacent
Australian Colonies ; and such an operation upon an enlarged
scale is the proposed object of the New-Zealand Company.

The attention and business of the Company will be con
fined to the purchase of tracts of land,-—the promotion of

emigration to those tracts directly from the United Kingdom,
-—-the laying out of settlements and towns in the most favour
able situations,—-and the gradual resale of such lands according

to the value bestowed upon them by emigration and settle
ment. It is also proposed that, to facilitate the transmission of
capital between England and New Zealand, the Company shall

act as agents, for that purpose only.
Such an undertaking affords peculiar advantages to the

employers of a large combined capital, and is further suitable
to a Company, inasmuch as it can neither impede individual
enterprise, nor is liable to the competition of individuals, and
is capable of being managed at little expense for agency, and
upon a system of fixed routine.
.
Very extensive tracts of most fertile land in situation,
highly favourable both for agricultural and commercial settle

APPENDIX.

14-9

ments, have been already purchased and secured for the pur

poses of this Company; and an expedition has also been fitted
out and despatched for surveying the coasts of New Zealand,
making purchases of land in the most eligible spots, and pre

paring for the arrival of alarge body of settlers, whom it is
proposed to establish on the Company’s lands during the present
year.
These important purchases, and the fitting out of the pre
liminary expedition, (including the purchase and equipment
of a fine Vessel of 400 tons,) have been effected, at a consider
able outlay, by parties, to whom a certain number of paid-up
shares, to be determined by arbitration, are consequently to be

assigned for a transfer of their interests.
Upon the remaining shares, a call of 10l. per share, (in
addition to the deposit,) will be made at the discretion of the
Directors, with not less than a month’s notice ; and all further

calls will be made at intervals of not less than three months
between each call, and no call at any one time will exceed
10!. per share.
.
The Directors are to have the entire management and
control of the funds, formation, proceedings, and affairs of the
Company, and are empowered to enter into any arrangements

whatever which they may consider conducive to the interests
of this undertaking,-—to prepare a Deed of Settlement for the
management of the Company, and to take any steps that may
be thought proper relative to an Act of Parliament or a Charter
in aid of their plans, application for which will be made with
the least p0ssible delay,—-—and generally to adopt such measures

and proceedings with reference to the grants, and disposal of
shares, or otherwise, as they shall consider expedient.

The shares in the first instance will be issued in scrip
receipts, upon which will be indorsed the principal laws and
regulations by which the Company is to be governed until a
Deed of Settlement shall have been entered into, or an Act of
Parliament have been obtained.

Further information on every point connected with the
Company, may be obtained from the Secretary, at the office.

London, 1839.
0 3

150

APPENDIX.
No. II.

COMMITTEES IN SCOTLAND AND IRELAND.
NEW-ZEALAND COMMITTEE FOR THE WEST OF SCOTLAND.

The Duke of Hamilton.
The Duke of Argyle.

GLASGOW.
The Earl of Glasgow.
The Earl of Eglinton.

The Lord Provost.
James Lumsden, Esq.
John Fleming, Esq.

I

Lawrence Hill, Esq.
Andrew Tennent, Esq.
Alexander Johnston, Esq.

Secretary, John Crawford, Esq. , 24, Queen Street, Glasgow.
NEW-ZEALAND COMMITTEE OF IRELAND.

DUBLIN.
The Lord Mayor.
The Lord Archbishop of Dublin.

The O‘Conor Don, M.P.
Cornelius O‘Brien, M.P.

The Provost of Trinity College.
George Hoyte, Esq., Alderman
David C. Latouche, Esq.
Patrick H. Fitzgerald, Esq.
The Rev. Dr. Dickinson.
Joseph Kincaid, Esq.
Secretary, J. Battersby, Esq., Dublin.

No. III.
LIST OF PROVINCIAL AGENTS OF THE NEW
ZEALAND COMPANY.
Place.

Name.

London ............ .. Mess. Capper & Gole, 5, Adam-street, Adelphi.
Mr. D. Ramsay, 5, Adam-street, Adelphi.
E. H. Mears, 6?, Gracechurch-street.
.
T. Hepworth, Ely-place, Holbom.
,,
Burnstaple
Aberdeen ..
James Sigertwood.

Charles J. Dene.
Blue/cburn .... ..

Richard Johnson.

Buntingford . .
Birmingham
Beucles
..
Chic/)esler
Chester .... ..
....
Dover ....... ..

C. N icholls.
Joseph Phipson.l (ll, Union passage.)
R. W. Clarke.
James Powell, (Town Clerk.)
Geo. Henry Booth.
Nathaniel Kettle.

Davenport

Thomas Woollcombe.

..

Dundee .... ..
Messrs. M‘Ewen and Miller.
" inburgh .......... .. Mr. James Bridges, (Hanover-street.)

v-__
_,
W..-~~

APPENDIX.

151

Place.
Name.
Eastbourne ......... .. Mr. R. B. Stone.
Falmouth ..... .. ..
Matthew O’Brien.

Farringdon.......... ..

Alfred Lurllsm.

FortlnTZZZZZishI-rez

Donald Macdonald, (Special Agent.)

Gravesend .......... ..
Halifax

Walter Rayment, (Star Office.)
Harry Hughlings.

Hastings
Ilull ...... ..
Heytesbury-Ingatestone..

Charles Bond.
Wm. Stephenson.
Charles Morris.
Joseph Coverdale.

Ipswich

Wm. Powell Hunt.

Leeds

John Potter.

Lewes ..... ..
Liverpool
..
ll-[aidstone

Thomas Charles Elliot.
Capt. W. H. Whitehead, (India. Buildings.)
Mr. George Whiting.

Nottingham ....... ..
J. W. Haythorn.
Newcastle-upon-Tgne
W. Loraine.
Portsmouth...
Messrs. Garratt and Gibbon.
.l’enzance
Mr. Rowe.

Rochdale. . . . . . . . . . . ..
Safron. Walden .... ..
Southampton ....... ..
Stuflord ..... ..
Wegmoath .
York .......... ..

E. Wrigley.
Joseph T. Collin.
Joseph Clark.
' Fenton.
George Frampton.
Henry Carr.
No. IV.

COLONIAL ESTABLISHMENT OF THE COMPANY
IN NEW ZEALAND.
Principal Agent ...................... .. Colonel William Wakefield.
Surveyor-General ................... .. Capt. Wm. Mein Smith, R.A.

Mr. Wellington Carrington.
Assistant Surveyors ................ ..

Robert Stokes,
Robert Park.
Commissioner for Purchase of Landfltichztrd Davies Hanson, Esq.
Assistant ............................... ..Mr. William Butt.
Storekeeper
....George Hunter, Esq.
Assistant . . . . .
. . . “Mr. John Bircham.
Emigration Agent . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..
Daniel Riddiford,
Principal Clerk of the Land Ofiioe,
John Lewes.
Surgeon to the Company ............. ..
John Dorsett.
Naturalist . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
. . . ..Dr. Diefi‘enbach.

Draftsman .......................... ..Mr. Charles Hesphy.
I

_
J Rev. John Gare Butler.
ntcrpaetcrs .......................... .. l Te Nam.

152

APPENDIX.
No. V.

UNION BANK OF AUSTRALIA.
LONDON Orrrcs, 38, 01.1) Bnoan-S'rnnsr.
Directors.

George Fife Angus, Esq.

Benjamin Ephraim Lindo, Esq.

Robert Brooks, EsqJames John Cummius, Esq.

Charles Edw. Mangles, Esq.
Christ. Rawson, Esq., Halifax.

R. Gardner, Esq., Manchester.
John Gore, Esq.
Charles Hindley, Esq., M.P.

Thomas Sands, Esq., Liverpool.
James Bogle Smith, Esq.
James Ruddell Todd, Esq.

Trustees.

G. Carr Glyn, Esq.; John Gore, Esq.; J. John Cummins, Esq.
Secretary—Samuel Jackson, Esq.

NEW-ZEALAND BRANCH.
Local Directora.

G. S. Evans, Esq., D.C.L.; E. B. Hopper, Esq.; G. Hunter, Esq.
Arrangements having been made for the opening of a Branch
in New Zealand, notice is hereby given that Bills on Sydney at

thirty days’ sight will be issued at this office to the settlers for such
sums as may be required, at a charge of two per cent., redeem
able in New Zealand in the Notes of this Bank, with a return of

the two per cenL, thus enabling the colonists to transmit their
funds without deduction.

The Directors likewise continue to grant letters of credit pay
able at sight, for any sum not exceeding 3001., and bills, at thirty

days’ sight, to any amount, on their Branches at Sydney, Hobart
Town, Launceston, and Melbourne, Port Philip, at
terms.

the usual

By Order of the Board,
SAMUEL JACKSON, Secretary.
The Directors of the New-Zealand Company hereby give notice
that they have efl‘ected an arrangement with the Directors of the
Union Bank of Australia: in pursuance of which a Branch of the

Union Bank will be established forthwith on the Company’s First
and Principal Settlement.

The Directors therefore recommend

to the Colouists the Union Bank of Australia, as a means of
effecting
security.

their

pecuniary

transactions

with

convenience

and

By Order of the Directors,
JOHN “'ARD, Secretary.

~-~——m~—<

APPENDIX.

1 53

No. VI.

NEW-ZEALAND COMPANY.

TERMS OF PURCHASE FOR LANDS IN THE
COMPANY'S SETTLEMENTS.
Tun Company has already acquired very extensive tracts of
land in the North Island of New Zealand, and has despatched

two expeditions for the purpose of purchasing other lands, and
of selecting the most eligible district for the first and principal

Settlement.
The Company, in the first place, offered for sale 99,000
acres of Country Land, and 990 acres of Town Land, in their

first and principal Settlement, after making reserves for the
special use of the natives. These lands thus offered have been
disposed of at ll. per acre, thereby realizing to the Company
a Land Fund of 99,9901., and the rights of the purchasers
thereof to priority of choice in the Settlement, have been
determined by lot.

The Directors are now ready to receive applications for
Country Lands, to the extent of 50,000 acres, in sections of
100 acres each, at the price of 100l. per section, or II. per acre,
to be paid in full, in exchange for the land-orders, which will
entitle the holders thereof, or their agents, to select Country

Sections accordingly, either at the Company’s principal Settle
ment, or at Hokianga, Kaipara, Manukau, the Islands of
Waiheke and Paroa, the borders of the Thames, or any other
part of the present or future territories of the Company, so
soon as the requisite survey thereof shall have been completed.

The holders will, therefore, select at pleasure, out of all the
Company’s territories which shall then be surveyed as Country
Sections, :1 section of 100 acres for each land-order, in the order
in which the land-orders shall be presented to the Company’s
resident officer in New Zealand.
The land-orders will be transferable at the pleasure of the

holders; and a registry will be kept at the Company’s Offices

l 54

APPENDIX.

' in London, and in the settlement, as well of original land
orders, as of all transfers thereof.

Of the moneys to be paid to the Company by purchasers,
25 per cent. only will be reserved by the Company for local

expenses and other purposes. The remainder, being 75 per
cent., will be laid out by the Company for the exclusive benefit
of the purchasers, in giving value to the land sold by defi'aying
the cost of emigration to the Settlements.
Original purchasers of land-orders intending to emigrate,

will be entitled to claim from the Company, out of the Fund
set apart for emigration, an expenditure equal to 60 per cent.
of their purchase-money, for a free passage for themselves,
their families, and servants, subject to the Company’s regula~
tions.

Purchasers to the extent of at least 300 acres, not

intending to emigrate, will also, in special cases, be allowed
to nominate their land-agents, for a free cabin-passage to the
Settlements.
Purchasers proceeding to New Zealand in ships not char

tered by the Company, may at their option receive in money
the allowance of 60!. for each 100l. of their purchase-moneys,
towards the cost of their passage; and in such cases, special

land-orders will be issued requiring the Purchasers in person to
take possession of the land within eighteen months.
The remainder of the Fund set apart for emigration, will
be laid out by the Company in providing a free passage for
young persons of the labouring class, and as far as possible of
the two sexes in equal proportions.
Labourers selected by purchasers for a free passage must
be subject to approval by the Company, as respects age, sex,
and good character.

In the selection of other labouring emigrants, the Com
pany will give a preference to applicants who shall be under
engagement to work for capitalists intending to emigrate.
A scale of the rates at which cabin and steerage passages

will be provided by the Company in proportion to the pur
chase-money of land-orders, will be exhibited from time to

time at the Company’s Office.
The land—orders are to be received as sufficient convey
s, and conclusive evidence of the Company’s title; and a

1

APPENDIX.

I55

certificate of an officer of the Company in the Settlement
authorized in that behalf, mentioning the section fallen or

assigned to the lot of any land-order, is to be accepted as suffi
cient evidence thereof, and as an actual delivery of the
possession of the section mentioned in such certificate ; and the
Company are not to be considered as guaranteeing the title,

except as against their own acts, and the acts of those deriving
title under or in trust for them.
Forms of the land-orders may be seen on application at
the Company’s Office.
By Order of the Directors,
JOHN WARD, Secretary.
New-Zealand Company’s Ofice,
December 5th, 1839.

No. VII.

NEW-ZEALAND COMPANY.

REGULATIONS FOR PURCHASERS OF LAND, CLAIM
ING A FREE PASSAGE.

Pumnssans of Land-Orders, desiring to claim from the Emi
gration Fund a free passage for themselves, their families, and
servants, to the extent of sixty per cent. of their purchase

moneys respectively, are to make their applications, in writing,
to the Secretary, in the form specified on the other side.
The applications must state the names, ages, ceilings, and
descriptions of the persons for whom the free passage is
claimed, and whether cabin or steerage passages are desired,

and to what extent. The time at which the applicants will
be prepared to leave England, must also be stated as exactly as
possible.

The applications will be laid before the Board for approval,
who will comply with the Wishes of the parties in respect of
the ship, and time of sailing, so far as may be found practicable

156

APPENDIX.

with reference to the number and priority of the applications.

When the claims are allowed, the applicants will be apprised
thereof, and of the cabin, or other accommodation, which has

been provided for them.

The following are the Rates at which Cabin and Steerage
Passages will be provided, free of expense, to Purchasers
actually emigrating with their Families and Servants, to
the extent of sixty per cent. of their purchase moneys
respectively :—
Adults, Cabin Passage, (Dietary, No. 1,) £75 per head.
Do.
Do
(Do. No. 2,) £50 per head.
Do. Steerage Passage
. £18. 158. per head.
Children under fourteen, and above nine
years of age
.
.
.
. One half the above rates.

D0.
D0.

under nine, and above one year
of age
.
.
.
.
. One third of ditto.
under one year old, accompanying
their parents

.

.

.

.

Persons of the labouring class, nominated by Purchasers,
can only be accepted, provided they fall within the Regula
tions under which the Company grants a free passage to
Labourers in general.
Adult Cabin Passengers will be allowed a space of two
tons each, and adult Steerage Passengers, half a ton, or twenty
cubic feet each, for luggage; with a proportionate quantity,
in each case, for children. All additional space required for
passengers’ luggage will be charged at the rate of 50s. per ton
measurement, and 253. per ton dead weight, one moiety of
which mdst be paid before shipment, and the remainder before

the delivery of the bill of lading.
By Order of the Directors,

JOHN WARD, Secretary,
Nan-Zealand Cmnpany’s Ojice,
December 5th, 1839.

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158

APPENDIX.

N0. VIII.
NEW-ZEALAND COMPANY.

REGULATIONS FOR LABOURERS WISHING TO
EMIGRATE TO NEW ZEALAND.
1. BY its terms of purchase for Lands, the Company has engaged to
lay out 75 per cent. of the moneys received from purchasers, in defray
ing the Cost of Emigration to its Settlements. Purchasers and others
may, therefore, submit labouring persons, of the class hereafter de
scribed, to the approval of the Company, for a free passage. In the
selection of labouring emigrants, the Company has undertaken to give
a preference to applicants who shall be under engagement to work (or

capitalists intending to emigrate.
2. The Company offers a free passage to its Settlements, (including
provisions and medical attendance during the voyage,) to persons of
the following description, viz. :—agricultural labourers, shepherds,
miners, bakers, blacksmiths, braziers and tinrnen, smiths, sliipwrighls,
boat-builders, wheelwrights, sawyers, cabinet-makers, carpenters,
coopers, curriers, farriers, millwrights, harness-makers, boot andshoe
makers, tailors, tanners, brick-makers, lime-burners, and all persons

engaged in the erection of buildings.
3. Persons engaged in the above occupations who may apply for
a free passage to New Zealand, must transmit to the office of the

Company, free of expense, the most satisfactory testimonials as to
their qualifications, character, and health.

4. They must be actual labourers going out to work for wages in
the Colony, of sound mind and body, not less than fifteen, nor more

than thirty years of age, and married. The marriage certificate must
be produced.

The rule as to age will be occasionally departed from

in favour of persons having large families, whose qualifications are in
other respects satisfactory.
5. To the wives of labourers, thus sent out, the Company ofi'ersa
free passage with their husbands.
6. To single women a free passage will be granted, provided they
go out under the protection of their parents, or near relatives, or under
actual engagement as servants to ladies going out as cabin passengers

on board the same vessel.

The preference will be given to those

accustomed to farm and dairy-work, to sempstresses, straw-platters,

dd domestic servants.

APPENDIX.

159

7. The children of parents sent out by the Company will receive
a. free passage, if they are under one, or full seven years of age at the
time of embarkation. For all other children three pounds each must
be paid, in full, before embarkation, by the parents or friends, or by
the parish.

8. Persons not strictly entitled to be conveyed out by the emi
gration fund, if not disqualified on account of character, will, in the
discretion of the Directors, be allowed to accompany the free emi
grants, on paying to the Company the sum of 181. l5s. for every such

adult person. The charges for children are as follows ;—Under one
year of age, no charge; one year, and under nine, one-third of the
charge for adults; nine years of age, and under fourteen, one-half
the charge for adults; but if the parents be of the labouring class,
the children will be taken out on the terms stated in Regulation 7.

9. All Emigrants, adults as well as children, must have been
vaccinated, or have had the small-pox.
10. Emigrants will be for the most part embarked at the Port

of London, but the Directors will occasionally appoint other ports of
embarkation, as circumstances may require.

ll. The expense of reaching the port of embarkation must be
borne by the Emigrants; but on the day appointed for their embark
ation, they will be received, even though the departure of the ship
should be delayed, and will be put to no further expense.

12. Every adult Emigrant is allowed to take half a ton weight,
or twenty cubic feet, of baggage. Extra baggage is liable to charge
at the ordinary rate of freight per ton.
13. The Emigrants must procure the necessary tools of their own
trades; and before they will be permitted to embark, they must pro
vide themselves with an outfit of clothing, bedding, and other neces

saries, for the voyage, according to the annexed scale.

The outfit

may be obtained upon payment to the Company, or to the outfitter,

of the prices affixed to the several articles in the List.
14. On the arrival of the Emigrants in the Colony, they will
be received by an officer who will supply their immediate wants,
assist them in reaching the place of their destination, be ready to
advise with them in case of difficulty, and at all times to give them
employment in the service of the Company, if from any cause they
should be unable to obtain it elsewhere. The Emigrants will, how

ever, be at perfect liberty to engage themselves to any one willing to
employ them, and will make their own bargain for wages.
By Order of the Board,

JOHN WARD, Secretary.
JVew-Zealand Company's Ofice,
5th December, l839.

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161

APPENDIX.

SCALE OF EMIGRANTS’ OUTFIT.
The Articles may be obtained by payment of the undermen
tioned Prices, at the Company’s Ofiice (Emigration Department), or

of Messrs. Dixon and Co., N 0. l2, Fenchurch-street, London.
N.B. No other mattresses, or bedding, will be allowed to be
shipped, except such as have been approved by the Company, as
understated.
Fon urea Anun'r MALI.
2 fuetiau jackets, lined, at .
2 pair ditto truwsers, at 4s. 3d.
2 ditto duck ditto, at

.
Lined, at

.

.

8 round frocks, at
.
.
12 cotton shirts, at .
.
6 pair of worsted stockings. at .

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2

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caps, at o

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9 pairs sheets. at

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.

2

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.

.

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1 pair blankets, at .

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1 pair boots. with hobnaila, 8zc., at
1 painshoes. at

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1'2 shifts, or 30 yards long cloth, at
.
6 caps, or 3 yards muslin, at
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6 handkerchiefs. at
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4 lbs. marine soap, at
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One mattress and bolster for each couple, of coloured wool
Knife and fork, plate, spoon, drinking mug, &c., say .

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mattress, &c., which may he had upon payment of the undermen

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One year of age, and under nine .
Nine years of age, and under fourteen

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APPENDIX.

1 63

No. X.
NEW ZEALAND.
Treasury Minute, dated 19th July, 1839, sanctioning an Ad
vancefrom the Revenues of New South Wales, on account
qfthe Expenses of the Oficer about to proceed to New Zealand
as Consul, 8,-0. Ordered, by the House of Cmnmons, to be

printed, 29th July, 1839.
READ letter from Mr. Stephen, dated 4th instant, transmitting,

by direction of the Marquis of Normanby, for the considera
tion of this board, with reference to a. communication from
his lordship’s department of the 13th ultimo, on the subject

of the establishment of some British authority in New
Zealand, a letter from Captain Hobson of the Royal Navy,
who is about to proceed to New Zealand as her Majesty’s
consul, and as eventual lieutenant-governor of such territory

as may be ceded to her Majesty in the New-Zealand Islands,
with an estimate of certain expenses it will be necessary to
incur in respect of this mission, for his passage to those islands,
construction of a residence, presents to native chiefs, and other

incidental charges.
My lords have again before them the letter from Mr.
Stephen, of the 13th ultimo, adverting to the circumstances
which had appeared to the Marquis of Normanby and to
Viscount Palmerston to force upon her Majesty’s government

the adoption of measures for establishing some British autho
rity in New Zealand for the government of the Queen’s sub
jects resident in, or resorting to, those islands ; and, with that
view, proposing that a British consul should forthwith be
despatched to New Zealand; and that, upon cession being

obtained from the native chiefs of the sovereignty of such
territories therein as may be possessed by British subjects,
those territories should be added to the colony of New South
Wales as a dependency of that government; and likewise

proposing that the officer about to proceed to New. Zealand as

1641

APPENDIX.

consul should be appointed lieutenant-governor of this depen
dency ; and that the expenses which must necessarily be
incurred for his passage, and for the purchase of articles which
will be required for his immediate use in the public service, or
for presents to the native chiefs, should be defrayed by ad

vances from the funds of the government of New South Wales,
to be hereafter repaid from such'revenue as may be raised within
the ceded territory by virtue of ordinances to be issued for
the purpose by the governor and council of New South Wales,
from which revenue also all other expenses relating to the
government of this dependency are to be provided for.

My lords also refer to the opinion of her Majesty’s law
officers, that any territory in New Zealand, of which the

sovereignty may be acquired by the British crown, may law—
fully be annexed to the colony of New South Wales, and that
the legislative authority of New South Wales, created by the
Act of 9 Geo. 1V. 0. 83, may then be exercised over British
subjects inhabiting that territory; and my lords likewise refer
to the provision made in the estimate for consular services, now

before the House of Commons, for the salary of a consul at
New Zealand.

My lords also read their minute of the 21st ultimo express
ing their concurrence in opinion with her Majesty’s Secretary
of State as to the necessity of establishing some competent

control over British subjects in the New-Zealand Islands, and
further stating that this board would be prepared, upon the

contemplated cession in sovereignty to the British crown of
territories within those islands which have been or may be
acquired by her Majesty’s subjects, under grants from the

different chiefs being obtained, to concur in the proposed
arrangements for the government of the ceded territory, and'
for raising a revenue to defray the expense of the establishment
it would be necessary to maintain for this purpose.
Write to Mr. Stephen, and, in reply to his further commu
nication of the 4th instant now before this board, request he
will signify to the Marquis of Normanby my lords’ sanction

for the advance by the agent-general for New South Wales
from funds appertaining to the government of that colony, of

APPENDIX.

1 65

the amount required to defray the expenses of the officer pro—
ceeding to New Zealand, as specified in the estimate furnished
by Captain Hobson, and submitted to my lords in Mr.
Stephen’s letter, with the understanding that such advance is

to be repaid from the revenues of the territory it is proposed
to annex to that government. But Mr. Stephen will at the
same time state to the Marquis of Normanby, that as the pro
ceedings about to be adopted in regard to New Zealand, in the
event of failure of the anticipated cession of sovereignty and of
the contemplated revenue, may involve further expenditure
from the funds of this country beyond the salary of the consul
already included in the estimate for consular services for the
current year, my lords have considered it necessary that the
arrangement should be brought under the cognizance of
Parliament; and they have therefore directed that a copy of
their minute, giving the sanction now notified to Lord Nor

manby, shall be laid before the House of Commons.

No. XI.
INSTRUCTIONS FROM THE COLONIAL OFFICE TO
CAPTAIN HOBSON, REGARDING LAND INNEW
ZEALAND.
Extract from a Despatck from the Marquis of Normanby to
Captain Hobson, RJV., dated Downing Street, 14th of
August, 1839.
“ IT is not, however, to the mere recognition of the sovereign

authority of the Queen that your endeavours are to be con
fined or your negotiations directed. It is further necessary
that the chiefs should be induced, if possible, to contract with
you, as representing her Majesty, that heueeforward no land
shall be ceded either gratuitously or otherwise, except to the

Crown of Great Britain. Contemplating the future growth
and extension of a British colony in New Zealand, it is an

1 66 ‘

APPENDIX.

object of the first importance that the alienation of the un
settled lands within its limits should be conducted from its

commencement upon that system of sale of which experience
has proved the wisdom, and the disregard of which has been so
fatal to the prosperity of other British settlements. With a
view to those interests, it is obviously the same thing whether
large tracts of land be acquired by the mere gift of the Govern
ment, or by purchases effected on nominal considerations from
the aborigines. On either supposition, the land must be
wasted, the introduction of emigrants delayed or prevented, and
the country parcelled out amongst large landholders, whose

possessions must long remain an unprofitable, or rather a per
nicious, waste. Indeed, in the comparison of the two methods
of acquiring land gratuitously, that of grants from the Crown,
mischievous as it is, would be the less inconvenient, as such
grants must be made with at least some kind of system, with
some degree of responsibility, subject to some conditions, and

recorded for general information. But in the case of purchases
from the natives, even these securities against abuse must be
omitted, and none could be substituted for them. You will
therefore, immediately on your arrival, announce by a procla
mation addressed to all the Queen’s subjects in New Zealand,

that her Majesty will not acknowledge as valid any title to land
which either has been or shall hereafter be acquired in that

country, which is not either derived from or confirmed by a
grant to be made in her Majesty’s name and on her behalf.
“ You will, however, at the same time take care to dispel
any apprehensions which may be created in the minds of the

settlers, that it is intended to dispossess the owners of any
property which has been acquired on equitable conditions, and
which is not upon a scale which must be prejudicial to the
latent interests of the community.
“ Extensive acquisitions of such lands have undoubtedly
been already obtained; and it is probable that before your
arrivals. great addition will have been made to them. The

embarrassments occasioned by such claims will demand your
earliest and most careful attention.

“ I shall in the sequel explain the relation in which the

APPENDIX.

l 67

proposed colony will stand to the government of New South
Wales. From that relation I propose to derive the resources
necessary for encountering the difliculty I have mentioned.
The Governor of the colony will, with the advice of the
Legislative Council, be instructed to appoint a Legislative
Commission, to investigate and ascertain what are the lands in
New Zealand held by British subjects under grants from the

natives, how far such grants were lawfully acquired and ought
to be respected, and what may have been the price, or other
valuable consideration, given for them. The Commissioners
will make their report to the Governor; and it will then be
decided by him how far the claimants, or any of them, may be

entitled to confirmatory grants from the Crown, and on what
conditions such confirmation ought to be made.
“The propriety of immediately subjecting to a small

annual tax all uncleared lands within the British settlements
in New Zealand will also engage the immediate attention of the

Governor and Council of New South Wales.

The forfeiture of

all lands in respect of which the tax shall remain for a certain
period
would probably
longland
restore
to the
demesneinofarrear,
the Crowniso
much of before
the waste
as may
be

held unprofitany to themselves and to the public by the actual
claimants.

“Having by these methods obviated the dangers of the
acquisition of large tracts of country by mere land-jobbers, it
will be your duty to obtain, by fair and equal contracts with
the natives, the cession to the Crown of such waste lands as
may be progressively required for the occupation of settlers

resorting to New Zealand. All such contracts should be made
by yourself, through the intervention of an officer expressly
appointed to watch over the interests of the aborigines as their
protector. The resales of the first purchases that may be
made will provide the funds necessary for future acquisition,
and beyond the original investment of a comparatively small
sum of money, no other resource will be necessary for this
purpose. I thus assume that the price to be paid‘ to the
natives by the local government will bear an exceedingly small

proportion to the price for which the some lands will be resold

168

APPENDIX.

by the Government to the settlers. Nor is there any real in
justice in this inequality. To the natives or their chiefs much
of the land of the country is of no actual use, and in their
hands it possesses scarcely any exchangeable value : much of it
must remain useless even in the hands of the British Govern
ment also ; but its value in exchange will be first created, and
then progressively‘increased by the introduction of capital and
of settlers from this country. In the benefits of that increase,
the natives themselves will gradually participate.
“ All dealings with the aborigines for their lands must be
conducted on the same principles of sincerity, justice, and good
faith, as must govern your transactions with them for the
recognition of her Majesty’s sovereignty in the islands. Nor is

this all: they must not be permitted to enter into any
contracts in which they might be the ignorant and uninten
tional authors of injuries to themselves; you will not, for
example, purchase from them any territory, the retention of
which by them would be essential or highly conducive to their
own comfort, safety, or subsistence. The acquisition of land
by the Crown for the future settlement of British subjects,
must be confined to such districts as the natives can alienate
without distress or serious inconvenience to themselves. To
secure the observance of this rule, will be one of the first duties
of their official Protector.”
'

'{ASUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION
491479
RELATIVE TO

NEW-ZEALAND;
COMPRISING

DESPATCHES AND JOURNALS
OF THE

COJIPANI”S 'OFFICERS OF THE FIRST EXPEDITION,

AND THE

FIRST REPORT OF THE DIRECTORS.

LONDON :

JOHN W. PARKER, WEST STRAND.
M.DCCC.XL.

momma:
"Anmsm 8: 00., PRINTFRS,
s'r. man'rm's LANE.

\\

CONTENTS.

Nor >

Page

L \Extract of a Despatch from Colonel Wakefield, the
Principal Agent in New Zealand, dated Teuwaiti,
September 1, 1839
II. Extract 0" a. Letter from Mr. E. M. Chafi'ers, RN,

Commander of the Tory, September 1, 1839

24

III. Despatch from Colonel Wakefield, with Journal,
dated Cloudy Bay, October 10, 1839 IV. Sailing Directions, by Mr. E. M. Chafi‘ers, R.N.
. V. Report on the Physical Condition and Natural
History of Queen Charlotte’s Sound, Cloudy Bay,
Tory Channel, Port Nicholson, and the surround
ing Country.

By Ernst Diefi'enbach, M.D., Na,

turalist to the Expedition

-

-

VI. Colonel Wakefield’s Third Despatch, forming a
Journal from October 18 to December 13, 1839

lll

VII. First Report of the Directors of the New Zealand

Company, May 14, l840

-

-

-

lfil

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION.

No. I.

Erlractofa Despalclzfrom Colonel Wakefield, the Company’s
Principal Agent in New Zealand, dated on board the

Tcry, Teawaiti, Queen Charlotte’s Sound, Cook's Straits,
September I, 1839.
MY last letter, and the only one I have had an opportunity

of sending since we left England, was dated June the 3rd,
and was shortly to inform the Company of the safe progress
of the expedition, nearly to the Equator.

The hope I ex-

pressed therein of reaching New Zealand within a hundred
days from England has been realised, and I have now the
pleasure to inform you, for the information of the Gover
nor and Directors of the Company, that having first sighted
the land near Cape Farewell yesterday (16th August) at
noon, being the 96th day from Plymouth, we anchored this

evening in this harbour, (Ship Cove, Queen Charlotte’s
Sound.) Our passage has been made without touching any
where, and, indeed, (if I except a very distant glimpse of
the mountains in the Island of Palma, one of the Canaries),

without our having seen land since the Lizard.
Having had the benefit of the opinions and experience of
an excellent navigator in Captain Chafl'ers, I venture in
this place to offer briefly the result of my observation on
the voyage, with the hope that, should the suggestions
founded on it be thought likely to be useful to emigrants,

the commanders of the Company’s ships may be instructed
to give their attention to them; and for so invading the

province of the navigator, I would plead, that although the
voyage across the North Atlantic nowadays may have, as
Humboldt observes, fewer dangers than the passage of a
Swiss lake, still it may be doubted whether the published

accounts have laid down the course best calculated to en
sure the least delay in accomplishing it; still more is it allow
able to offer some practical remarks on the navigation of
n

6

voraon or rm: TORY

the South Atlantic and Pacific Oceans, for which no book of

sailing directions, farther than to the Cape of Good Hope,
exists,—and on the best way of reaching New Zealand,
hitherto but little known, except to masters of whale ships,

who seldom think of communicating the results of their
experience.

It is the custom of vessels bound round the Cape of
Good Hope to cross the Line in between 18° and 22° of
west longitude, by pursuing which track it is supposed that
they are most likely to avoid, on one hand the calms which

prevail near the coast of Africa, and on the other the cur
rents which set towards the dangerous shores of South

America, near Cape San Roque; and by this plan a pas
sage to the Line in forty days is considered good for a
merchant-vessel. I would advise, that in running down the
north-east trade, more westing should be made, so that the
Line should be crossed in 26° or 27° west, by which means

one is almost certain to find the south-east trade in 4° or 5°
north, or almost as soon as the north-east trade fails, and
to ensure a favourable wind down the coast of America,
should it be the intention to put in at Rio, from whence,

during the greater part of the year, a westerly wind blows
towards the great connecting current and the Cape of Good
Ho pBy
e. pursuing this course, we reached the Line in twenty_
six days, being but two days in the variables; and after

quitting the south-east trade in 20° south, might have been
at Rio in a week, or in six weeks from England; or, had
we been set to the westward, near Penedo de San Pedro’, we
had an excellent harbour for refuge, provisions, &c., mider

our lee in Bahia I conclude that every emigrant ship to
New Zealand will put in at one port, at least, on her way
out. It is, in my opinion, absolutely requisite that the
emigrants, in order to arrive out comfortably and satisfied,

should (particularly where there are women and children),
have a few days to procure fresh provisions, have their
clothes washed, and break the monotony of so long a voy

age; and I mention Rio as a desirable port for such pur
poses, as well as that by making it no time would be lost, as

vessel must go further south to be sure of finding a

j. ..=.._>_»_ 7.

TO NEW ZEALAND.

7

favourable wind, to run down her casting to the Cape.

It

has also the advantages of being a. cheap place, whereas
Cape Town, inaccessible by means of Table Bay, during

the winter months, is now one of the dearest places in the
world. Much time would also be lost by refreshing at the
Cape, from its being necessary to wait for a wind to get a.
good ofiing from Lagulhas Bank, when coming to the east
ward.
After doubling the Cape, the usual course of the Indian

ships in the parallel of 40° seems to be the best, till reaching
the meridian of the Islands of St. Paul and Amsterdam, after

which it is necessary, (unless it is intended to go through
Bass' Straits), to bear away gradually to the south. In
this place I may remark that we sailed nearly over the spot
where the Telemachus rock is laid down in the charts, ofl'
Cape Lagulhas, and the existence of which has been con

sidered doubtful, since Captain Harmer in H. M. ship
Heron, sought in vain for it during some days. We
kept a good look out, but could find no signs of rock or
shoal in the neighbourhood.
Vessels proceeding to the northern parts of New Zea
land may continue in the parallel of 40°, which runs
through Bass' Straits; but the prevalence of strong south
west, and south-south-west winds on the coast of Van
Dieman’s Land, during more than nine months of the
twelve, renders it advisable for such as would make Cook’s
Strait to run as far south as 45° ; when after doubling the
south-west cape of Van Dieman’s Land, they will beat up
direct for Cape Farewell.
On making the land a little to the south of Cape Fare
well, the chain of Alps running down the centre of the
Southern Island, capped with snow, is the most prominent

feature. The land, however, near the coast is very high,
gradually lowering towards the Strait. And about forty
miles south-west of Cape Farewell is a most remarkable
white clifi', or oblique fissure, perhaps the opening of a
harbour, which presented to us, at twenty miles' distance,

the appearance of a huge tail of white smoke as left behind
by a. steam-vessel under way. A spit of sand, on which

is very shoal water, runs out twenty-five milezs of Cape
B .

8

PASSAGE DOWN 'COOK’S STRAITS.

Farewell.

We therefore stood to the north-east, and hove

to for the night in the middle of the Strait, opposite Blind
Bay, where the soundings are excellent at 45, 49, and 52

fathoms, deepening from the land. At day-break we made
all sail, and stood on down the Strait,- passing successively
within ten miles of D’Urville’s Island, Stephen's Isle,
Admiralty Bay, Point Lambert, and Port Gore, bearing the

appearance given in the accompanying sketches. The first
appearance of the Southern Island is unpromising; a suc
cession of apparently barren mountains stretching away
from the coast till they reach those covered with snow in the
interior; but, on nearing the land, you find that the whole is

covered to the very highest points with timber and brush
wood, which not till then betray their perpetual verdure.
The Strait is extremely open and easy of access. Entry
Island and the Highlands of Terrawaiti, with a volcanic

mountain, emitting clouds of smoke, are plainly distinguished
from Stephen’s Island, but Mount Egmont has not been
seen by us.
Passing Port Gore, Point Jackson, which divides that

harbour from Queen Charlotte's Sound, has a reef of rocks
partly out of water, partly sunken, running out from it two
miles. Giving this a berth we entered between the head
lands of the Sound, formed to the north-east by Cape Koc
maroo; but the wind failing suddenly, and the tide setting
at the rate of five miles an hour towards the reef, we were

for a short time in doubt whether we could make our port.
Just as we had resolved to stand off, a breeze sprung up,
with which we ran in, and in an hour after entering the Bay,
anchored in the mouth of Ship Cove ; nightfall, a calm, and

the ebb-tide preventing our taking up a berth at the bottom
of it.
We came up the Sound between the Island of Motuara
and Long Island, the sunken rock which Cook discovered
in his last voyage in the passage between Motuaxa and the
land to the north-west, not being precisely laid down.

As

we entered the Sound, we saw four canoes sailing from the
north-west, as if with a view of coming up with us; and,
before we were at anchor, another from one of the coves

at the entrance, COHta-ining eight natives, came alongside us.

vrsr'r FROM THE narxvas.

9

It had, at some distance, the appearance of its owners hesi.
tating to venture near us; but it turned out that they only
stopped occasionally to bale out their canoe, which was very

frail and shabby, consisting of a single tree hollowed out
from the bottom, and a few rough planks, ill put together,
for its sides. As the canoe ran alongside the ship, then
scarcely making way through the water, it was lashed to the
main-chains, and the men from it were on our deck in an ,

instant.

As they were unarmed, no precaution had been

used to prevent such an occurrence; and, at first sight,

their savage appearance, wild expression of countenance,
and energetic movements, might have led to a belief that
their intentions were anything but friendly. They quickly,
however, shook hands with every one coming in their way

on the deck, and seemed to consider that their appearance
on board, in the way described, was a matter of course, and

that we were very glad to receive them. They all spoke
more or less English; inquired where we were going to
anchor, telling us that their cove was the best place; and
assumed an air of authority, such as a pilot does who steps

on board a vessel entering a strange port. They brought
on board a small quantity of fish and potatoes, which were
afterwards bought for a little tobacco.
These men are of the Nyati-inhatuigh tribe, whose
chief lives here, and is tributary to Raupero, the head of

the Capiti tribes, who lives at Capiti or Entry Island. This
part of the Sound, however, is owned by Hike, Raupero’s
nephew, who inherited it from Tipahi, and who will pro
bably succeed Raupero as chief of the Capiti tribes. One
of them recognised Nayti, the interpreter, as an old ac
quaintance. . . . . . Three years ago, no “ pah," or
fort, existed in the Sound; but, as we sailed into it, the

Island of Motuara and Long Island each presented signs of
hasty but extensive fortification—if a rough enclosure by
paling-s, scarcely so strong as an English sheep-pen, can be
so called; and we found that, a few months ago, a quarrel

had taken place between the Capiti tribe and that called
Nyatiawa, which resides further up the Sound than where
we are, respecting the right of proprietorship in Motuara

and Long Island, when Raupero crossed the Strait with his
B 3

10

ANCHOR IN smr cove.

followers, and, after a fight which ended in the slaughter of
eight men, had been victorious ; when peace was established,

and it still exists.
On the other hand, a schooner from the Bay of Islands

had been here, with an English, and native chief, mis
sionary (whether of the Church or Dissenting Society did
not appear), and he transformed these fighting cannibals
into catechists, or self-styled missionaries.

.

.

They

are a fine race of men, infinitely superior in appearance to
those of the northern part of the other island ; very intelli

gent, and capable of being extremely useful to settlers, as
labourers, fishermen, and sailors.

They behave with strict

decency and propriety, but are half naked from want of
clothes, for which they evince a decided preference to
powder or ornaments. They have been much spoiled by their
intercourse with the numerous whale ships in the ports in the
Strait, and seemed surprised at my declining the offer of
the sojourn of one of their daughters on board during my
stay amongst them. With the acquisition of these bad
habits, they have not lost those of the savage, and of the
savage of New Zealand in particular. . . . . . . .
The rising generation, however, promises much better
things. _The influence of the forms of worship introduced
by the missionaries, and scrupulously attended to by the
whole community, although it has inculcated but a vague

idea of the Christian religion, has been most powerful and
morally useful. It has introduced a strong desire to acquire
knowledge from books, and the love of a settled residence
and of a quiet life, which routine always engenders.
Sunday, 16th August—At day-light this morning we
weighed anchor, warped into the cove, and moored the ship
in eleven fathoms water, with muddy bottom, within 300

yards of the shore, to a tree on which we carried out a.
hawser; occupying nearly the same position as Captain
Cook during his three visits to this harbour. Nothing can
exceed the beauty of the situation. The water, tranquil as
an inland lake, has ten fathoms’ depth within a ship’s length
of the shore, which is covered to the water’s edge with an
evergreen forest, consisting of every variety of indigenous

tree and shrub, so thick as to be scarcely penetrable, and

VESTIGES OF COOK’S VISITS.

I].

presenting to the eye an undulating carpet of verdure,
reaching to the summit of the surrounding mountains, the
highest of which is from 1,200 to 1,500 feet.

The birds,

as in the time of the immortal English navigator, fill the
air with their notes, the mixture of which he has aptly

likened to the tinkling of small bells; and the sea teems
with fish, of which we caught enough with hooks and lines
for the whole ship before we dropped anchor. These con
sisted of hake, colefish, spotted dog-fish, gurnet, flounders,
and joe-fish, all of which are eatable. Our friends, the
natives, came on board early, and were followed by the four

canoes we had seen yesterday coming from the westward.
The owners of these latter have their residence in Admiralty
Bay, and were bound to Cloudy ‘Bay with pigs and potatoes
for sale, but seeing the Tory stand into the sound, had fol
lowed, in the hope of doing better with us, and with the
intention of pursuing their way by the passage through the
sound which opens to the strait near Cloudy Bay. This
passage, which forms an island of the land to the S.E. of
Cape Koemaroo, is mentioned by Cook, but is not laid down

in any of the maps. It is the usual route to Cloudy Bay
from the westward, being much shorter and safer than that
by the strait. The natives from Admiralty Bay have not
had the benefit of missionary visits, and exhibit, in nearly

all its nakedness, the genuine savage character. They
rubbed noses with Nayti, instead of giving the shake of
the hand which characterizes the disciples of Christianity
throughout the islands. Their faces were painted like an
European bufl'oon, and their bodies thickly anointed with
whale-oil and ochre. . . . . . . . . . .
It being Sunday, after the ship was moored, and the
decks cleared, I dismissed the natives, with a request that

they would come early to-morrow with what they had for
sale, and went on shore with the naturalist and other gen

tlemen of the expedition.

The little beach, with its springs

and rivulets, retains, at the distance of nearly seventy years,

vestiges of Cook’s visits, in the timber cut down but not
used by him, the wild radishes and cabbages, and the space
cleared for his forge and workshop.
The wood is almost impenetrable on the sides of the hills,

12

BARTER WITH THE NATIVES.

from the web of supple-jacks and other creepers; but for a
hundred yards from the beach there is a swampy fiat,
through which run three rivulets of delicious water, which,

flowing from the heights, here assumes a shape before mix
ing with that of the bay. The soil here and on the hills is
very rich, being, in fact, the decayed vegetation of centu
ries, and in the flat producing a thick carpet of weeds and
herbage; but even were the land cleared higher up, which

would be a work of time, it is doubtful whether the great
acclivity would not prevent cultivation for the purposes of
husbandry, though there can be little doubt that the vine
and Indian corn might be grown up to the summit. No
natives appeared on the shore, the cove being under “ taboo,"

on account of its containing the burial-place of a daughter
of Tipahi, the late Chief of the Capiti Tribes.
I was
unaware of this fact until we were at anchor; and find that,

notwithstanding the missionary doctrines, an “ utu," or
compensation, is expected from us, for breaking the “taboo”
by anchoring in the cove.
Monday, August 19th.-—Everything was in activity

to-day for filling our water-casks and refitting the ship.
. . . .
The wood here comes most opportuner
to replace our studding-sail booms, of which we had not
one left when we arrived, all having been carried away, one

after the other, in the various favourable gales we had run
before. The storekeeper was busily employed in traffic all
the morning, and soon laid in a stock of pigs and potatoes,
sufficient for all hands on board during six weeks. A basket
of potatoes, weighing twenty pounds, sold for a pipe, and a
blanket, which cost eight shillings in London, fetched three
pigs, weighing eighty pounds each, and this was considered
a liberal scale of barter on our part.
In the afternoon, having sent all the natives away, with
the exception of the Chief Nyarewa, and his wife and son,

(a very handsome nice lad of seventeen,) whom I retained
to dinner, I went over to Motuara, accompanied by Captain
Chafi'ers and the cabin party. This is the island lying at.
the entrance of the sound, where Cook had his observatory

and garden, and commands a. view of the whole northern
part of the sound, Entry Island, and the

lands of

THEIR HOSPITALITY.

Terrawaiti.

l3

It is covered with wild shrubs, plants, and

flowers; and even at this time, the depth of winter, looked

as gay and thriving as an ornamental plantation in England
in summer.

Hundreds of parrots, green and brown, wood

pigeons, tuis, and singing-birds, crossed our steps, and all
our guns contributed to the naturalist's collection. There
are also many pigs turned loose here by the natives, to be
caught as occasion requires; but no human inhabitants
reside here.
There are about 200 natives living in the sound, at about

three hours' sail from Ship Cove.

The settlement is called

Teawaiti on the island of Alapawa, formed by the southern
channel before mentioned, and the natives are of the

Nyatiawa tribe. The Nyati-inhatuigh tribe consists of only
eighty or ninety souls, living at a mile and a half nearer
the entrance of the sound than Ship Cove. Their village
bears the name of Anaho. Two of our party went to this
village yesterday evening in a canoe, with the natives.
They were most kindly received ; supper was prepared, and,
after prayers and singing in a meeting-house, when every
soul in the village collected, they had mats for the night.

The chief, his wife, and son behaved most respectably at
table, ate of everything heartily, but drank sparingly, the
father occasionally warning his son against taking too much
wme.
Nayti is delighted at the reception by us of his friends,
who treat him with great respect, always addressing him by
the title of “erike,” or chief. There was some doubt in
England as' to his caste, which, from all we see, stands as

high as that of any one in the strait. His dress and appa
rent wealth has some share also in procuring deference
from his countrymen. A striking change has taken place
in his demeanour since our arrival in harbour. During the
voyage he was at first moody, and regretted the life of
visiting and amusement he had led in London. At another
time he took affront at a debating club which we held in
the cabin twice a week; at one of the meetings of which he

supposed that he heard his own name mentioned, and he
accordingly absented himself from the cabin for some days,

and declared that he would leave the ' ship when she might

l4

cououcr or NAYTI.

arrive in port, and would go back to England, and get em
ployment from another Company, &c. The same uniform
kind treatment he had received from all of us, with a little

firmness on my part in forbidding him to associate with the
crew, quickly brought him round, however; and fear of his
countrymen at the first sight of them, made him cling still

more to his English friends. When the first canoe came
alongside us, he began to apologize to me for the naked
state in which I should find the natives, in the manner that

one might excuse the appearance of a poor relation; and
was much relieved by our reception of them. The contrast
between his own comfortable position and their wretched
state, then seemed to strike him forcibly, and made him

sacrifice them to us. He interpreted faithfully their words
and intentions, and repeatedly cautioned me against either
their attempts to steal from the ship, or to cheat us in our

dealings. He has greatly gained, also, in our estimation
by juxta-positiou with his countrymen, amongst whom he
assumes the bearing of a smart intelligent Englishman; so
much so that, in talking of him, they commonly call him
the white man. On the whole he promises to be much
more useful to the expedition than I had anticipated, and
decidedly has the interests of the Company, and its object

of settling his native country from Great Britain, much
at heart.

Tuesday, August 20th.—-The work on shore proceeds
with vigour.

I have settled the question of “Utu,” for

anchorage, wood, and water, by a small present, and this

even was unnecessary, the natives themselves breaking the
“ taboo " whenever convenient to themselves; and the cus
tom having gone out of fashion where the missionaries, who
strictly denounce it, have got any footing. In the afternoon
I went to a small cove up the sound, and drew the seine,
in which we caught an excellent dish of soles, fiounders,

and young herrings. In the evening many fish were caught
from the ship with line and hook, one of them a species of

ground-ling, very good for the table, weighing nearly
twenty pounds.
Wednesday, August 21st.--The bad weather prevented
"is leaving the ship, a violent S.E. gale, accompanied with

THE cams, NYAREWA.
heavy rain, continuing all the day.

15

Some of the gentle

men, however, were out in a boat, and shot several shags

and red-beaked cormorants.

The former build in trees at

the edge of the water, are easily shot, and are very good

eating, resembling very much in taste fresh-killed beef.
Notwithstanding the rain, the watering proceeded rapidly,
so that in two days and a half we have filled and stowed
enough for a voyage back to England. The chief, Nyarewa,
continues our guest on board, and Nayti is paying a visit
on shore at the village. The old chief is most inoil'ensive
and dignified, his pipe and looking at pictures in books of
travels being his principal employments. He seems to pos
sess but little influence amongst his people, or perhaps he
has not yet seen an occasion worthy of his serious inter
ference. He knows all this country well, and, amongst
other information, assures me that the coast of Taranaké,
on the other side of the strait, is without any harbour, and

has very shoal water, which breaks a long way out to sea.
He also knows a harbour about twenty miles to the S.W.
of Cape Farewell, where abundance of coal is to be found,

and whither he would undertake to pilot a vessel. The
longitude taken to-day by our chronometer varies only
three-quarters of a mile from that given by Cook of this
place.Thursday, August 22nd.-—-During the forenoon the
gale broke, and the rain ceased; so that I was able to take

the chief home to his village in the whale-boat.

Before

starting I gave him a gun and a few trifles, with which he

was delighted. On landing at his “ pah," in the cove at the
.-ntrance of the sound, which I have before mentioned, we
were received by many of the natives, who had been on
board, and knew us; and as we advanced towards the

meeting~house, which has been built at the expense of the
missionaries, man, woman, and child came out from their
huts, to greet us with the eternal shake of the hand.

The bottom of the cove where these people reside is a
most delightful place, with sufficient flat land for a consi
derable settlement, and a gentle slope for half a mile up the
side of the mountain, which is, like the rest, covered with

evergreen trees and shrubs of the most luxuriant growth.
0

giffi—
.,W

16

WRETCHED CONDITION OF THE NATIVES

A stream, of strength enough to turn a mill, runs through
the centre of the basin formed by the rising ground. The
village is a straggling collection of thatched huts of ten feet
high each, the door of which barely admits a man creeping
on his hands and knees ; and, altogether, presents the most

miserable specimen of human habitations I ever saw. The
occupants of these sties are not less wretched than the ap
pearance of their residences indicates : they want energy
and industry to make anything of the abundance which
Nature has placed around them. It may be said that their
wants being few, little exertion is required by them; but to
me they seemed to want everything, with everything within
their reach.

They are almost naked, houseless, and potato

fed, with a country that would produce commodities ex
changeable for' every comfort of life.

The meeting-house,

which also forms the residence of an Englishman, I believe
a runaway sailor absent for a time at Cloudy Bay, serves

during the day for a common habitation. In this they have
morning and evening prayers, and at other times teach each
other to read the portions of Scripture translated and printed
by the missionaries in the Northern Island. The chief pre
sented us, on leaving him, with a fine specimen of the coal
of which he had spoken before, and which I send you, with
the birds and drawings, to form the foundation of the Com

pany’s Museum. I walked half way back torthe ship over
a mountain and through a forest, which confirmed me in the
opinion that I have before expressed, of the capability of the
soil hereabouts to yield almost every vegetable production,
were the land cleared of the timber, and rendered available
by means of terraces, or in patches by spade husbandry.

In the spaces cleared for potato-grounds, which the natives
only use for one crop, we found deep loam, and in some

places clay, perfectly adapted to brick-making.
Friday, August 23.—I went at daylight to the village:
on my return, several canoes arrived from Cloudy Bay,

whence they had started two days ago by the passage
through the sound. The artist was on shore in the woods
all the morning, and shot sixteen birds—parrots, pigeons,
tuis, and the several strange singing-birds of which I send

the drawings made by him.

In the evening the seine was

"mam! nonnsrv'.

17

drawn in the little cove next to ours, which We have called
“ Flat-fish Cove,” and several buckets full of soles and her
rings were caught.
The hooks and lines, also, on board,
had only to be let down to ensure cole and dog-fish. Eoro,
the son of the chief Nyarewa, came of with me in the

morning, and slept on board. He amused himself with
pencil and paper, and learns with great facility. His ob
servance of his newly-acquired worship is most strict; no

circumstances preventing him praying and singing most
devoutly night and morning.
Saturday, August 24.—-The naturalist and artist, with
Eoro, started early this morning, and ascended a hill to the
S.E., from whence they had a view of the whole sound,

with a distant glimpse of Cloudy Bay. Their observations
as to the character of the land and its productions do not
add. anything to what had been previously gathered respect
ing them. The rest of the cabin party were engaged in
washing clothes on shore, in which they were eagerly
assisted by the native women from the village, which had
, to-day been deserted by nearly all its inhabitants for our

cove.

There Were nearly a hundred persons busy abreast

of the ship, and I do not doubt that the cove has not pre

sented so lively an appearance since the time of Cook’s
visits.

The most perfect harmony prevailed, and‘not the

smallest attempt at pilfering by the natives was observed.
I went with my gun to the top of the first ridge of hills,
accompanied by a native, who answered the purpose of a
good setter-dog, by finding abundance of birds sitting in the
high trees; upon each occasion of finding a bird worth
shooting, he squatted himself in the peculiar position of
which all his countrymen are so fond, and called to me to
come up. After I had fired, he resumed his course, to

'which the impediments of supple-jacks, fern, and underwood,
which made my progress very slow, seemed to offer no 0p
position. The woods ‘abound in parrots, wattle-birds, and
innumerable small singing-birds.
The supply of potatoes exceeds our demand, more than
five hundred basketsful being ranged along-the beach to
attract our notice. I intend to lay in a stock of them here
on account of their cheapness, and to prevent loss of time in
c

g '
,7 :1- -§>, fl .7

18

VALUABLE TIMBER.

barter at other places; and should recommend any ship
running through the strait, in want of provisions of this
nature, to look in here, in preference to en plying itself at
Cloudy Bay. Pigs, however, are scarce, t e natives being
unable to catch those that have been turned out on the
Motuara.

Sunday, August 25.-We had no work on board to-day,
it being the first Sunday the duties of the ship have allowed
any relaxation since leaving England. After I had read
prayers to all hands, including our guest Nyarewa, I went

with some of the gentlemen to climb a hill in the cove.
YVe ascended the course of a rivulet, which occasionally

fell in cascades over the slate-stone rocks, forming the sub
stratum of these mountains. With some labour we reached
the regionwhere the highest timber grows. Here we found
a species of elm, some of which are eighteen feet in girth,
and other trees seventy or eighty feet high, without a branch,
which, if too heavy for masts, would make excellent plank

ing for ship-building.

As specimens of all these native

trees
have Butfalo,nlg
been lo do
since
England by
dary and
nottaken
sendtospecimens
of the
the Drome
woods ;
but, from my own experience, and the information I have
from the captain and an excellent ship’s carpenter, I feel
confident that, although the timber here may not be so
valuable as that found in some districts of the

orth Island,

it is still sufficiently valuable to deserve future attention.
The Surve or-General of the Navy of England mi ht sup
ply himsel , for some years’ consumption, amongst t e trees
we saw in our ramble this morning. . . .

Monday, August 26.-. . . The climate of this lace
very much resembles that of the north of Portuga , the
most lovely days bursting out in the middle of winter.

The

thermometer has ranged between 40° and 56° in the shade
during our stay.

.

.

.

Wednesday, August 28.-—Dr. Diefienbach, the natur

alist, yesterday ascended the highest neighbouring hill.

It

is covered to the summit with fine trees and underwood, like
all the rest on this part of the Southern Island, and, there
t‘ore, affords no view of the surrounding country, or inland

':.lleys. His observations, by means of the temperature of

DETENTION IN SHIP cova.

19

the atmosphere, made the hill 1544 feet high. This accords
nearly with Captain Chafi'ers’ measurement from the base.

Nothing more than what We had already noticed was elicited
from the excursion. The old chief told us that one of the
objects of his visit to Capiti is to be present at a grand
“Tang-i," or mourning (at which every one cries to the

utmost of his power), on the occasion of the death of a sister
of Raupero.

Thursday, August 29.—-A strong N.E. wind, blowing
directly into the sound, prevented us hauling out of the
cove, preparatory to leaving this place. Heavy rain, which
is common in this latitude at this time of the year, accom

panied it. Wetu became very friendly from the hospitable
reception he received, and this morning prevented a canoe
full of his eople from coming on board; sending them

away by saying that we did not want them, and that he was
very well on board by himself. He is, I should say, up
wards of sixty years old, but very strong and wiry. He
told us of his four wives, besides one lately dead, and shook

with laughter at a New Zealand gentleman being so much
more amply provided than the king of England. He ex
pressed himself very anxious for us to pay a visit to his
place, Rangatoto, which, he says, abounds in pigs and pota
toes. He could not point it out on a chart, but from his
description and others, I felt sure it must be in Admiralty
Bay, and have since found that it is D'Urville’s Island.

As I was prevented from going to Teawaiti yesterday, I
sent the storekeeper, and he returned this afternoon in a
whale-boat with two Englishmen, one of whom is carpenter
at a whaling establishment at that place, where there are
fifty or sixt Europeans and Americans. The other proved
to be the nglishman whom I had had misrepresented to

me as a runaway sailor, and who lived at Anoho. Oddly
enough, I found him to be Mr. E

, to whom I had a

letter from his father in England, recommending him to take

employment under me, in case of his knowledge of New
Zealand ualifying him to be useful to the Company’s inte
rests.
e has given me much information respecting this
immediate neighbourhood, where he has resided nearly two

years.

His present place of abode during the whaling
C 2

20

IRREGULAR coromznrrou.

season (which continues from May to September) is Tea
waiti, in the channel which leads from Queen Charlotte's
sound into Cook’s Strait, to the south-east. Few ships,

according'to his account, have hitherto made the voyage
through the sound by_ this passage (and no published ac
count of it has been given), the Pelorus, a man-of-war brig,

havingonly pursued it as far as the English settlement last
year, and then returned to the strait by the north-western

entrance. The river, which that vessel explored, and of
which an account reached England last May, instead of
being at Cloudy Bay, as erroneously reported in the Oriental
Herald, is in Admiralty Bay, and was named the Pelorus
River by Lieutenant Chetwodc, acting commander during

Captain Harding's illness.
The laws of property, as known to our visitors, are very
undefined in this part of New Zealand. Neither Raupero
nor Hiko possess the power of absolute disposal of any por
tion of land in the strait. Great confusion exists respecting
vested rights. Many white men have established them
selves amongst ditferent tribes, and have occupied and cul
tivated land to any extent within their power, without a
question or exaction of any kind from the natives, and it is
probable that such is the value set upon European commo
diti‘es and industry by the natives, and so uncertain the

right of ownership in land (which has been usurped by
tribe after tribe during a series of wars), that a body of

settlers might locate themselves without purchase in almost
any part of the shores of the strait, unmolested by anybody.
One of the principal means of safety, at present, to wander

ing Europeans taking up their abodes here, is a quasi
marriage with a native female. Our two guests brought
their wives with them as a matter of course, and of safety

amongst any natives they might meet. These are the
natural consequences of irregular colonization, and would
speedily give way to a better system, should this country be
settled from Europe by associations of individuals, or occu
pied by a military force, and apportioned as in our colonies.

Friday, August 30.—-During the morning, the weather
beipg still tempestuous, we completed our supply of potatoes,
‘uch now nearly supersede the use of flour on board. With

nnranrnss FROM snir covs.

21

the latter article, vessels coming to New Zealand should be

well supplied, as it is very uncertain whether it can be ob
tained here. Such was the failure of the wheat crop last
ear in New South Wales, from long droughts, that no flour
could be bought in Sydney lately, wholesale, as it could be
retailed at the rate of SOI. per ton ; whilst cabbages sold at
20. 6d. a-piece, and carrots at 611.

We took on board also a

quantity of cabbages and turnips, which are always in season
and plentiful here. Since our countrymen came on board,
we have had no trouble from the natives, who receive but
little kindness from the Whalers, and, therefore, do not seek
them. Wetu still continues with us; but has ceased all
importunities for presents and compensation, from a convic

tion that our English visitors have confirmed us in our re
sistance to his attempts at extortion.

He is, however, very

well satisfied with the small gratuitous presents Ihave made
him, and has kept his people at a distance till there shall be
a. fair wind for his passage. A native missionary was on
board to-day at sunset, when he mustered all the natives on
board who have conformed to the new form of worship, and

had prayers and a hymn on the deck. He seemed to possess
complete control over the others in inducing them to join
in the service; but old Wetu sat apart from the circle, say
ing that he was no missionary.
Saturday, August 3l.—- Teawaiti.-—The weather hav
ing moderated, I determined to take advantage of the expe
rience of our English visitors in the navigation of the sound
and southern channel, to run through them in the ship. We
accordingly weighed anchor at 10 A.M., and with a light
wind left Ship Cove, and stood up the sound. After the
anchor was up I sent Wetu and Nyarewa on shore. The
latter parted with us with some little reluctance. . . .
At three o'clock we entered the channel, the entrance

of which is about a mile wide. The sound previously had
presented a fine expanse of water, of thirty or forty fathoms
depth, even close in to the shore, and was bounded on each

side with bays and coves, forminga collection ofas tine har
bours as any in the world. One of them, West Bay, is as
large as Plymouth Sound, and all of them easy of access,

and safe in. all winds.

At the southern end of the sound.
0 3

22

ARRIVAL as: TEAWAJTI.

before entering the channel, which turns sharply to the
eastward, and a few miles afterwards again to the north
ward, is a large arm, or long bay, at the bottom of which a
river, a mile wide at the mouth, enters. Up this arm there
is some fine land, and a grove of excellent trees for ship

building and other purposes.

A cutter of forty tons was

built here two years ago by an Englishman, resident in
Teawaiti.- Near this river, a few hours' walk across the

hills, brings you to the Pelorus river, in, Admiralty Bay,
the latter rising to the S.W. of its mouth.

The channel,

as we proceeded farther, narrowed to little more than half-a
mile, and reminded me of the Rhone between Lyons and

Avignon.

The tide ran at the rate of four or five miles an

hour, and formed eddies near each shore. We had no wind,.
but had nothing to do but to keep the ship in the middle of

the passage. At
Mr. B
, who
came of? to us in
this channel runs

six o’clock we anchored near Teawaiti, and
is at the head of a whaling establishment,
his boat. The mountains through which
are {much less covered with timber than

those at the northern entrance of the sound, and less fertile.

The bays, however, ofi'er spots capable of cultivation for any
purposes. There are many native settlements, whose inha
bitants hear an indifferent character for honesty. A small
islan'd, about half way through the channel, has a fort on it,
the inhabitants of which eyed us eagerly, and sent some
canoes to us‘; but they are cautious of annoying Europeans
since the visit of the- Pelorus, whose commander was of

essential service to the settlers through all this part of the
country, by examining into complaints, and rendering justice
totheinjnredparty. . . . . . . . . . . . .
Mr. B
, who has lived in New Zealand as a whale
fisherman ten or twelve years, and came from Cafia with

the Nyatiawa tribe, when driven from thence by the Waikato
people, knows the strait and the western coast thoroughly,
and has great influence with that part of the Nyatiawa tribe
living at Port Nicholson, having married the daughter of the
chief, and shared their hardships and dangers, when attacked

by the Cafia and Waikato tribes. . .. . . . . .
v I hope, by means of Mr. B
, to open a negociation
'h the chiefs at Port Nicholson._ The description of its

PORT NICHOLSON—COAL. '

23

value as a commercial port is quite equal to that given by
all voyagers who have visited it.

The Whalers here, how

ever, are anxious to see an English settlement here, when the
land which they have acquired in the manner I before related
will, of course, be of great value. The works here for melt
ing the blubber are considerable, but of late years few whales
have been taken in the strait by shore parties, in conse- '

quence of the number of ships going to Cloudy Bay, and on
the eastern coast as far south as Port Cowper, in Banks’
Peninsula. The south-eastern entrance to the sound is
about two miles from this place, and seventeen from Cloudy
Bay. Any sized vessel can enter it with the tide, there
being no bar, and twenty to twenty-five fathoms water be
tween the headlands, which are a mile and a half apart. I

consider the knowledge of this channel to be of great im
portance to vessels coming into Cook's Strait, particularly if
they are bound to Port Nicholson on the eastern coast, from
the westward; for they would not only save time by passing
through it, but may do so with, perfect ease and safety, when

a south-east wind would prevent them running through the
strait between Cape Koemaroo and Terrawaiti. The island
formed by the channel bears the native name of Alapawa,
unless renamed by Lieutenant Chetwode, who, however, did

not circumnavigate it by the distance of the two miles we
are now lying from the entrance. . . . . . . . .
Mr. B
has been in his cutter to Manganiu (the
place near Cape Farewell I mentioned before), where the
coal is found. He brought away ten tons of it, which he
dug up at high water mark on the beach. There is abun
dance of it to be had without sinking shafts, and it burns as

well as any English coal.
Sunday, September 1.— Another settler and whaler here
is named J
, and 'owns a little bay and tryworks next to
the large settlement. He has been here ten years, being one
of the original visitors. He describes the Pelorus river as
an excellent place for a settlement, and is to introduce me
to a Cloudy Bay Whaler, who acted as pilot to the Pelorus
brig in her discoveries in the strait, and by whose means I

hope to open a negociation with the Admiralty Bay chiefs.

I went to-day in a boat to the 8.13. entrance of the sound

24

CAPTAIN CHAFFERS' naronr

It is open and easy of access or egress.

Near it is a fine

valley, occupied by the natives, covered with grass.

The

inhabitants received us with great civility, having had con
stant intercourse and trade with the English settlement.
On the whole, considering the position and capabilities
of Queen Charlotte’s Sound, whether with a view to its be

coming a port for homeward-bound Vessels to take in cargo
and provisions—a safe channel of communication between
the western parts of the strait, and Port Nicholson, and the
eastern coast,—or as a situation for docks and ship-building,
it is of the first importance, and cannot be spoken of in too

highterms................
I hope that in my next communication I shall have to
announce the progress of negociations for territory in this
part of New Zealand. Our quick passage out has given me
a fortnight to have the ship put into complete order, and pro
visioned for four months, before the time it was expected we
should arrive here, and to obtain the above information ; and

I have, therefore, nothing new to do but to pursue the ob
ject of our voyage. The state of the natives having been
so materially; altered of late I'years by their contact with
Europeans, and by the precepts of the missionaries, ofl’ers
facilities of communication with them beyond my anticipa
tions..................
I send this in great haste, by a small schooner bound to
Sydney, and shall forward the specimens and drawings by a

vessel expected from the southward in a fortnight.

At

present there is no vessel in Cloudy Bay.

No II.
Extract of Letter fivm Mr. E. M. ChQfi'em, R.N.,

Commander qftke Tory, dated New Zealand, Septem
1121' l, 1839.

We had a good run after leaving Plymouth, and got of
Lisbon in five days.

I kept to the eastward, running down

or THE VOYAGE or THE TORY.

25

the coast of Portugal, knowing the wind is more northerly
and fresher in shore than three or four hundred miles off
the coast. I passed well to the eastward of Madeira in seven
days and a half, and ran to the Cape Verd Islands in fifteen

days. We lost the N.E. trade in 7° N. and in three days
caught the S. E. trade fresh in 4° N. We crossed the line
in 26° 50’ W. on the 26th day from Plymouth. I crossed
the line on that meridian, knowing from experience that the
trades are not so far apart to the westward, are much stronger
than to the eastward, and the long calms and squally weather
are avoided: we have come up with, and ran out of sight in
twenty-four hours, every vessel we have seen, all of them

larger vessels than the Tory. Some of them were civil
in showing their colours, and one her number, the Holmes,
but I could not succeed in getting an answer to my signals.
We came up with a fine large Spanish ship, the Colon, of
Manilla, about 900 tons, and in twelve hours she was courses

down dead to leeward. We did not take in a reef until the
morning we caught the S. E. trade. I find her very stifl‘
under her canvass. Oil“ the Cape Verd Islands she went
eleven knots, with royals and top-gallant studding-sails set;

and on a wind with a good breeze, eight knots is her average
rate of sailing. I should like to fall in with a man-of-war, to
try her rate of sailing. The crew have their regular watch
and watch, hammocks up all day, and forecastle cleared. I
make them wash their clothes regularly, and muster every
Sunday. I have no trouble with them, and they work quick

and well. I have fumigated the ship well, according to Dr.
Carmichael Smith’s method, with nitrous fumigation, and it
has had a very good effect in destroying the foul air.

27

Nth

I

Despatchfrom Colonel Wakefield, enclosing Journal,
Sm,

Ship Tory, Cloudy Bay, October 10, 1839. '

You will receive with this a copy of my Journal

up to this date, together with charts and remarks by Cap
tain Chafl'ers, a. report from Dr. Diefl'enbach, and drawings
by Mr. Heaphy, besides specimens of coal, and other pro
ductions. My intention is to plant the first settlement at
Port Nicholson, where I have ordered several houses to be

built. The Honduras takes this.

We shall sail for the

west coast to-morrow.
I am, 810.,

(Signed)
To the Secretary
of the New Zealand Company.

WM. WAKEFIELD.

EXTRACTS FROM THE JOURNAL.

Teawaiti, Queen Charlotte’s Sound,
September 6, 1839.

I RESUME my journal (a copy of which, up to the 2nd
instant, I sent you on that day). During the intervening
time, whilst waiting for the arrival of Mr. Guard, the
pilot of the _Peloms, I have had an opportunity of learning
generally the origin, progress, and present condition of this
settlement.

The first white man who established himsslf on the
beach here is Mr. Guard, who, in 1827, was sailing master
of a. small vessel, and ran in at the south-eastern entrance
of the channel in a gale of wind. He built a house, and

with his companions carried on sealing and whaling with
great annoyance and risk from the natives, and but little
profit to themselves. At .0119 time the natives were so

28

PRESENT sure or run

ill-provided with potatoes and other provisions, that the
white adventurers subsisted on whale’s flesh and wild
turnip-tops ; and during many seasons, such was the want
of workmen and implements, that the blubber of the
whales caught was thrown away for want of casks to hold
the oil; and the bone only was turned to account, when

any market could be found for it. At difi'erent periods.
natives from Otago and the neighbourhood invaded the
Sound, in hostility to the Nyatiawa tribe, and indiscrimi
nately burned and destroyed the‘houses and beats of all
the residents. One Englishman, now here, who had lived
occasionally apart from his countrymen, has had‘no less
than four houses burned at various times.
Since 1831, however, when Cloudy Bay was first
made use of as a port for whale-ships, both that place and
the Sound have been worked by the agents of Sydney
capitalists; and the shore parties, notwithstanding the
scarcity of whales in the Strait, procure annually 500
tons of oil. No seals are now found hereabouts, and but
Very few to the southward, where they were formerly in
abundance. The Sydney merchants supply casks and
freight for the oil and bone, and nominally pay the fisher
men 101. per ton for the former, and 601. per ton for the
latter. The wages of the working men are paid in slope,
provisions, and spirits, which are valued at an exorbitant
rate. A pound of tobacco, worth Is. in England, or ls. 3d.
in Port Jackson, is served out here at 58., and sometimes

at 7s. 611.; and everything else in'the same proportion.
The men, however, sign an agreement at the beginning of
each season, in which the prices of all articles are' stated,
so that nothing but the difliculty of going elsewhere for
work obliges them to submit to these terms. A good
hand in a whale-boat can earn 35L during a fair season;
but his profits depend on the' success of his party, who
haveshares in all whales caught by them.
If the working men are thus badly compensated for
their labours, the agents suffer no less froni‘the bad debts
they are obliged to make, in order to induce the former to
pursue their occupation for a continuance, and by the high
price set upon labour by artizans. A good carpenter or

WHALE rrsnme IN NEW ZEALAND.

29

blacksmith earns 10s. a day, and these insist upon payment
in money. The Sydney merchants embark but little
capital in this trade ; and as oil from the black whale sells
in England for 301., and the bone for 1501. per ton, their
profits cannot be thought inadequate to the risk.
It is estimated that about 1200 tons of oil are procured
annually by the shore parties in Cook’s Strait, and the
stations on Banks’s Peninsula, and further to the south

ward; and that the number of British in these parts is

not less than 500.
'
During the summer these men are employed in trading
on the coast with the natives for pigs and potatoes; and
those who have small vessels procure supplies, which yield

them large profits, by sale to the different French, Ameri
can, and British whale-ships frequenting the harbours in
the Strait, for provisions before their season on the fishin ground, or their voyage home. The less thrifty pass their
summers in small cultivation of spots they have taken
possession of, with the tacit consent of the natives; and
the improvident boat-men await the renewal of their dan
gerous and exciting occupation, depending on the families
of the native women, who live with them, for fish and

potatoes, and consuming a frightful quantity of gin, so long
as their credit is good with the agents.
The rivalry engendered by the nature of the whaler’s
occupation, and the jealousy of the native tribes, fostered
by the women, whose cohabitation with the white men has
been the principal source of safety to the settlers in this
country, produce the worst blood, and the most rancorous ‘
feelings amon st our countrymen here. Those resident in
the Sound an Cloudy Bay with the Nyatiawa and Kafia
tribes, who have been long in deadly contention with each
other, mutually disparage their rivals; and in each place

separate bays contain varying interests, and the same
beach afi'ords subsistence to individuals, whom no love of
gain, nor community of danger, has, for years, been able
to unite.
There are, nevertheless, some respectable men who are
anxious for a better state of things to be brought about by
the example of society, regulated by a better law than

n

30

SHOCK or AN EARTHQUAKE.

that of might. Many of their native wives are also en
titled to every praise for their fidelity, care of their child
ren, and industry, during many years of difiiculty and
danger, and are fit to take a very respectable station
amongst European matrons.

The halfcaste race, of which there are about twenty
five at Teawaiti, is most promising. They are in general
well-built and comely. None of them are darker than
Italians. Many have flaxen hair and rosy complexions;
and all are as active and hardy as their mother's blood and
naked sea-shore existence could lead you to expect,
Our visit, and the knowledge of the probability of the
arrival of settlers during the ensuing summer, have put se
veral of the principal people here on the alert, so that no
want of provisions, planking for houses and boats, or of

other necessaries will be experienced. Already the natives
are planting larger quantities of potatoes than usual 5 and
the English are rearing pigs and poultry, for the purpose
of supplying the emigrant-ships at Port Hardy or else
where. Last week the shock of an earthquake was felt in
Cloudy Bay. Such an occurrence is not rare ; but no in
jury has been experienced of late years from convulsions,
although the country bears evident marks of having been
subject to their action heretofore.

Mr. Guard having arrived, and my arrangements with
him being made, I started this morning, accompanied by
my nephew, Mr. Jerningham Wakefield, and Mr. “’ynen,
a settler in Cloudy Bay, to explore the Oyerri or Pelorus
river, in Admiralty Bay, in order to see whether the high
praises of its banks, as a place of settlement, were justified
y the reality. The officers of the brig had painted in
such glowing colours the beauties and qualities of the spot,
that many parties in Sydney have been contemplating
purchases of land in it, but hitherto no one has possessed
himself of any portion of it.

Mr. Wynen, who came from

England a few months ago, being one of the many tired of
waiting for the regular colonization of New Zealand, was
equally anxious to visit the place, with a view to inform

his friends at Sydney and in England of its capabilities.

We started in a strong boat with _five hands, four of

View To anMIRAL'rY BAY.

31

whom are natives of Cloudy Bay, and took also a young
chief of the Kafia tribe, to whom the natives living in
Admiralty Bay would show deference, as one of the heads
of the party who had conquered them, and taken possession
of their territory.
We retraced our voyage through the Channel and
Sound, the two being about thirty miles in length, and
rounding Point Jackson with the flood tide in the Strait
to the north-west, after forty miles’ sail from the ship, slept
the first night in a small boy called Ikokoia, on the main, at
the back of one of the Admiralty Isles. The bays and
coves of New Zealand are better than any others adapted
to a beating expedition. They are in general completely
sheltered by mountains and timber, contain a sandy beach
on which is an unlimited provision of drift-wood, fit for a
camp-fire, and abundance of shell and other fish, with a
stream of Water trickling from the back round. A few
blankets and baskets of potatoes, with a pig, are all that it
is necessary to bring upon these occasions.
Saturday, Sept. Win—Leaving our resting place at
daylight, we entered by the boat entrance, at the back of
Guard's Island, into the great estuary, which is found at
the bottom of Admiralty Bay, into which, at the distance
of forty miles from the sea, the Oyerri empties itself. On
one of the mountains on the main we observed five head of
cattle. part of some imported from Maria, and originally
sent there from Sydney by Mr. Cowper. The estuary, or
river, presents a much grander appearance than Queen
Charlotte’s Sound, and contains numerous fine bays, many
of which are as spacious as Plymouth Sound, and perfectly
sheltered, except from the flurries of wind, which come in
great violence from the mountains, and would render good
ground-tackle and every precaution necessary for the safety
of large ships.
It is impossible to see a more beautiful collection of
mountains, wood, and water than that which the passage
from the headlands to the fresh water affords. The heights
are more considerable than where we have been, and bear
timber of the finest growth, amongst which the pine is
conspicuous. On either side, as far as the eye can reach,
D 2

32

ASCENT or THE RIVER ovssiu.

whenever an opening in the hills presents itself, from the
water's edge to the clouds, for forty miles in length, no- '
thing but a majestic forest of trees, of every description, in
comparison with which, the woods of Blair Athol are
insignificant, is to be seen.
The breadth of the estuary varies from two to four
miles, except where difi'erent arms, which it would re
quire months to explore, form, at their base, an expanse of
water. Pursuing the channel, which could only be found
by the inexperienced by watching the action of the tide,
we reached a large bay at sunset, near to which the Pelorus
anchored, and where the mud flats commence.

.An old

“ pah,” and vestiges of former residence, mark the place

where the original tribe, which owned all this part of the
strait, had their head-quarters.
Sunday, Sept. 8tk.—Soon after leaving our station for
the night, we reached the fresh water. As the channel

becomes narrower, we found long flats, partly uncovered
at low tide, and, higher up, islands, on which grows long
ass. Immediately on entering the stream, as distin
guished from the whole river by its confinement in narrow
limits and by its rapidity, we fell in with islands formed,
a long time ago, by obstructions in its course, caused by
large trees which had been carried down by the occasional
freshes, and had collected around them shingle stones, on
which, ultimately, decayed vegetation had become a soil
capable of yielding the same species of vegetable produc
tions as that on its banks. On these islands flourish fine
trees and an abundance of evergreen shrubs; but the rank

under-crop of grass and weeds, as well as the marks left
by the water, betray the occasional inundation of all the
flat lands at this distance from the source of the river. If
these islands were partially destroyed, the course of the
river would be opened, and the shoals and falls that now
entirely prevent navigation, would,'in a short time, be
removed by the force of the water, which would then form
a fine river. The hills here are two or three miles apart,
and the whole intermediate space might, with labour, be
then reclaimed and cultivated. We were obliged in many

places to have the boat tracked over the shallows. The

TREATMENT or SLAVES.

33

natiVes are accustomed to this operation, and eagerly leap
into the Water up to their necks when it is necessary. As

we proceeded, we found a party of the original natives—
the first people we had seen since leaving Queen Char
lotte’s Sound.

They belonged to the Ranghitani tribe,

and were made prisoners, four or five years ago, by Rau
pero and the Kafia people, after the latter were driven
from Kafia. They have their residence at Titirangi, at

the entrance of Admiralty Bay, and are slaves of the
Kafia chiefs. They were bound on an excursion to pick
flax, which grows in abundance, and of the best quality,
on the swampy ground up the river. These poor people

received us in fear and trembling; holding their lives at
the mercy of the chiefs, one of whom was with us. We
encamped near them at night, and found them very dif
ferent from the free people we had seen. They are scarcely
allowed to possess anything beyond the mere means of
existence, and pay heavy tribute yearly to their masters.
The river, at the place of our stay, to-day, is sixty yards

wide.

It narrows higher up in places to forty, and is

occasionally almost dry. The marks of floods reach ten
feet above its bed; and we were told of some people
having been drowned at night by a sudden fresh. These
inundations are not, however, of more frequent occurrence
than in many rivers of Europe; and the mischief produced

by them might be obviated by clearing and confining the
stream. Wild ducks of various sorts, and countless pigeons,

gave us ample sport and change of food.
Monday, Sept. 9th.—Unable to proceed further in the

boat, and yet desirous to know whether the land and
river continued of the same description higher up—having
been induced to believe, moreover, that as we ascended

the stream we should find the mountains wider apart, and
fertile plains—we engaged a canoe from our neighbours,
and, with three of them to assist in carrying it over the

falls and steadyi'ng it in its descent down the rapids, again
ascended the current. After ten miles, during which We
met with many obstructions, and were often forced to walk
through the flax grounds, on account of the want of water

to float the canoe-though here and there it ran Very deep
D 3

34

BEAUTY on THE scsnsnv.

-—we rounded a point in one of the mountains, and found
that the country and bed of the river presented precisely
the same appearance as lower down. The natives assured
us that the source lay at two days' distance, amongst the
highest mountains, and that, in fact, the river is but a
collection of mountain waters and melted snow, increased

in its course by small tributary streams, or rather tricklings,
from the side of each hill that bounds its banks. Having
satisfied myself on this head, I determined to lose no more
valuable time in an idle excursion. lVe returned to our
former station, at the rate of eight miles an hour, borne
along by the rapidity of the stream, and steadied, from

time to time, at the falls, by the exertions of our valuable
guides.
Did this river flow, as I had been led to expect,
through a plain agricultural district, or did its banks pro
duce anything beyond a little flax, more than is to be
found lower down, within a few miles of the sea, it might
be made valuable to settlers by reason of its power to turn
wheels and to transport produce to the harbour; but I

found nothing to warrant such an assumption.
The
beauty of its scenery is, however, indisputable, and re
minded me of many parts of the Thames between Marlow
and Henley.
Tuesclay, Sept. lOt/L.—\Ve descended the river to-day
at the rame rapid rate as yesterday, and were accompanied
by the natives in ten canoes. In these excursions, they
carry with them all their property. Children, pigs, (logs,
and cats, took their stations amongst the flax and potato
baskets, and seemed as much at home as if in their huts
on shore. The men halted the canoes at every fall, and
carefully guided our boat till in safety. Much of this
civility was given to the chief, our companion, but not a
little was rendered as a matter of cOurse to strangers, in

the avowed hope that we were coming to settle amongst
them, and was unaccompanied by any demand for reward.
The appearance of their party descending the rapids,

amidst the wreck of immense trees lying in the bed of
the river, between the banks covered with the most luxu
riant evergreen shrubs, was most picturesque and original.

GUARDS, ISLAND.

35

We found the fresh water cease earlier than in our
progress upwards, in consequence of the flood-tide making,
and computed that we had gone up it twenty miles, which
is ten miles further than the master of the Pelorus and Mr.
Guard walked when the brig was here, and, as we were
assured by the natives, much higher than any white man
had gone before. The wind and tide being against us, we
sought refuge for the night at the bottom of one of the
numerous bays in the channel, and found the same boun
tiful provision of wood, water, and fish, as usual.

We

were here joined by one of the agents from Teawaiti, who,
upon learning of our expedition and its object, had felt
anxious to judge for himself of the nature of the place
about which so much had been said. He had missed his
way, amongst the many arms which penetrate into the
hills out of the main channel, and was returning when we
brought him to by a signal. One of the arms of this
estuary runs away to the eastward, at about thirty miles
from the Strait, and is divided from Queen Charlotte’s

Sound only by a narrow neck of land, over which the
natives formerly sometimes dragged their canoes. Another
one, still higher up, near the fresh water, leads near to
Wairoa, which is a district in which flows a shallow river,

at the very bottom of Cloudy Bay, inaccessible in conse
quence of a bar, and to which the Oyerri, in progress of
time, might become the harbour of export.

lVedne-rddll, Sept. lltk.—The wind having increased,
we only reached the mouth of the estuary in the afternoon
to-day, and disembarkcd at a native settlement on Guard’s
Island, named by the oflicers of the Pelorus after their and

our pilot. We found on this island a few of the Ranghi
tani tribe, slaves; and on the side ,next the sea, from
which there is a view of the whole Strait, a numerous body
of the Kafia people. They have excellent houses, and
stores of pigs, potatoes, and flax. They cultivate large
patches of the island, which, at a short distance, has the
appearance of barrenness, and seem more independent, freer
from alarm, and happier, than any natives we have seen.
We found here the elder brother of the chief we had taken

with us. He is a tabooed or sacred personage, and cannot

36

osssnvAncn or run TABOO

be touched.

He is consequently not tattooed, and is not

a little arrogant and scornful.

As his tribe owns the

chrri by right of conquest, he had followed us to know
how I liked the place; which he and his brothers are
anxious to sell to Europeans, in the hope of deriving
benefits, which they have learned to appreciate by their
intercourse with whale-ships in Cloudy Bay. The eldest
brother's name is Enai, the second Eboa, and the third
Charley; and they are all influential and well-disposed to
Englishmen visiting Cloudy Bay.
Thursday, Sept. 12th.—-Still detained on Guard’s Island
by a south-east gale. This wind is of frequent occurrence
during the winter, and is not to be played with in Cook’s
Strait. Before leaving Tcawaiti, we experienced its vio
lence, and were obliged to use every precaution to prevent
the ship dragging ashore. Fortunately the harbours in
the Strait are so numerous and good, that no vessel need
remain out during a gale.
We had a strong instance of the strictness with which
some of the natives observe the ccremony of the taboo, or,
as they call it, tapu. An old chief here, the uncle of the
three young chiefs I have mentioned, is also considered a
sacred person, and endowed with the power of healing,

consecrating, cursing, &c. None of his people would drink
out'of any vessel which he had touched. One of them,
therefore, gives him his liquids by pouring it over the palm
of his hand into the old gentleman’s mouth. We had, on
landing, made a fire on the beach, as usual, and some of
the party commenced cooking. The spot we had selected
turned out to be tabooed; and if we had not been under

the protection of some of the family We should, doubtless,
have been required to pay for this breach of 'ObSGIVOJICOS.
We were alloumd, however, to occupy the place; but no
one would touch anything cooked at our fire, or in any of
our utensils, nor taste of an hing out of our mugs or cups.
By this self-denial they de arred themselves from dining
after us, as they had been accustomed to do, but no temp
tation could induce them to break through the custom.

Seeing a painted burial-place in a corner of the beach,
we naturally thought that some person of consequence had

MISREPRESENTATIONS or NAYTI.

37

been interred there, and that the place was, therefore,
sacred ; but, on inquiry, it proved that the old sorcerer

had had his hair cut a short time ago, and that the locks
were thus entombed, and had consecrated the adjoining
ground.
Friday, Sept. 13tk.—We sailed from Guard’s Island
with a fair wind, and, leaving Admiralty Bay, stood for
Point Jackson; but meeting a sudden south-east breeze,
and our native crew being unable to pull against it, we
were obliged to put into Port Gore, half-way down which

bay we took the beach.
This harbour, of which you have a chart taken by the
master of H. M. S. Alligator, in 1834, is an admirable
port of refuge for ships caught by a gale in the Strait, and
afl'ords perfect shelter and anchorage. The place where we
landed is a summer fishing-station, and well stocked with
turnips. It also has a hut, which we found a luxury at
night, when it rained heavily. Enai joined us inehis
canoe, and caught fish and shot birds for our mess. He
expressed himself very jealously of Nayti, and tried to dis
parage him. Though of the same tribe, he cannot bear to
hear of Nayti’s adventures and reception in En land. He
even would not allow that his name is Nayti, and only
knew him as Eriki Nono, which, being translated, is Leek
Bottom. I was informed by Nayti that Eriki signifies
chief; but he has since allowed that it is a nickname, cor

rupted from Dicky, which he acquired in youth.

This

assumption of rank, which he thinks we value, is, how

ever, to be greatly excused in Nayti; for in London he
had every temptation to assume caste, both by people ad~
dressing him as chief, prince, &c., and by the free entry
its supposed possession gave him to some society. His im
perfect knowledge of the nature of relationship led him to
mislead persons in England talking to him about his family.
Instead of being one of a numerous family, of which he
spoke, he has no brothers or sisters. These brothers turn out

to be cousins, and no relation of his was married to Mr. Bell,
of Mana, as related in his evidence before the Lords’ Com

mittee. I mention these discrepancies with no view of blam

ing Nayti, but for the purpose of showing how little reliance

38

rmsnsss or run CLIMATE.

is to be placed on any information taken from the natives.
We hava had so many instances of misrepresentation and
exagceration, which, upon examining, did not appear to be
wilfu perversions of truth, but the effects of a habit of

boasting and colouring, that we now never believe anything
coming from these people without due caution and allow
ance. Enai’s envy of Nayti’s acquirement of European
habits was strongly displayed, and is another proof, if such

were Wanting, of the anxiety of the natives to see and mix
with foreigners.
Sunday, Sept. l5tk.—The south-east gale, which geno
rally lasts three days in the Strait, kept us yesterday con
fined to the port, and, as we did not leave our cove, we
were almost without resources to pass the time. To-day,
after walking as far as the limits of the bay permitted, Mr.
Wynen, at the request of our native crew, and of Enai's
followers, read rayers; at which, though they understand
not a word of t em, our friends seemed edified. _
Monday, Sept. 16th.-We left Port Gore at 7 'A. M., and,
finding a fair wind as soon as we had rounded Point Jack
son, arrived on board ship at Teawaiti, at 3 P. M. The
exeursion, though disappointing as respects the Oyerri,
has been valuable in making me acquainted with that
place and Port Gore. The bivouacking in the end of
winter, during eleven nights, had no bad effects on any of

the party ; and here I may corroborate all that has been
said and written of the qualities of the climate of this

country.

The night air, however humid, has not thc

same effects on the lungs and limbs as in most parts of
Europe; and the most genial days occur even at the worst
season of the year, as was proved by our enjoying bathing
in the sea and the fresh-water river, throughout our trip.
Tuesday, Sept. l7th.—I had intended immediately on
my return to enter into negociation with the heads of the
Kafia tribe, for the acquisition of the Oyerri, as a fine

harbour of refuge in the Strait, and certainly possessing
the best means of communicatiOn between it and the plains,
if any such exist, of the southern island. From informa
tion I received, however, this morning, that the missionary

schooner, which I have mentioned before, had, on its visit
r
W

W-- _vfl _

NATIVE TREATMENT or THE srcx.

89

to Port Nicholson, taken messages to the chiefs there, not
to dispose of any land, and that Mr. Williams was ex
pected from the Bay of Islands shortly, 1 determined to
asten my departure from the Sound, and not to proceed
to Cloudy Bay till I had crossed the Strait. I was also

urged to this resolution by witnessing the eagerness with
which many of the settlers at Teawaiti watched my move
ments, with a view of purchasing patches of land wherever
it was likely the Company might be led to locate emigrants,
and by finding in Mr. Barrett, a respectable man, desirous
to give me his valuable assistance with the natives of Port

Nicholson.

I waited, therefore, for nothing but a fair

wind to get out of the Sound at the southern entrance.
Mr. Jerningham Wakefield completed here a sketch of the
Oyerri, from the Strait to the islands in the fresh water I

have mentioned, which, though made under disadvantage
ous circumstances, very faithfully represents the course of

our voyage.

I enclose it herewith.

Wednesday—This morning the slight shock of an earth
quake was felt on shore here, but not on board the ship.

A calm prevented us sailing, as I had intended. News
arrived from Pererua, which is a small river abreast of
Mana, that the Boiling Water tribe, so called from inha

biting the neighbourhood of some hot springs, had killed
six native missionaries, who had wandered amongst them,
and eaten their bodies, but ofi'ered their heads for sale to
my informant. The chief of the tribe had declared that
he would not be a missionary, but would eat all that he

could find, and make cartridges of their books.
The wife of the principal chief, or rather his youngest and
favourite wife, was taken seriously ill to-day at Teawaiti.

She was removed from the house into an open shed near it,
and kept without food, according to the universal native
custom upon such occasions. As her death was hourly
expected by Tipi and his friends, an incessant groaning
and weeping was kept up around her, and discharges of
muskets repeated at short intervals. ()ur ship-surgeon
was sent for, and restored the patient for the time by
means of a little wine, and by removing her back to the
warm hut. The usual panacea for native complaints where

40

carrmm 0F WHALEs.

there are Englishmen, is a dose of Epsom salts, which are
highly esteemed.
Thursday, Sept. 19th.—Unable to leave the channel, I
once more ascended the bills, from whence I saw the boats
of the station tow in a whale from the Strait. Some dis
pute, a thing of by no means unfrequent occurrence, took
place as to which party she belonged to—one boat having
secured the mother, whilst the calf, which detained her
near the spot, had been previously made fast by another.
The natives, who man one boat here, usually receive 201.

for striking a whale, although they require the aid of an
European crew to kill it. Upon this occasion, they were
urged by a rival agent to insist upon more. As no com
petent umpire was at hand, the affair seemed likely to
cause much contention, and a forcible seizure was in pre
paration for to-morrow. The whale measured sixty feet
in length, and would produce about eight tons of oil.
Port Mckolson, Ffiday, Sept. 20th.—We weighed
anchor at daylight, and left the Sound with the tide and
a north-west wind. The exit under these circumstances is
- extremely easy and perfectly safe. We have thus realized
the passage round the island of Alapawa, which was sur

mised to exist by many in England. The chart of the
Channel and of the Sound combined, by Capt. Chafl'ers,
the first from his own survey, the latter from Cook, will
give you an accurate idea of this part of the coast of the
trait.
The width of the Strait, from the southern entrance of
Queen Charlotte’s Sound to the headlands of Port Nichol

son, is about thirty miles.

We had to beat into the har

bour, and came to an anchor at three in the afternoon. In

one of our charts this harbour is'represented as having a
bar at its entrance. In beating in we had an opportunity
of sounding across it in every direction, and we nowhere
found less than 8% fathoms water, but in most places from
9 to 15 from the heads to our anchorage, behind the large
island in the centre of the harbour. A reef, as laid down
in other charts, runs 05 from the western point of the
harbour; but the outermost rock, as well as the others,

are far out of water at high tide; and when a beacon shall

inescmvrron or roar NICHOLSON.

41

be placed on the point of the reef, and a lighthouse on the
eastern head, no harbour in the World will be more easy
to run or work into by day or night. As it is, it seems
astonishing that so few vessels come in here; for the navi
gation of the entrance could not perplex a n ovice in nautical
matters, the harbour is most desirable, and the settlements
in it supply a larger provision of the usual produce of the
Strait than either Cloudy Bay or Queen Charlotte’s Sound.
The reef, or rather the name of a reef, has, however, so
kept ships away, that, with the exception of the missionary
schooner, from the Bay of Islands, no vessel has been here

before for two years, although the numerous Whalers fre
quenting the coast are frequently greatly inconvenienced
by a want of fresh provisions.
On entering the harbour, a fine expanse of water pre
sents itself to the view. The distance from the reef and
from the top of the harbour inside, to the beach at the
bottom of it, is about six miles, and three or four in width,
over the whole of which is found anchorage ground; and

in the deep bay, which forms the real harbour, perfect
shelter from all winds. In the whole space no inconveni_
ence can arise to any vessel with the usual precautions, as
none but the true wind is felt instead of the fiurries, which
are so troublesome in the other ports I have been in on the
southern side of the Strait.

An island, placed near mid

way down the harbour, is of considerable size, and offers
itself as well adapted for a fort, which would command the

entrance and the whole extent between the hills which en
close Port Nicholson to the east and west. These hills
are by no means of the formidable height of those in the
Sound and in the Oyerri. They are covered with trees of
a brighter foliage than those we had left in the morning,
and present no obstacles to their cultivation. In the
beauty of their appearance they reminded us of the woods
of Mount Edgecombe, the last we saw in England.
We had not anchored, when we received on board two
canoes full of natives, who hailed Mr. Barrett as an old
friend and companion in danger.

Epuni, an old chief,

eagerly inquired the motives of our visit, and betrayed the

most lively satisfaction at being informed that we wished
r:

42

DESIRE OF EUROPEAN COLONIZA'I‘ION

to bu the place, and bring white men to it. He was fol—
lowe by \Varepori, his nephew, who is about thirty-five
years old, and has for some years superseded the older
chiefs in influence, by his prowess in war, and skill in the
rude arts cultivated by these people. He also, in few
words, expressed his desire to see white people here, and
his willingness to sell the land, which was solemnly made
over to him by the natives of this place five years ago,
when the greater portion of them emigrated to one of the
Chatham' Islands in an English vessel, wlwse master they
partly obliged to carry them. Warepori and the six
tribes which now inhabit the whole district of Port
Nicholson, were a little before that time driven out of their

own country in the neighbourhood of Mount Egmont, by
the tribes about the boiling springs, and have the same
right to this place as Raupero has to Entry Island, and as
the \Vaikato people have to Kawia, from which they ex
pelled the latter chief. This right is that of possession,
sanctified in this case, in the opinion of the natives of all
these parts, by the formal cession of the land, by the
natives who abandoned it, and constitutes the lawful
power of use and disposal throughout these islands.
Moreover, as regards this district, there is no one who dis
putes his claim; for the original possessors have made

their homes at the Chathams, and having greatly decreased
since their departure, would be unable, if so disposed, to

regain their ceded territory.

The two chiefs remained on board at night. They
informed us that the schooner had left some native mis
sionaries here, who were instructed to have houses and
chapels built by the time Mr. Williams was expected, with
which orders they had complied. In discussing the merits
of the missionary labours, as opposed to the former prac
tices of the natives, viz., those of war and cannibalism,
they deprecated the constant occupation of praying and
singing which took people off from their potato-grounds
and canoes; the younger one declaring that the incessant

worship had nearly driven him mad, whilst they at the
same time warmly denounced any further fightin . “ What
we want," they said f‘ is to live in peace, and to ave white

m

~._._~
.r_
_W Wmm——h___--

V

EXPRESSED BY THE NATIVE curses.

people come amongst us. We are

43

owing old,” alluding

to the numerous aged chiefs on s ore, “ and want our
children to have protectors in Europeans, but we don't
wish for the missionaries from the north. They are natives.
We have been long told of vessels coming from Europe.
One has at length arrived ; and we sell our land and har

bour, and live with the white people when they come to
us.
The old man asked what the missionaries meant when
they said that all who were not missionaries were devils;

and said that they had told him his father would come

and see him again, “ when every body knew that his father
had been dead and eaten these thirty years.”
Saturday, Sept. 2lst.—This morning the two chiefs re
newed the conversation respecting the sale of the land, and
begged me to go and look at the place, and tell them what
I thought of it. They did not wish to talk any more
about disposing of it till I had seen it; and \Varepori said
that he should go and finish a large canoe he was working
at, and that we should not see him for two or three days,
by which time I could tell him whether the place suited

me.
I accordingly went on shore at the bottom of the harbour,
and procuring a small canoe, proceeded with a chief, who
had been appointed to show me every thing, up the fresh
water river which empties itsslf in the harbour at about a
mile distant from our anchora c. This river is seven or
eight feet deep at its month, where it spreads itself over a
large extent, forming a lagoon influenced by the tide. It
has also made for itself three other streams, which divide

at a distance of many miles from its mouth, and increase '
the extent of inundated land. The valley in which it flows

seems to be about forty miles in length, and is from three
to four miles broad. On each side gently sloping hills,
about 200 feet in height, covered with timber, bound it to
the cast and west as far as a very high range of mountains,
partially capped with snow. At about three miles up the
river, commences a grove of fine trees, of the best descrip
tion for ship and house building, intermixed with large
pine trees. One of these trees, called the kaikatea, mea
E2

fl..- _ “fume. .m

44

sunvnr or run sarcnnovnuoon

sured twenty-one feet in circumference, and Was nearly the

same size upwards for sixty feet, without a branch ; and I
did not select this one for its peculiarity. The pines would
furnish masts and yards of all sizes. A tree called by the
English here the honeysuckle, furnishes excellent wood for
boat-building. The only white man living in Port Nichol
son showed me a boat of eight tons, which he had con
structed of this wood, the planks of which he had bent
himself in the sun. He had sawed the whole of it with a
hand saw, and made the nails for it out of old hoops.
As I ascended the river, which, in its main branch, has

forty yards of breadth, I found its course obstructed by
large trees carried down by the stream, but by no means
to the same extent as in the Oyerri. The current also is
much less rapid than that river, and the banks present no
indications of occasional inundations. The land on both
sides is a black soil, and in the patches the natives cultivate
produces potatoes, Indian corn, and oats, which are care
lessly thrown amidst the stumps of the half-destroyed trees
and the most beautiful shrubs. I reached six or schn
miles up the stream, which I there found of the same width
and depth,but here and there more obstructed byfallen trees
and collected stones. At length, two immense trees lying
across the stream from bank to bank, formed a partial dam,
which prevented the further progress of the canoe. The
wood was here impenetrable, and precluded the idea of
pursuing the course of the river on foot. I had seen, how
ever, all that was necessary to confirm my opinion that
the whole extent of the valley will be capable of cultiva
tion, and will amply repay the labour of clearing, by its
extreme fertility, when the river shall be confined and its
streams united. This may easily be effected ; and then
the harbour of Port Nicholson will possess a river worthy
of it. \Vhat may be the termination of this valley I can~
not surmise from the confused and varying accounts of the
inhabitants, though it is not unlikely that it may com
municate with the fertile plains between Mount Egmont
and East Cape.
The natives assured me, that they had been as high up
the river as could be done in two days, in a canoe, which,

or rear urcersox.

45

considering the obstacles in the opposing stream, and the
easy manner in which these people like to travel, would
not be more than twenty-five miles from where I was. I
feel assured, however, that this is far short of the source of
the stream, which cannot rise nearer than the high range
of mountains which closes the valley to the northward.
The idea of its running through a gorge to the left of the
mountains, is favoured by the fact of hostile tribes having
occasionally descended the river to within a few miles of
Port Nicholson, to cut oii' any families they might find
occupied in their potato grounds on its banks; but the
valley requires exploring up to the mountains, for which
purpose a strong expedition and a fortnight's leisure are
necessary. Hereafter I promise myself the execution of
such a project.
“To found fifty or sixty people working up the river at
their gardens, and a few higher up, who fled yesterday on
hearing our guns, when the New Zealand flag was saluted.
These were reassured by our guide, and returned with us.

Those we had passed in our ascent, had prepared baskets
of potatoes in their ovens for us on our return; and all eagerly

greeted me as lately from Europe, direct. The white mis¢
sionaries they consider as much natives as themselves. At
one of their stations they inquired of my guide, aswlthe‘
canoe
tained glided
missionaries.
down the
“ No,”
current,
said be,
whether
“they the
are all
ship
devils.”
Their shouts of laughter betrayed their acquaintance ‘Wiitlt‘
his allusion, and their opinion of the uncharitable tenet
which had given rise to it.
_
a
Sunday, Sept. 22nd.--An equinoctial N.W. gale blew
to-day with great violence, but did not affect the ship er
her anchors. Some canoes came oil", and at numerous nativei

audience assisted at the church service. One canoe, iii;
running for the ship, struck her side and upset. Those id
her, including a. woman, seemed to think but little of the
accident, holding 0n the bottom of the canoe till a boa‘fi
picked them up. In the evening a messengef‘arfiV"
from abreast of Entry Island, with tidings of thé‘proBa-'

bility of a fight: the Boiling-water'tribe having’m'ustered

in that neighbourhood in strength",v md,>Beingsewfl By“
E 3

46

PROPOSAL TO PURCHASE LAND.

Raupero, might, it was thought, invade this territory. All
the natives urried on shore, at the risk of capsizing, to

talk over the matter, and make preparations for war.
Monday, Sept. 23.-—This morning, I went to visit all the
settlements in the harbour. At one of the largest, we found
Warepori at work at a large canoe, the bottom of which con
sists of a single tree, sixty feet long, hollowed out with the
adze. In the course of the forenoon, two large canoes put
into the cove where we were, at a signal from him. They
were on their way to the principal village, near our
anchorage, carrying the chiefs of two tribes to a meeting
at which the proposed sale of the land was to be discussed.
When these had landed, there were assembled about sixty
men; and the affair which occupied all minds was brought

on the carpet. After an introduction of the matter by
Warepori, the leader of the opposition, by name Buacawa,
rose and addressed the assembly. He objected to the sale
of the place on the score of the treatment to be expected
by the natives from white settlers, and the inexpediency
of parting with the homes which they had obtained, after
so much suffering, when driven from their native territory.
He spoke for an hour, and evinced considerable power.
His diction and gesticulation Were most vigorous ; and the
most ignorant of the language in which he spoke, and the
most inexperienced in physiognomy, could not fail of
taking the sense of his oration from his expression and
action. Matangi, the oldest, and formerly the most in
fluential Chief of these tribes, favoured the sale, and

almost cried with joy when he spoke of the white people
coming to protect the Port Nicholson people from their
enemies, and to put an end to war. VVarepori replied to
his opponent, and talked a good deal about himself. He
said that he was known in Europe, and that the ship had
been sent out to him. Before he concluded, all but the
leader of the opposition had moved off to another part of
the ground, upon the appearance of a. large mess of baked
birds_a_nd potatoes, which had been cooked in honour of
our Visit.

I favoured these discussions, from feeling assured that

the 1.1.101”?

afi'all‘ We? debated, the more binding would

,..m

ITS DISCUSSION BY THE NATIVES.

47

be the bargain, should I succeed in concluding it ; and in
themselves they had nothing disagreeable, for, in all
seriousness, I can assert that I never saw a deliberative
assembly conduct its business in a more regular or decorous
manner, and that the solemnity of the appeals of the
speakers, and the encouraging applause or earnest dissent
of the audience, were becoming the importance of the
transaction they were engaged in. At the close of the
arguments, which ended in a decision in favour of the
sale, most of the meeting went away in canoes to the
chief village, where another debate was to take place.
Indeed, in every settlement this floating parliament assem—

bled upon the occasion, and formally proceeded to take the
sense of its inhabitants. It realized, after a manner, Mr.
Cresset Pelham’s notion of an ambulant legislature.
Tuesday, September 24.—-I was on shore to~-day at the
principal village, when the debate was renewed. It ended
as yesterday, in a large majority deciding to sell me all
their rights in this harbour and district. At its conclusion,
I formally asked the Chiefs, through Mr. Barrett, whether
they had made up their minds,—-and they asked me,

“ Have you seen the place ? and how do you like it ?”

I

replied, that I had seen all I wanted, and that it was
good; upon which they told me that it was new for me
to speak, for that they had decided to sell their land upon
their own judgment, and by the advice of their friends in
the neighbourhood, notwithstanding the dissent of some
grumblers, who owned but little of it, and whose only
argument against the sale was that the white people would
drive the natives away, as in Port Jackson. They had
previously had fully explained to them, that a reserve of
land was to be made for them, and showed their know
ledge of its meaning, by now referring to it, in answer to

this argument, and by saying, that they would live with

the English as with each other.

I begged the chiefs to go

on board the ship to-morrow, when I would let them see
what I would give for the land. Afterwards they spoke
but little of the afl'air, and gave us some specimens of
sham-fights, in which all the violent distortions of the
countenance, putting out the tongue to the greatest extent,
&c., &c., which you have heard of, took place.

48

THE GOODS TU BE GIVEN IN EXCHANGE

On arrivin on board, I decided upon the manner in
which I won d deal with these people, and upon the
amount of property which I would give them in ex—
change for their land and harbour. I found a territory
of forty or fifty miles in length, by twenty-five or thirty
in breadth, containing a noble harbour, accessible at all
times, and in the very highway between New Holland
and the Western World, and land exceeding in fertility
any I have seen in these islands, and equalling that of an '
English garden. I found a race of people of warlike
habits, and but little used to intercourse with Europeans,
just emerging from their barbarism, and inclined to culti~
vate the arts and intimacy of Great Britain,—-appreciating
the protection from their hostile and still savage enemies,
that British settlers would afford, and anxiously desiring
to assist them in their first labours in a new country. I
found that these people, mustering, upon the slightest call,
three hundred armed men, and quite capable, as they have
repeatedly proved themselves to be, of retaining their pos
sessions, and never having parted with a single acre of
land in their district, by sale or otherwise, now, for the first
time, disposed to make over their country to ,me, as the

representative of a body of my countrymen, in considera
tion of the promises of remuneration and advantage I had
held out to them. Under these circumstances, and follow~
ing out the spirit of my instructions, I determined to act
in the most liberal manner in the transaction. ‘Moreover,
I was most anxious to distinguish this bargain from all
others that have been made in New Zealand,-—that none

of the haggling and petty trading which usually take place
between the Europeans and the natives of this country
should enter into any operations between the latter and the
Company’s agents.
I, therefore, decided that I would lay before the chief's
exactly the property I intended to give them in exchange
for what they offered ; and that I would acquaint them

with my firm resolution not to exceed this amount at their
customary solicitation; but that the value of this property
should not be regulated by what has hitherto been con
‘rred the standard of exchange in similar transactions.

_-...--.-_q,_._., m

......-.,____..-_~

sxmsrrsn ON BOARD.

49

Accordingly, on Wednesday, Sept. 25th, everything was
in activity, on board, at daylight, and the articles for barter
were brought upon the upper deck. At least one hundred
natives were present to witness this operation, and, if I

except a good deal of chattering, afl'orded no obstruction or

inconvenience. It required much time to open the numerous

\

bales and cases, and to take out a certain quantity from each,
so that the day passed without my being able to specify the
amount of barter to be received. In the evening, I requested
Warepori to acquaint his friends, that it would be impossible
to assert the various things they were to have, with such a
crowd on the decks ; when he made them a speech from the
poop, and was the first to go on shore,-—whither all followed

him, with the promise of not coming off to the ship till I sent
for them.
Thursday, September 26,—When the various articles
had been selected, I sent on shore for IVarepori and all the
chiefs.

They came off, with their sons, and, after a strict

examination, approved of the quantity and quality of the
things, but seemed embarrassed and anxious amongst them

selves how the division amongst the six tribes—which com—
pose the population here, though they are all part of the
Nyatiawa tribe—was to be effected with satisfaction to all
parties. I, therefore, proposed that the lotsshouldbe made on
our deck,-—and in doing so, though I incurredmuch trouble,
I had no fear of any commotion, and was desirous that the
affair should pass entirely free from the accustomed dissen
sions amongst these people, and that the remembrance of it
should not be embittered by any unpleasant occurrence. I
sent also for the principal missionary, to be a witness to the
delivery of the goods ; but found him afterwards so exceed
in gly importunate on his own account, and held in such slight
respect by the chiefs,—afraid, also, of being a party to the
transaction, in case of future regrets on their parts,—that I
was not sorry when the plea of a sick child took him on shore
again.
a As, of course the affair could not be concluded without
more words, when everything was ready for distribution a
debate arose indueform, respecting the reception of the goods

by the people on shore, part of whom are slaves taken at

50

FURTHER mscussxox.

Taranake. Warepori commenced by entreating the chiefs to
use their influence to prevent a scramble, when the boats

should land the things at their respective settlements.

He

was followed by Buacawa, whose eloquence was of the same
violent character as on shore, and is the result, I find, of a

bad temper and love of contradiction. He spoke amidst the
repeated cries of “ Korréro, korréro,"—or Speak, speak,—
which were sometimes used seriously ; at others, when he
rather exceeded the bounds of truth, sneeringly, in the same
way that “ Hear!" is applied in England. After enumera
ting generally the articles to be received, he described what
he felt assured would be the conduct of the tribes when the
goods were landed—namely, that every one would rush for
something, and when they found that there was not enough
of each article to go round amongst them all, many would be
dissatisfied. ' He said that every one had cleared a bit of
ground, and that many would then find themselves without
anything in exchange for it. “What, then, will you say," he
exclaimed, “ when you find that you have parted with all
the land between Rimerap and Turakirai, and from the sea
to the Tararua? What will you say when many, many
white men come here, and drive you all away into the moun
tains? How will you like it, when you go to the white
man’s ship or house, in expectation of hospitality,-and he ‘

tells you, that you have been paid for the land, and to be
gone,—-with eyes turned up to heaven, and invocations on
his knees to his God ?”

> To all this harangue he suited his actions, and wound
up by declaring that there were about half the number of

goods shown as really were on the deck.

Upon which the

hearers, who had examined them, shouted “ N0 ! No l"
The debate closed at sunset ; all but the elder chiefs went
on shore for the night, and Warepori promised that the
affair should be settled to-morrow.
Friday, Sepfember 27.——This morning some little delay
took_place in the division of the lots, by the chiefs being
unwrlling to open the cases of muskets, which they wished
to go on shore whole, to make as much show as possible,
an have the quantity of property they received for their
place at least not diminished inthe reports of any strangers

coscuxsron on THE PURCHASE.

51

who might see it, and carry the news amongst the neigh
bouring tribes.

I overcame this difficulty by presenting

them with an additional case of twenty muskets, which,

with five I had already given, enabled them to send one to
each of the settlements entire. The division of the other
Goods then commenced, and was conducted by Warepori
Ivith great fairness. On every case of muskets he placed
a nearly equal portion of goods, till they were expended.
He reserved, I believe, but little for himself, beyond some

powder and cartridges, which he told me it was necessary
he should keep, in case of a war. Some of the chiefs
showed an equal disinterestedness, declaring that all they
wanted was the white people to come to live with them.
At three o’clock the distribution terminated. It had been
repeatedly interrupted by speeches from different chiefs;
but the leader of the opposition, having‘once made up his
mind that the sale was to take place, showed no further
hostility. He represented one settlement, at the mouth
of the river, and received his share without speaking, and
expressed himself perfectly satisfied, afterwards, with his
lot. The deed, drawn on parchment, was then brought
upon deck, and after a full explanation to all present, by
Mr. Barrett, of its contents, was signed by the chiefs and
their sons, whom they brought up to the capstan, in order
to assure me that they looked to the future, and to bind
their children in the bargain made by themselves. Nayti,
who had returned yesterday evening from a visit to his
relations, was a subscribing witness, and occasionally ex
plained the nature of the deed, as relates to the reserve of
land. His want of weight with these people had pre—
vented him in the morning from instancing his own treat—
ment in England, in contradiction to the anticipations of

Buacawa. At least, I am disposed to attribute his de
clining to take so good an opportunity of serving his employers, and acquitting himself of a debt of gratitude to
this motive, rather than to bad feeling.
After the execution of the deed, the goods were placed
in our boats, and landed at the different settlements. Our
people assured me that not the slightest tumult took place

on these occasions, the chief of each tribe taking upon

52

vist'r To THE NATIVE SETTLEMENTS.

himself the distribution of the goods amongst the families.
Thus has terminated, in the most satisfactory manner,
this first and important purchase for the Company.
In the eVening Warepori and Epnni dressed themselves '
in their newly-acquired suits of clothes, and made a very
respectable appearance at table. The former retired early,
and came to my cabin to beg leave to undress, as he found
the coat and shoes very uneasy on him, in comparison with
his native mat, or the blanket which he usually wears, or
the state of nature in which he works at his canoes.
Saturday, September 28.—The weather was very bad
today, and prevented communication with the shore by
canoes. One of our boats was out fishing with the seine,
but took very little. There are places in this port abound
ing in fish of the best quality, such as the snapper, sole,
hake, haboaka, and a species of salmon, which we have
found excellent eating. The natives are experienced in
the seasons and times of day, and weather, in which to
employ themselves in fishing; and hereafter I doubt not
that the fishing grounds here will afford occupation and
profit to many English boats' crews.
Sunday, Sqatember 29.——After service I went round
the settlements in the harbour with W'arepori, in order to
see how the people were satisfied with their goods, and to
invite them to a war dance at the principal village to
morrow.

I wished to muster them, in order to know their

strength, and to convince them that I placed entire confi
dence in them. On landing at the Taranake, or slave
settlement, Warepori begged me to take a place in a canoe
which was hauled upon the beach, and seating himself,
proceeded to address the occupants of this wretched vil
lage. He represented the value of English settlers coming
to the place, and excused the smallness of the quantity of
goods he had sent to them, on the plea of the free settle
ments having required the greater share; but, concluded

he, “ You have now arms, and should Raupero or the
Boiling-water tribe attack us, you will be able t0 defend
yourselves. If we go to war, and any of you fall, you
have now the satisfaction of knowing that such will be
burned with their muskets and cartouche boxes, and that

nisisrnnes'rnnunss or A CHIEF.

53

their friends will mourn over them, as men who died with
Weapons in their hands." By his tact, in thus suiting his
speech to the taste of his audience, he soon conciliated
them; and when one of the missionaries appeared, and
reproached him for not having kept one half of the land
for them, and the white men of his profession expected from
the north, they applauded his rebuke of him, which was
eloquently delivered, and contained matter which I little
expected from him. He asked him how he, a child, dared

to rcprove'him for anything he had done? and whether,
when the land had been sold to the white missionaries,
they might not have sold it again, perhaps to Frenchmen
or Americans? “This rangatira-hoya,” i. 0., gentleman
soldier, he said, drawing attention to me, “ will bring
many people here from England; and how could they live
in the same place with their enemies? They are not all
Englishmen that come from Europe; I have been in Port

Jackson and know the English, and none others shall
come to interfere with those who are coming to live here.
There is a man from Europe on board the ship who is not
an Englishman; I know him by his tongue.” This was

in allusion to the German naturalist.

After re-entering

the boat, he said he wished to satisfy everybody; that he
had reserved nothing for himself;

that when he had

learned English, he would go to England; and, laying his
head on my knee, he added, that if the natives were dis—

satisfied with him, he' would live with the English, and
they should be his fathers. He then invited the young
men to attend at the principal village to-morrow, six miles
oil”, at a war-dance in honour of their visitors.
.
Before leaving the head of the harbour, I proposed to

buy the houses and chapels that the missionary delegates
have built on a beautiful piece of flat land, already cleared,
on which I propose to plant the first British settlement;
but Warepori objected to my paying anything more——
saying, “Have you not already paid for the land and
everything on it ?" I engaged, however, the natives to be
active in collecting provisions, clearing the land, and bring

ing timber for houses to this spot.
-

At all the other settlements, similar scenes took place;

E

a _..H__ ~..~~W—

54

FORMAL vrsrr TO THE SHORE.

and I had the satisfaction to be received on all hands as a
benefactor, and to hear the reiterated assurances of con

tentment with the purchase-money, and joy at the expected
arrival of settlers.
I must not omit to do justice to the chiefs who are
parties to the deed, by informing you that they were
equally anxious that the sale should take place, and that
the purchase should be valid and binding on themselves
and heirs. They repeatedly informed their people that
the land would be gone from them for ever, with the ex

ception of what the white people would allow them to
live on and cultivate; that they would never receive any
further payment for it, but would be paid for any labour
they might perform for us; and that the contract would
he held as sacred as similar ones, which are frequent
amongst themselves.
Monday, September 30.-—In the course of the morning,

we observed the natives, from all parts of the port, mustering
at the prescribed place for the appointed ceremony. Al
though the weather was bad, canoes full of armed men,
and men, women, and children, on foot, hastened to the

rendezvous. Warepori, and the chiefs who had slept on
board, went on shore early to make preparations for our
reception.

In every direction on the beach, the native

ovens threw up clouds of smoke; and an immense flag
stafi' was reared, with the assistance of our carpenter, on
which to hoist thelcolours of New Zealand, which I intend

to
here.party
In the
a si 31 spared
from the
shore,
all leave
the cabin
andafternoon,
those whoatcoulglbe
forward,

landed, and were received by about three hundred or more
men, women, and children. The former, amounting to two

hundred, were all amied—most of them with muskets or
fowling-pieces. Spears, tomahawks, axes of various sizes,
pointed sticks, and the dozen umbrellas which they had

received from us, figured in the hands of the others.
They were divided into two parties, which occupied sepa
rate parts of the village and beach, and were led respec
tlvcly by Warepori, who insisted upon wearing a large
hussar cloak of mine, and was armed with a beautiful meri
0f green-stone, and Kaihaya ; and an old chief, known by

,

M... ...- v..._-

V

THE WAR DANCE.

55

the nick-name of Dog's-ear, and for his warlike feats, and

his detestation of Raupero and his tribe.
Immediately on landing, I had the New Zealand flag

hoisted at the flag-staE-head, when the same was done at '
the main of the ship, which saluted it with twenty-one

guns, greatly to the satisfaction of the assembly. Ware
pori then inquired whether we were ready, and apologized
for the absence of many men, either absent on an expedi
tion to the westward, employed in their potato-grounds,
or deterred by the lowering state of the weather.
Preparatory to the review, each party shock of}
their clothes and took to their arms; after which they
went through the customary dance, which excites them to
vigour of action, to the cadence of an harmonious recita
> tivo, breathed out deeply from the lungs. Leaving their
clothes, as a regiment leaves its knapsacks prior to the
execution of rapid manoeuvres, each party took its station
on the beach, at about two hundred yards’ distance from

its opponent. Then commenced the war-dance, I which
consists of saltatory movements, whilst one hand, extended
upwards, grasps the weapon, and the other, at each de
scent of the body, slaps the thigh. The whole body of
performers kept perfect time in these 'movements, and in
the deep guttural sounds which accompanied them. The
two columns then passed each other at the utmost speed,
and, wheeling about with great precision, took up a dif
ferent ground, nearer to each other. After the dance had
been repeated—and in this the women joined, making the
most frightful distortions of countenance, and portraying
the demons of discord by their appearance and action, a
challenge was brought from one party to the other, and
delivered in pantomimic sinus; and you may judge of our
surprise, when we found that the bearer of this gage, (lis
guised in an easy undress, and his head ornamented with
a profusion of feathers of the houya, gracefully arranged,
was the catechist from the Bay of Islands, Richard Davis,
so named after his white godfather and teacher. He was
most expressive in his action, and throughout the scene;

and, subsequently, in bringing up a reinforcement from the
next village with great rapidity, showed that his long
F2

56

IMPORTANCE or THE ruacuass.

sojourn amongst his reverend employers had not changed
his inborn tastes, or abated his skill in the sport. As the
day was closing in, and this was intended as a most ami
cable meeting of the tribes, no sham-fight took place, but

the chiefs addressed the forces, and assured each other of
mutual good will. One of the bodies then performed a
war-song, in the execution of which great exertion of lungs
and limbs, and accuracy of time, were displayed.
The native men, which contained our dinner, was then

opened, and we were invited to attend. After doing
justice to the joints of a pig which had been killed for the
occasion, and the whole of which we were bound in native
politeness to take away with us, however little we might
eat, we drank the healths of the chiefs and people of Port
Nicholson, in champagne, and, christening the flag-staff,

took formal possession of the harbour and district, in the
name of the Company, amidst the hearty cheers of our
party, and the assembled natives.
The whole scene passed in the greatest harmony, and
with a display of good feeling towards us on the part of
our new friends, hitherto, I imagine, never elicited by
European treatment.

I have dwe t' on the details, with

tiresomeness I am afraid, lest the Company should fail to
know the prospects of a good reception of emigrants on
its possessions, and that families contemplating settling on
them may at once relieve their minds of the impression
that has been made by many late works on this country,
that the disposition and habits of the aborigines render a
residence here unsafe. The probable future importance
also of this place cannot be too much impressed upon those
emigrants disposed to turn their attention to commercial or
maritime pursuits. The land contained in the district will
amply supply provisions for the settlers and for exporta
tion, and will probably be found connected by valleys with
districts still more suitable to British husbandry. The
harbour is the only one into which a vessel of more than
100 tons can enter with safety on a line of coast of 600
miles in extent, from Maunkou to the Thames, and must
become the depfit of the interior of this line, to be sup lied

by a coasting trade, and of all the country on both si es of

"w" ._..____._._.._.i_

PREPARATIONS FOR DEPARTURE.

57

Cook’s Strait, for the purposes of importation of foreign,
and exportation to other countries of native produce. It
also presents the most desirable place in these islands for
the fitting out of whale-ships, not less than 400 of which
annually procure cargoes of oil on the banks to the east
ward of the southern island ; and for ship-building it offers

‘ timber in endless quantity, second only in quality to the
cowdie ; whilst for every other purpose wood of every
description cucumbers the land.
Captain Chaffers was away from the ship for five days
last week, and thoroughly surveyed the'entrance to the

port, its headlands, and bays.

His chart, which accom

anies this, will inform you that I have taken upon my
self, subject to the approbation of the Directors, to give
names to the most remarkable bays and points, preserving
such European appellations as have been recognized and
adopted'in charts, and such native ones in the iompany’s
possessions, which are easy of pronunciation, and describe
their extent in the deed. I send also herewith a copy of
that document.
Thursday, October 1.—-It remained for me now only to

leave a person to watch the interests of the Company, and
to make preparations for the arrival of settlers ; and I had
brought with me from Queen Charlotte’s Sound a trust
worthy man, well qualified by his knowledge of the lan
guage and habits of the people, for the purpose. I left
with him saws, tools, garden-seeds, and various articles of
trade, in which to pay for native labour, and to supply
himself with food. \Varepori undertook to put him up in
a new house at his village, and to render him every assist~
ance. I had landed also a sow, which had littered on our
voyage from England, with her progeny, and the goats and
poultry. I left Mr. Smith ample instructions to encour
age the natives to build temporary houses at Thorndon,
to plant potatoes, and to keep their pigs for their expected
visitors; and supplied him with boards to place on the
most prominent spots, on which is painted, “ New Zealand

Land Company.”
The natives contemplate an almost immediate journey

to Wainerap, or Palliser Bay, which they possess, for the
F 3

58

PROPOSED PURCHASES

purpOse of planting a stock of potatoes, and bringing back
pigs which run wild there. Today \Varepori tabooed that
place for me, and swore by his head that no one should
have any of it till I had time to go to see it. It is a large
bay to the eastward of this port, and contains a river and
a large district of flat and fertile land. In these respects
it is like Wairoa, near Cloudy Bay, and the valley of the
Hutt here, all of which require some labour to make the
land available, in consequence of the freshes inundating the
flats at the mouths of the rivers. On my return to the
strait, however, I shall see whether this tabooed place is
worth paying for. Warepori’s sudden regard for me has
also opened the way to acquiring a large district of fine
flat land at Taranaki and Moturoa, 0n the western coast in
the neighbourhood of Mount Egmont. This land is not
subject to the same inconvenience, having already pro
duced to the Englishmen, who abandoned it with these

natives, fine crops of wheat, Indian corn, garden vege
tables, melons, and peaches. Some of the wheat was sent
to Sydney and England,and was highly approved of. Should
I be able to obtain possession of this tract, which is very
extensive, and perfectly level, through the means I have
obtained here, I shall be less anxious about purchases in
the north, where I hear the missionaries and others have
bought land at every place on the coast, including Kaipara
and Manukou, where they have established schools and
chapels. The district in question is between Kafiaand Mount
Egmont, abreast of the Sugar-Loaf Islands, and runs for
thirty miles inland. The chiefs here, who were all born
on these plains, look back with great regret to the time
when they were obliged to abandon them, and are ver
desirous that they should be again opened to them by
means of European settlers. They haVe selected Ewareh,
the son of Epuni, and Tuarau, the grandson of the principal
chief of the Whole Nytiawa tribes, to accompany me to
Taranaki, when it is hoped they will be able to open a
negociation with the present possessors of the land, to
whom they are both related.

W'ednesday, October 2.-—-—I was this morning up another
branch of the river, much smaller than the main one, and

ARRIVAL IN CLOUDY BAY.

59

evidently only a back-water from it, except when heavy
rains fill the main channel high up the valley, and force
their way through this and two other branches. The land
on both sides of this branch is of the same black alluvial
soil, and covered with the most beautiful shrubs, in
blossom, like a rare English garden. The grove, through
which runs the stream, contains still finer trees than up
the other branch, and teems with birds, which, with the

ducks of all descriptions in the river, afford abundant sport.
I am sorry that my time will not allow me to explore the
source of these streams and of the river; but I feel per~
suaded that they will be found to unite higher up, and may
with labour be continued as one river to the harbour.
Thursday, Oct. 3rd.—Having a day to spare, whilst
Mr. Smith was establishing himself on. shore, I again
ascended all the branches of the river, accompanied by
Captain Chafi'ers, who took their bearings. Our whale
boat was stopped in its progress about six miles up the
river _; and our trip led to no further result than confirming

my opinion of the capabilities of the valley, as before stated.
Cloudy Bay, Friday, Oct. 4th.— All my arrange
ments being completed on shore, we weighed anchor this
morning, and, taking with me Ewareh and Tuarau, we
sailed for Cloudy Bay, in the mouth of which harbour we

anchored this evening. , The appearance of the Southern
Island, after that of Port Nicholson, is most cheerless.
The wind blew in violent flurries from the mountains,-—a
chain of which, inland, covered with eternal snow, added

to the dreariness of the scene. To the eastward of the
harbour, we saw the bay, at the bottom of which is Wairoa,
of which district much has been said, and which was bought
by a Mr. Blenkinsop, some years ago, for an old 6-p0under
un. The land about all this part of the coast is barren;
and the only advantage which Cloudy Bay offers, over
the neighbouring harbours, is its vicinity to the whaling
ground, for the shore parties to run to. As regards its
eligibility for whale-ships to iit out and procure supplies, it
is much inferior to Port Nicholson ; and has only been used
by them by accident, and because the other has been

unknown.

We found here the Honduras barque, from

60

THE OYERRI NOT ELIGIBLE FOR LOCATION.

London, taking in oil and bone from the shore parties.
This is the only vessel that has been here for some months ;
and I have had no opportunity of sending to you since the
2nd of last month. Very few English Whalers come here
at any time; but, after the season, many American and

French ships put in for provisions, which they buy dearly
of the English sutlers.
Saturday, Oct. 5th.—-We weighed anchor again this
morning, and worked higher up the harbour, in which .we
saw four or five whaling settlements. There are about one
hundred and twenty natives, of the Kafia tribe, at this
place; and they exact payment for wood and water from
ships. Ocean Bay is the only spot where there is any land
worth cultivating, and that is of very small extent.
Sunday, Oct. (it/a—I find, to-day, that Mr. Guard and
Mr. \Vynen are in treaty with the family of the three chiefs
I have mentioned as being of some consequence in this bay,
for the purchase of the Oyerri for a party of speculators at
Sydney, who deputed Mr. Wynen to examine that place,
upon the flattering representations of the officers of the Pe
loi'us. Notwithstanding the conduct of these Englishmen,
in pretending to point out the Oyerri to me as a place fit
for a location of emigrants by the Company, I have no rea
son to complain of their now trying to buy it for them
selves,--for I at once, on seeing it, expressed my opinion
of its incapability of being for a length of time anything
beyond a harbour of refuge, and of the land in the valley

of the fresh—water stream holding out no prospect to set
tlers, except after infinite labour and outlay. In all my
conversations, therefore, on the subject, I rather disparaged
the Oyerri, and may have given them the idea that I was
not desirous to acquire it; whilst I secured Port Nicholson,

which is so much more valuable, and for a part of which
these very parties were, just previous to my arrival, at
tempting to negociate.
_
Wednesday, Oct. 9th.— Having completed our let
ters, and made our packages, to go by the Honduras, I
am now only awaiting the arrival of Mr. Barrett from the
\‘eund, to take our departure for Taranake and the west

at of the Northern Island.

Tuarau and Ewareh will

ssrruzas XN CLOUDY BAY.

61

also return with him. I forgot to mention that, during
our stay in Port Nicholson, these two men swam off from
the ship, and saved the life of one of the cabin-boys, who
had fallen out of a boat, at night. They spoke afterwards
but little of the occurrence, and seemed to look upon it as
a set-off against our boat having picked up their friends,
who were upset a few days before.
This afternoon I visited some of the bays in this har
bour. In one of them we found a whaling establishment,
carried on by a Portuguese, for a mercantile house at Sydney.
He had obtained, with four boats, sixty-five tons of oil
during this season, and would have taken more, but had

not received a supply of goods to carry on his business.
From the ridge above his house is a view of the whole of
Cloudy Bay, which extends from a promontory called the
‘White Blufi', in the direction of Cape Campbell, to the

western head of the real harbour of the bay, in which we
are at anchor, called in some charts Underwood Harbour,
but commonly bearing the name of the whole bay. This
want of distinction between the whole and a part leads to
frequent mistakes—many vessels having run into shoal
water at the bottom of the bay, near Wairoa, whilst
seeking the harbour, which is twelve miles to the west
ward.

No. IV.
Sailing Directions by Mr. E. M. C/zqfiiem, RJV.
Commander of the Tory.

New Zealand Company’s Ship Tory, Cloudy Bay,
October 8, 1839.

Coox’s STRAITS.

Vassan bound to Cook’s Straits from the south-west
should make the land about twenty miles to the south~
west of Cape Farewell. The land about this part of the
coast is high, and the distant mountains covered with

snow. The high land suddenly terminates about Rocky
Point, and a remarkable white way running down the
side of the hill to the sea, is very conspicuous, and easily
seen at thirty miles' distance. From the white way or cliff
to Cape Farewell the coast runs gradually lower,’and at
about twenty milei' distance Cape Farewell appears like a
low island, as will be seen byihe views:
There is a shoal sandspit running 011' Cape Farewell,
about twenty miles E. by N. Messrs. Guard and Barrett,
who have had great experience on this part of the coast,
are not aware of any other dangers 011' the Cape.
After passing Cape Farewell soundings may be

obtained, in from fifty-four to forty-nine and forty-four
fathoms, fine muddy sand and small broken shells.
Vessels passing Cape Farewell in the evening may pass

the night in safety by standing off and on Blind Bay under
easy sail, and keeping the lead oing. The tide is not
strong here, and the soundin s regu ar, from forty-nine to
forty-four fathoms, fine dar sand; whereas vessels run

ning up the Straits in the night will get into strong tides,
and unless well acquainted with the coast, may run into
danger.
The navigation of Cook’s Straits is easy, and less

dangerous than the English Channel; and, with a good

64

SAILING nmscrross- cook’s s'rrmrrs.

look out from the mast-head by day, and the lead going
by night, a vessel may proceed to any part of the Straits
in safety. There appears to be an erroneous opinion, in

England, about rocks and shoals in Cook's Straits.

I

have questioned the natives of different tribes who have
crossed the Straits in every direction, whether there is any
danger in the middle of the Straits or not, and they all
assert there is none, and that they have never heard of
any; and I am satisfied that their information may be
depended upon.

Mr. Barrett, an Englishman, who has

commanded vessels on this coast for many years, denies
the existence of shoals in the Straits, but thinks that the
tide-rips, which at times appear like breakers, has given
rise to the opinion entertained of shoals in the Straits.
In running up the Straits on the south side, in clear
weather, Stephen's Island may be seen at ten leagues“
distance; the land is high, and covered with wood: at
the north end of the island are high brown cliffs. From
Stephen’s Island to Cape Koemaroo the land is high with
rugged peaks, and Cape Koemaroo is easily known, being
the highest distant land, with two white patches near the
point of the Cape, appearing at a distance like two sail
under the land. The Brothers, two clusters of whic
rocks, about forty feet out of the water, are an excellent

guide for the Cape. Point Jackson, forming the western
entrance to Queen Charlotte’s Sound, is a low brown
point, and may be known by a small black rock about six
feet out of the water, lying about one mile N.E. by E. of
the point.
Vessels bound to Queen Charlotte’s Sound should not

come nearer to Point Jackson than two and a-half or three
miles, to clear the reef lying off it ; and when the Channel
between Motuara Island and the main comes well open,
stand in for Motuara Island. For a ship intending to
anchor in Ship Cove there are two passages: in that
between Motuara and the main lies a reef of rocks covered
with kelp, which makes the passage on each side of the
reef very narrow, with the disadvantage of being close.
under the land, and out of the influence of the steady

'11: the best and clearest passage is between Long

SAILING DIRECTIONS—COOK’S STRAITS.

65

Island and Motuara, where you have the advantage of a
steady wind and clear channel, the shores of both islands
being held, close to; seven and eight fathoms at quarter of
a cable distance.

At about one-quarter cable’s distance ofl' the south
point of Motuara lies a small rock, awash at low water.
After rounding the south point of Motuara, Ship Cove
lies open to your view west: it is the northern of two
coves in the same bay. The soundings between Motuara
and Ship Cove are ten and eleven fathoms; and if you
have a westerly wind, and work into the Cove, you may
stand to one-quarter cable’s distance on each shore.
The best and most convenient anchorage in the Cove is
in ten fathoms, fine dark sand over a clay bottom, good
holding ground, about one and a—half cable’s distance from
the sandy beach and watering place, and one cable from the
south point, where you are well sheltered from the heavy
south-west winds, and near to the watering place. The
T017/ lay here thirteen days, moored with a hawser to the
shore, and filled twenty tuns of water in two days and
a-half. There is a very good run of fresh water through
the middle of the beach; the water is soft and good;

wood is in the greatest abundance and variety from the
water’s edge to the tops of the hills; there are several

sorts that would answer admirath well for the purposes
of ship-building, but it all appears too heavy for masts.
The Cove abounds with fish of many sorts—one
resembling a small cod-fish is in great plenty: a few hooks
and lines for two hours would procure suflicient for the
day's consumption. There is a very good sandy beach on
which to haul the Seine in the southern Cove.
This is an excellent place to refit, and in case of
necessity, a vessel could heave down to the rocks near the
south point of the Cove. The Cove is open to E. and
S.E., a wind that seldom blows on this part of the
coast; but even in case of a heavy gale from that quarter.
there is nothing to fear, as it is protected by Motuara
Island.
Supplies of pork and potatoes may be obtained at an
easy rate from the native village in the adjoining Cove to

o

66

SAILING DIRECTIONS—COOK‘S STRAITS.

the north. Potatoes are so plentiful, that in a few days
ten tons were offered for sale.
The natives of this village are missionaries, and well

behaved. The chief, Nyarewa, has several certificates
from masters of vessels, of his former good conduct, which
he has fully merited by what I have seen of him.
If a settlement should ever be made in this Cove,
wharfs could easily be built alongside the south shore,
alongside of which vessels might lay to discharge their

cargoes.
The tides in the Sound are regular, but in entering,
attention should be paid to their set on Cape Koemaroo
and Point Jackson, as mentioned by Captain Cook. It is
high water at Ship Cove, full and change of the moon, at
3h. 59m. RM.
The latitude of Ship Cove, at the end of the rocks on
the south side of the beach, is 41° 5’ 45” S., and the
longitude, by mean of chronometers from England, is
174° 20’ 15” B, only difi'ering three-quarters of a mile to the

west from that assigned by Captain Cook. The variation
of the compass is 1420 E.
On the north side of Cook’s Straits the land is high,
but has not so rugged an appearance as on the other
shore. In clear weather Capiti, or Entry Island, may
easily be distinguished from Stephen's Island: it has one
high hill near the centre, and slopes gradually down to the
east and west, and is easily known by referring to the
view. The Island of Mana, which lies near the coast be
tween Entry Island and Cape Terrawaiti, is a low flat
island with brownish clifi's, and not easily distinguished
from the main land on the southern side. Cape Terrawaiti
is very conspicuous, terminating in a small mound at the
Cape, and sloping abruptly down to the sea, with brown

cliffs on the south-west side.

67
DIRECTIONS non SAILING up QUEEN CHARLOTTE’S
SoUND.

VESSELS running up Cook’s Straits, and bound to Cloudy
Bay, with a northerly wind, would save time and trouble
by running up Queen Charlotte’s Sound, and through

Tory Channel.

The following directions will take any

vessel up to Point Heaphy in safety.

When about mid

channel between Motuara and Long Island, a S.S.W.

course will take you up in mid-channel to Point Heaphy.
The soundings from Motuara Island gradually deepen
from seven and eight to thirty and thirty-five fathoms mid
channel ,' the shores on both sides of the Sound are bold,
and may be approached with safety to one cable distance.
In case of night coming on, good anchorage can be found
in the coves on either side of the Sound; but I should
recommend the western shore, on account of the prevailing

westerly and south-westerly winds.
The western entrance to the Tory Channel is three
quartcrs of a mile wide, and is formed by Point Diefl'enbach
on the southern side, and Point Heaphy on the north.
Point Diefi'enbach is very remarkable, being a flat cliffy
point about forty feet high, the ridge of which runs up to

‘a high peak.

Point Heaphy can easily be distinguished,

by referring to the accompanying views. It is the first
projecting point to the west, on the eastern shore, after
passing Tui Kaiopi Island, and about two miles distant
frmn the southern part of that island. Care should be
taken, in running for this channel, not to take the western
arm of the Sound which runs up to W'.S.W. for fourteen
miles, and has more the appearance of a channel than the
entrance to the Tory Channel, and may be known by
Round Island, which lies on the western shore about four
miles above Point Diefi'enbach.

The tides in the Channel run stronger than on any
other part of the coast; spring tides between the heads
run five knots on the ebb and four on the flood ; it flows

five hours and ebbs seven;
The soundings in the middle of the Channel are deep,

from thirty to thirty-five fathoms; but in passigg through
G

68 SAILING DIRECTIONS—QUEEN anRLorTE‘s sons».

the Channel, and the tide or wind failing, there is good
anchorage in any of the bays, in a line with the points,
from seven to ten fathoms. Some of the bays shoal sud
denly, inside of a line with the points, particularly about
Henry Island on the south shore.
Oyster Harbour on the south shore is an excellent
place for avessel to refit in; and, in case of necessity, may
heave down to the rocks at the head of the bay; there
being six fathoms close to the rocks. The harbour is land
locked, and perfectly sheltered from all winds. There is a
run of fresh water through the sandy beach at the head of
the ba .
Th3; principal English settlement on the north side of
the Channel is in Barrett’s Bay, which is formed by a
ledge of white ragged rocks running into the Channel.
The best anchorage in this bay is about one cable dis
tant from the outer white rock, in a line with the opposite
point of the bay, in seven or eight fathoms. Moor with an
open hawser to the S.E.
The eastern entrance to the Tory Channel is easily dis
tinguished by Wellington Head, which is the highest land
from Cape Koemaroo, and may be known by itsterminat

ing in a remarkable white cliff, which can be seen when
off the Brothers; when abreast of Wellington Head the
Tory Channel opens to your view. There is a. sunken
rock lying off the North Head, about one-quarter cable‘s
distance, and two small rocks oil the South Head, about
five feet out of the water; there is also a small watch rock
close to the south shore, a little inside of the heads, and a

rock nearly awash surrounded by kelp, about half a. cable
oh" the West Point of Hokokurry Bay; but by referring to
the plan and accompanying views, a stranger can enter
this Channel on the flood tide with safety. There is a
tide-rip off each head, which at a short distance may be

taken for breakers.

69
Pour NICHOLSON.

Port Nicholson lies in the depth of a bay formed by
Baring Head on the east side, and Sinclair Head on the
west. The land running down to Baring Head is level,
terminating in a perpendicular clifl', with a small reef out
of water running off it. From Baring Head to Pencarrow
Head, forming the east head of the port, lies Fitzroy Bay.
There are seVeral small reefs out of water running a short
distance from the beach round this bay.
Sinclair Head is the termination of a ridge of hills,
which ends in a steep bluff, off which lies a long reef of
black rocks, mostly out of water, with sharp peaks about
twenty feet high, and may be seen several miles off. From
this reef to Barrett’s Reef, 011' Point Dorset, are several
reefs of black peaked rocks running off the coast; by

passing them at the distance of a mile all dangers will be
cleared.
The entrance to the port is formed by Pencarrow
Head, on the east side (off which lies a reef about one
cable distance, out of water), and Palmer Head on the
west. Barrett Reef, which is mostly out of water, lies
nearly midway between the heads; it is bold close to, ten

fathoms a boat’s length 011' the reef.
Chaffers Passage is between Palmer Head and Bar
rett’s Reef. The passage is clear of reeks with deep water,
but not so broad as the Eastern Channel, which is the
best for a person not acquainted with the port, and the
set of the tide more regular. Spring tides run in the
narrows about two knots. There are several small reefs
stretching off the east shore, in the entrance, mostly out of

water; by keeping about one cable distant off the points,
the wash rocks lying off them will be cleared.
The soundings are regular in the narrows, ten and

eleven fathoms close to the rocks, and eight fathoms one
cable of? the east shore; the deepest water is near the reef
in both channels.
There is a small reef, about half a cable, running off

'the Pinnacle Rock, which is connected to Point ‘Vaddell
by a reef, and should not be approached too close.
G3

After

70

SAILING DIRECTIONS-‘I’ORT NICHOLSON.

passing the Pinnacle Rock, the shores are hold on each
side; the small rocks lying off the points showing; the
deepest water is on the west shore. Between Ward’s
Island and the main is a narrow channel of three fathoms
for small vessels. After passing Ward’s Island the sound_
ings are regular, ten, eleven, and twelve fathoms. Somes'

Island is steep close to, on each side.

There is good

anchorage at the head of the port, in eight fathoms.
muddy bottom, about half way between Somes’ Island and
the beach, with the summit of Somes’ Island bearing
south. The heads of the port will then be shut in, and you
are well protected from southerly and north-westerly
ales.
Lambton Harbour runs up S.W. by “7., four miles and
a quarter from Somes’ Island; the shores on both sides are

hold up to Bellsize Point, off which runs a small sandspit
about one cable distant; from this point to the head of the
harbour there is from ten to three fathoms, muddy bottom.
This harbour is well protected from all winds; wood and
water can easily be procured, and it is an excellent harbour
for shipping.
Evans’ Bay runs in south, two miles and a quarter from
01? Point Halswell; the shores are bold on each side of

the bay, with ten and eleven fathoms in the middle.
Burnham Water is east, nearly a quarter of a mile from
the head of the bay; it abounds in eels and wild ducks.
There is a good sandy beach round the head of the bay
for hauling the seine; the natives consider it the best place
for fishing.
The River I-Iutt lies at the east end of the beach at
the north head of the port; its main stream runs in a
winding direction through the valley to the north. There
are several small streams running into it near its mouth;

if they were all turned into the main stream from their
source, it would make a good navigable river for small
craft or steamers. There is a bar at its mouth which
nearly dries at low water, and the water is fresh 9. little
inside the beach. The source of this river has not been
explored yet, but it is supposed to take its rise in the
snowy mountains, about forty miles to the north. On its

saruxc nmncrrons—rnsvarnmo wmns.

71

banks is a fine forest of pine trees, where masts and
spars could easily be procured.
The rivulet at the west end of the beach is small, and
winds into a valley behind the first range of hills: it is
a good place for watering, and wood is in great abun
dance.
The difl'erent bays abound in fish of many sorts, par
ticularly the flat fish, which are very large, and a haul
with the seine would supply a ship’s company for the day.
This port which hitherto has been little known, and

generally represented as a bar harbour, certame ranks

among one of the finest in the world; its entrance is easy,
the dangers all showing, and plenty of room to work in,
with eleven fathoms in the narrowest part, and is capacious
enough to contain numerous fleets. The natives are a mild
easy race, and but few, who raise potatoes and pigs for
barter. This and other advantages that Port Nicholson
offers, point it out as the most desirable port in New
Zealand for vessels to touch at.
The prevailing winds in Cook's Straits are N.\V., nine
months out of the twelve. In the winter months, June,
July, and August, SE. and southerly winds prevail; ge
nerally blowing in heavy gales, and shifting round sud—
denly to the opposite point. The SE. gales generally
cause a heavy sea, and on the ebb tide, long tide-rips,
which have all the appearance of breakers; and which

cause, I think, has given rise to the erroneous opinion
generally entertained of the supposed dangers of Cook’s
Straits.
()n the west coast of Tavoi Poenamo tne prevailing
winds are S.W. all the year round, and during the sum
mer months, December, January, February, and March,

it blows with the greatest violence, and has been known
to last for two months.
- .
On the eastern coast as far as Cape Campbell, the
N.W. and SE. winds prevail all the year round.
On the west side of Eainomaui, the prevailing winds
are-N.E. in the summer, and in the winter SE. and

N.W., but are liable to change to W. and south-westerly
gales, which in general do not last longer than twenty

72

run NATURALIST'S REPORT

four hours. A SE. gale in general lasts four or five days.
About Mount Egmont, on the shore there is a regular
land and sea breeze during summer, in the morning from

the S.W., fresh during the day, and falling calm at night.
Off the East Cape and along the coast to the North
Cape, in the summer months the prevailing winds are

north—easterly, but in the winter months strong westerly
gales generally prevail.

No. V.

First Report to the New Zealand Company, on the Physical
Condition and Natural History of QueemC/mrlotte’s
Sound, Cloudy Bay, Tory Channel, Port Nicholson, and
tile surrounding Country; by Eans'r DIEFFENBACH,
M.D., the Company’s ZVaturalist.

We came in sight of the Southern Island on the 16th of
August, after a most successful voyage of ninety-six days
from Plymouth Harbour, and thirty-eight days from the
longitude of the Cape of Good Hope. From this lon 'tude
to New Zealand, we sailed between the latitudes 3 ° and
45°, being favoured by the prevalent winds from the SW.
and N.W., which blow almost continually, rendering a.
voyage to New Zealand at once secure and quick.
On the 9th of July we were in latitude 37° 25' S. and

longitude 16° 43’ E. The weather was fine, and a SNV.
wind filled our sails and carried us rapidly forward. I
found the temperature of the air to be 58° Fahrenheit,
which is the mean of four daily observations. The tem
perature of the sea was 61° 12', likewise the mean of four
observations.

0n the 11th we were in latitude 38° 49' S. and in
longitude 24° 30’ E. At noon, I made my observations
upon the temperature of the water, and found it had de
clined from 69° in the morning to 52° 50’, andto 50° at
four o’clock in the afternoon. It rose again on the follow
"? day to 69°, when we were in' latitude 39° 33’ S. and

'

.T—__-_-._r__.__,.w_

I

rue saronausr's REPORT.

longitude 38° 3’ E.

73

This extraordinary change of tem

perature seems to have been produced by the presence of
shoal water, although there is no indication of such in the
charts, I was confirmed in this opinion by the light-green
colour of the sea, and a particular appearance of its sur
face. The sounding, however, gave no bottom at seventy
fathoms ; and it must be left to future observations to de~

termine whether the thermometer really indicated a shoal,
or whether other causes, for instance icebergs or currents,
can produce such an extraordinary change.
From this time our voyage became uniform to the
highest degree. As far as the eye could reach, nothing
was visible but a dreary and desolate sea. An almost
continual wind from the S.W. was only interrupted by
gales and squalls, ceasing as quickly as they came, and

which, though never dangerous, caused the vessel to roll,
and required the attention of our commander. The tem
perature of the air fell sometimes to 47°, and the cold
became very sensible. The monotony of our life was in
some de ee enlivened by a, number of sea-birds, who were
our fait ful companions. They never left us, and even
appeared in the greatest numbers when the sea rose highest,
falling eagerly on everything that was cast out of the ship.
We often admired the dexterity and elegance of their flight ;
never touching the water with their wings, they fly up
wards with the ascending, downwards with the descending
wave. The power of their wings, indeed, must be enor
mous, as they appear where for hundreds of miles no land
is indicated on our charts. Our most constant companion
was the Cape pigeon, a very neat kind of petrel (Procel
laria capensis.) This bird is white and black spotted
above, white below, with a black head, and of the size of
a large pigeon. Occasionally we noticed some of a_ silver
gray colour, either a different species, or perhaps differing
only in age.

Other kinds of petrels were visible besides the Cape
pigeon. The Cape hen, a shy bird and of a black colour,
was frequently seen; Mother Carey’s chicken (Proeellarla
elagica) sometimes ; another small silver-gray petrel,

called the icebird, appeared in great flocks.

74

run xarusausr's REPORT.

Albatrosses were numerous, and, driven by hunger.
often came close to the ship. I observed two varieties of
the common species; one generally of a light-brown colour,
more or less mixed with white, another often perfectly

white with black wings. These latter have on each side
the throat a rose-coloured spot, and appear to be the oldest
birds. \Ve caught them (Diomedea exulans) in great
.numbers with book and line, and our sailors ate their
flesh, which is omewhat fishy.
Another species of albatross is perfectly smoke-coloured,
somewhat smaller than the first, but flies with the same
dexterity. It seems to be Diomedea fuliginosa. It never
took the bait, and kept always in some distance from the
shipThe
.
clumsily-made bird called'molernawk appears to
me to be likewise an albatross; its plumage is white with
black wings ; it settled in great numbers about the bait.
but never took it.
' On the 22nd of July we were in latitude 41° 38’ S.
and longitude 71° 2' E. About this time we had almost
continual squalls, with rain and hail.

The temperature of

the air was often as low as 36° Fahrenheit during the hail
showers, but generally between 40° and 50° Fahrenheit.
The barometer and the sympiesometer always indicated
these sudden squalls, as will appear from the annexed
series of observations. The variations of these instruments,
however, were so remarkable and so sudden, especially in
the first half of the month of August, that they cannot
always be depended upon, as fall and rise followed each
'other too rapidly to be of any use to the navigator. These
variations seemed to be connected with a continual forma
tion of clouds charged with rain or hail, never with snow,
which suddenly appeared at the horizon, and, followed by
winds, scudded over the ship and disappeared. The ob
servations on the sympiesometer on the 12th, 13th, and
14th of August, when we were between Van Diemen's
Land and New Zealand, deserve perhaps some attention
respecting their variations.
Before beginning my observations on New Zealand, I

beg leave to give here an extract from my meteorological

THE NATURALXST‘S REPORT.

journal. All the instruments used have been compared
together, and corrected accordingly. An accident that
befell the barometer prevented me from continuing my
observations with it, and I was confined to the sympie
someter, which I found to be a very sensible instrument,
admitting of accurate observations even in stormy weather,
whereas minute observations with the barometer can only
be made in calms, and when the ship is steady; and even
in this case it becomes necessary to take the mean of a
difference of several hundredths of an inch, to which extent
it is always in movement. The observations were made
four times daily. The observations of latitude and longi—
tude are from the ship’s log, which I likewise used for the
observations on wind and weather.

'

I.~l-‘“_V~-'

76
EXTRACT FROM METEOROLOGICAL JOURNAL.

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58'66.5030.10 62 30.7 ‘
a.

12

55

454.50

8 a3
12
8

57

39 30.16

60 30.9 3‘3?

58

as 30.15

._, .
as 30.12%3,

59 56.6030.1666.503o.16"'"

49

64

54 30.34,54.50-30.275_
73

12 49 62.5004.5030.271 54 30.36%
461 47
46 58.505'.5030.34'53.5030.361¢=3
62' 63 30.3.5;53.50..30.29!° o
15

1W

i

f

I

|

a:

'

553.50; 61

55 30.34.53.50303833

1266.60, 64
4 57’ 56

38 30.29 55 30.365,“
60 30.35.56.503040'";

1355.50

69 aoaoamoaoasé‘g

55

Winds.

Remarks.

S.\V.

Steady breeze, and

1.5 2?
"1 m\

NAV.
N .\V.
NJV.

Light airs.
[fine.
Moderate and line.
Increasing breeze
with a heavy swell.
Fresh breezes and
cloudy.
N .\V.
Strong breezes with
light showers of
N.\V.
Squally.
[rain.
N.\\'.
Strong breezes and
equally.
N.\V.
Ditto.
Ditto.
N .\V.
Ditto.
N.\V.
Ditto.
N.\\'.
Squally with rain.
N.W.
Moderate and line.
Ditto.
N.
Steady breeze and
line.
_
N.\V.
Increasing breeze.
NNV.
Strong breeze and
cloudy.
NM".
Ditto.
Ditto.
S.\V.
Squally appearance
with rain.
S.\V.
Light breezes and
thick foggy \\ calllfl'.
S.\V.
Light winds and
cloudy.
S.\V.
Ditto.
Moderate and fine. i
S.\V. by WV. Moderate breeze and
cloudy.
S.\l~'.
Moderate breeze and
S.W.
Ditto.
[line H
S.W.
Ditto.
Moderate breeze and
equally.
SAY.
Fresh breeze and
equally.
S.“'.
Strong breezes and
\V. by S.
Ditto.
[fine
\V. by 5.
Ditto.
Steady breeze 1
fine.

~“Wm

2

a"

=5

t:

a;

34
25

3

E
h

3
o

'5 l a' 1.2 CD.' 550
5
,_

~93 3“, 'c
gal; ~g,

0'3

'5:

.g

a

2

m

[-*

r

E

an

E

~ ~ 5 .2. 2: 2 e» e 3
July

'

.
Winds.

Remarks.

75' g

A A
i

:

16 8 55 60.50 59 30.5857.50'30.511'=__ 5 w. by 3.
fl 2.
59 30.44 57.50i30.48:§91;r

1259.50 60.50
g
12
17

I
6:?
62

855.50

_
, '1'1‘
65 61.501.30.31595030.402‘2330
65
63 30.29 60.00 30.40i"§=r=
I
64
60 30.42 59 30.40l:
.5

12 51 55.50 55 50.4954.5oso.47§__:g_
4

52

56

57 30 48

54 30 49““.ig

.

8

W.N.VV.
.
S.S.VV.]

w.s.w

s.w., lightging

W 8 W
\ 5

breeze

and line.
Strong breeze and
Ditto.
[squally.
Ditto.
Severe squall from
N.\V. veerin to
Qtandj headyfimm.

g

n

88.

an

Re.

\V.S.W.

18 12854.50 56 57 50.47 56 50.40:, ~
124 54
51 5s
56 58.5030.4056:50
59 30.3556 6030
3039i?»
as" 3..
"‘

w'sw'
wIsIWI

:iiii Zildluaily'
'
0151.6
Dittoy and sqmilin

w.s.w.

1mm.

51

53

cloud .
Increasiyng

57 30.5454,5030.52%§

I;

52

c

Light winds and

N.N.\V.

56

5s 30.4456.5030.40‘°° e
=

19

s

55 60.50

1252.50
451.50

56 30.50

60
60

50 30.4313

S.\V.

Ditto.

s.w.

Steady and cloudy

56 30.49 56 30.47E;,. Er. S.\V. by W. Ditto.
58 30.5055.5030.45.~1= 7' S.W. by \V. Moderate and

£53.50 61

59 30.52 56 30.47% E

Bitto.
.

20

857.50

Strongbreezel and
fine.

59 57.50 30.44

.

[cloudy.

itto.

57 30.43

N.W. by W. Increasing breeze
and cloudy.
12 59 59.50 59 30.31 57 30.33
N.W. by W. Fresh breezes and
cloud .
458.50 59
60 30.30 57.50>30.32& $ N.\V. by W. Strong breezes and
8 58 58.50 61.50 30.27 58.50 30.25: m N.W. by W. Cloudy.
[fine
12
' N.W. by W. Strong breezes and
cloudy.

605030.15 59 60.4 50155 N.N.W.
60 30.0

Ditto and equally. I

59 30.0. en's;- N.W. by “7. Ditto.

63 23.84 59.50 29.86:, ;_ N.W. by W.
I
,_. %
63 29.82 60 29.75" ’-" N.W. by W.
I
\
N.W.
59.50 29.78 59 29.7435
S.\V.
60 29.79 59.50 29.7930 L
SNV.
g= N
....9__

59 29.84 56.50 29.84: i;

W. by S.

57 29.86 55.50-29.86

W. by S.

\

Strong gale and
equally with a
heavy sea.
r
Heavy gale and
equally.
Violent squalls.
Mucbwindand rain.
Wind shifted and
dep‘lvy round to
S. .

Strong breezes and
equally.
Hailandsleet,strong
breeze and equally.
At 8 o’clock a meteor
from S.E. to N.E.

W‘

H

-

..____

-7, g.-.__--~<__

_- -

78

METEOROLOGICAL JOURNAL.
0
5,5
E<
Q Q

h:

Q5

3

El
‘5

ti

5‘;
3

»
Li
3 I; 5 o

E

3

8

2 g o '5'

o

g

o

g” 'E a

>_5 5 'g,

O

E

5'; 5*

°

5

" w z; 5

£—

E5

r:

E:

36 40
44.50

:$


'
r

emarks.

“7.

Heavy squall from
S.\V. with sleet
and hail.
Strong gale and
equally with fre
quent squalls of

A

54

55 29.82 52.5029.90 \
‘5,

52 55.50 129.92 53 29.95153 5‘‘0 0
~ ‘1'

S.W.

444.50 00 00.50300 04.50303 7’ "
43

53

7 30.16

R

“inds.

54 30,15

s.s.w.

Hail.

More moderate.
Strong breeze and
equally.

s. by W.

Moderate and fine.

S. by \V.

Strong breezes and

=

24 ,4 0001.50 0:4
.121

~46

50.50 30.29 '3

58

‘ .1- 40005300

48 30.26;, g:

48 ;eao.2:;...-.

Calm.

52

49.50 30.22% K

E.N.E.

51 '
50

51.50 30.16;

53.50 30.18 7‘
’-"
5‘ 5030.209.52.50151050 '1'

12
26 845.50

49

51.50 30.50

12 45.50

49

51.50 30.50\ 5,,

1 5145.50

_

l
25

Calm.

50

53

12

50

52

5.13. by E.

and fine clear
Ditto.
(weather.
Strong breezes and
fine clear weather.
Fresh breezes and
cloudy.
Moderate and fine.
Fresh breeze and
squally.
Ditto.
Strongnbreeze and
squn y.
Fresh lbreezes and

53 30,530 § S.B.by E.
Q *
52 30.58
8.13. by E.

Light breeze and
clear weather.
Cloudy.

E.N.E.

4 40
8 43.50

=
:3
5,
"‘
‘3..

E. by N.
S.E. by E.
E. by 8.
E.S.E.

if; '4
4

44 49.50

8

45

54

1‘2

27

a
1'):

46 47.50
4T
47

4-16.50


:

50.50.30.157
‘> E':
52 30.6611
if“

squa ly.

N.E.

Ditto.

N.E.
N.E.

Light dbreezes and
01011 y.
Increasing
breeze

47

51.5030.68@¥ TB

e 40.00 47

01.00 30.67 4‘ y.

N.E.

Cloudy.

\ =
7;: Z",

N.E.

Fresh breeze
cloudy.

40.50.00.033 ,q

N.E.

Freslzl, steady breeze

N.F..

Cloudy.

.12
i

I

‘JH ; “50040.50

N.E.

Cloudy.

'5 :5

an

1

0:45.50 49

50 30.00,:: erv

_1,

‘ l

47

50

5: $0.05 a; 06 N.E. b E.

8

47

48

_

a
1

£50.65

N.E.

v

and

line.

Ditto.
Fresh breeze and
equally.
Steady breeze and
cloudy.

50 30.5022

NE.

Fresh breeze and

51 .503057 R :1
52 30.53 'r
52 30.58% ‘ég

NJ}.
NE.
NE.

Rain.
[aquallya
Ditto.
.
Moderatebreezeand

e

846.50 47.50
1244730 45.50
48.50
1" 47
48

[and tine.

N.E.

l2

29

(fine.

Increasing breezes

#1- :\

12
a

(lien.

8. by \V.
S.S.\V.

'3

cloudy.

W

T

* Dead Reckoning.

-

____...__-m m M_

‘ 7-9

M ETEOROLOGICA L JOURNAL.

e
=55

‘55

8' e: w' 5iw

54
. ca 0
15 . 5.5

3

E ' .2 3 cu '2
g
2‘” '3 H
y.
H
as
'gy . \hnds.

5? c is

5

° w s =

Q

E3

53

_

I E-1 °

July

1.:

z“:

46
47 51 .50 30.55
l2 47 47.5 ‘51.5030.5l;'--I
4 47 ’40 52.50 80.49 0
40 48.50 02.503052 Ii
I
t
31
'5;
' .o
.
y
3 . r

y

:-' N.E. by N
:
N. by E.
f,
N. by
5
by
. )y I.
1;.§.\V.
r
. .\V.

4‘ 50 49.50 52 30.50 3 3 N. by w.
8

49 49.50

52 30.54%; °g

H

Moderate and fine.
Fine weather and moderate
Ditto.
[breeze
Bltto.
itto.
Moderate and fine.
Cloudy.

Fine weather and moderate

N. by \V.

Ditto.

-~

N. by \V.

Observed some meteors from

52 30.63
12.
52 30.62k ;,.
4
53 30.642”
r
g g
12 49.50 49.50 52.00 30.69 - -~

N.N.\V.
N.N.VV.
N .N.\V.

Aug- 12,

I

Remarks.

A 3

7

30

-

1

\

47
49
49

48
47
48

[breeze.

Steady and fine.
[8. to \V.
Moderate and cloudy.
Moderate breeze and cloudy l
.with light passing showers.
Dltto wzth ram.

2 s 49 .48 52.50 30.51 a. a, N.W. by w. Variable and cloudy.
1.2 48.50 45.50 52,50 30.11
a
N.
Cloudy and increasing breeze.
ii iii 25 53020 2353? 8:9 N'Wivby W' gquany'
d
11
.
3

49420
0 e

4

.

50

8 50.50

4 lg 51

6

- e;

.0

g 5
e

I H

N b3; F

ngzlégy breeze an squa y.

g. lgy
,

y

iStrong breezes and squally.
.

)ittO.

49 54.50 30.523; 23

N. by E.

Strong breezes and fine. 1

50 54.50 30.48 4. :1

N. by

Ditto.

ii'1?V 5'

iiif'm and squauy'

50 49.50
I
54.50 30.42
.
\
3 2

N.e byy \V.1

Fresh breeze with cloudy, hazy

4
.1

49
47

N. by \V.
N. by w.

12.

v

I2

5

.
$

50

54 50 48

48 56 30.36 a
45 52.50 30.55 , -

.

j

848.00 48
52 30.28
5;
l‘.’ 44. 50 4. .50 50.50 30.28
I”
441.50 48
53 30.28;?: g
1‘8}
.
8'
12'
4‘

41

48 53.50 30.1803;
ii
41
48 53.50 30.15\
41
48
53 30.15 92
42 47.50 52.50 30.13 0

W.

Ditto.
Date.

[weather.
1

Wind shifted to the W.

W.
W.
S. by E.

g}
S.S.E.
,7
8.8.12.
\
S.S.E.
gg
a" S.W. by

Fresh breeze and cloudy.
Moderate and cloudy.
\Vind shifted in a squall to
the S.
Light breezes and cloudy.
Moderate and cloudy.
Fresh breezes and cloudy.
S. Strong breezes alldcloudy with

842.50 47.50 51.50 30.9 3 a S.W. by 5. Ditto.
[hail showers.
12]
\
s.s.W.
Fresh gale and squally.
7

8‘42.50 46.50 49 29.95 :12 43.50 46.50 49. 50 29.93 2;: Bo

S.8.W.
S.\V.

443.50 40.20 51.50 29.91 0 g

S.W.

8 42
46 5|.50 30.1 3
12
8 8* 44 47.50 48.50 29.98%,
1245.50 48
48 29.9l is
r 5] 29.67 m
.
50.502970
12
' 3
U

Strong gale and equally.
Ditto and heavy sea.

Heavy squalls.

5.;
'-'

SJV.
Ditto.
S.W.
Ditto.
S.W.
Ditto.
x
' \V.S.VV.
Strong gale and fine.
g
by
Squally.
9o S.W. by “7. Strong gale with a heavy sea.
a.) W.S.W.
More moderate.

Dead Reckoning.

H2

80

METEOROLOGICAL JOURNAL.
gt:
§<

'

._'

a;

'

g

g .g '15 L:

.

E

.2 3 q, 1:

o 0

.1

2

a” '5 2

a5

3

E

55 3 go

5 3 5'; P
c: ,m e
3
Aug.

;12
4

8

49

51 29.83 a

Ditto.
Ditto.

49 49.50

XV. b 8.

Fresh breeze and fine.

53

'33 ;

\ -49 50.5030.6 ‘3
- _
48
54 29.98 2 i2
48 r 54 29.9303 3:

850.50

49 53.50 29.93

l2

\ .
W.

59

ll: 52.30
846.50
5

53 29.70;;

W.b.\V.

Ditto.

W.S.W.

Ditto.

W. by 3.

;_ a:
49 i54.50
5 e
L.
29.50
e
‘3
N Int:
0:,
5;

S.\V.

54 29.70 ‘
:,
l2 46
50 54.50 29.7] 5, ;,
4 47.50 50.50 53 29.7 I: w:
l9 47.50 50 53.50 29. " '3; 2;

S.W.

46

50

2

8

Ditto.
geavy squall with high sea.
Ditto.

W.S.'W.
0 a
a

z ‘

H2

Strong gale and squally.
Strong breeze and hazy with
S.\V. squall.
Increasing breeze and squaliy.
Strong gale and equally.

W'.S.W.
W.§.\V.

I

-

52

8

Strong breeze and squally.

W. by 8.
W. by S.

'32 50
1 450.50

il ; s

W.s.w.

46
48
54 29.7930 :1.
47 49.50 53.5029 8|
(3"

12
848.50

10

13

Remarks.

=

9 i 8 45.50

12

\Vinds.

° w "3 =
i5
.4 .3

Strong breeze and equally
with rain.
Frequent hard squalls with
heavy showers of rain.
Fresh breeze and equally.
Moderate and cloudy.
Fresh breeze and equally.

S.W'.
S.\V.

:—

‘0

a

44

50 53.50 20.53 i

S.W.

.2 42

50 50.50 29.46 #-

\V.S.\V.

Moderate and cloudy.

5

4

47

842.50
d

Fresh breezes and squally.

.50

53 29.43%;

S.W.

Frequent and heavy showers

'

Squally.

8

5.b.ii..

Strong breezes and squally.

8.5.16.
S.W.
S.\V.

Frequent hall showers.
Fresh breezes and equally.
Ditto.

47 51.50i57.50 29.94:, =’

1250,50

S.W.

Ditto.

S.W.

Ditto.

52 152.50 29.92: a

\V.S.VV.

Fine weather and

4 50.50 59 159.50 29.93 31?.

W.§.W.

Cloudy.

12

\V.b.W.
W.

8 52 53 50555029895 a:
1252.50 54
56 29.86:"
4 52
53 52.50 29.9413 2..
8 52
53
54 29.83
E:
12

W.
‘5’.
S.W.
S.W.
\V.S.W.

Strong breeze and cloudy.
Fine weather and moderate hi
breeze.
Ditto.
Ditto.
Ditto.
H
Ditto.
Ditto.
Iliight breeze and fine.

8 50.50 53.50 50.50 29.94
12
16

l7
L5.

'1

.

450.501 .51
8
12

.

bl

[of hail.

52 51.00 29.10
54 51.50 29.67
53
49 29.72
50 52.50 29.8

12

15

I

S.“'.

r

41

2 43.50
4 41.50
8 44

afternoon.

49 29.4. F

12

14

Hail showers during the whole

50

50

T

)2. .

. .

57 29 951

51 55-50 29.9..

__

i

.

a strong

[breezc.

itto.

S.W.

Ditto.

S.W.

Cast anchor in Ship Cove.
Moderate and fine.
°

W: l

"M___._____._~." __,,,___,,,,..

,4

THE NATURALIST'S REPORT.

81

On the 16th of August, at twelve o'clock, we saw
mountainous land, the land of our destiny, New Zealand,
then about forty miles distant. These mountains were in
the neighbourhood of Cape Farewell, forming to the south
a prolonged chain, the summits of which were visible
above the clouds, which, after a few hours, enveloped them
entirely.
On the morning of the 17th we were on deck at day
break, in the expectation of seeing a larger extent of land.
We were not deceived. The mountains were pyramidal
or conical; those on the Northern Island stretching from

-S.E. by S. to S.S.W. on the Southern Island, following a
S.E. direction. Behind the latter rose a still higher chain,
whilst through its opening, still further in the interior,

towered snow-clad summits, reddening in the rising sun.
I afterwards learned that these snowy mountains are to
the S.E. of Cloudy Bay, from which place they are dis
tinctly visible, and are named Sapaweinu. Though dissi
milar in outline, they recalled to my memory the mountains
of Switzerland. To our right lay Stephen's Island, an
irregular rocky place, rising abruptly from the sea, and
covered with thick brushwood. Between this island and
the following, or D'Urville’s Isle, some rocky needles
reached out of the water, seven in number.
we saw Capiti or Entry Island, surrounded by a
heavy atmosphere. The mountains of the Northern Island
also displayed lofty cones covered with snow ; among
them an active volcano was pointed out to us by one of
our New Zealanders.
As we drew nearer, we saw D’Urvillc's Island and the
hills more distinctly. These hills are covered to the very
summit with trees and brushwood; They are very steep,
running down to the very border of the sea ; and a yellow
barren rock is occasionally denudated, with strata dipping
at an acute angle, and very distinct at a promontory called
Point Jackson.
At two o’cIOck in the afternoon we entered Queen Char

lotte’s Sound. No open spot of land was to be seen. The
abrupt mountains, clothed with primeval forests, rising at
once from the shore form only diminutive bays. Point
-

H 3

82

narunsusr’s REPORT—GEOLOGY

Jackson, where a pah was visible, was on our right.

In

the background of the bay we saw the island Motnara,
and on our left, a long narrow island called Long Island,
consistin(izesccnd
of a into
sharptheridge
of hills, the
which
steeply
sea, disclosin
the sides
same of
stratified
yellow rocks already alluded to. line again the strata
are highly inclined, and sometimes even perpendicular.
On this island are several slips, occasioned by the action
of heavy rains upon the steep sides of the hills.
We steered between Long Island and Motnara, the

route given by Captain Cook. As we entered Ship Cove,
we descried a canoe coming from a neighbouring bay, de
nominated Cannibal’s Cove in Cook's chart, but called by

the natives Anaho. It contained eight men clothed in
coarse mats. They brought some fish. behaved modestly,
and left us satisfied in the evening, with a promise to come
again in the following morning. At seven o'clock we an
chored in Ship Cove, hoisted the New Zealand flag, and
saluted it with eight us.
We remained in bhip Cove until the 31st of August.
It opens as a semicircle towards Queen Charlotte Sound,

and is formed by two branches from the main chain, of

which one bears to NE. by N. half N., the other to S.E.
by E.
The island Alapawa consists of a chain, which sends
a great many branches towards the sea.
I may here observe that the following remarks apply
to all the parts of New Zealand visited by me during the
present expedition. The rock formation of the hills in
Ship Cove, Tory Channel, Queen Charlotte Sound,
Cloudy Bay, and Port Nicholson, is either a stratified
yellow clayslate, or an unstratified graywacke of the same
colour. This rock is one of the most barren for the
researches of the geologist. Sometimes it graduates into
a dark-coloured slate, attaining to the lamination of roof
ing slate, and is occasionally permeated by veins of kies
clnchiefes, or siliceous slate.

In Port Nicholson it is a

more hard and unstratified wacke, often of a black colour.
_No petrifactions could be discovered in it. This clayslate
18 easily converted by the influence of the atmosphere into

clay of various colours, fit for brickmaking; the stone

I NATURALIST’S REPORT—CLIMATE.

88

itself is unfit for architectural purposes. I have not found
any useful minerals in it. Some coal was brought to us
by a chief of the Nyatiawa tribe, Nyarewa, who lives in
Anaho, and who obtained it from a place called Manganui,
on the western coast of the Southern Island, probably in
the neighbourhood of Cape Farewell, where coal has been
picked up by Europeans, whom I met at Terrawaita.
According to their description, it crops out in strata near

the sea-s ore. The coal is of good quality, and burned
almost without residuum.
Everywhere along Queen Charlotte Sound and Tory
Channel, branches running from the main chain of moun
tains into the sea inclose small bays, into which almost
uniformly little streamlets of excellent water discharge
themselves. By their action, combined with that of the sea,

small beaches are formed, few rarely exceeding a square
mile in area of fertile soil, more or less mixed with sand or
shingle. On these beaches, which are the only accessible
portions of the shore, the native huts are commonly lo
cated, for the convenience yof fishing; theircultivation,
however, is for the most part on the sides and in the
ravines of the hills, in spots cleared by burning the wood,
by which they are universally clothed.
The climate seems to be extremely suitable to English
constitutions. The mean of my observations on the ther
mometer give the temperature in Ship Cove for the latter
half of the month of August, 49° 74’ Fahrenheit.

The

thermometer never fell below 42° 50’ during the daytime,
nor rose above 53° 50' at noon in the shadow, and this in
a month corresponding to our February. During that
time we had fine weather with the exception of three
rainy days. It generally blew fresh from the SE. or
N.E.; the former wind always producing a fall in the '
temperature, as will be seen from the annexed extract from
my' meteorological journal.
The thermometer during winter seems rarely to fall
much lower than the degree just mentioned, although
during the night the summits of the hills, which are above
1200 feet above the level of the sea, were ometimes
covered with snow in the morning. It freeZes rarely, but

84

NATURALLST’S REPORT-VEGETATION.

I afterwards ascertained in Terrawaiti that the water had
lately frozen several times about half an inch thick. But
settlers who had resided ten years and longer on this
coast say this winter is a remarkably cold one.
From the mountainous character of the country it may
be inferred that rains are frequent; in fact, droughts, as

in New South Wales, are unknown.‘ The thick woods,
that everywhere clothe the hills, preserve a great degree of
humidity, nourish the streamlots, and present a luxuriant

Vegetation, possessing many attractions for the, observer of
nature, and eminently useful for the purposes of men, by
the timber they yield. All who have visited New Zea
land admit that it possesses a characteristic Vegetation,
partaking of tropical forms. I have seen tree-ferns more
than forty feet high, their umbrella-like crowns over

hanging the underwood, and constituting a remarkable fea
ture in the landscape. Besides this criterion of a moderate
climate, the trees, even at this wintry season, were arrayed
in the freshest green, althoug‘hwithout new leaf-buds.
Only a few of the indigenous plants were in blossom.
\Vith the exception of four or five phanerogamous plants,
I found the ferns only covered with their organs Of fruc
tification, and collected ten species with seed-capsules.
But though few plants were in flower, I collected a number
of seeds from trees and shrubs.
As all the annual plants had disappeared, I can only
give a general account of the perennial ones, and princi
pally of the trees and brushwood.
Everywhere in Queen Charlotte Sound the observer
finds, close to the water's edge, a number of plants of the

laurel kind,>some myrtlos, a. fuchsia, several euphorbiaceaa,
one plant, apparently a dulcamara, with yellow fleshy seed
capsules, and called Berra Borra, a lignstrum intermixed
with high New Zealand flax, rushes, and a great number
of ferns.

The loose rocks Of the shore, between low and

high water-mark, are covered with different kinds of fucus
and ulvus- As he ascends the hills the trees increase in
height, and are Often from five to six feet in diameter.
The coniferae, which grow higher up, are few in number,
I observed two podocarpi, called Miro and Totarra by the

nA'rURALrsr's REPORT—VEGETATION-

85

‘natives, s dacrydium, called Mai, which is very common
about Queen Charlotte Sound, Tory Channel, and Port
Nicholson. These three trees grow straight and high, and

are beautiful timber. A tree, called Tawai, abounds, and
is very much used by the natives for building their canoes.
With these is associated the man, a tall tree, with a fruit
like that of our whitethorn; the natives prepare from its
bark a beautiful and durable black dye, with which they
colour parts of their mats. A great number of birds feed
upon its berries. Its timber is excellent. The trees in the
lower region of the hills are almost impenetrabl inter
woven by lianes, which makes the ascent very niiflicult.
They are of different species, and a number of birds feed
upon their fruits. Amongst them is the pitokos, from
the seeds of which the natives prepare an oil for anointing

their hair and bodies. It seems to be a pure fat oil, like
that of the beech-mast, and, as the shrub from which it
comes is superabundant, and the seeds are easily procured,
it must one day furnish an article of commerce. Still
higher up the hills, and where the barrenness of the soil
scarcely permits any other vegetation, appears the kaikatoa,
also called gadoa, or manuko, a philadelphus, with a very
hard and brown wood, of which the natives make the
paddles of their canoes, and whose leaves are used by

natives and Europeans as a very agreeable balsamic tea.
This tree grows on the most barren places, but often only
as a low shr'nb, and seems to require an open situation,
where it is there intermixed with the fern, the root of
which is esculent, euphorbiaceie, myrtles, and the phor
mium tenax, which grows indifl'erently on open places, in
swamps, and between the rocks at the sea shore. The
country about Queen Charlotte Sound is, however. not a
flax country, although it is found even here in snflicient
abundance for the use of the natives.
The lianes rarely ascend more than 800 feet above the

level of the sea, when they disappear, and the forest be
comes open, and often covers the very tops of the hills,
which, where there are no trees, and the rock barren, are

clothed with ferns of various species, some of them arbo
Iescent.

86

uA'runAusr’s REPORT—~S'HELLFISH.

On the decayed trees, which in these immemorinl
woods everywhere obstructed my path, I collected a
number of lichens and mosses, but was surprised at finding
so few fungi, of which a large one serves, if well dried, as
good tinder.
I ascended the two highest hills at the back of Ship
Cove, bearing respectively to N . W. and S. \V. The latter
is an example of a naked hill, the former of one covered
with wood to the top. The first was measured trigono
metrically, and its height was found to be about 1000 feet.
The latter was measured by me, by means of the tempera
ture of boiling water, which brought out an elevation of
1544 feet high.
Notwithstanding that the whole of Queen Charlotte

Sound is not suited for an extensive settlement, it would
richly repay the industry of thousands, who could rear
pigs in any number, and with little trouble, plant potatoes,

for which the soil is particularly adapted, and furnish
splendid timber in large quantities. We had always large
supplies of potatoes, fresh dug up from the ground, where
the natives leave them during the winter, affording another
proof of the mildness of the climate.
The island of Motuara is of similar character, both in

its geological composition and in its productions. The
natives have cleared much land there, and other large
patches are covered with a species of ligustrum. About
half a dozen natives are on the island, and a great number

of pigs are running wild, but they have their proprietors
in the neighbouring native settlements.
'
I will now communicate what I have ascertained about
the animal creation of the places visited by us. On the
rocks of the sea shore are some conchylia, although they
are neither distinguished by great variety, nor by size and
beauty. Those of them that are eatable are a species
resembling our common cockle, called Pipi by the natives,

a mussel, a patella, and a halyotis. Oysters are found in
Oyster Bay, in Tory Channel. Besides, there is a pine,
and a small number of univalves
Laudshells I found none ; _I think they will make their
appearance a little later in the year.

_

NATURALlsT's REPORT—FISHES.

87'

‘ ‘ One helothuria, or sea-slug, a large ascidia, tv'vo kinds
of actiuia, or sea anemone, some starfishcs, (Ophiura and
Asterias,) I found in 'Ship COW, a. pretty orange-coloured
asterias in Teawaiti. Under the rocks, at the shore, live
small
crabs:
likewise,
different
from lobsters
ours, in exist
Cloudy
Bay. but I saw
' only" one, Y

Of insects I got few, which may be ascribed to the
season. Two or three coleopteraa, a grasshopper, and a
gryllus was all I obtained. I saw only two or three but
terflies, neither distinguished by size nor beauty. A small
dipterous insect, called the sandfly by the sailors, lives in
the sand at the shore, and comes into the houses; its bite

is very troublesome.
Of fishes of difi'erent kinds there is great abundance ,'

flat fish, soles, skates, the curious Achirus ‘marmoratus,
likewise a flatfish with a spotted skin; eels, the conger

eel, and another, which, when caught, emits a great
quantity of slime, some other small cartilaginous fishes,
resembling the shark, (guruards,) herrings, mackerels, a
curious cartilaginous fish related to Chimaera callorrhyn
chus, with a long appendage from its upper lip, and of a
fine silvery colour, eatable, but not of particular taste, and
several kinds of syngnathi, which are- presented to the
stranger everywhere as a curiosity, are the most common
fishes. One is always sure to get as many for consump
pion as he wants, either with the seine, or with hook and
me.
.

New Zealand is distinguished from other‘islands of
the South Sea by its small number of reptiles.

I could only obtain a small lizard, which lives in

Teawaiti and Port Nicholson, in open places under the
fern. It is of the size of our common brown lizard, with
which it corresponds in its colour. The natives call it
Bloke Moko.
The birds that enliven the rocky shores of New Zealand
and the primitive forests on its hills surprise the traveller
most agreeably by their beautiful and various melody.
The voices of many winged choristers always fill the air.
Sounds pure and full, like those of a glass harmonica, are
heard from morning to night, but especially at break of day.

88

NATURALrsT’s REPORT—BIRDS.

But little disturbed, the birds are so tame that the hand is
deterred from killing, where so much confidence appears.
Few animals seem originally to fear man; most of them

have learned it by persecution. The New Zealander has
very few and simple means for bringing them into his
power. He imitates their voice, either concealed by
shrubs, or in a rude but made of fern, from whence a rod

leads to a neighbouring tree. The bird follows the call,
descends upon the rod, draws nearer and nearer, and is
caught by the hand. He is, however, in the habit of
catching but few birds either for his food, as pigeons or
parrots, or for ornament, as the Uia, with whose tail
feathers he ornaments himself, or the Tui, which he keeps
in cages. Most of the birds which I saw are peculiar to
this country; some are very scarce and 10021.1. Thus ex
tinction of some species may be foreseen whenever the
country is settled by Europeans. I will now shortly

describe those species which I obtained during our short
stay at Queen Charlotte Sound, Tory Channel, and Port
Nicholson.
The birds of New Zealand are not distinguished by
beauty of plumage; they are generally sombre in colour,
sometimes relieved by snowy white. Others obtain an
additional ornament in the shape of fleshy yellow flaps at
the angles of the mouth.
Beginning with the land-birds, which I found in thc
sea-side forest, and more abundant in the middle region,
amongst the birds of the parrot kind, I noticed a large
ay parrot and a small green parroquet. The former,
called by the natives, after its cry, “Kaka,” measures
from the tip of the beak to the end of the tail, nineteen
inches. The predominant colour is ray-brown. The

naked skin of the throat is yellow, an at the side of the
neck there are afew yellow feathers; on the belly, under the
wings, and in the axilla, the gray-brown colour is mixed
with crimson. The male is distinguished from the female
by a greater extent of crimson plumage, and is the smaller

of the two. The Kaka. lives upon the fruit of the man
tree and other seeds, is kept by the natives, and learns
easily to talk. Their flesh is not tough, but tender and

NA'runALrsr's REPORT—BIRDS.

89

Well flavoured. They are very tame in their native woods,
and easily approached when sitting on the branches, or
frolicking in the foliage of trees. As soon as one of their
number is killed or wounded, the others generally assemble
. about him, a habit which renders them easy of capture.
The parroquet, called Kakariki, measures eleven inches.
Of all the birds of New Zealand which I have seen, these
pretty creatures are decorated with the brightest colours.
The principal colour is verdigris green, changing into
emerald, the created forehead crimson. In the younger
birds the feathers at the root of the beak are gold-yellow.
On the neck is a golden spot, at the root of the tail a
crimson one. The quill feathers are azure blue, graduat
ing into different shades of green. The bird itself is of
slender make, and its tail arrow-shaped. Like the Kaka,
it lives upon berries and seeds, especially on the yellow
fruits of a solanea, called Borra Borra.
A kingfisher, called Kotari or Kotaritari, is found
wherever a streamlet discharges itself into the sea. He is
as shy as his European relation, from which he is not very

distinguishable.
At Port Nicholson I found the bird called Uia by the
natives, which is in great request by them on account of
the twelve or fourteen feathers of its tail. It is rare, and
said to be found only at that place, and the southern coast
of the Southern island. The bird is of the size of a

magpie, with jet black very fine silky plumage, and a
lon expansible tail, consisting of black feathers with white

en s. Male and female are discriminated in a remarkable
manner by the form of the beak, the which in the male is
short, straight, strong, about two inches long, and in the
female slender, more than three inches long, with the

upper and lower maxilla bent in nearly a semicircle down
wards, overreaching each other. The beaks of both are of
a white colour. Their feet are strong and four-toed, the
fourth toe being the largest and standing backwards, and all
provided with strong claws. Two remarkable gold-co
loured flaps, of the size of a fifteen-pence-piece and larger,
originate from the upper and lower maxilla. I found in'
their muscular stomach the seeds of a liand, called Pitokoi,

I

90

NATURALIST'S REPORT—BIRDS.

from which the natives make their hair oil, a number of
smaller seeds, and some coleopterous insects. But the form
of the beak in the female seems better adapted for getting
insects out of rotten trees; and in the two females which I

dissected, I found almost only insects, whilst in the male
there were more seeds. The natives catch them alive by
imitating their shriek voice, the sound of which is some
what expressed in their native name. -'High up the hills,
where the wood is thickest, the native whistles; suddenly
some of them appear, jumping in quick succession from
branch to branch; they come so near to the fowler that he
catches them with his hand. In the village of Port ‘
Nicholson one always finds some skins in the houses of the
natives, but without feet, and the natives from other

places obtain them here.

The bird called Kokako, and wattle-bird by the Euro
peans, from its two gold-coloured and indigo maxillary
flaps, I found only at Ship Cove, in the mi dlc region of
the hills and upon trees. He seems to be a kind of
gracula, of the size of the jay, has a short strong black
beak, with a slightly curved upper maxilla, and measures
sixteen inches from the tip of the beak to the end of the
tail. Its feet are black, like those of the former. Its
plumage is soft, silk-like, and glossy black; it has a
penetrating, not disagreeable voice, feeds upon seeds, and
lives in pairs upon the trees.
Amongst the thrushes I must name first theTierawakki,
likewise with two yellow appendages at the angles of its
mouth, of the form and dimension of a cucumber seed.
This bird is of the size of a blackbird, with beak and feet
similar to these parts in the latter. Its plumage is a
glossy black, the cover-feathers of the wings and its back
are of a fine red-brown. I saw a variety, or perhaps
another species, with plumage of variable shades of sepia.
This bird feeds upon berries, and is a very agreeable
songster. I found it most frequently at the skirts of the
forest in Wangarnui Atera, but also in Ship Cove.
One specimen of another thrush, resembling in shape
and colour our common fieldfare, I got at Ship Cove.
The most common bird in New Zealand, and at the

_v-_r.__ rq-_~ ’

_u

NATURALIST’S REPORT—BIRDS.

91

‘same time one of the prettiest and most agreeable, is the
Tui, so called from the most familiar of its various and

delightful tunes.

Its principal colour is black, with green

metallic hues; on the breast it has a number of fine white
feathers, and from each side of its throat hangs a cluster of

white curled feathers. This bird, of the size of a thrush, is
seen everywhere in the forests, in the huts of the Indians,

and in the houses of the settlers, who keep him in cages.
He has a soft fluting voice, which re-echoes in the forest

from the morning to the evening. His imitative faculty is
remarkable. I heard one that barked like a dog, another
' :that crowed like a cock, and a third that talked long
phrases. In winter they are frequently found about a
species of laurus, of the black berries of which they are very
fond; they then are very fat, and their flesh, from the
aroma of these berries and other lauraceae, delicious. In
.captivity they are fed with potatoes and biscuits, but do
not long survive the loss of their freedom.
>
Of the birds of the pigeon kind there is a great wood
pigeon, which we could everywhere obtain in numbers for
the table. It is one of the largest of its beautiful and
peaceable race, and, at the same time, one of the .hand
somest. It measures, from the end of the beak to the end
of the tail, twenty-one inches. Its back, throat, and upper
part of the breast are reddish-gray, with a variety of
metallic hues; the other part of its breast and belly is
milk-white. The covering feathers of the wings are
grayish, with metallic hues, the tail and the quill feathers
gray-black, beak and feet red. This pigeon likes open
places at the skirts of the forests,.where it sits upon the
lower branches of high trees. It feeds especially upon the
fruits of the karewan, a. liane, and other berries.
Amongst the singing birds a small flycatcher, of a
silver-gray colour, with a neat fan-tail, is found in all
places visited by us. It is very quick in its movements,
flying from twig to twig.
A bird, corresponding to our red-breast, and called by
the natives Pitoiti, is found wherever the trees stand
thickest.

wood.

It seeks its food, consisting of insects, in rotten

The prevailing colour is gray-black with a white
I2

92

NATURALIST‘S REPORT—BIRDS.

breast. It is very tame and confident, and possesses all
the manners of our robin.
The little delicate bird, called Pilantgalangi, has a jet

black head and back; its forehead is yellow, and so is its
belly. I have also seen the same bird quite black. Many
congeners exist in the forest, of brown or gray colours.
A kind of sylvia, of delightful song, in abrupt full
notes, dark green in colour, with a violet metallic hue, is
frequent everywhere. The Popokatea has a yellow breast
and belly, with a gray body ; it is of the size and figure of
the canary bird, and is gregarious in Queen Charlotte
Sound. A sandlark, of the same colour as ours, abounds
on the sandy beaches.
Amongst the birds of prey a small falcon soars over the

naked ridges of the hills. It is of the size of the gray
parrot, and of grayish-brown colour.

men at Ship Cove.

I procured one speci

I often heard in the evenings at

Cloudy Bay the cry of an owl, but never obtained one.
As we were mostly confined to the coasts, I had oppor
tunities to observe aquatic birds of all kinds, both on the
sea-shore and on the land, and at the outlets, and up the
rivers. Of birds of their kind peculiar to New Zealand,
there are only a few.
I name first a kind of plover, (charadrius) called Tutu
rnnta, by the natives.

It is about eight inches long; fore—

head, throat, and neck of the male black; vertex spotted
with brown and gray; under the eyes a white stripe; the
back, wings, and tail are brown; the beak, feet, and eyelids
orange; the end of the beak black. In the female the
colours are less distinct. The male hasa white collar; that

of the female is spotted brown. I found these birds
at the strand in Port Nicholson, where they feed upon
marine insects and worms.
Here, also, and everywhere on the strand in Tory
Channel, an oyster-catcher (Heematopus.) called by the
natives Toria, is frequent. It is eighteen inches long, of
the size of a small duck.

Its colour is jet-black; beak and

eyelids-orange; the feet are rose-coloured. Old birds have
more or less white on breast and belly. They congregate
in the mommg and evening, walking between the pebbles

NATURALrs'r’s REPORT—Bums.

93

along the beach, where they pick up little crabs and
limpets, by means of their long compressed beak.
In Port Nicholson I often found a species of himan
topus, wading with long stilted legs in the water. It is
somewhat above a foot long, with a thin black beak and
red legs; it is always seen in pairs. At the estuary of
the river of Port Nicholson aspecics of the recurvirostra, of

the size of a snipe, with a long flexible beak, is found in
large flocks ; its colour is a grayish~browu.
On all the shores voracious sea birds abound. There are
several gulls; a very neat one, with black or red feet and
beak, the plumage above of a silver-gray, below of a white
colour. In the neighbourhood of the whaling establish
ments they fill the air in flocks when a whale is cut up,
eagerly throwing themselves into the water after pieces of
blubber.
Albatrosses are sometimes seen. The feathers were
formerly in great request by the natives; now they are
little looked after.
Beautiful ducks are numerous on the rivers and their
estuaries. Especially remarkable is the splendid Paradise
duck, called Putangitangi by the natives, which we saw
at the Pelorus River and at Port Nicholson. This duck
lives in pairs, or in society with other ducks, sitting erect,
and attentive to the least noise. The drake is almost as
large as a goose; its head is black, with a green metallic
hue on vertex and neck. On the back this colour changes
into a pearly grey; the covering feathers of the shoulders
are of the same colour, but those of the wings of a snowy
white. The breast is of the same pearly plumage, be
coming brown spotted towards the belly. The feathers of
the axilla are white; beak-and feet black. The female is
somewhat smaller; about thirty inches long; head and

neck are white; the pearl-gray of her plumage is every
where mixed with red-brown feathers ; the upper covering
feathers of the wings are white, as in the drake; the
feathers of the tail, upon the shoulders, red-brown; the

last quill feathers of fine green metallic hues.
Another duck was brought from the Pelorus River.
It is much smaller than the former, measuring only twenty
] 3

94

three inches.

NATURALXST’S REPORT—~BlRDS

It is of a bright gray plumage, the breast

spotted with brown ; the middle quill feathers marginated

with black. Drake and duck are nndistinguishable in
plumage. I found at the river in Port Nicholson a third
duck, smaller than our domestic duck.

The female has a

gray head and neck; the breast and back are brown and
white spotted; on both sides of the tail is a white spot.
The first quill feathers are black; the middle ones of
metallic hues. The upper covering feathers of the
shoulders are lead-coloured. The male is twenty-eight
inches long, of a gray-brown colour; the feet, in both
sexes, dirty yellow.
Besides the species of ducks just described, we observed
everywhere a. black duck.
The bird, called Shag by the sailors, Kawau by the na
tives, Halieus or Carbo by systematists, and by other people
Cormorant, was very abundant. There are several
species, distinguished from each other partly by their
colours, partly by their manner of livina. The species
most frequent in Ship Cove is lossy b ack along the
back, and snowy white below.
‘he iris green, the eye
lids Prussian blue, the face orange.

They have a. long

neck, and are easily distinguished by a bone, loosely con—
nected with the occiput. In some the blue of the eyelids
was wanting: these were probably young birds. The
beak is lead-coloured; the skin under the lower maxilla

of a dirty red, the feet black. They are of the size of a
small goose, but more slender. The most salient pecu
liarity of this species is, that although they are web
footed, they inhabit dead trees at the sea-shore. There
they sit erect from the morning to evenin . They are
good divers and swimmers; swimming rapid y with only
alf of the back above the surface. Though preyiug
exclusively upon small fishes, their flesh is not in the least
fishy, but tastes like beef, and we had it often on our
tables. They build upon trees, and lay two rough
looking eggs, as large as hen eggs.
Another species, apparently peculiar to New Zea
land, 1s the crested corruorant, or king’s shag, per

haps the Carbo naevia of Linnaeus.

Its length from the

narunaus'r's REPORT—DOMESTIC ANIMALS.

95

end of the beak to the tip of the tail is thirty-three

inches; the wings, the lower part of the neck, and be
tween the shoulders are of a sepia colour, dotted with
black spots. The back and the legs have a green metallic
hue, sprinkled with white dots; the tail consists of stiff

black feathers. The upper part at the neck is black, the
belly of a silvery gray. On the forehead, and extending
along the neck, is a black crest; the feet and beak are
yellowish. It inhabits the hollows of rocks, by which it
is especially distinguished from the former.
Another, and probably different species of cormorant,
larger than the tva former, and of a gIOssy black through
out, was brought to me from the river in Port Nicholson.
In the hollows of the rocks at the sea shore a bird is
found, called Jackass (Ipheniscas). It is of steel colour
above, silver white below. The feathers are but little
developed; the wings look like fins, and he uses them as

such. The bird is of the size of a small duck, and has an
owl-like physiognomy. The eggs, which they lay in an
artless nest in the holes, are of the size and colour of hens’
eggs, and male and female unite in the work of incuba

tion. Its skin would give a. beautiful fur.
For the future naturalist who visits these countries, I
observe, that there exists, in small numbers, another
species of Apterix, called Weka. One of the settlers had
some tame in his possession, but they escaped into the
woods. I never saw one myself, but am quite convinced
of their existence.
It is known that, in New Zealand, no original terres
trial mammalia haVe been found—a circumstance peculiar
to this country, and to other Polynesian islands.
Amon t the introduced animals is the dog, the
faithful friend of man, but the New Zealander does not
recompense his attachment with a suflicient quantity of
food. The poor fellow is generally very lean, except at
the whaling establishments.
'

The rat, in no way different from our domestic rat, and
the cat, are found everywhere.
Amongst the aquatic mammalia, there were many

seals on this coast about ten years ago. They have now

96

NATURALIST’S REPORT—~WHALING

disappeared, and only a straggling animal is occasionally
seen in Cook’s Straits. The sealers have followed them to
the west coast of the Southern island, but even there they
are scarce.
The most important animal, the chase of which has
led to numerous establishments of natives and white
people, is the black whale, Balaena mysticetus, so called
from its black colour. Sometimes, indeed, if the oppor
tunity be favourable, the finback whale, &c., or the

humpback, are caught, but they are more cunning, wilder
and quicker, and run out the longest line in a few
seconds; they also give less oil than the black whale.
The spermaceti whale rarely visits these coasts, but is
found more to the northward. One of them was driven
this year on shore in Teawaiti, half decomposed, and gave
about two tune of oil.
In Teawaiti are three whaling establishments. The
proprietors have a number of boats in their service,
manned with white people and natives. Sometimes the
minor settlers have boats of their own, and sell their oil
to the former. These give a certain sum either for the
whale, or for every tun of oil, and derive large profits
from the practice of paying their more poor associates
with necessaries of life, and articles of luxury, such as
tobacco, spirits, clothes, powder, 810., which the latter are
obliged to take from them. In Cloudy Bay there are
four establishments on the same footing. The great men
on these beaches take care to let the little ones never get
out of debt; they support them in bad seasons, provide
and repair their boats, and keep them in constant depen
dency. From Tcawaiti fifteen to twenty boats run out
every morning; the boat-steerer is generally an European,
a large portion of the crew are natives as skilful as
Europeans.
thaliug began in Teawaiti and Cloudy Bay about ten
years ago; then the whales often came into Tory
Channel and the head of Cloudy Bay—now they seldom
reach these places. The first Whalers that arrived were
very poor, and had not even casks .to put the oil in;

‘llll‘lng several seasons they killed the whales for the

NATURALrsr’s neroar—wnauxo.

97

whalebone only. It may be imagined that the whales,
when they had only a small number of persecutors, were
abundant, but even now about 120 are annually caught in
the establishments above-mentioned, including another in

the Island of Mana.

Each whale, on the average, yields

about six imperial tune of oil, in the aggregate 720 tuns of
oil, which is sold on the spot to small vessels from
Sydney for 10L per ton, making 7,200l. sterling.

The

same quantity sells in Sydney for 18,7761., 251. per tun,
in the London market, 45!. per tun, giving 32,4OOZ.
To this must be added the additional value of the whale
bone, which sells at the place for 78L per ton. A whale
yields about 500 cwt. of bone, likewise taken at an

average sum, which will give an additional sum of about
2,000l.
But the number of whales here stated to be annually
captured is evidently below the standard, as a number of
ships, English, American, and French, cruize in Cloudy

Bay for the purpose, during the season, when from tWelve
to fifteen ships often rendezvous at the same time. The
French whale-rs seem to be very active, and a French
man-of-war is generally cruizin about the coast for their
protection.
Even ships
fromvisited
%remen
come Bay
now for
to this
vpart
of the world;
two had
Cloudy
the
purpose of whaling during the present year. All these
ships, which now with difliculty find provisions and wood
in Cloudy Bay, will hereafter go to the very preferable
station of Port Nicholson, where provisions may be
raised and provided in any quantity, and beautiful timber
abounds; besides which, it lies in the very tract of the
American and Sydney vessels. All this will soon render
Port Nicholson the centre of the whaling trade.
I will add, from my own observation, a few remarks
vupon the black whale. From May to the beginning of
October the whales visit the bays to bring forth their
young. They arrive from the N.W., and go to the S.E.,
following the tide along the shores in search of smooth
water. They are often seen rubbing off against the beach

and rocks the numerous barnacles and other parasitical
insects with which they are covered.

The mother, called

i

98

V

flap-“w

NATURALXST’S REPORT—WUALXNG.

the cow, is always with her offspring, whilst the male,
called the bull, is rarely seen, and seldom caught,—a cir
cumstance which must act very unfavourably on the
number of these animals. The same result arises from
the constant destruction of the calves, which are always a

secure prey to the Whaler.
The months of May, June, and July are regarded as
~the best months in Cloudy Bay, the three other months
for Tory Channel. The cause of this may be, that they
go then as far up in the inlets of the sea as they can, to
bring forth their young. The boats leave Teawaiti before
sunrise, and return at sunset; they crnize during the day
, at the entrance of the Tory Channel, stationing some men
on the “100k out,” a long and high tongue of land, which
forms the right shore of the channel, to espy from afar
the powerful animal. The boats can quit Teawaiti only
in fine weather, when no wind blows from the 3.13. or

N.E., their light structure unfitting them from contending
with a turbulent sea.

As the mother never leaves the calf,

nursing it with the tendercst affection, the first aim of
the Whaler is to destroy it. If the animal be struck
behind the fins, it is quickly killed, but not without dan
gerously beating about with the tail. As soon as the
mother observes the threatening danger, she takes the calf
on her back between the fins. It has been observed, that
cows run away for miles with the dead calf; old cows are
the most careful for their young, and never quit it whilst
alive. The cows are generally accompanied by one calf,
but sometimes by two; and the Whalers say that, in this
case, they have adopted an orphan calf. The size of a calf
four months old is about twenty-four feet; one that was

cut out from the cow last year measured fourteen feet.
It is a custom amongst the Whalers, that he who kills the
calf, is also the proprietor of the mother, arising from the
facility with which the latter is killed, when the calf is
dead. The boats of the different proprietors, in such a case,

help each other.
After entering the Channel from Queen Charlotte
Sound, there is a large bay to the right, called Stauwa,

from whence the distance over the hill to Cloudy Bay is

'zrwi

__.__'___

M...

.

.

.7.

.

._l '

.

fl.

I NATURALIST’S REPORT—CLOUDY BAY.

.

r.

'

99

small. I made this excursion when we were lying at
Teawaiti. At the left of that bay is a remarkable conical
mountain, visible in the back-ground, when one enters
Cloudy Bay from the sea. Between this and the other
hill to the right, over which the way to Cloudy Bay leads,
the mountainous chain forms a deep saddle. This hill is
of a dreary nakedness, only covered with the fern and

the manuko. It consists of clay-slate, of which broken pieces are strewed over the hill. From its summit is a
fine view over the whole of Queen Charlotte Sound.
Motnara bears to N. by E. ; to N.E. by E. the narrow
Island of Alabawa is seen, on the other side of which

the sea forms a deep inlet. This island is almost entirely
a ridge of mountains.
We crossed the narrow tongue of land that separates
Tory Channel from Cloudy Bay. On the top of the
mountain you see into the latter bay, formed by chains of
hills on both sides, which form in the bay itself several
smaller ones with beaches. The bay opens to S. by W.
into Cook’s Straits, and in the back ground are the high
snowy hills, called Tapawainu, stretching towards Cape
Campbell.

Descending, you come to the head of the bay

called Obisch, where is a small native village.
The chain of hills which form the bay to the south
east, is barren in the extreme; only here and there a
patch of brushwood or trees.
The chain to the S.W., at the other side of the bay, is
more wooded, but the hills are steep, forming a number of
very small bays. This chain of hills turns to S.S.W. into
the mainland, at Wairao, where much flat land is visible,
and a river discharges itself into the sea. Wairao has no
harbour, is open to all winds, and the bar of the river
Searcer allows the access of a boat.
Cloudy Bay deserves its name. The bay-is narrow,
the hills high, the sun appears late and sets early. Its
rays entering the valleys only for a short time, form
clouds, which draw up from the hills in the morning, and
descend upon, and envelop them in the evening. Cloudy
Bay is ill calculated for a settlement, and the importance it
now possesses it derives from the whaling ships, that touch
there for refreshments.

_-—--I.__

100

NATURALIST’S REPORT—PORT mononsos.

The mean of the temperature in Teawaith'from the list
to the 19th of September, is 51.50. Three days are
defective in these observations, when I was on excursions
and could not get any assistance.
It is now my duty to say something about Port
Nicholson. A few remarks will show how well this place
is chosen for a settlement, which must soon be of the

greatest importance. The hills that surround the flat land
are lower than those in Queen Charlotte Sound, and are

covered by a thinner forest, and with a deeper layer of
vegetable mould. Large tracts of flat land, as will be
better seen in the chart, are ready for ploughing. The soil
there is a fine mould, mixed towards the sea-shore, more
or less, with sand. The plains are not swamps, and where
they are low, may be easily drained. The river having its
source in the high mountains, will always have plenty of‘
water, and the timber that grows on its shore can easily
be floated down, when some obstructions by trees in its
bed shall be cleared away. Its mouth is accessible at low
water with boats, but will admit much larger ones when a
channel is dug in the sand that now obstructs its month.
On the sides of the hills, everywhere are sheltered places
for the finer fruits and herbs, for vines, mulberry-trees, and
Olives, of which I particularly recommend the settlers to
brin out sufficient quantities. The trees on the hills are
for t e most part such as have been mentioned, as occur

ri 0‘ at Ship Cove, although there are more of the uni
and miro ; flax also may be procured in greater quantities,
and I have seen it growing more than fourteen feet high.
The rivulets in the different bays are of suflicient strength
for mills, and form falls admirably adapted for that pur
pose. The climate seems warmer than in Ship Cove;
sheltered from the cold S.E. wind ; the almost circular

form of the harbour collects the rays of the sun as it were
into a focus. I found the temperature from the 215t of
September to the 2nd of October to be 57.36, which gives a

difference from Teawaiti not to be accounted for merely by
the advance of the season, but must be ascribed to the

influence above-mentioned, and to the more northerly
-~1tuati0n.

W"_ -

fiiw-w

NATURALIST’S REPORT—THE NATIVES-

101

I have now reached the latter, but in my opinion the.
most important, part of my report, and will proceed to_
narrate in unvarnished language, what I have observed of
the inhabitants of the places we have visited. The un
happy lot prepared by Europeans for the inhabitants of
many of their colonies, forms a mournful page in the
history of the human species. It is the first duty of the
right-minded colonist to occupy himself strenuously, above
all other local considerations, with the destiny of the
aborigines. To become acquainted with the real state of
thinos in New Zealand is not an easy matter. This people,
small in number, thinly scattered over a large surface,
divided into many tribes, inheriting from their ancestors
mutual envy and hatred, and now everywhere brought
into contact with other nations, of superior activity and
advanced civilization, are ready to receive the intruders
with open arms, yet, though endowed with high capa
bilities, are still in all respects the untutored children of
nature.

There are four tribes, with two of which we came in con
tact, that play an important part in the history of the re
gions we visited. The tribes we saw are the Cafia and the
Nyatiawa, the others the Waikato and the Nyatinhatuigh.

About twenty years ago, the Waikato tribe, one of the
most powerful in New Zealand, and living in the N.IV. of
the Northern Island, made war upon the Cafia, living in

a place of the same name, and on the same coast. The
latter, pressed by the former, went southward, and led by
a warlike ruler, Raupero, fell upon the Nyatiawa, who
lived in Taranaki; they were conquered, or, as the weakest,
voluntarily submitted to Raupero. Since that time, both
tribes united in war upon the Nyatinhatuigh, who lived
in the neighbourhood of Manganui Atera, 0r Port Nichol-

,

son. These, 500 in number, disgusted with the eternal
feuds, engaged a whale ship to take them to the Chatham
Islands, where they were conveyed in two trips, under
their chief, Pomare. Here ends for us their history.
Raupero went to Entry Island, to Mana, to the northern
coast of the Southern Island, to D'Urville's Island, to

P

Queen

Charlotte

Sound, to Tory (7hanne1, and to
K

e—"a

102

—-m>

wish,
_
.

.s..._.'-*U

NATURALIST'S REPORT—THE NATIVES.

Cloudy Bay. Those places he either found uninhabited,
or occupied by a tribe called the Naitaus, whom he _con
quered, and killed a great many of them. The remnant
proceeded to the southward, and lives now in Otago, on
its western coast, Banks Peninsula.

The wanderer meets

on the sides of the hills with a few deserted huts of these
aborigines, over-grown by shrubs, with the stones used
for beating the fern root, battle axes, and sometimes with

human bones. Raupero settled in Capiti, or Entry
Island, where now are his principal chiefs and followers.
Others went to Rangatoto on D’Urville Island, to Mana,
to the coast of the main and its neighbourhood, and to
Cloudy Bay. He allowed the Nyatiawa to plant potatoes,
and he gave them Port Nicholson, with several places
along Queen Charlotte Sound and Tory Channel.
We first saw natives at Anaho, called Cannibal’s Cove
by Cook, where they have there a village, consisting of
low huts, as often described; they are about eighty in
number: they plant potatoes, cabbages, turnips, and rear
many pigs, in Motuara and on the main, and are a quiet
people. They obey a chief, Nyarewa. A few months
before us, a. missionary schooner from the Bay of Islands
had touched at this place, and had taught some natives,

who had began to read some hymns, or parts of the Bible
in their native tongue, or rather they knew them by heart,
and the knowledge they had thus rapidly acquired, thouoh
little, shows their capacity. They go to prayer in t e
morning and evening, observe the Sabbath-day, and asked
us especially for books, writing paper, and pencils. The

use for their meetings a large house, built by themselves
under the instructions of an European, Mr. Elmsley, who
having settled amongst them five years ago, had married
the sister of the chief's wife. _ He lives now, occupied
with whaling, in Teawaiti, and is a respectable man. Their
principal missionary, an expression adopted by them, is
Eoro, the chief's son, a youth of a fine countenance and
untattooed. These people possess some’blaukets and old
pieces of European clothing. With respect to their cus
toms aud habits, I will 'not repeat what can be read in

many books.- They always behaved very decently, they

NATURALIST’S REPORT—THE NATIVES-

103

are sober and honest, and we never had cause of complaint
against them.

Proceeding hence along Queen Charlotte Sound we
find no other settlement, until we come to the Island of

Moioio, and the coast opposite to it, where there is again
a pah of about forty natives, likewise of the Nyatiawa tribe.
Less in communication with Europeans, they seem to be a

little more in their indigenous state, but are equally
honest in their dealings. They had brought us fish
when we were at Ship Cove, and continued to supply us
at Teawaiti. They are Nyatiawas, and have their native
missionaries. From these places to Jackson’s Bay, there
are no inhabitants. At the latter place is a whalin
establishment, and the proprietor has collected aroun
about twenty natives, whom he employs in his business.
They have built two large houses for the white men, and
sleep at night crowded about the fire-place, being occupied
during the day in whaling, or other business. The white
men have all native women, and children by them. The
observations I am going to make relative to the inter
course between the white man and the native in Teawaiti,

which is only a rifle-shot from Jackson, hold also good for

the latter.
In Teawaiti, a settlement for whaling purposes was
made about ten years ago by Mr. Guard and Mr. Thorns.
The beach was then grown over with brushwood. Other
white people arrived, and with them, people from the
Nyatiawa tribe, who had been driven away from the

neighbourhood of Taranaki by the Waikato. At that
time the original inhabitants of the country around Tea
waiti had been con uered by Raupero. The land was
formally given to t e Europeans by Raupero and his
brother, generally called Thomas Street. Thorns married
a daughter of the latter, by whom he had two children.
When she died, he married a white woman from Port
Jackson, who, with another white woman, are the only
European females.
The number of Europeans altogether is forty: most of
them are married to native women, and {counted twenty

one of their children.

There are about eighty natives,
K 2

104

NATURALrsr’s REPORT—THE NA'rrvss.

with women and children. The children of Europeans by
natives are a beautiful race, light brown, like French
men from the south, not sallow in complexion, but with a
healthy red on the cheeks; in features like the mother,

from whom they inherit beautiful black eyes and hair.
Seen in Europe, nobody would suspect that they were
children between two different races, as they are, in my
opinion, falsely considered. The chief person of the New
Zealanders in Teawaiti is Tippai, who has three wives.
Most of the natives are employed by the white men.
They either have houses of their own, or are accommo
dated in those of the whites; they work as hard as any
white man, pull an oar and kill a whale as well as they,
do all services, and are paid for them. The white people
do not impose upon them ; being all relations, they have
a common interest. The native women are well treated
by their white husbands, and are dressed in a mixture of
European clothes and native mats; they are fond of their
children, and are anxious to have them educated. The
natives plant potatoes and rear pigs, with the sale of which
they procure European necessaries and luxuries. Where
there are native missionaries they are much attended to.
Generally speaking, a great desire for instruction is ap
parent; and we were often asked for pens and paper in
return for sern'ces rendered to us.
I must not conceal that whalers and sailors have intro
duced ardent spirits, and that the natives sometimes spend
quickly what they have hardly earned; but the native is
naturally sober, dislikes drunkenness, and is ashamed of it
when it happens. I have often seen them refuse spirits,
and never found them eager to get them, as has been
related of other coloured races.
On the same side as Teawaiti, follow, in the channel.
two native settlements of Nyatiawas, called Wangenni and
Okokurri, likewise situated on beaches, of which the latter
one has the most inhabitants; not, howeVer, exceeding
150 in both. They have carefully cultivated their soil,
planted taro and potatoes in well-fenced gardens, have

mildly I’ll-lg, find seem to be well off. They never go after
~spirits, or sell anything for it, and are very friendly com

-_
“Hg—h -._

""l

.

NATURALIST'S REPORT—THE NATIVES.

106

munities. The Wesleyans here, too, have instructed some
native missionaries.
'
Cloudy Bay is occupied by people of the Cafia tribe.
At the head of the bay, on a beach called'Obisch, is a
native settlement of about forty inhabitants. They are
also of a very friendly disposition, and I partook oneday
of their hospitality. Going from thence up the Sound, we
find several bays with a few native houses. Before we
reach Kakabo, or Guard’s Bay, on the same side, there is
a. small whaling establishment, with a few white men.
In Kakabo are two whaling establishments; and a small

one opposite to it.

There are only five white men in

cluding Mr. Guard, who first cleared the beach, about

five years ago, and sixty natives.

On. Kakabo lives

Raupero’s brother, Thomas Street, the head chief. A very
respectable Dutchman, Mr. Wynin, a great friend of the
aborigines, settled here a few months ago, and the natives
have just built a house for him. He carries on no trade
or business, but occupies himself much with these people,
whose disposition he praises very much, and upon whom
he exercises a happy influence. On that beach lives also a
daughter of Tuppachi, who was in England, where he is
well remembered. He was killed about ten years ago in
Otago, following the standard of Raupero in a war with
the southern natives.
Next to Kakabo follows another bay, called Oschen

or Ocean Bay, with a large beach, where there are two
whaling establishments. The number of white people is
thirty, and the coloured about one hundred. Here I
have nothing to add to my former remarks.
Further up Cloudy Bay, towards Wairoa, is another
settlement of natives, which I have not yet visited.

All

the natives here about, as I have said before, are from the
Cafia tribe.
At Manganui Atera, or Port Nicholson, only one white
man had settled when we were there, who had come there
about two years ago, and had taken a native woman; all
others are natives. At a dance they gave us, I counted
nearly 250 men, who had assembled from all parts of the
shores round that inlet of the sea.

About fifty were
K 3

NATURALXS'I“S REPORT—THE NATIVES.

absent, and the number of men is therefore about 300,
to which an equal number of women and children may be
added. The principal settlement is at the head of the
bay ; but the head chief, \Varepori, does not live there,
but resides on the western shore. On that shore is another
little village ; and opposite the head of the harbour is an—
other large settlement, where a native missionary, Richard
Davies, with his wife and four children, dwells. ~This mis
sionary, in common with his village, belongs to the Nya
tiawas, and he had been taken in his infancy by the Nya~
puis, the tribe inhabiting the Bay of Islands, and had been
educated there by Mr. Williams, the missionary. He had
acquired some property there, and was brought back to
his tribe by the missionary schooner, about four months
ago, where he found his old mother still alive. He has
built a large house and church, where he reads the sacred
books in the nativa tongue. He and his wife are well
instructed; he reads and writes his native language, and

speaks English. I found him a very devout and honest
man. He was in possession of European commodities,
which he uses for the benefit of his fellow countrymen.
Another missionary had been left by the Wesleyans at
another bay. The natives of Port Nicholson are very
honest people, eager to acquire instruction and arts. They
are rich in their way, as they plant potatoes in great quan
tity, and possess a great many pigs, and their huts are
better than the other native huts I have seen.
I have observed before that the place round Queen
Charlotte Sound formerly belonged to a tribe called the
Naitaus. It may be imagined that Raupero did not drive
them away from their native homes without a bloody
struggle. Most of them were killed; the remnants, who
Went to the South, nourish in their bosoms feelings of
revenge against the intruders. Several times have they
visited their native place, burnt the houses of the whites
and the Cafia, or the Nyatiawa in Teawaiti, and carried
oif their property. The few white men defended them
selves as well as they could, or escaped in their boats.
Such an invasion took place about five years ago. at
kakabo, in Cloudy Bay, where then a Mr. Cook, who is

NArunALrsr‘s naron'r—rma NATIVES-

107

'still on the beach, was the only settler. They burnt and
plundered everything he had, and he fled in his boat, after
\several of the natives had been killed. They then re
treated, in fear again of Raupero, and the white men, with

their Cafia friends, returned. The same scene took place
‘in Teawaiti ; they killed and ate some of the victims, and
retreated. At this moment a report is spread that they are
coming with fifty boats and 700 men, all armed with
muskets, to make war upon the Cafia. As their habit is

to surprise at night-time, the Cafia are on their guard,
and have sent spies everywhere. I saw a girl of this tribe
of the Naitaus in Kakabo, who had come from the interior
of the Southern Island in the ship Honduras, which was in
the harbour where we were, who had very regular features,
of a very light colour, and a handsome intelligent counte»
nance. The Cafia and Nyatiawa have intermarried, and
are on a footing of peace, but are envious of each other.

'Both tribes, however, are tired of war, and show the greatest
attachment to Europeans.
All these tribes I have mentioned are of the same
original race, and what I am going to say of one applies to
all. All New Zealanders have the Caucasian physio
gnomy, with this exception, that the mouth is, perhaps,
larger, and the lips a little thicker. The skull, or head, is
regularly and beautifully formed, with a high forehead,
hair profuse, black and straight, but sometimes curled.
Those who have visited England are no 00d specimens of
the race. The Women are well made, W1th small hands;
both men and women have black penetrating eyes; they
are remarkably soft and amiable in their manners. The
stature offers no difference from that of the Europeans;

they are muscular, and capable of great exertion. Their
mental disposition is excellent; they are of a mild and
'cheerful temper, but at the same time clever, and easily
instructed. Many of them can read and write imperfectly.
They are honester than any people 1 am acquainted with;
theft by them is an unheard-of thing in the settlements of
the whites, and respecting our property, they were consci
entious to the extreme. They are hospitable, fond of tra
welling about to see their relations and friends, and at every

108

NATURALIST'S unrosr~rns NATIVES.

interview after long absence, display the most passionate
and kind feelings towards each other, the women then

cutting their faces and arms with shells, so that they bleed,
and tears stream from their eyes.
I have seen no deformities, with the exception of two
men with club feet. Umbilical rupture in children is
rather frequent, owing to their imperfect manner of sepa
ration. [ likewise observed some other ruptures. Fevers

and miasmatic diseases are unknown; a cough was very
frequent amongst them in Teawaiti and Port Nicholson;
and with the stethoscope I found in some a tuberculous

state of the lungs. This may be owing not so much to the
sudden changes in the climate as to their living in close
huts, where, when a fire is lighted and smoke emitted in

great quantities, they are often in the practice of running
out from them, imperfectly clothed, into the cold wind,

which produces catarrhal complaints, and these being
neglected, have the consequences above-mentioned follow.
It may be added that they smoke much, which habit tends
to irritate still more the afl'ected bronchiae. When we

were stayin

in Tit, Tippahi's wife was suffering under

this complaint. The husband, thinking she was dying,
had ordered the usual firing with muskets, every five
minutes, which is continued until the patient is dead. I
found her in a hut, the only opening of which was a door

about two square feet in size, lying on the ground in the
arms of her husband. A fire emitted a glowing heat, and
the hut was full of smoke. She was surrounded by about
two dozen people, and bathed with perspiration, with a
very depressed pulse. We requested Tippahi to brin her
into the open front room, usual before the houses 0 the
chiefs, and to interrupt the gun firing. She soon recovered,
and after some days she was perfectly well. So a complaint,
unimportant in the beginning, becomes, by a perverse
treatment, pernicious in 1ts consequences.
The people

enerally dress in their mats; in these

places we saw t em have either a blanket or some other
piece of European clothing. The fern root, formerly their
only nourishment, has given way to the potatoes and fish,

either fresh or dried.

They rarely eat pork, preserving

NATunAusr’smsroRT-Tm: NATIVES.

109

it carefully for trade. Their only drink is water, and I
have never seen them sell anything for spirits. The New
Zealand women are well treated by their husbands, al
though they attend to all the business of the house, cook,
and make mats and baskets.

They have few children, and

the~habit of child-murder is not unfrequent, which is per
haps due to the unsettled state of things in the country,
or to superstition, for instance, if in the birth of the child
there is anything abnormal; but they are fond of their
children, carry them everywhere about, and like to see
them taken notice of. In all New Zealand communities
I have seen, there were a few slaves, prisoners taken in
war, but I never observed that they were ill treated; they
were considered as members of the community, so far as I
could learn. The people generally appeared to be in
possession of plenty of muskets and ammunition of war;
but I am perfectly convinced that their possession did
not tend to make them more warlike, but rather more
peaceablc, as they felt more prepared to resist an invasion.
These short observations, which time does not allow
me to enlarge upon, will show what may be expected
from colonization; or rather, this question need not be

asked, as it appears that already there are everywhere
white settlers. The natives like Europeans; they want to
mix with them, and partake in our commodities; but

ought we to attempt—shall we try to introduce our lan
guage? Certainly not; and the New Zealanders, though
they learn a foreign, will not let their own be extin
guished. Great praise is due to the missionaries for
printing books in the native language, and propagating
them; but this noble activity shoul

not be confined to

the prayer-book alone—a provision should be made for
other useful books; and I would especially advise that
they should contain coloured wood-cuts or lithographs,
of which they are very fond, and which would quickly
bring to their understanding the idea of the thing that is
represented, and nourish, at the same time, their skill in
arts, and teach them to use their wood-carving to some
useful purpose. I have no doubt that the Honourable

Company will take this into consideration. They want

110

NATURA Lrsr’s REPORT—SUGGESTIONS.

likewise paper, pencils, slates; a collection of models sent
into every settlement would be easily comprehended, and
imitated by them. And to do something for their
clothing, I would recommend to leave the European style,
and send out for trade some more commodious cloak-like
dresses, and for the women simple gowns, of which they
are very fond. Now, they soon lay aside our trowsers
and jackets, and return to their native mats and to
blankets. At the same time, a regular schoolmaster
should not be forgotten to instruct them, and to take care
of interestin but wild youths, who are ready to learn
anything. dnenty of needles and scissors for the women,
combs, soap, are in great request. I could not omit to
name these few articles, as they will tend to do great good,
unimportant as they seem to be, and a minute thing of that
kind will ensure to many a colonist a welcome reception,
Muskets are superfluous, as they are sufliciently provided
with, and of no longer use. Musical instruments are
likewise very much liked, and the natiVes would soon

make progress in them.

111

N0. VI;

Colonel Wakq/ield’s T1.de Dammit to the New Zmlmuz'
Company.

Teawaiti, Tory Channel, Sunday,
13th October, 1839.

SIR,--Having waited since the 9th instant, the date of
my last letter to you, in Cloudy Bay, for the arrival of
Mr. Barrett, who was to be our pilot across the Strait and
on the western coast of the North Island, we came round
to this place to-day in search of him. We entered the
channel from the south-east, with a favourable wind,
against a. strong ebb-tide; but it would be unadvisable to
do so in a heavy-sailing ship. The Honduras, which takes
my last letters and the specimens to Sydney, had the tide
in her favour in going in yesterday, but struck on a rock
at the northern head, and narrowly escaped being totally
wrecked. She is now here, making eight inches water an
hour, but will proceed on her destination in a few days.
Before leaving Port Underwood, I visited its principal
bays and settlements, but saw nothing to induce me to

change the unfavourable opinion I entertained of it as a
harbour, or a place of settlement for Europeans.
Monday, 14th October.——Finding Mr. Barrett’s wife too
ill to allow him to leave home, I made arrangements with
him to pick him up at the northern entrance to Queen

Charlotte's Sound, after I shall have been to Kapiti, and
made my preparations for a visit to Raupero and the heads
of the Kafia tribe, with no intermediate beyond an inter

preter, whom I engaged in Cloudy Bay.
This visit, besides entering into my original plan,
according to the suggestion contained in my instructions,
is necessary for the ratification of the purchase of Port
Nicholson, that no future question shall arisa as to the

Company’s right to that territory, and to put an end to

~ ~

112

'

--_. ..._--—|‘-—-- qua-

rusronv or RAUPsRo.

the opposition experienced from the subordinate Kafia
chiefs in all parts of Cook's Strait.
The history of Raupero is the most eventful and wor
thy of record of any existing New Zealand chief. His
expulsion. and that of all his numerous and powerful tribe,
from their native district, Kafia, by the Waikato and Bay
of Islands hosts, is well known to you from the mention
it has received in numerous works on this country. Their
forcible seizure and occupation, in their turn, of all the
coast land on both sides of this strait has also been de
scribed; but the means he has employed for the aggran
dizement of his people, and the causes of his pre-eminence
and influence amongst all classes and clans, extending also

to the foreign residents and visiters in the southern parts
of these islands, have not been dwelt on.

Raupero is at least sixty years old. When a young
man, he acquired a reputation for strength and courage,
founded on his skill in native warfare, w ich his \viliness
and success in all his undertakings have preserved for him
in his old age. He came from Kafia as the fighting gene
ral of Ti Pahi ; and after the death of the latter at Otago,
by Tairoa and the Southern tribes, became chief of the
tribe. To revenge Ti Pahi's death, which was accom
plished by tying him up by the heels to a tree and cutting
his throat, at which his enemies sucked his blood, Rau
pero engaged with a master of an English vessel, by name
Stewart, to carry him and some of his people to Otago,
under pretence of a trading-voyage, where the master
coaxed on board a leading chief of the tribe and his
family.
Some of these were immediately killed; after which

Raupero and Stewart, with their myrmidons, landed and
laid waste the settlements, killing every man, woman, and
child, that came in their way. The chief who had been
enticed on board was made fast in the cabin by a hook
through his throat ; and in despair at seeing his daughter
about to become the victim of these monsters, killed her

with his own hands. During the voyage back to Kapiti,
the old man was despatched ; and it is a fact, that one of the

ship s coppers was in use for cooking human flesh for his

.

7.2::

-'--—--—A

HISTORY or RAUPERO-

113

guest, and that Stewart and his crew participated, if not
in the feast, in the atrocious murder and revolting prepa
rations for it.
By similar treachery has Raupero acquired his power
in other parts, and become the terror of all the neighbouring
tribes. Unable to cope with the Nyatiawas, whom he was
forced to allow to live on the lands in Queen Charlotte

Sound, Port Nicholson, and on the main abreast of Kapiti,
when they were driven from Taranake, he is occasionally
in alliance with them, and more than once has led them
into an encounter with their mutual Southern enemies, for

the purpose of deserting them with his people in the midst
of the fight; by losses in which manner they have been
much thinned. In all negotiations, Raupero is considered
skilful, and is referred to upon many occasions. In his
dealings with Europeans and Americans, he makes use of
alternate begging and extorting measures, according to the
power of resistance to his demands he may meet with ;

and might, if he had been prudent, be now extremely rich
by his trafl'icking for supplies for ships, and the presents he
has received. He receives tribute from numerous petty
tribes and slaves; and the stronger tribes are occasionally
constrained to purchase peace at his hands.
On the whole, he is disposed to encourage and protect
European settlers; and having been several times to Port
Jackson, knows how to appreciate the commodities of
civilized life.
Nooflouver
since than
last week, totribe,
affordwho
a treat
to the
chiefs
Neyatiroco,
or Boiling-water
assembled
at Mana upon the occasion of the mourning for his sister’s
death, he sacrificed a slave of the Rhangatanis, who had
come from Admiralty Bay with presents of dried fish; but
my informant, an Englishman, who saw the unfortunate
man being dragged to his fate, says that more disguise as to
the disposal of the body was made use of than heretofore,
in consequence of Raupero having of late professed him
self a Missionary, and that he intended to discourage can—
nibalism.
In resolving to visit and conciliate this old savage, how

ever strong my repugnance to his character and practices, I
L

~~~--_-_..|-u - - -

114

ENGLISH SAILOBB rs NEW. ZEALAXD.

am more led by the hope of acquiring his land, on which

to locates. society which shall put an end to his reign,
than by any good wishes to him, and of obtaining influ—
ence with his presumptive successor, Hike, who bears a
much better character.
Tuesday, 15th October.—-This morning four of our crew

left the ship at their own request, with a view of settling
at Cloudy Bay. As they were not the best of sailors, and
as our crew on leaving England was rather stronger than
usual in similar vessels, I acceded to their request to leave
us. In the evening, two others deserted to join their
comrades, induced by the hopes held out to them by the
English on shore of enjoyment of all kinds. As the
whaling-season is now over, they will all probably be
starving within a month, and will then, if they can find a

ship, engage with it. This is the usual practice ,- but the
scarcity of whale~ships in the Strait now leaves many men
without resources. The beaches in Cloudy Bay and. at
Teawaiti present the most miserable scenes of idleness,

drunkenness, and recklessness amongst our countrymen.
We left the Tory Channel with the ebb-tide, which
sweeps a ship outside of the heads at a rapid rate. The
northern headland has long home the name of “ Welling
ton Head,” taken from the first vessel that entered the
Sound by this channel. On getting an offing, a fine view
of the Strait opens to the view. From Cape Campbell to
Cape Koemaroo on the south, and from Cape Palliser to
Entry Island on the northern side, every headland and

bay is visible.

Baring and Sinclair Heads, the outermost

points of Port Nicholson, are conspicuous objects. As we
beat up the Strait, Mana or Table Island, and the land
abreast of Kapiti on the one side, and Queen Charlotte's
Sound and the coast as far as Stephen’s Island on the
other, opened to us. Abreast of Mana is the small river
and harbour of Pererua, into which a vessel drawing seven

feet can enter at high~water. Next to that river, at about
twelve miles distant, and exactly abreast of Kapiti, is
Walkanoi, a large settlement of the Ngatiawas. Here
commences a low sandy beach, with shoal water a long

way out, and runs with little exception to Cape Egmont.

-.

Wm

ARRIVAL AT KAPlTI.

115

In this space of coast, little known to Europeans, and pre
senting on the charts since the time of Cook the wave-line

indicating that no surVey has been made of it, there are as
many as nine small rivers flowing from the high lands
which belt the plains of Taranake and Kafia to the south
ward. The most considerable of them is Wanganui, or
Knowsley River. The coast is open to the swell occa

sioned by the prevalent winds, and altogether unsuited
to examination and survey by large craft. The people,
cut off from communication with strangers, carry on a

perpetual war against each other.
Kapiti, Wednesday, 16th October.
We came to an anchor to-day 01f Kapiti, near to Evans’s
Island, which is a low termination of a reef running off
from the former, and the residence and whaling-station of

a large establishment carried on by Mr. Evans for Mr.

Peterson, of Sydney. We arrived just at the close of a
smart engagement which had taken place on the main at
about two miles distant, and in sight of our anchorage,
between the Ngatirocowas and Ngatiawas. The former
mustered in great force from all parts of the coast I men
tioned yesterday, and stealing into the pah, or fortified
village of the latter in the night, killed some of them as

they left their huts at daylight.

In the course of the

morning,
fi hting was carried
on on the
beach;
ended in the
the Nggatirocowas
being defeated,
with
a lossand
of
forty~five left dead on the shore, whilst their enemy had
but fourteen killed. The quarrel, which is of long standing,

was brought to a crisis by the former having killed some
sheep at Mana during the late crying~feast, which the
latter had tried to protect, and by the irritation produced by
contact in the passage of the Ngatirocowas in front of the
settlements of the Ngatiawas in their journey to and from

Mana.

Raupero, with his usual caution, had kept himself

out of harm’s way, but had gone over late in the contest,
with a view, as he told us afterwards, of making peace,
but as people here say, with that of encouraging his allies.
Finding him absent, and desirous to see at least one party

of the belligerents, I mustered an amateur boat's crew, our
surgeons taking their instruments with them,2in case of
L

116

INTERVIEW WITH RAUPERO.

being able to render assistance to the wounded; and was

on the point of startino' for Waikanai, the scene of blood
shed, when a boat arrived from Evans’s Island with ‘a
message from Raupero, expressing his Wish to see me there.
It appeared that he had landed on the main, but finding
his party defeated, and unwilling to trust- himself with
their opponents, had returned to Kapiti. At the same
time, he had seen our ship anchor near his settlement, and
had betaken himself with all his valuables to the English
whaling-settlement, for protection from some imaginary
danger he anticipated from us. This must have arisen in
his mind from knowing that he had been making very

violent speeches as to his intentions respecting us for pur
chasing Port Nicholson without hissanction, and threats

of snatching from the residents of that place the goods I
had left in payment for it. He also had expressed his
anxiety to the English whalers, respecting the persons on
board; no doubt bearing in mind his own treacherous visit
to Otago, for which reason he would not come on board.

On our leaping from the boat, he arose from his seat on
the beach, and in evident fear, and with the greatest ser

vility, sought our hands to give us the Missionary greeting.
It was some time before he was reassured as to our inten
tions towards him, and during the whole interview betrayed
a feeling of insecurity but little consistent with his cus
tomary vapouring and insolence.
He made a pious speech about the morning’s afl‘air, and
declared that he would not interfere; being determined to

discountenance further fighting. He accepted my invi
tation to come on board to-morrow, and hurried away to

the settlement of Rangaihiro, an influential but peaceablc
chief of his tribe.
In person, Raupero is not conspicuous amongst his
countrymen, his height being rather under the average.

His years sit lightly on him; he is hale and stout, and his
hair but slightly touched with grey. His countenance
expresses keenness and vivacity, whilst a receding forehead
and deep eyelids, in raising which his eyebrows are elevated
into the furrows of his brow, give a resemblance to the ape
1n the upper part of the face, which I have remarked in

.. ._._...- flu“! "m-

__..__

m

-.--»_.___.~__

WHALING-

117

may of the nativos. He was cleanly dressed in the ordi
nary mat and outer blanket, worn as the toga; slow and
dignified in his action; and had not his wandering and

watchful looks betrayed his doubts as to his safety, per
fectly easy in his address.

The whaling-establishment here is most complete, and
Very superior to those of the poor shore-parties we have
seen. Their boats put 05 after a whale, which came in
sight during our visit, and shOWed a discipline and ensemble
in their moVements similar to those of a well-regulated
man
War.
TheandJ arty
has obtained
250 tune
of oil
duringofthe
season,
the second
in command
told me
he
had realiZed 30m. to his share.
Thursday, 17th October.-This morning our three sur
eons went to Waikanai, where they found plenty of work.

‘he Ngotiawa people had fifty wtmnded in yesterday's
engagement. Their opponents carried off as many on their
side. Amongst the dead of the latter were tWO principal
chiefs. Several bullets Were cut out and preparations made
for an amputation to-morrow. Some of the wounds are
very dangerous, having been received at close-quarters,
and the natives had set many limbs with ligatures of flax.
The wounded were found each attended by a relation, and
were patient and cheerful under the operations. Several

tomahawk and spear wounds evinced the deadly nature of
the struggle.

In this instance the Ngatiawas were the a grassed.
They have for some months complied with the Terms of
Missionary worship, and all abjure further wars, except in
self-defence. The native Missionaries with them, one of
whom we knew in Queen Charlotte’s Sound, took arms in the
late affair, and were the foremost amongst the combatants.
The tribe is about to muster from all parts, and will then
probably attack in their turn. The total number of com

batants on both sides, after making every deduction for
native lniscalculation, cbuld not have been less than eight

hundred. The Kafia people here remained neutral, with
few exceptions; but the sympathies of all seem on the

side of the Ngatiawas, who, by their mild conduct since
the introduction of Missionary customs, have gained'much

..

-L~w

118

_-»-~

>

_

_

NEGOTIATION FOR THE PURCHASE

in the opinion of foreign settlers, and even of their more
savage countrymen. Some idea may be formed of their
present feelings and habits by a knowledge of the fact,
that whilst We were at Port Nicholson, three hundred of
these people fell in four deep, and marched to the funeral
of Mr. Love, the oldest settler at Teawaiti, to whom they

were attached; after which, they enclosed a space around
the grave and erected a monument to his memory, by
setting up a canoe painted black and white, and othemise
decorated.

Whilst the party was on shore, I received on board
Raupero and the other chiefs of the Kafia tribe, With a

salute to the New Zealand flag. They all came prejudiced

against the sale of any land, in consequence of the English
from Cloudy Bay having told them that the white people
intended to drive the natives away from any settlements

they might form, and also betrayed great jealousy respect
ing the purchase of Port Nicholson.

After much discussion, they appeared to be convinced
of the sincerity of my assurances that the English settlers
were coming amongst them as friends, and would better
their condition by employing and paying them; and ended

by telling me to look at their lands, and, if I found them
good, to take them. Raupero and his wife, who is also
his step-daughter, stayed to dinner, and the former sat for
his portrait to Mr. Heaphy. Some relations of his, belong
ing to the Ngatirocowa. tribe, were also on board, and

offered me the land on which that restless tribe resides.
Hike or Ehiko, the son of Ti Pahi, is the most rising

man in this part of the islands. Inheriting from his father
large possessions conquered by the Kafia tribe, and from
his mother, a Ngatiawa woman of consequence, great influ
ence with the latter, he combines the power of both tribes,

and although not yet allowed to take a lead in speaking
in their councils, is acknowledged as the virtual chief of
the Kafia people; Rangaihiro, his uncle, represents him in
all public discussions. These two were distant and shy in
their intercourse with all on board, but listened to what I

had to say, and acknowledged the- justice of my remarks
on the benefit to be derived by them from the settlement

of the English in the Strait. '

Wm“-

. r

"

,__r —._

on THE KAFIA TERRITORY.

119

Friday, 18th October.—Rauper0 was again on board,
accompanied by Tunia and other chiefs. After a long con
versatiou, they agreed to sell me all the lands possessed by
the Kafia tribe on both sides of the Strait. The nego
tiation was diflicult and disagreeable; none of the good

feeling I had met with at Port Nicholson being displayed.
Their rights to large portions of territory are, however,
indisputable, and if ceded conjointly with those of the
Ngatiawas, will entitle the possessors to the commanding

portions of the two islands in these latitudes.
Our surgeons were unable to persuade any of their
patients to undergo amputation to-day at Waikauai. It
appears that the slaughter of the Ngatiawas would have
been more considerable, but for the alarm given by a boy
of ten years old, who was awake when one of their enemies
presented himself at the door of a hut as a spy: he asked
for a light, but being recognised by the boy, was shot dead
by him on the spot. Raupero had urged the N gatirocowas
to attack, and promised assistance in two canoes with am
munitiou, but failed in his engagement. He landed on the
beach, and was well nigh taken by the Ngatiawas. Their
opponents, however, covered his retreat to the water's edge,
whence he swam otl" to his canoe; and they were obliged
to retire for want of ammunition.
In the evening, after a strong wind from the north-east
during the day, a violent south-east gale sprung up without
a moment’s notice, and blew with great fury. The sea
rose in half an hour, and it was with difficulty a party of
us reached the ship from the shore. The roadstead is
tolerably protected by a reef from Evans’s Island, and the
holding-ground good; but of late years the whale-ships
have adopted a new anchorage abreast of the two small
islands at the south end of Kapiti; but it is not so good as
the roadstead where we are, in respect of facility of going

to sea, should the gale drive the ship.

The land at Wai

kanai is flat for five miles deep to the first ridge of hills,

which are not high, and enclose fine valleys between them
and the range of interior mountains. The shore is a col
lection of sand-hummocks, on which the natives have their

villages; but beyond them there is alluvial soil and timber

'W

120

NEGOTIATION son THE PURCHASE

in the usual abundance. This flat belt runs, as I have said,
to Cape Egmont. The beach is' of hard sand, and very
broad, afi'ording room for a fine road on its whole length.
The produce of this country, which widens from fifteen. to
thirty miles to the northward, and contains land fit for the
plough, might also be transported to Port Nicholson, or else

where in the Strait, by means of small steam-vessels, which
could call off the riVers during a cessation of the north
west winds; but the nature of the coast, as I have before
said, totally prevents constant intercourse with ships.

Saturday, 19th October.—The gale continued to-day
with increasing strength, and prevented communication
with the shore. The wind in the Strait is seldom the
same as at sea to either end of it. The southerly or south—
west wind outside, being drawn into the funnel formed by
the high land on both islands, becomes, abreast of Cape
Terawaiti and the Brothers, which is the narrowest part
of the Strait, south—east; and the north wind between
New Holland and these coasts assumes an inclination from
the north-west when taken in under Cape Egmont. Navi
gators may therefore expect always to find the wind set
through the Strait, and must not be surprised to meet
strong tiderips, having the appearance of breakers, even in
the most open parts, occasioned by the flowing or receding
waters striking off the various capes and headlands, and
meeting the wind from whatever quarter it may come.
Monday, 21” October—It was only this morning that
the weather permitted any boats to put off from the shore,
when Raupero and some other chiefs came on board. Hiko
and his uncle Rangaihiro, who, from being Ti k’ahi‘s
brother, is much considered amongst his tribe, came out,

however, with them. To those assembled I made a pro
posal to buy all their possessions, rights, and claims, on
both sides of the Strait; which, after they had seen a
great portion of the goods I intended to give in payment.
was accepted by all. This repetition of the bargain was
necessary from the presence of some who had not been at
the previous interview, and not thrown away upon those

who had: for no native is ever satisfied that a purchase
"an. be efl'ected unless many discussions take place respect

w'y vw—MMJ'

or THE KAFIA TERRITORY. ~

121

ing the terms. The sight of the goods seemed to decide
their intentions; the quantity being far beyond what they
had ever seen received for any sale of land in their country,
and the reality of them convincing them that I had the
means of performin my part of the treaty, which is not
always the case wit the white people the natives have to
deal with. A full explanation took place as to the disposal
of all their rights. A plan of those parts of the two
islands in which they own land by right of conquest or
inheritance was diligently examined by them. It was re
peatedly told them, to their perfect comprehension, that
no future sale of these rights or lands was to be made by
them, and that no further payment was to be expected
from the purchasing party. The reserve of a suitable por
tion of the land for the maintenance of the chiefs, their
families, and successors for ever, was also dwelt on, and
met with their highest approval. They repeatedly de
clared that they desired more than anything else the resi
dence of Englishmen amongst them; and that they would
live with them as brothers, working for them, and receiv
ing from them payment, as the white men they have seen
do from their masters.
With this clear understanding they left the ship, pro
mising to return to-mcrrow to sign the deed and receive
the payment.
Tuesday, 22d October.—A succession of north-west gales
and Hiko's sickness prevented the completion of the sale
to-day. Raupero, constant in his attendance upon any
ship where there is anything to be gained by fair or foul
means, came to us in spite of the weather. He wished the
transactions to be finished without Hiko, who, he said, was

a. boy, and had nothing to do with the land. He asked
for more arms and powder, and declined such articles as
blankets, soap, iron ware, &c. “ Of what use to us,” he
cried, “ are such things when we are going to war? “That
does it matter to us whether we die clean or dirty, cold or

warm, hungry or full? We must have two-barrelled guns,
plenty of muskets, ball-cartridges, powder, lead, and
cartridge-paper.”

A small vessel arrived to-day from Sydney.

She

122

rue CHXEF TAIROA.

brought news of the eagerness of the Sydney speculators to

buy land in New Zealand upon hearing of the establish
ment of the Company, and of the probability of the British
Government paying attention to the colonization of these
islands, and deeds on board from various merchants, to be
filled up by the chiefs’ names, for various plots of ground
for which some trifling consideration might haVe been given,
or for the cession of which some promise has been made by
chiefs who have visited Port Jackson.

News also arrived of the arrival at Waikanai of Ware
pori and his fighting men, from Port Nicholson, to assist
the Ngatiawas against the Ngatirocowas; also of the na
tives in the Bay of Plenty, on the eastern coast, being at
war; and lastly, of the progress from the southward of
Tairoa with his numerous folloWers, on a burning and
pillaging excursion to Cloudy Bay and Queen Charlotte’s
Sound. This Tairoa is re resented as the most European
iZed chief in New Zealan . He lives at Otago, where he

has a large house, built after the fashion of those of
English residents, numerous whale-boats, which he em
ploys in taking whales, and an establishment- conducted in

a similar manner to those of foreign shore-parties.

He

dresses like an Englishman, and all his people are human:
advanced in European habits than any of the other natives
of either island. His tribes number about seven hundred
fighting men, and as I have before mentioned, have re

peatedly ravaged the settlements in Cook‘s Strait.
Wednesday, 23d October.—¢-This morning, finding that,
at the distance the ship was from the shore, little commu~

ni'cation could take place during bad Weather, we changed
our anchorage, and brought up nearer to Hiko’s Island, but

still, owing to a. head-wind and strong tide, at a consider
able distance from land. Hlko, Raupero, Rangaihiro, and
all the chiefs of the Kafia tribes excepting Rangiata, who
resides at Maria, were on board, however, early; and a

third talk on the important matter on hand took place, in
the presence of at least twenty witnesses, and ended in the

full cession to me, for the Company, of all their rights and
Claims 01! both islands. I was desirous that a. perfect

knvvvledgo of what-the chiefs were doing should be spread

w-W‘" --,S-———— W v vr—M

.vseo'rm'ron BROKEN our.

'

123

amongst all their followers, and encouraged the presence
of all who wished to witness the proceedings. Our decks
were, in consequence, thronged with natives, male and
female. Every one expressed his consent to the sale, and
his desire to see the payment made. The goods were ac
cordingly got up and placed on deck. I had asked the
principal people whether there was anything beyond the
articles I had enumerated in the deed, which they wished
for; and had, at Hiko’s request, given a bale of clothing,
to enable the chiefs to go on board the emigrant-ships in a
decent costume. He had also accepted the blankets, soap,
and dresses for the women, and had put down the clamour
for arms made by all the rest. Nothing remained to be
done but to distribute the fowling-pieces, of which there
were only a dozen, amongst the leaders, and for them to
sign the deed of conveyance. The guns were brought up
and placed on the head of the companion-ladder; upon
which Raupero, Tunia, usually called the “ Wild Fellow,"
and other fighting chiefs, made a rush at them, and each
attempted to possess himself of a double-barrelled piece.
Hiko, who was busy in arraying himself in a comfortable
coat at the time, no sooner saw that the Kafia people were
likely to carry 011' the most valued property by their old
habits of violence, than, calling Rangaihiro and his boat’s
crew, he threw ofl' his partly-acquired clothes, and left
the ship in hi h displeasure at Raupero and his followers.
The negotiation was thus abruptly terminated. I sent
the whole of the goods below, and declared the bargain at

an end, as I was determined not to proceed without Hiko
and his uncle being parties in the transaction. Then arose

amongst these lawless and headless savages mutual re
proaches and recriminations. Each accused the other of
having prevented them from acquiring what all so much
wished for. The guilty, in order to exonerate themselves,
threw the blame on me. They accused me of partiality to
Hiko. “ Who was he, that he should be preferred to the
old men? What had he to do with the land, that he was
to be so much considered?" They even proceeded to make

their customary grimaces at me, and the Wild Fellow
jumped about the deck as if to commence the exciting

w ‘ wwww”

124

"


.n

.

.

-

FRI-"qr

THE TREATY nesumzn.

dance previous to an attack.

“ We will sell our lands to

the French and Americans,” they exclaimed; “ we do not

want your payment. Presently there will be plenty of
ships here from Port Jackson, and to them we will give all
we possess. We will go to fight at Port Nicholson, and
kill all your people there."

To these taunts and threats I returned either laughter
or indifi'erence; which, together with an occasional declar
ation that, whether we dealt or not, they must conduct
themselves quietly or leave the ship, soon brought them to
a calmer state. They then begged me to go on with the
distribution of the things, and they would sell all their
lands, leaving Hiko to arrange for his separately. To this
request I refused to accede.
If I had been disposed to feel surprised at the sudden
breaking-off of negotiations so nearly brought to a conclu
sion, or had not been prepared for worse contingencies in the
course of my intercourse with these people, I should have
felt mortified beyond measure at seeing the sudden and
unexpected failure of my efforts to effect a purchase of
their territory.
If I did not commiserate the mental condition of a wild
race just commencing an interchange with civilized people,
and were not aware of the cruel delusions (and dishonest
practices of most of the foreigners they have seen, towards
them, I should have been angry with their violent and
perverse conduct; but I should have been ill fulfilling the

task assigned to me if I had shown any want of command
of temper, or even of countenance, upon the occasion.

In

a short time we were as good friends as ever, and renewed
our conversation respecting the qualities, situation, and
produce of their respective residences, with as much

earnestness on their part as if the treaty were in full pro
gress.
The wind again rising to a gale, it was found advisable
to again shift our anchorage to the shelter of the two small
islands. By this time, most of the natives had gone- on
shore; but Raupero and Tunia remained with a vague
hope of obtaining .the two guns they had chosen for them
cfives. Instead of getting immediately to our new berth

:Mnm

._.___..i .-_.___.__,7 Yawn.“ :7.

">7;le

vrsrr T0 1mm.

125

near the islands, it was necessary to tack several times, and
at one time we were three miles off Kapiti. The sea ran
high, and the gale meeting the flood'tide caused a ripple
in which a small vessel would not live. The spankerboom
was also broken short in two by a violent flurry. On
wearing the ship to regain the islands, it lay in the trough
of the sea, and several waves broke over it. At this
moment poor Mr. Raupero, the kin of New Zealand, as
he calls himself, was in a piteous frig t; declaring that the
vessel would capsize, and, as Nayti assured us, muttering
prayers most earnestly. Some jokes, also, as to taking

him and the Wild Fellow to Port Nicholson, gave him an
ill-disguised uneasiness.
On our anchoring, in the evening, he resumed his
usual boasting manner, and did more than usual execution
upon our fare at table. He left us as if all negotiations
were at an end, and without a promise of returning to
morrow.
Thursday, 24th October.-—I went on shore early to
Hiko’s Island. I found him glad to see me. He showed
me round the wretched rock on which he lives, and a canoe

he is building; and talked to me a great deal about his
father, Ti Pahi, and England. He preserves carefully the
presents Ti Pahi had brought with him, and remembers
the last instructions he received from him before the expe
dition to the south, in which he lost his life. These were,
shortly, to cultivate the friendship of the English, to keep

no slaves, and to be honest in his dealings with all. His
conduct proves that he has profited by these injunctions;
for he is most friendly with our countrymen, and has made
many friends at Sydney—he pays the natives for labour,
contrary to the practice of Raupero ‘and the other chiefs
who own slaves, and never asks to be paid twice for any
thing he may sell.
He is well aware of the nature of a bargain, and asks
a larger price for his pigs, cattle, and wood, than those
who, by force of threats or importunity, obtain repeated
payment for the same object. His person is tall and dis—
tinguished, and his countenance and manner extremely

winning. _ The influenza, which has prevailed lately here,

M

126

concnusron on THE PURCHASE.

has aféeted his hedlth, and physiéal Weakness adds to his
naturally quiet and unpiemnning fleiheenonr.
After our eonVersatio'n, whieh we managed to carry on
without an interpreter,- he and Ranp'eto came on board
with me, unattended by any followers. I also took with
me Captain Lewis, a. respectable American, resident as a.
whale! on Hiko’s Island. When on board alone, the two

chiefs seemed to agree to lay aside their rnutu'al jealousies;
They looked over the plates in Cook’s Voyages, and talked
of the English having been the first to come to see their
country. They then begged to have the deed of convey
ance read to them; This was done; in the presence of

Captain Lewis and all our arty, and translnted in all its
important parts to their pe ect understanding.

The map

of the territory to be ceded wee also again shown to them i
and they pointed out to what places they had claim, and

told me that no she lived on most parts of it, and that a.
great deal of it was of no use to any one, and least of all
to them.

They then execnted the deed, and taking their double
barrelled guns, said they Would send the other chiefs to
sign when the remainder of the goods should be delivered, ,
and went on shore.

On looking at the aeeo‘mpdny'ing map of those parts of
the two islands bordering on Cbok's Strait, in which I
have thus acquired ossessions for the Company, and ex

tending from the

th to the 43d degree of latitude on

the western coast; and from the 41st to the 43d on the

eastern; you will readily conesiVe that I lm‘ve not obtained
a title to all the land included within those parallels.

It

is necessary, in order prepefly to appreciate the extent and
value of the purchase, to know the difi'etent poemssors and

claimants of the above territory; The whole extent is
owned by the Kafia, the Ngatiawas, the Ngatiroeowa, and

the
Wan 'nu'iuninhabited
tribes.- An; but
Immense
portion
on the South
ern Islandais
having
been conquered
by
the Kafia people, is acknowled ed to be theirs. Queen
Charlotte’s Sound and Wanganui, near Cape Farewell, are
oceugied by the Ngatiavms. 0n the Northern Island
Within. the aboveenemed boundaries; the Kofia tribe has,

_ n 47—h" fl-VQW “mew W_-_~»~- 7- “MW .-..< —-v-—_-_q_

onfieeverwns on rowan commens-

121

but few possessions; whilst the Ngatiawas possess and in;
habit Port Nicholson, Waikanai, and other small portions.

The Ngatiawas occupy the district of Otaki, between
“'aikanai and Wanganui; and the last rmentioned district
is occupied by a numerous tribe of the same name.
In order therefore to complete the rights of the Com
pany to all the land unsold to foreigners in the above exten

sive district, it remains for me to secure the session of their
rights in it from the Ngatiawas, and in a proportionally
vSmall tract from the Ngatirooowas and Wanganui people.
Before leaving the Strait, I have sanguine hopes of being

able to effect this with the former tribe, and have already

opened a negotiation by means of one of the principal
chiefs of Queen Charlotte’s Sound, who has been living on
board during our visit here. As to the Ngatirooowa dis
trict, time will not allow me to treat with its actual pos

sessors, even if the war in which they are engaged, and
their unsettled state, permitted them to pay attention to
the subject. The Katie. tribe has the some claim to that
part of the country, also, which it had to Port Nicholson
and Queen Charlotte’s Sound; and this claim I have by

to-dny's purchase acquired. I do not, however, lay much
stress on the possession of claims on land which a nume
rous tribe holds by the strong title of occupancy.
As regards the purchases made previous to this day’s»
date in the neighbourhood of the Strait by foreigners,
they are, I feel assured, too insignificant to interfere with
the views of the Company, Here and there a small bay
may have been purchased and settled on by Whalers in
Cloudy Bay and the Sound, but no extensive district has
been acquired from either the Kafia or the Ngatiawa tribes;

and, in my belief, no regular document has been made
upon any occasion, and in most cases of occupation of this
kind, no consideration has been given for the land.

Mr. Wynen, whom I heme mentioned, pretends to have
bought a tract of land up the Oyerri or Pelorus river; but

the chiefs here who claim all that district, have repeatedly
declared to me that they ,do not recognise the bargain, as
he, gave them no payment, but has promised to have a. ship

59m $YQHBY With. goods for that purpose In many other
M2

128

osssnvarroxs on FORMER PURCHASES.

instances within my knowledge the chiefs do not recognize
the rights of British claimants, from want of a considera-'
tion having been received; whilst in others, where payment
was made, no document recording the transaction exists.
In all the vessels now arriving from Sydney, deeds are
brought to be filled up and signed, in consequence of the
land having lately acquired a marketable value ; but when

ever the time may come when a commission shall examine
the titles to land in these islands, it will be found that but
very few written records of purchases, prior to this day's

date, of any portion of land within the boundaries of my
purchase, can be produced.

Be this as it may, I have by to-day's deed acquired the
land in possession and claimed at this time by the Kafia
chiefs and the clearly-acknowledged rights of Hiko, as
connected with that and the Ngatiawa tribe; have over

come the most diflicult step towards the exclusive pesses
sion of the rights of these tribes; and have received a

solemn ratification of my previous purchase of the district
of Port Nicholson, which was only questioned by the
parties to the late sale.
In purchasing on the large scale I have done in this
transaction—in marking the boundaries of territory ac
quired, upon the tullest and most satisfactory explanation
and examination, by parallels of latitude—I conceive that
I have obtained as safe and binding a title as if the sub
ject of negotiation had been but a single acre, and defined
by a creek or a notched tree; and it must be remembered that
nine-tenths of the land is without an inhabitant to dispute
possession, and that the payment I have made to the owners
is large when valued by the standard of exchange known
amongst them, and perfectly satisfactory to the sellers.
Respecting the value of the land to the Company I do
not pretend to give a decided opinion. My remarks on
the mountainous nature of the northern end of the Southern
Island will produce an unfavourable impression as to its
eligibility for a place of settlement for the British emigrant,

which my testimony to the good ualities of its soil and
climate will scarcely remove.
he numerous excellent
harbours 1n the Strait must not be forgotten in the enu

DISTRIBUTION or THE GOODB-

12.9

meration of its advantages; and in these there are many
districts of flat land available with little labour and
outlay.

Friday, 25th October.--At daylight this morning the
whole of the chiefs and numerous members of their fami~
lies came on board, anxious to complete the sale. The
deed was again produced, and thoroughly explained to all.
It was executed by all the chiefs present. Raupero and
Charley signed it by proxy for some relations at Cloudy

Bay, who are not of consequence in the disposal of the
land, but who will receive part of the payment by their

names being recorded. The signature of Rangaiata is to
be obtained at Mana, and his portion was left on board to
insure it. The affair was concluded most amicably, and
with out further discussion or dissension amongst the chiefs.
They begged me to distribute the fowling-pieces as I
thought fit; and it happened that my selection was satis
factory to all. The remainder of the goods were taken on
shore in Our boats and placed in order on the beach, Where

we saw a Very peaceablc distribution take place in the
course of the day. Various rumours reached me of the
opinion of the natives as to the sale and payment.

Some

said that they had sold land which did not belong to them,

alluding to the districts occupied by the Ngatiawas, which

I have yet to purchase of that tribe; whilst others betrayed
a notion that the sale would not affect their interests, from
an insufiiciency of emigrants arriving to occupy so vast a

space, to prevent them retaining possession of any parts
they choose, or of even reselling them at the expiration of
a reasonable period.

No one was so rejoiced at the termination of this noisy
and troublesome bargain as myself; and after the natives

had left the ship, a party of us landed on Kapiti, and en
joyed an excursion to its summit, the more from having
been so long confined by bad weather, and the late nego
tiations. This island, from the excessive steepness of the
hills which form it, can never become of great value to the
agriculturist. Its shores are nearly perpendicular, and of
great height. On the top are occasional tableslands, on
which the timber has been burned, and where a good pas~

130

ISLANDS or KAPITI AND MANA.

turage grows. The valleys are narrow, and afl'ord no tempt
ation to the settler. The island is about fifteen miles in
circumference. On the side towards the main, which is
distant about five miles, there is a long point of flat land,

on which is a lagoon.

On this part, as well as on another '

point at the east end, are some twenty or thirty head of
cattle, owned by Hiko and Raupero, but claimed by Mr.
Cooper, of Sydney, who sent down the original stock to be
placed under the charge of the former chief. From the
heights is a fine view of the Waikanai country, with many
of its small rivers debouchiug in the Strait, and of Mans,
distant sixteen miles. The latter island is not half the
size of Kapiti, but is perfectly level on its wedge-like
summit. There are many cattle and more than 500 sheep
on it, which thrive well. Both these places are excluded
from my purchase, and will be the subject of many dis—
putes, plots of them having been sold 0Ver and over again
to different parties. The north-west eminence of Kapiti
is well adapted for a light-house, from which vessels enter
ing the Strait from the westward would take a departure;

and which, in conjunction with one on Baring Head, would
be of the greatest value to navigators. The steepness of
Kapiti renders the roadstead subject to violent flurries of
wind, which are dangerous to shipping. Yesterday our
cutter was capsized on coming from shore, and Mr. Heaphy
and Mr. Robinson narrowly escaped drowning. A canoe
brought ofl‘ the former from the boat, which we saved, as
it floated down near the ship, bottom upwards. The
others with difliculty reached the shore by swimming
on the oars. Since we have been here it has never ceased
blowing hard. This afternoon a brig from Sydney, which
has been drifting about in the Strait for five days, contrived
to anchor in the roadstead.

N0 one in her knew the coast;

and being as badly found as most Sydney trading-vessels
usually are, there positively being no binnacle and only a
smalLboat compass on board, and no chronometer, it was
miraculous that she was not lost, as many others we have
heard _of have been on these coasts within these few years.
But with the best ships the Strait is not to be played with.
E7811 1n our well-equipped ship, the skill and vigour of

ps- .

._> __

.___._

CHARACTER or RAUPERO.

131

her commander, which are of no ordinary character, have
been often taxed during our short visit.
Saturday, 26th Oc!0ber.—I visited to-day the small
island on which Raupero lives. It partly belongs to
‘ Captain Mayhew, an American, who has a store on it.
The habits of the old chief are conspicuous in this place.
A miserable house, tabooed for himself and wife, with one

end parted off for his son, ofi'ers no temptation to his
enemies, nor calls forth the envy of his rival allies. Near
it are piled up cases of tobacco, of cotton goods, and of
the various objects which he has begged or extorted from
the masters of vessels anchoring here. These are covered
with dead brushwood, and are narrowly watched by his
slaves. He seldom stays long in any place, but goes
from settlement to settlement, often in the night, to avoid
any design against his life from his foes on the main. He
came on board in the afternoon on one of his pillaging
visits, and after talking largely, dropped into his begging
tone. Finding me proof against threats and entrcaties, as
a last resource to obtain a present, he proposed to me to
go on shore to see a young girl. Notwithstanding the
many bad qualities of this old man, his blustering, mean
ness, and unscrupulous treachery, he possesses some points
of character worthy of a chief amongst savages. He is
full of resources in emergencies, hardy in his enterprises,
and indefatigable in the execution of them. He has tried
to coax Nayti to give him everything he brought from

England; and even seized a gun I had given the former,
and would have carried it off, had I, not accidentally met

him on the deck and shamed him into restoring it. When
our boat was upset, it was supposed that Nayti was in it;
upon which he, with instant readiness, claimed his chest
and all belonging to him; and was, I feel sure, chagrined

at hearing that his kinsman was safe.
Making every allowance for his condition, and knowing
how his intercourse with the refuse of European society
has affected him, it is impossible for the most charitable to
have any feelings towards this old fellow but those of aver
sion. It will be a most fortunate thing for any settlement
formed hereabouts when he dies ; for with his life only will

end his mischievous scheming and insatiable cupidity.
*

132

vrsrr TO THE NGATIAWA TRIBE.

Sunday, 27th October.--The weather, for the first time
during ten days, allowed a boat to cross over to the main.
I went to VVaikanai; taking with me Ebattu, the son of
Toroa, the two principal chiefs of that place and of Queen
Charlotte's Sound. On landing, we were greeted by the
acclamations of the numbers assembled at the place in ex—
pectation of a second attack from the Gnatirocowas. As
soon as it was known that I had come to talk about the
land, a rush was made for the usual place of meeting on
public occasions; and in a few minutes a large arena was
entirely covered with people, seated in their peculiar pos
ture in perfect silence, anxious to hear the speeches of the
elders. A place was made for me on the side of the canoe;
and during the discussion all eyes were fixed on me, as if to
read in my countenance the effect of the eloquence 0f the
orators. Ebattu introduced me as a good man, who liked
the natives, and who would brin a great many white
people to live amongst his tribe, an an English Missionary
to teach them. A low murmur of approbation ran throu h

the assembly at the conclusion of his speech.

Some of the

elder chiefs then addressed us, and coincided in grantin
me all their lands upon condition of receiving arms an
ammunition to enable them to defend themselves and peo
ple from their enemies. They declined blankets, clothing,
and tobacco; nothing was wanted but implements of war.
Through an interpreter I asked them how they, professing

peace and Missionary customs, thought of nothing but
fighting: and they answered, that though they would
not allow their potatoes to be peeled on a Sunday, and
prayed in the chapel three times a. day, they were now
obliged to be armed and to fight in defence of their
houses and children; and they persisted in their demand of

arms.
After visiting their village, which is the largest we have
seen, and tolerably fortified, and seen their wounded, I
persuaded three of the chiefs to accompany me on board
to see Raupero, with a View of utting an end to their
quarrel with the Gnatirocowas. n approaching the ship,
they evinced the greatest fear, declaring that Raupero

would take their heads. Soon after being on board I sent
for Raupero and his fighting general Rangiaiata, who had
*
r“?—

~

., a

..

h

DEPARTURE or NAYTI.

133

arrived from Mana. When these came on deck, and saw
the three Ngatiawa chiefs sitting down with their faces
half hidden in their mats, they betrayed great surprise, and
made their customary warlike grimaces. Then, from, I
conclude, remembering that the ship was no place to show
any hostile demonstrations, they advanced to them, and
rubbed noses with them in succession. A few other usual
mournful salutaticns followed; when Raupero made them
along speech, asking them, “Why they hid their faces?
was he not their friend, and glad to see them?” Many
speeches on both sides succeeded; all in the spirit of peace.
In those of the Ngatiawas was introduced an improvized
recitative, harmoniously and gracefully uttered, and ex
pressive of feelings of good-will and friendship. One of
these finished with a satirical allusion to the habits of the
Kafia residents at Kapiti, to the effect that, if left to them
selves, the Gnatiawas would stand and look on at the for—
mer drinking their strong waters.
On the whole, the meeting had the effect intended;

many disputes amongst the natives originating in misrepre
sentations of third parties, and ceasing so soon as they have
spoken of their grievances face to face; and but for my
knowledge of Raupero's duplicity, I should think that he
would use his influence to put a stop to further h0stilities.
After the reconciliation, came lengthy details of the late
fight, in which the most trivial incidents were men
tioned, and lasted till sunset. In all descriptions by the
natives these petty details are introduced; particularly in
their accounts of journeys, in which they will relate with
great earnestness where they halted to cook, or on what
tree they killed a bird.
Nayti came to me in the afternoon, and begged permis
sion to visit his father at Mana; our voyage to that place
having been rendered unnecessary by the arrival of Ran
giaiata. He proposes to stay with his relations till the
emigrant-ships arrive, when he will join his friends who
may settle at Port Nicholson. I had little to oppose to
his request. Of late he has been worse than useless as an

interpreter, having led me into error several times; but I
requested him to stay on board, as a friend of the party

134

_nEPAn-Tuan or NAYTI.

with whom he had made the voyage from England; and
re resented to him the unhappiness he would undergo
when stripped of his clothes by his friends, and deprived of
the comforts to which he has been of late accustomed. He
assured me, that he was very happy on board, but that he
Wished to see his friends; that his cousins had come for
him in a large canoe, and that he would look out for the
emigrant-ships. He has been induced to this step partly
by his fear of Raupero and his people, who have threat
ened him, and partly by fear of going to the Waikato
country and Kai are, where the natives might revenge

themselves upon him for some injury done to one of their
tribes long ago. The expedition will rather benefit by his
absence during these visits ; for, as a general rule, it is un

advisable to have a native on board a ship bound to the
port of a tribe unfriendly to his own.
Monday, 28th October.~—-Rangiata, the chief of Mann
and the land on the main abreast of it, executed the deed
of conveyance this morning. His signature completes the
document as regards the Kafia tribe. The three chiefs of
the Ngatiawas, whom I had brought from Waikanai, de‘
clined proceeding with me to Queen Charlotte’s Sound,
where I wished them to combine with the heads of the
tribe resident there in conveying their rights to me. They
pleaded, with justice, the danger to their families during
their absence, from their neighbouring enemies, but de
puted one of their sons to accompany me, who is empow

ered to act for them. In the mean time, they have promised me that they will part with no land until my
return. If time had permitted, I could have concluded
the bargain for their lands, although I should have had
some difficulty in satisfying them in respect to arms,
with which I am ill provided. No scruples would have
deterred me from putting ever so large a quantity in their
possesssion, as I feel sure that not only will they, in this
case, prevent a war of aggression on the part of their
enemies, but that they will be readily supplied by some
party from Sydney, desiring the land, in case the owners
determine to _become the attacking force. The three chiefs,
notwithstanding their fears of Raupero, and though saying

ARRIVAL AT tram!

135

that they intended to take refuge with Hiko till the wind
'was fair for their return to Waikanai, on leaving the ship,

landed at Raupero’s island, and were receiVed by him on
the beach. I hope that this confidence in him, which I
had advised, was the effect of their meeting on board, and
will be the means of a permanent reconciliation.

Nayti left us this evening, in spite of my advice to him
to remain on board. He was very frank and well-behaved
on takin leave of us, and assured us he should be very
v-omforta le on shore till our return; He took with him a
supply of what he considered requisite, and all his clothes
and presents received in England left to him by his rapa
cious friends._ Notwithstanding his assurances, I am dis
posed to think that his mode of departure, though partaking

of the polite habits acquired amongst Englishmen, was one
of those artful deceits commonly practised by all savages

resuming their original station after an intercourse with
civilization.
Tuesda , 29th October, Mann.

We wei hed anchor at daylig t, hoping to be in Queen
Charlotte’s %ound in the afternoon. We had nearly en
tered between its headlands, when a terrific north-west
gale caught us, and, with the strong ebb-tide, nearly drOve
us on the “ Two Brothers." In wearing, to stand off the
shore, our fore-yard was carried away; and it was a
question for a time, whether the ship, excellent as her
sailing qualities are, would weather the dangerous rocks
off these islands. After getting clear of them, we
hove-to till the rain and mist dispersed; and finally, were
obliged to run for Mann, where we brought up in the
evening, not sorry to be at anchor even in this bad road
stead till the gale subsides.
lVednesday, 30th October.-—On the side of Maria; facing

the main, is a small amphitheatre; formed b the hills,
which slo e up to its wedge-shaped summit I have spoken
of, and which to the sea face are precipitous. We landed;
and walked over the whole island. It is in most parts a
good sheep-walk, but in its small valleys there is good
feeding for cattle, of which there are thirty head There

are also two draught horses belonging to the mum of the

136

QUARRELS or, aneusn PROPRIETORS.

island. The settlement is abreast of our anchorage, at the
foot of the slope; and consists of the owner’s house and
small whaling station, and the huts 0f Rangiaiata and

forty or fifty resident natives. Mana, however, often
serves as a rendezvous for the Kafia tribe and the
Gnatiawas, when on friendly terms, where they meet on
neutral ground. At the late crying-feast, as many as
three thousand peeple met here, and during their visit
were very annoying to the English settlers, by killing fifty

sheep and committing other depredations.
We found here the last purchaser of the island, between
whom and the late proprietor a dispute as to their rights had
arisen, in consequence of our expedition having-so much en
hanced the value of the place as to induce the latter to wish
to call ofi' from the bargain. A resort to New Zealand law
is talked of to obtain possession, and all arbitration was
refused. Several other Sydney people were also here,
anxious to buy land in the Strait, and were not a little
discountenanced by learning that the chiefs had made over
all their rights on both sides of Cook’s Strait to the Con»
pany. One of them told me that we were just in time,

as deeds and property for payment may be expected in
every vessel from Sydney. They all, however, expressed
satisfaction at the probability of a settlement being formed
at Port Nicholson, where some law and order will exist,

and regretted having neglected buying land in that her
hour. Every day brings fresh proof of the speed of our
outward voyage having frustrated the intentions formed
by the New Holland speculators on receiving the news
of our departure and destination, .as regards this part of
the islands.
Thursday, Blst October, East Bay, Queen Charlotte’s Sound.
The weather having changed, and our repairs effected,
we crossed the Strait this morning, and anchored in this
bay instead of Ship Cove, for the convenience of being
nearer to the grove at the head of the Sound, whither it
was necessary to send to procure a spar for a fore-yard. I
was also desirous to be near the principal. settlement in the
Sound, in order to conclude my treaty with the Gnatiawas,

for the sale of their rights in the neighbourhood of the

v1sr'r TO TEAWAITI.

137

Strait. As soon as we entered the bay, many natives
came 05', who had heard of the object of our visit. I
landed in Grass Cove, where Captain Furneaux’s boat’s
crew was murdered, and walked over the island of Alapawa
to Ocacurri, from whence I got a canoe to Teawaiti. The
hills are extremely difficult of ascent, and incapable of
other cultivation than for the growth of the vine and
Indian corn. On coming in sight of Ocacurri, the chief,
who accompanied us, requested us to fire off our guns ; the
report from which brought in answer a continued discharge
of muskets until we reached the village. Here we found
assembled about 200 men in a state of great excitement,
and preparing to start in their canoes for Waikanai, to
carry on the war against the Gnatirocowas. My companion
and myself, with the Waikanai chief, had to go through
the ceremony of shaking hands with every one in the set
tlement, ranged round the place of public meeting. After
this operation, a tangi commenced in honour of the chief’s
arrival, and t0 the memory of their friends who had fallen

in the late fight. So soon as we could escape, we left the
village, where E Wits remained to talk about the land. At
Teawaiti we found the same warlike preparations, and
heard of a general muster of the tribes desirous to attack
their enemies, and of the determination of one of the chiefs
to land with sixty picked men on Raupero’s island, for the
purpose of carrying ofl“ that old chief, who had killed his
father some years ago. A violent outcry for arms prevailed,
and any quantity of pigs was offered in exchange.
Friday, lst Noeember.-—I visited Ocacurri again this
morning, in company with Mr. Barrett, and prevailed on
the chiefs to postpone their hostile voyage until the nego—
tiations for the sale of their land should be completed.
They promised to meet me in East Bay, and to bring with

them all the principal owners of the Gnatiawas ; after
which I returned to the ship in a whale-boat, pulled by a.
native crew. During the whole distance of twenty-five
miles, most part of the day against a strong wind, they
pulled with unceasing vigour, and equalled an European
crew. We found lying in the bay a. Danish whale-ship,

which, on its way to Cloudy Bay in searchof seamen, had
N

138

TREATY wrrn THE GMATIAWAS.

followed us into the Sound. It is the first vesSel of its
nation which has made the voyage to the South Sea. The
master, an intelligent man, has undertaken the voyage in

the hope of finding a profitable employment for ships from
Bremen.
Saturday, 2d Nocmnber.-—The chiefs owning land in
the Sound, came on board, accompanied by a. great crowd

of interiors. After some discussion the meeting was
adjourned, and a small beach abreast of the ship appointed
as the place of future assembly on the subject. Thither
Mr. Barrett and myself accompanied the chiefs, when an
earnest debate arose as to the disposal of their rights. It
appeared that but few of those present claimed land any
where but hereabouts, but all were willing to cede all their
rights to territory wherever situated; and by their cession,
a title would be acquired to the whole of the Sound, and to
those places which the Kafias and Gnatiawas claimjointly,
by reason of joint conquest from the original tribe.

Two

places would then remain to be purchased from other
Gnatiawa people resident on them; the first, "Waikanai

and its neighbourhood; and the second, Taitap, including
Wanganui, to the southward of Cape Farewell, to secure a

complete title to the territory mentioned as comprised
within the 38th and 43d degree of latitude.
These two spots must be left for a more leisure time,
but are not likely to attract the attention of others—the
first being new the seat of war, and the other lying in an
out-of-the-wa corner; besides belonging to the relations
of my friendsliere, who will advise its being kept for the
same purchasers as at this place.
I From the want of a single leader, as in Port Nicholson,
much idle talking took place to- day, and the meeting broke
up without any decision. To-morrow two other chiefs will
be summoned from higher up the Sound, to a last con

sultation. In the mean time, however anxious I am to go
northwards, the necessity of replacing our fore-yard at
present prevents the ship’s departure.
The natives here, some of the ancient possessors of
Taranake, are very desirous that I should become the pur

chaser of that district, in order that they may return to

COUNTRY nounn EAST BAY.

139

their native place without fear of the Waikata tribes.
They will yield all their claims on the district to the Com
pany, but stipulate for the same reservation of land for
Mr. Barrett and the children of the late Mr. Love, as for
the native chiefs. These two Englishmen having lived
for so many years amongst the Taranake people during the
wars, and aving had children born of native wives on the

spot, have been long considered as belonging to the tribe.
Mrs. Barrett and her children are on board, and will, it is
thought, be very conducive, amongst the resident natives,
to an acquisition of the territory.
Sunday, November Bat—I went round East Bay, and
landed at all the settlements with a View to see the nature
of the land in any of the spots suited for the location of
immigrants. I found many delightful bays eligible for
small settlements. A considerable space of open flat land,
of excellent quality, with a; gradual slope up the hill-sides,
spreads itself out at the bottom of these bays, in which is
a safe anchorage in all weathers. Large potato-grounds
and plots of wheat, and time, a sort cf yam, are cultivated
in these places. The native settlements are very small,
and the few residents enjoy great abundance. The water
literally swarms with fish. The sort in season during the
summer is the baracouta, and is taken by the natives with a.

rod and line of a few feet in length, at the end of which is
a small thick piece of Wood with a crooked nail in it.
The fish do not take an ordinary bait; but with this pe~
culiar‘implement the natives will take many hundreds in a.
day, and often have many tons weight of them dried for sale.
It is the best fish we have yet eaten of in this country.
I found all the settlements nearly deserted, the inha
bitants having removed to an island near our ship for the
convenience of assisting at the conferences respecting the
land. The people from the southern entrance to the Tory
Channel were assembled in one bay, occupied in prayers
and singing, and talking over the transaction. In their
visits upon similar occasions, the natives always put up in
some cove apart from other tribes, with which they may
be ever so closely allied, and bring with them their stock

of provisions for the period of their absence fgom home.
N

140

PROGRESS on THE NEGOTIATION.

Thus in every small bay near the ship are assembled in
different parties nearly all the people of the Sound, wait
ing the result of the negotiations, to the number of nearly
300; but the respective tribes, five in number, included
in the collective appellation of Gnatiawas, remain separate,
except for the object of their meeting.
East Bay is nearly six miles in length, and almost as
large as Port Nicholson. Cook’s chart of the Strait lays
it down with his usual accuracy. Our time has not allowed
Captain Chafl'ers to survey the Sound, or to put Cook's
chart of it on the same scale as his own of the Tory Chan
nel, sent to you with my last packet; but the two can be
easily combined, so as to complete a correct chart of the
whole extent.
On returning to the ship in the evening, I found a

deputation from all the tribes, which announced that they
had finally determined to sell to me all their possessions
and claims in both islands, in the same manner that the
Kafia chiefs had done. They requested that the payment
might be divided for them by me, as the want of a pro

minent leader amongst them might otherwise occasion
disputes.
Monday, 4th Nocember.--A few of the chiefs were on
board to describe the places owned by them, and to see
the goods offered in payment. The deed was drawu from
their description, and was satisfactory to all; but, owing
to its length, the affair could not be concluded to-day.
News arrived that a vessel had arrived at Kapiti with
agents from Messrs. Cooper and Levi, of Sydney, in

structed to take possession of that island. It is not pro
bable that the Kafia chiefs will allow them to perform
this task, even if the many white men who have bought
portions of land on it lately offered no resistance. The
vessel is to proceed to the south with cattle, to be placed
on land claimed by the same parties.
Tuesday, 5th November.—Bad weather prevented the
natives coming on board to-day to complete the sale.
Many points respecting European purchases of land also
required to be understood. No delay occurred, howeVer,

as the fore-yard was not finished. The spar out of which

PROGRESS on THE NEGOTIATION.

141

the yard is made was eighty feet in height, of an equal
girth. It is of the tree called the Towa, the wood of
which is very tough and durable. “rest Bay, in this
Sound, abounds in this timber.

Wedrwaday, 6th November.--The rain had driven home

many of the chiefs, who did not return to-day. No temp
tation will induce a New Zealander to make a journey or
go in a canoe in bad weather; and I have heard a chief

say that he would walk oVer such a hill the next day “ if
the wind were fair.” WVe buried to-day a scaman, a na
tive of the Marquesas Islands. He had been long in a
consumption. The ceremony was attended by many na
tives, who expressed their satisfaction with its solemnity.
The Ngatiawas now bury their dead in coffins, and read
prayers OVer the grave.
Thursday—Torrents of rain kept everybody on board
below, and prevented the arrival of the natives. We had
news of Mr. Smith at Port Nicholson. He is on excel
lent terms with the natives, who are building seven large
houses, and making other preparations for the reception
of the expected settlers.
Friday, 8th November.—Soon after daylight the natives
began to come on board, and by twelve o’clock more than
two hundred had assembled on the deck, includin all the
chiefs in the Sound.

A

00d deal of speaking todlr place;

and the principal man,
Hawe, enumerated the places
which the residents here possess or claim. With so many
to satisfy, I found myself called upon to give them a
second tierce of tobacco, which produced a sensation of
satisfaction; after which, the chiefs and elders sent some
of the crowd on shore, and the business of allotment and

distribution began. Many white people having been in
the habit of cutting timber on an extensive scale, it was
necessary to have an understanding on the subject for the
future; and one and all of the chiefs assured me that the

place was new sacred for me, and that no one should
establish saw-pits in the grove at the head of the Sound,
or otherwise use the land or its produce except for the
purpoee of planting potatoes for their own consumption.

AlthOugh it was satisfactory to have so numerous a

142

ALTERCATION ON BOARD SHIP

meeting, and to witness the unanimity that prevailed in
it respecting the disposal of the land, the scene was by no
means so ratifying as that of the conclusion of the pur
chase of ort Nicholson. In the latter, the people Were
under the perfect control of one man, and were sincere in
giving their land for the sake of having white people come
to live amongst them. They consequently looked upon
the consideration as a secondary object, and relied on their
chief for a fair distribution. In this instance, no one of
paramount influence was present to give the people con
fidence and insure satisfaction. Moreover, they were not
assured that an immediate location of settlers would take
place here, and having but little to look forward to, turned

all their attention to obtaining the greatest amount of pay
ment possible ; and being much in the habit of dealinw

with white people who have abused their ignorance, looke
suspiciously at the transaction, as if they imagined that an
advantage was intended to be taken of them. \Vhen the
allotments to the different tribes had proceeded some time,
a violent dispute arose amongst one tribe, the Pukatap,
which threatened to put an end to the purchase; and it

was not till I had persuaded the chief of it to send away
some of his people under a threat of putting all the things
below and going to sea, that anything like peace was
restored. More than one hundred men still remained on

the deck; and as the goods might now be considered de
livered to them, although I allowed the distribution of
them to be made on board, I took advantage of the mo
mentary calm to secure the signatures of the chiefs to the
number of thirty. No sooner had the distribution recom
menced, than a more violent altercation took place amongst
the individuals of the tribe which had quarrelled with an
other tribe in the morning. Half of the goods had been sent
on shore for some of the tribes, and the Pnkatap chief was
proceeding with the distribution to his followers, when
some one called out to make a rush for the remainder. In
a moment the most tumultuous scene we have ever wit—
nessed took place, and a general scramble, in which many
blows were exchanged, and in which the more violent,

'l'i'l)wlllg off their clothes, evinced a disposition, to proceed

M—h__s_r- :v‘,__.-.~l__~m__._ _--__------o- —

AMONG THE NATIVES.

143

to a serious fight. No intercession was of the least avail.
The only answer received by those who attempted it was,
that it was a native quarrel, and that no harm would
happen to us. This scene of violence only ceased when
all the goods had been appropriated; and then the prin
cipal performers in it expressed themselves much ashamed
of their conduct. I understand that the tribes which had
taken their goods on shore, after mastering all their friends

and followers to the number of nearly three hundred, had
a similar, if not more unfriendly distribution; and that the

men loaded their arms, and were at one time on the point
of recurring to them for a decision of the dispute. E Hawe
was slightly out in the arm in the afi'ray.
These scenes are, I am assured, mild in comparison
with those that have taken place on much smaller distri
butions of property, and need cause no alarm to any one
Witnessing them. Such a rapid change has taken place,
however, in the habits of these people within these few
years, that one may expect the total cessation of dissen
sions amongst them soon; and it must be rccollected that

the transaction I have had with them has been dissimilar
to any in which they have been engaged. In all their
small sales to white people, a chief or two has taken the

payment for the small plot of ground sold, and used it as
he pleased. In this purchase I have united the consent
of various small tribes and numerous chiefs and proprie
tors; have assembled as many natives as possible in order
to give publicity to the affair; and have attempted to
satisfy not only the chiefs, but each individual of the tribes
amongst whom I hope to see settlers located.
The afl'air was concluded before dark, and quietness
restored in the ship. Never did ship witness such a scene
of violence without bloodshed. If any one should wish to
take a lesson of patience and control of temper, let him
have a few dealings with at numerous collective New Zea—
land tribe, and he will find himself proof against any
annoying occurrences which ,he may meet with in the

transaction of business in civilized communities.
Saturday, 9th Nooember.—I landed this morning and
took possession of the land in the, name of the Company,

144

NORTH AND scorn DURHAM

The wind prevented our leaving the Bay as I had intended.
I send copies of the two deeds, which make the title to all
the late possessions and claims of the Katia and Ngatiawa
tribes, with a chart of the district.
To distinguish the possessions of the Company, which
so greatly predominate in this extensive territory, I have
called it “North and Scuth Durham 5" and I hope that
“ the day will come" when a British population, availing
itself of the natural advantages of these two provinces, will
render them worthy of their name.
Sunday, 10th November.—A north-west gale still do~

tained us here, but with every prospect of being able to_
sail to-morrow.

I expect to be a Week at Taranake, and

to acquire the large district I have spoken of; after which
we shall proceed to Kaipara.
I have no letters from England, but understand that
some have gone to the Bay of Islands for me ; in which
case it will be some time before I receive them, as the
vessel conveying them was to precced to Cloudy Bay.
Kapiti, 111% November.

Being under a promise to take back the Chief E. Wite
and the Missionary who had been a witness to the late
sale to Waikanai, we sailed for this place yesterday ; but

owing to a strong north-west wind, only reached it to-day.
We found all the natives in great commotion on account
of the preparations making for war on the main. The

Ngatiawas muster 800 fighting men, and can be reinforced
to the number of 600 more if occasion requires. Their ad
versaries are not so numerous, but, living all on the same
spot, can easily be collected for an assault; which the
former are prevented from making whilst assembled, by
the missionaries, who will Only fight in self-defence.

\Varepori and many of his people are at Vt'aikanai, which
circumstance is retarding the preparations making at Port
Nicholson for the settlers.
A barquc has been here from Sydney to purchase land
for Messrs. Cooper and Levi. The master and agent have
once more bought this island, as well as some land at
Warmea, on the main.

Probably exeeedingr his instnn~

tions, he professed himselfready to buy any land to pro;

DETENTION VAT KAPITI.

145

vent the Tory from obtaining it; and in this spirit has
contracted for the Oyerri river under a promise of giving
a. small schooner for it, although every one here informed

him that the chiefs had made over all their rights to me a
few days before. The vessel is gone to the south on a
similar errand.
Tuesday, 12th November.-—A calm prevented our sail
ing. \Varepori paid us a visit. He is extremely unsettled
by the warlike state of things, and could scarcely talk of
the prospect of the arrival of settlers at Port Nicholson;
saying that he should probably be killed in the approach
ing fight.

The Rev. W. Williams, of the Bay of Islands, is on
his way here to form an establishment on the main. His
horses have arrived, and some people hope that his pre
sence may prevent the encounter amongst the natives; but
from what I have seen of these people, and know of their

revengeful feelings, I have no idea that anything but a
great slaughter on one side or the other will satisfy them.
For some years it will be necessary for any settlers in
Cook's Strait to be in numbers sufiicient to protect them
selves, and to form a militia, to avoid the outrages to

vi'lhich the caprice or anger of a few chiefs might subject
t em.
Wednesday, 13th November.--The unusual calm con
tinued and kept us here. Warepori had an interview with
Raupero. The two chiefs met in their canoes near Kapiti.
The former inquired whether the Ngatirocowas, from a.
visit to whom, at Otaki, Raupero was returning, intended
to pursue the war; and Raupero, with his usual cunning,

replied that he had dissuaded them from so doing—that he
was tired of wars, meant to go to live at Wairao, out of
the way of them, and made Warepori a present of Kapiti.
Considering how many times he has sold all his interests
in the island, the gift cannot be considered worth much.
Saturday, 16th November.—Notwithstandin
my
anxiety to leave this place, no chance has ofi'ered of efiecting
my object. We have repeatedly hove short, and made

ready for sea, and as often have been disappointed by the
wind failing.

146

rue KNOWSLEY Rives.

Not to be entirely idle, I got off from Wakenai three
chiefs of Wanganui, or Knowsley River, who are here with
about 200 men, to assist the Ngatiawas, with whom they
are in alliance, in their war.

With these chiefs I nego

tiated the purchase of all their district from Manawatu to
Patea. It is impossible to complete the bargain except on
the spot with the numerous tribe, living there ; but, having
obtained the signatures of two chiefs to a deed, a third,
who is supposed to be the most influential man in the tribe,
was deputed to accompany me, and to receive the remain
der of the payment amongst their people.
The Knowsley River has been repeatedly spoken of in

England as a place likely to become of great importance
from its being a river harbotu communicating with the

fertile plains in the interior of the North Island; and,
althoughlpressed for time, I resolved to devote a day or
two to ascertain its value, and that of the neighbouring
country. In the evidence taken by the Association in
1837, the river is stated to have a dangerous entrance, and

its navigation prevented by a fall near its mouth. The
natives are also stated to be very savage and to speak an
almost different language from that of the other tribes.
From the most correct information I can obtain, I have

ascertained that canoes have been ten days' voyage
up the riVer without its being necessary to track them over
any falls (which is, however, an uncertain mode of calcu
lation of distances) ; that it runs from the volcanic mountain
Ruapeha, passing another high mountain, Tongarido,
which is prQVed by the vast quantity of pumice-stone
which comes down its course, and being washed into the
Strait, is found on every beach; and that its source is

separated by this ran we of mountains, and at no great
distance from the lVai ato river and district. No vessel
has ever been known to enter it.

rilonday, 18M Norember.—-At length a light smitherly
wind enabled us to leave Kapiti; and running along the
coast to the northward, we passed successively \Vaiinen,
which is the next district to lVaikanai, the stream at which

place is nearly dried up, its lnain branch having diverted
itself into the Waikanai river, which, however, scarcely

THE KNOWSLEY RIVER;

147

admits a boat at high water. ’ Otaki, and Manawatu, are
both rivers also incapable of access to any craft.
Tuesday, 19th November.-—At daylight this morning
we found ourselves considerably to the northward of
Wanganui, having stood off shore. during the night; but
the weather being fine, and a north-east wind blowing 011’

the land, rendering the approach safe, we stood in down
the land in search of the river.

The natives on board

never having seen the land from a ship, or at a greater
distance than the edge of the surf in their canoes, continu
ally misled us as to its situation, so that it was not till I
near night that we arrived of? its mouth. We stood off
again for the night, under easy sail; and on
Wednesday, 20th November, found ourselves abreast of
the object of our search.

Yesterda. ', in standing down the

coast, we found the water suddenly shoal, at a mile dis
tant from a point of land, to four fathoms. As the ship
draws fifteen feet, it was, therefore, advisable to keep an
Ofl'lng- We stood off and on at two miles from the shore,

in ten, and sometimes seven fathoms’ water; and Mr.
Barrett proceeded in aboat to sound at the entrance of the
river, whilst we took a view of the neighbouring country
from the mast-head. The mouth of the river lies in lati
tude 40 deg. 7 min., or thereabouts, and is open to the
south-west.
Its low headlands are about half-a-mile
apart; but from the southern point a. spit runs out above
water, forming a breakwater nearly half way across the
distance. The channel is consequently under the northern
bank, and a bar, on which at low tide the water breaks,
continues across it from the spit. Inside the bar, the
river opens, and presents, behind the spit, a considerable
space of smooth water, which continues for about two

miles, where the course turns to the eastward, and was
lost to our View. Mr. Barrett, who is an old sailor, found
215 fathoms on the bar as he went in, and three, four, and
five fathoms inside. He went up the river about a mile,
and landed the chief I had brought with me amongst some

of his people, who had come from Hirpah, which is situ
ated six miles higher up the banks.

The natives, who

have never been on board a ship, were much alarmed at

148

THE KNOWSLEY RIVER;

our appearance, conceiving that we mi ht be bound on a
similar visit to that of the Alligator in 835.
Indications of a gale appearing, our pilot returned to
the ship immediately, and only just in time. On re
crossing the bar, he found only two fathoms’ water, which
was be 'nning to break. The tide was then at half-ebb,

and ha fallen about five feet perpendicular.

The sound

ings on the bar, at high-water, may be taken at near three
fathems. Some appearances of occasional heavy freshes
presented themselves near the heads, in drift timber, 81c.
By the time our pilot arrived on board, it was blowing
hard, and in less than ten minutes afterwards, we were
glad to beat of? the coast, under close-reefed topsails, in a
cry north-west gale.

The principal object of my visit was thus frustrated
for the moment; and time will not allow me to return to

Wanganui, which I consider a place of great importance.
It is certainly capable of admitting good-sized craft with
the flood-tide, and may hereafter, by means of steam-boats,
become the outlet of the produce of an immense district,
if not of the whole extent of the Northern Island. The
inhabitants are not less civilized than the other tribes in
these parts; and lately having received native missionaries
amongst them from Kafia and Waikato, are decidedly
more advanced that their neighbours to the southward.
the Ngatirocowas, who refuse all missionary interference.

The dialect of Wanganui is peculiar, and is the subject of
merriment to the Ngatiawas, as that of a Yorkshireman is
to a Londoner. Yesterday, in our search for lVanganui,
we passed off the mouths of two other small rivers to the
northward of it, viz., lVastatera and Patea, both of ,which

will admit boats at high-water. Thus, I am able to speak,
from my own knowledge, of this coast to within thirty
miles of Waimate, where the Alligator landed a party of
marines for the rescue of Mrs. Guard, in 1835. Part of
the journal of an officer on board that ship, quoted in the
Present State of New Zealand, furnishes a. description of

the remainder of the coast from Waimate, round Cape
Egmout, to the Sugar Loaf Islands, our present destination.

here is no appearance of the horse—shoe-shaped bay laid
.s

nouu’r EGMONT.

149

down in some of the charts as Taranake Bay; and from
the information of Mr. Barrett and the natives, who

walked the whole length of this coast in their migration
from Taranake, the land forms a. semicircular bay from
Otaki, which is fifteen miles to the northward of Kapiti,
to Cape Egmont. This lee-shore, from the prevalence and
violence of the south-west and north-west winds, is danger
ous ground. A vessel embayed during one of these gales
would have difficulty to get off the coast; and as the

sea breaks at two miles off the shore, anchoring is nearly
out of the question. The soundings are very shallow
along the whole coast. At nearly twenty miles at sea,
we found only seventeen fathoms ofi‘ Cape Egmont.

Several small vessels have been driven ashore in the bight
and knocked to pieces.
The land near the sea continues low from Waikanai to
Wanganui; after which a cliff, which gradually heightens
as you approach the cape, but on the top of which the land
is perfectly level over an immense district, bounds the
beach. The face of this flat land presents a pleasing pros—
pect after the long-continued sight of the mountains in all
the other parts of the Strait; and the soil, according to all
accounts, is fertile.
Thursday, November 213t.-—In twenty-four hours the
gale abated, and we found ourselves in the middle of the
Strait, with a prospect of a long passage round Cape Eg
mont. Vessels are sometimes Weeks before they can leave
the Strait during north-west winds.

Friday, November 22d.—-This morning found us within
sight of and at a distance of fifty miles from Mount Eg—
mont; which presented a grand and venerable appearance.
The perpetual snow commences at about two-thirds up the
mountain, which would give its height 9,000 feet. It is
called in the charts 14,000 feet high; but a trigonometri
cal measurement by a German professor, who was here in
a Russian man-of-war, makes it 7,000 feet. N0 appear
ance of volcanic action in the mountain has of late been

noticed, or is remembered by the natives. Tongarido also
became visible in the course of the day.

It seems at 70

miles' distance equal in size and height to Mount Egmont.
0

150

POPULATION or coox‘s srnsr'rs.

native tradition describes these mountains and Ruapeho as
once close together, but that a quarrel taking place among“
them, the two sisters, Tongarido and Ruapeho, in a. pet,

removed themselves to a distance.
Having now traversed Cook’s Strait in every direction,
and seen its coasts from Cape Farewell to Cape Campbell
on one side, and from Cape Palliser to Cape Egmont on the
other, and visited its principal harbours, besides learning

the qualities of all, I shall conclude my observations on this
part of the countr with a table of population in the two
provinces, which l'have drawn out from evidence collected
on the spot, and upon which I can rely. It is the only at
tempt at an estimate of the population of these parts which

I know of.
Going about as I have done, amongst the different
tribes on equally friendly terms with all, and exciting no
jealousies by exclusive communication with any particular
one, I have been able to learn more, and more exactly, than

those who have resided under the protection of one tribe
I have refrained hitherto, however, from stating any
result of my observations on the customs and habits of the

inhabitants of these islands, from a. feeling that conclusions
on the subject arrived at hastily, and with the few oppor
tunities our party, ignorant of the language, has had in our

hurried visits to different ports, in a ship always under
sailing-orders, must be liable to error from a deficiency of
premises; particularly when we consider that the native
informants vary from each other and in their own state

ments, and that it is only by dint of reiterated comparisons
that the truth on any subject can be gained from them.
Moreover, any information I could now ve on the meagre
ubject of the mode of life of these peop e, would add but
little to the science of ethnography, and would be but a
mere repetition of the substance of many published works,
which has been admirably collated in the volume of Enter
taining Knowledge, The New Zealanden, and in the Pre

165131flute of New Zealand, published by the Associationin
I promise myself, however, to
you the amount of
' my Observation in greater maturity at a future time, than
I could now do, on the peculiarities of these people.

vommuzou TABLE.

151

A Table qf the Pvpulation qf the Province: qf North and

South Durham, and qf the Islands qf Kapiti and Mam,
Cook’s Strait.
of
Place Name
of Residence.

Collective Name

of Tribe.

w;‘;f1"“""_ “'9”

Special Name

Number“

of Tribe.

} Ngafiawa. . . . Ngafiawa Proper . .

90

Pukatap ...-....
Ngatiawa....{ Ngatitanm . . . . . .
Ngatiawa Proper.. 250
Kafia ....... Ngatimruu . . .. . .
Rangitom, D'Urville's Island Kafia .. . . . . . Kafia .. . . .
50
Admiralty Isles, and Oyerrl}Kafia "u."
200
Ri\'ur.................
{
}
Mnnacuri........
Queen Charlotte‘s Sound and
'
Pukatap
...-...
Ngatmwa.... Ngafimafimn . }1200
Tory Channel........ .
Tainap, Blind Bay.-.-....{

Tanuwa. .. . .

CloudyBay.........-....

Kaila-...... Ngatiraruaggamutu. .
Ngatiawn" .- Nmm.‘ '
"

.

250
'

gamma . . . . . .

Port Nlcholson . . . . . . . . . . .

Ngamavfldicum _ _

500

Ateranui....
Taranake. . . .
Olmrio, Cape Terrawitte . . . Ngatiawa. . . .
Makurotawidi............ Ngatiawa..-.

Aterunui........
annnuke .. . . . .
Ngatitamu . . . . Ngatitama. ......

40
50

Timi . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...

Ngatimma ......

60

Ngatiawa....

Perorua . . . . . . . . . . . . . .... Kafia.......
\Vaikanai . . . . . . . . - . . . . . . Ngatinwu. . . .
Omki
Ngatirocowa..
Manuwetu ..‘...-....... Kafia.......
Wigwam“ or .Kfmfidey } Wauganui .. .
\Vnitumrr.

..

Kufia ..........
60
Ngntiawa Proper .. 400
Ngatirocowa..... 1000
Panahida........
100
Wanganui . . . . . . 1500

None . . . . . . . None.

Pam:

Ngatiawu...-

Waitowm....-..

200

Waimate Rangitoapeki . . . .
Ommntua................
Menu-on Island 6: Tuannke
Maunkuri River . . . . . . . . . .
Moknu

Aterunui . . . .
Taranuke....
Ngatiawa. . . .
None . . . . . . .
Ngatiawa....

Atemnni . .
-..
Taranake..
Ngamum . - . . . . . .
None.
NgatiawaProper..

209
150
60
150

6500
..
Kaplfl
.........

Mann .......

.
Kafia ..........
.... .. Kahu......._{Ngafirm___m}
120

0.611

30

Total....-..-......]

’02

152

SUGAR LOAF ISLANDS.

Sugar Loaf Islands, Wednesday, November 2705.
At length, after a tedious voyage of nine days from
Kapiti, being only 130 miles off, having experienced much
bad weather and three gales of wind, we anchored this
morning in nine fathoms water, at two miles from the land

to the north of these islands. The gale had left a heavy
swell, which caused a great surf on the beach so as to pre
vent a boat landing. Mr; Barrett, with Taurau and Ewarre,
whom you will recollect I brought from Port Nicholson,

went near the land in a boat, and succeeded, after some
time, in making themselves recognised by the inhabitants.
Two chiefs swam off to the boat through the surf and came
on board the ship. This specimen of communication with
the shore will give a bad opinion of the place as regards its
roadstead, and I can say nothing to remove or palliate it.
It is completely open to the north-west, and never accessi<
ble but after a long calm or south-east wind, both of which
are rare events. Ships, moreover, would have difficulty in
going to sea if a gale came on suddenly.
No talking on the part of the natives took place in the
boat; surprise at seeing their old friends, and the national

custom, preventing any demonstrations of feeling; but-after
coming on board, an affecting scene took place, in which
one of the new comers-described the wretched existence

that he and his companions had led since the mass of their
tribes had migrated to Cook’s Strait, six years ago. Con
tinual war had been carried on against them by the Wai
kato people; and nothing but the refuge afforded by the
Sugar-loaf peaks had preserved the small remnant, not
amounting to more than fifty, who still held their ground,
with occasional assistance from their Southern neighbours.
They expressed great anxiety respecting their future fate;
hoped their enemies, being new Missionaries, would no
longer persecute them; but declared their determination

not to remove from, but to die on the land of their grand

sires.
Mr. Williams had been here a fortnight ago, and had
left at Qtamatua, where the original Taranake people live,
many missionary books and some instructors.
The country to the south of Mount Egmont, after

comr'rnr some or MOUNT concur.

153

doubling the Cape, appears extremely valuable: an im
mense table-land extends as far as the eye can reach, no
part of which is free from vegetation. The finest flax grows
nearly to the sea-side. Immediately at the base of the
mountains towards the sea, many volcanic appearances pre
sent themselves in the confused assemblage of hillocks, the

nature of the rocks, and the black sand surrounding them.
The mountain commences at about twenty miles from the
coast, and slopes dowrr gradually to the north for at least

forty miles. Within this slope and the sea is a fertile un~
dulating plain, covered with small timber and abundant

vegetation.

It is belted by a narrow ridge of sand-hum

mocks; and in its fertility and general appearance strongly
reminds one of French Flanders, to which its dangerous
and inconvenient coast further assimilates it.
Thursday, November 28th.—It being impossible to col
lect the chiefs, whose consent is requisite for the transfer
of the land from Manawetu to Mokou, under at least a

week, and having been detained so much by baffling winds,
I determined not to remain longer here, but to leava Mr.

Barrett, who would be an efficient agent in the transac
tion, from his intimate knowledge of the territory 1 am
desirous to acquire, from his personal influence With the
chiefs, and from the acknowledged claims he has by his
marriage and the birth of his children on the land. He
accordingly landed this momin with his wife and children,
with instructions to assemble t e numerous chiefs resident
on a coast-line of 150 miles, in a month’s time, when I am

to return to make the payment for the different districts,
and receive the written assent of tho chiefs to the sale.
Notwithstanding the qualities of the soil of the Taranake
district, which are allowed to be superior to those of any land

in these islands, such is the difficulty of communicating
with it by water, that I do not see any probability of settlers
being placed there for some years. Looking, however, to the
future, and t0 the interests of the Company's future repre_
sentatives, and hoping that by the unconqucrable energies

of British inhabitants, this country will shortly assume a
different aspect as regards its interior communications,--_
sanguiner hoping even to see commenced such an under
03

VOYAGE TO HOKIANGA.

aking as the construction of a road from this district and
that of all the valuable land to the northward, to Port
Nicholson, a distance not more than 156 miles, in which,
however, many obstacles in the mountain ranges occur,—
I cannot but be anxious to secure this fine territory. The
many conflicting interests and division of the occupants,
whose numbers and places of residence you will find in

the table, would render it almost impossible for any indi
vidual, without shipping and large means at his disposal,
to acquire this portion of country; and the agent I have
employed is, from his connexion with the natives, perhaps

the only man who could negotiate the bargain.

I have

every hope that on my return here the completion of it
will be efi'ected.
Dr. Diefl'enbach, the naturalist, also remained on shore

here, with the view of ascending Mount Egmont, and of
examining the country in the neighbourhood. As it could
seldom happen that a man of science should have the op
portunity of being put down here, with a family who
could protect him, in what has, hitherto been considered,
with reason, the wildest part of New Zealand; with time

to examine the most important district, as regards geology
and mineralogy, in these islands, and to be taken off again
when he had achieved his object, I strongly recommended
him to stay here in preference to proceeding to Kaipaia,
which has been visited by many naturalists, and presents
nothing so worthy of the examination of the learned. “is
got under weigh so soon as the party had landed, and

with a fair wind stood to the northward.
Hokianga, Monday, December 2nd.

Contrary winds, which seemed to pursue us since quit
ting Kapiti, kept us at sea till to-day. Findin , on look
ing over Mr. Macdonnell's memoranda, that
the chief
parties to the treaty respecting the land at Kaipara reside

in the Hokianga or the Bay of Islands, and that nothing
could be done without them in enforcing the claim, I de- ~
crded on going first to Hokianga. We' found the bar by
no means so formidable as usually represented, and the

Pilot-arrangements as described in the books. The least

VISIT FROM THE BARON on rnrnnnr.

155

water we found on the bar at high water was 313— fathoms,
and there was no break when we crossed it.

It must,

however, not be disguised that vessels have been detained
at the heads for a fortnight, without being able to pass the
bar outwards, and‘that many are obliged to keep to sea
several days before they can enter the river. The largest
vessel ever in here drew nineteen feet water. We ran up
the river, which is easy of navigation, twenty-six miles,
and anchored in the usual place for ships that come here
to take in timber. On our way up we passed Herd’s Point,
which is' a small tract of land on the left bank of the
river, and well suited for the site of a town. Behind it is
a district of five or six miles, reaching up to a'ridge of
mountains. Exactly opposite to the Point is the Motuka
raka estate and river, belonging to the Company, and hav
ing a frontage of many miles to the river Hokianga. Four
miles beyond the anchorage is the Hourake estate, which
embraces three miles of frontage by five miles in depth,
and a valuable plain agricultural district on the top of
some gently-sloping hills.

At the Hourake is Mr. Mac

donnell’s establishment, on which a great outlay has been

made. It presents amost cheering sight after the whaling
stations to the southward. The cowrie spars and logs lie
about here in profusion. They are the staple produce of

the place, and nothing in the way of timber can exceed
their beauty. Many of them are one hundred feet long
and thirty inches square, of equal size the whole length.
The Wesleyan missionary station at Mungungu has asmall
establishment, containing some poor farm-buildings and a

printing-office; The Missionaries possess but little land
here, and, unlike the Church Missionaries, are not anxious
to extend their possessions. Mr. White, the late prin~
cipal of the Wesleyans here, is the largest proprietor
of land in the Hokianga, and perhaps in New Zealand.
Since arriving here last year he has been constantly pur
chasing land here, at Kaipara, and at Manuka.
Friday, 3rd December.-Whilst visiting parts of the
river to-day, the Baron de Thierry called on board. His
claims hereabout are very extensive, and from all I can
collect, not without foundation. He commissioned Mr.

156

FOREIGN SETTLERS.

Kendall, of the Church Mission, some

cars ago, to pur

chase land for him here, and gave him i001. for the pur
pose of paying for it. Mr. Kendall acquired an immense
district between this place and the Bay of Islands, but
only paid the natives thirty-six axes for it. The deeds,
however, were re larly executed by the chief's, who were
at that time sati ed with the consideration received. As
land, however, became of value, they have been induced
to resell portions to other Europeans, and now say that
the axes were only a present made to them by Mr. Kendall.
The Baron is consequently in dispute with all the proprio

tors on this district, and talks of waiting the arrival of a
French man-of-war to eject the trespassers.
A French bishop has purchased land, and formed an
establishment half-way up the river. He has a few pro
selytes, who refer his form of worship to that of the
Wesleyans. 2 Belgian naturalist has also an extensive
property near the heads of the river.
Wednesday, 4th Deocmber.——Our party dined to-day at

the Missionary station. The principal, Mr. Bumby, a
liberal'minded, sensible, and legitimate Missionary, receives
his countrymen visiting the river with great hospitality.

He is desirous to plant Missionaries in various places on
the west coast, which the Church Mission have yielded to
the Wesleyans, whilst they' take the eastern shores of

these islands. With this view, Mr. Bumby has lately
made an excursion over all his district, with the exception
of Taranake and W'angania, and has visited the interior of
the country at Kafia, where he has left a Missionary esta
blishment. He also visited Port Nicholson just before I
was there, and conceived that he had secured the land at

Thorndon, till I informed him that the chiefs had disre—
garded the verbal taboo he had made, and sold the entire
place to the Company.

Thursday, December 5th.—Great pains are requisite to
ascertain the real proprietors or claimants of land here

abouts. After ascertaining those who formerly claimed
and sold Herd’s Point, and the parties to the Kaipara
treaty, I despatched messengers to-day to the Bay of

Islands to bring over some of the Napuhi chiefs.

The

NATIVES or THE NORTHERN ISLAND.

157

journey to the Bay of Islands is performed in two days on
foot, and a good road might be made across the island here
without much trouble. Nearly the whole district, which
is very valuable in an agricultural view, is owned by mem

bers of the Church Mission, which has a large fanning
establishment at Waimate, half-way across the island.
They own also immense districts on the Thames.
Friday, December tit/a—The contrast between the natives

here and those in Cook’s Strait is most striking. In person,
our friends to the South are far superior as to height and
appearance. Unaccustomed to the luxuries introduced
here by the European ships and the traders of the Bay of
Islands, the tribes of the southward eagerly bring the pro
duce of their labour to strangers visiting them, and are
satisfied with small profits. The natives here never come
to a ship to trade, and will not, without great persuasion
and high prices, supply those who send to them for provi
sions. Independently of this acquired indifference to trade
on the part of those who possess anything, there is a great
scarcity of all commodities for the table, in consequence of
the‘ neglect of cultivation of land by the natives, who
acquire larger profits by cutting down and dragging timber,
and of white people who own land, having turned away
the original possessors from the spots that were used to
raise potatoes and corn. No vessel can depend on finding
supplies here, except from the white people and at English

prices.
The river has been represented as abounding in fish,
which is not the case. Our net has not supplied our table,
and the natives will not condescend to angle, which they
might do near the heads of the river with advantage.
The land throughout the river is of a. sandy clay, which,
when not covered with trees, presents a dry and barren
appearance; and the banks are a collection of mud and
mangroves, which in most places prevent a landing. The
soil is certainly not to be compared with the alluvial land
in the valleys in the south; but it is productive beyond any
idea that its appearance would lead one to form; and,
favoured as it is by a most enial climate, yields abundant

crops. The vine flourishes 1n the worst ports of it. The

158

iNl-‘ERIORITY or

run sourusns

eowrie, however, is the principal and most important pro
duce of the hills here; which do not offer a field for British
husbandry by any means so inviting as the plains of Tara
nake, which all the natives agree in calling the garden of
New Zealand. The whole country as far as south of K afia
is of the same description as hereabouts. Except for

timber, therefore, and for facilities of water-carriage and
exportation, I do not think that this part of the country

can be compared with the possessions of the Company on

the southern part of the island; and, if a communication
shall be found between Taranake and Port Nicholson,
which is a much finer harbour than any on this coast,—
or even if Knowsley River be found available, of which I

have sanguine hopes, the Company will have no cause to
regret the previous occupation of the land here-abouts by
Missionary and other owners.
The want of the small vessel I expected is now severely
felt by me. It prevents my examining the VVaikato and
Kafia harbours, and forestalling the numerous speculators
who are arriving every day from New Holland. Should

it become advisable at a future time for the Company to
possess these harbours, it will be effected at a much larger
cost than at the present moment.
Wednesday, December lltk.-Whilst waiting for the

chiefs from the Bay of Islands, I have examined the prin
cipal portions of this river, and can see no spot at all
adapted for the situation of a large town. The shoalness
of the‘ water, the numerous mud-flats and banks, and the

rapidity of the tide, present everywhere obstacles and
inconvenience for shipping; whilst the numerous creeks
and man ove-swamps, intersecting fine districts and
breaking t e face of the country, ofi‘er no less impediments
to the settler. The bar at' the entrance also must not be
forgotten amongst the disadvantages of this river.

Having assembled the chiefs, I went to-day with the
three principal ones to take possession of Herd' Point
and the Motukaraka. property. Not being provided with
the deeds of the former purchase, I was obliged to rely on
the chiefs for a description of the boundaries, which I went

over With them.

It as always been supposed that this

TO THE sou'mnnn ISLAND.

159

purchase extended over a large district up to the range of
hills; but of late the chiefs have sold all but the Point,
which is about a mile square, to Mr. \Vhite and others.
Their right to do so must be decided by the wording of
the deed. The point they gave me possession of contains
good land, and is a good situation; but its size of course
offers no inducement to form a township on it, neither does
the opposite land, when examined, present a much more
flattering prospect.
kalay, December 13lk.—-The chiefs arrived from the
Bay of Islands to-day, and we wait for a fair wind to cross
the bar and proceed to Kaipara. I have purchased of Mrs.
Blenkinsopp, the widow of Captain Blenkinsopp, whom I
have mentioned as having bought the \Vairoa and other
property in Cloudy Bay, all her rights and claims to the
same. This com letes the Company's title to that part of
the Southern Island; and is of importance as the finest
district thereabouts and connected with Kaikora or the
Lookers-on, which has been represented as a harbour.
I have the honour to be, Sir,
Your most obedient servant,
W. WAKEFIELD.

To John Ward, Esq., Secretary of the

New Zealand Company, &c.

PORT NICHOLSON, NEW ZEALAND.

Just Published,

A CHART OF PORT NICHOLSON,
(our: LARGE SHEET,)
Svnvnrsn BY Ms. E. M. CHAFFERS, R.N.
PRICE ONE SHILLING AND SIXPRNCI.

Published, by pennissz'on of the New Zealand Cmnpany,
By JAMES WYLD, Geographer to the Queen,
Charing Cross East, London.

,\

N0.Vll.

THE

FIRST REPORT
OF THE

DIRECTORS
OF THE

NEW

ZEALAND COMPANY,

Pnrsnu'rsn TO
THE FIRST GENERAL MEETING
0]"

THE SHAREHOLDERS,
.Mrv 14m, 1840.

At the First General Meeting of the Shareholders of the NW
Zsanmn COMPANY, held at their House, in Broad Street
Buildings, on THURSDAY, the 14th of May, 1840 :—
JOSEPH SOMES, Esra, (DEPUTY-GOVERNOR» in the Chair—
Moved by Jan-sums PILCHIB, Esq.-Seconded by EDWIN
BRYANT, Esq.
Resolved :»

I. That the Report now read be adopted, and printed for the
use of the Proprietors; and that the thanks of this Meeting be
offered to the Governor, Deputy-Governor, and Directors, for their

attention to the interests of the Company, and their management of
its affairs up to the present time.
Moved by EDMUND Harswnnn, limp—Seconded by J0m: Hans,
Esq.

Resolved :—
11. That the Deed now submitted to the Meeting (comprising
the names of the Directors and Auditors this day chosen) be adopted
as the Deed 0f>Settlement of the Company,

$59

No. VII.

FIRST REPORT
From the Directors to the Shareholders of the New

Zealand Company.

1. Your Directors consider the time to he arrived when
it is their duty to present to you a Report of the progress
and prospects of the important undertaking which you
have confided to their charge. Although a year has
scarcel elapsed since the operations of the Company com~
mence , yet the magnitude of those operations, and the
success which has attended them, appear to be sufficient
reasons for inviting your attendance at an earlier cried,
than that at which the shareholders of companies are
usually for the first time assembled. ,

2. The plantation of a British colony in New Zealand is
an object for the attainment of which numerous plans and
projects have at various times been formed, but which it
was reserved for you to carry into actual effect. The
present Company is the result of the union of three distinct
associations previously existing with similar views. To
these united interests have been added the subscriptions
of a new body of proprietors, whereby the Company
has not only acquired a capital more than ample for the
prosecution of its objects, but stands without a rival in the
field of its enterprise, or in the favourable opinion of the
public.
3. OF the three associations now merged in this Com
pany, the earliest was the New Zealand Company of 1825.
This co-partnership comprised names of high respectability;
and its head was your first noble Governor, the earl of

Durham.

It despatched two vessels to New Zealand, at
P 2

164

rue rmsr nsronr

an expense exceeding 20,000l.,-—obtained the promise of a
charter from the government of King George the Fourth,
and acquired tracts of land, among other places, at Herd's
Point, on the Hokianga, at Manukau, in the Islands of Wai
keke and Paroa, and on the borders of the Thames. The Com

pany was prevented by adverse circumstances from forming
a settlement, but its lands were set apart, and have been
respected by the natives up to the present day. A contract
has been entered into, whereby these lands are to be forth
with conveyed to the present Company *, and several of
the most influential members of the old body now appear
in the list of your Directors.
4. To the labours of the New Zealand Association of
1837, you are materially indebted for having directed the
public mind towards the scene of your operations, and

pointing out the peculiar advantages offered by New
Zealand as an emigration-field. The aim of that society
was to induce the legislature to apply to New Zealand the
South-Australian principle of colonization, and at the same
time to make provision for guarding the native inhabitants
from the evils to which irregular intercourse with Euro
peans had long exposed them. After protracted negotia
tions, Her Majesty’s government offered to the association
a Royal Charter, upon condition that it should form itself

into a joint-stock company.

“Colonization,” said the

Secretary of State, “to no small extent is effected in these

islands.

The only question, therefore, is between a colo

nization, desultory, without law, and fatal to the natives,

and a colonization organized and salutary. Her Majesty’s
government are therefore disposed to entertain the
proposal of establishing such a colony. They are willing
to

consent to the incorporation, by Royal

Charter, of

various persons, to whom the settlement and government
of the projected colony should for some short term of
years he confided. The charter would be framed with
reference to the precedents of the colonies established in
North America, by Great Britain, in the sixteenth and
' Inprofits.
consideration of 400 shares, and a fu rth 6r "mant out of
future

or m nmnc'rons.

seventeenth centuries‘."

165

The conditions required being

at variance with the declared character of the asso
ciation, which had expressly excluded from its objects all
commercial speculations, its members had no alternative

but to decline the charter, however desirable in other
respects. The association determined to persevere in its
original design. At its instance 'the Earl of Devon, early
in the session of 1838, moved for and obtained a select

committee of the House of Lords to inquire into the state

of the islands of New Zealand, which collected and pub
lished a mass of authentic and important information
relating to the country and its inhabitants, and proving the
urgent need of systematic colonization. The Lords’ Com
mittee, however, eXpressed no opinion on the main question
at issue, but resolved “that the extension of the British

Colonies was a question belonging exclusively to the
Crown.”

The association, however, was not discouraged

from proceeding with the bill which it had prepared,
entitled, “ A Bill for the provisional government of British

settlements in the islands of New Zealand.” This measure
proposed to appoint commissioners under the crown, to
treat with and purchase land from the natives, and, upon
cession of sovereignty, to convert the lands into British
territory, to be governed by British law: making, however,

exceptional regulations, in favour of the natives! to protect
them from their own ignorance and to promote their moral
and social improvement. It proposed also to exercise legal
authority over all lawless British subjects, in all parts of

the islands. The colonial government was to afford an
adequate provision for religious worship of every denomina
tion, and a bishop of the established church was to be
appointed by the Crown to reside in New Zealand. This
bill was introduced by the Chairman of the association, (the
Hon. Francis Baring), and on the second reading was
defeated by means of the opposition of Her Majesty’s
Ministers, although it was ably supported by several influ
ential and independent members on both sides of the house.
The rejection of the bill caused great disappointment not
* Letter from Lord Glenelg to the Earl of Durham, dated 29th
December, 1837.

3
P

166

THE runs-r nsPoa-r

only to its immediate promoters, but to the many enligh~
tened persons who promote colonization generally, on
public grounds.
5. On the dissolution of the association, some of its
members formed a plan, according to the suggestion of
Her Majesty's Government, for the prosecution of its
leading objects, by means of a joint-stock company. On
the 29th August, 1838, a private co-partnership was esta
blished under the name of the New Zealand Colonization
Company, which gradually increased in strength, until,
in the spring of the year 1839, it had raised funds suffi

cient to purchase an extensive territory in New Zealand,
(principally surrounding the harbours of Hokianga. and
Kaipara in the northern island), and to fit out a. prelimi

nary expedition for surveying the coasts, making further
purchases and preparing for the early arrival of a. body of
settlers. The parties by whom these objects had been
effected, agreed ‘ to

transfer their interests to a more

extended company in consideration of receiving in such
new company an equivalent amount of stock, to be deter
mined by arbitration*: and they have accordingly assigned
the whole of their property, rights, and interests, of every
description, to the present proprietary. On the 2nd of
May, 1839, the co-partnership called the “ New Zealand
Colonization Company," ceased to exist, and the first pro
spectus of the “ New Zealand Company,” calleder a time

the f‘ New Zealand Land Company," was issued to the
public.
6. Your Directors, although they at first contemplated
raising a larger sum, determined, after some deliberation,
to fix the amount of the Company's capital at 100,000l., in
4,000 shares of 25L each. The whole of this capital

having been subscribed, your Directors consider the amount
to be amply sufficient for the Company’s operations.
7. The views with which the preliminary expedition was
despatched, both as regards the acquirement of territory
for colonization, and the treatment of the native race, are

fully developed in the first instructions given to Colonel
' Fixed by the arbitrator at 1600 Shares.

or THE numerous.

167

Wakefield, the Company’s principal agent, which have
for some time been before the public. In accordance with
the plan indicated in these instructions, your Directors in
the first instance offered for sale a limited portion of the
lands to be comprised within the first and principal Settle
ment to be founded by the Company. The following
extract from the Terms of Sale, dated 1st June, 1839,

expresses the conditions under which these preliminary
sales were made :—
“ The object of the Company will be so to determine the place of
their first Settlement, as to insure its becoming the commercial
capital of New Zealand, and, therefore, the situation where land
will soonest acquire the highest value by means of colonization.

Within this district, the site of the Company’s chief town will be
carefully selected; after which, out of the whole territory there
acquired, a further selection will be made of the most valuable
portion as respects fertility, river frontage, and vicinity to the town.
The site of the town will consist of 1100 acres, exclusive of portions
marked out for general use, such as quays, streets, squares, and
public gardens. The selected country lands will comprise 110,000

acres.

The situation of the whole quantity of acres constituting the

first settlement, will, accordingly, be determined by a double selec
tion ;~-first, of the best position with reference to all the rest of
New Zealand; and secondly, of the most valuable portion of the

land acquired by the Company in that position, including the site of
the first town. The lands of this first and principal settlement,
therefore, if both selections are properly made, will be more valuable,
and ,will sooner possess the highest value than any other like extent

of land in the Islands.
“ These doubly-selected lands will be divided into 1100 sections,
each section comprising one town-acre, and 100 country-acres. 110
sections will be reserved by the Company, who intend to distribute
the same as private property amongst the chief families of the tribe,
from which the lands shall have been originally purchased. The
remainder, being 990 sections of 101 acres each, are now offered for
sale in sections, at the price of lOll. for each section, or 11. per acre.
“ In return for the purchase-money, the Company will deliver to
the purchaser of each section, an order on their officers in the settle
ment, which will entitle the holder thereof, or his agent, to select one
town-acre, and a country section of 100 acres, according to a. priority
of choice, to be determined by lot, subject tothe provisions hereinafter

mentioned.
“ The lots for priority of choice will be drawn at the Company’s
office in London, in the presence of the Directors, on a day of which
public notice will be given.

168

'ma FIRST naronr

“An officer of the Company will draw in the same manner for the
HO sections reserved and intended for the native chiefs; and the
choice of these reserved sections will be made by an officer of the

Company in the settlement, according to the priority so determined.
“ The choice of sections, of which the priority has been so deter
mined by lot in England, will take place in the settlement, as soon

after the arrival of the first body of colonists as the requisite surveys
and plans shall have been completed, and will be made under such

regulations as an ofiicer of the Companyin thesettlement, authoriu d
in that behalf, may prescribe. Neglect, or refusal to comply with
such regulations will occasion a forfeiture of the choice ; and vest the
right of selection in such officer as to the sections in regard to which

the choice shall have been forfeited.
“ The land~orders will be transferable at the pleasure of the

holders; and a registry will be kept at the Company’s offices in Lon
don, and in the settlement, as well of original land-orders, as of all
transfers thereof.

“Of the 99,990]. to be paid to the Company by purchasers, 25
per cent. only, or 24,9971. 10s., will be reserved to meet the ex
penses of the Company. The remainder, being 75 per cent., or

74,992]. lOs. will be laid out by the Company for the exclusive
benefit of the purchasers, in giving value to the land sold by defray
ing the cost of emigration to this FIRST and PRXNCIPAL SETTLEMENT.
“ Purchasers of land-orders intending to emigrate with the first
colony, (which it is proposed shall depart by the middle of August
next), will be entitled to claim from the Company, out of the

74,992]. 103. set apart for emigration, an expenditure for their own
passage, and that of their families and servants, equal to 75 per cent.
of their purchase-money, according to regulations framed by the

Company with a view to confining the free passage to Mill-'11 colonists.
But unless this claim he made in London by written application to
the Secretar , delivered at the office of the Company, on or before a

day of whic

public notice will be given, it will be considered as

waived.

“ The remainder of the 74,9921. 10s. set apart for emigration, will
be laid out by the Company in providing a free passage for yr)ng

persons of the labouring class, and as far as possible of the two sexes
in equal proportion.”

It will be observed that the principle of colonization thus
adopted by the Company is the sale of its lands at an uni
form and sufficient price, and the employment of the greater
portion of the purchase-money as anemigration fund. The
South Australian system has thus been followed as nearly
as the diversity of circumstances in the present case would
permit.

8. The lands comprised in the preliminary sales were,

V

A

_.s_- .7777;

or THE DIRECTORS.

-17

.

_ _. .

-er

169

it has been seen, offered to the public by anticipation. But
so strong was the public confidence in your Directors, that
within a few weeks, the whole of the preliminary sections
had been disposed of, and the Company had realized a land

revenue of 99,990l. The priority of choice of the purchasers
was determined by a ballot held at the Company’s office, in
the presence of your Directors, on the 29th July, the native

reserves partaking ot' the same benefits as other sections
from the chance of the lots. The whole of the preliminary
sections sold, from No. l, to 1100, have since experienced a

considerable rise in value, according to the priority of choice,
and the predilection of purchasers.
9. Your Directors have spared no pains to select an
efficient surveying stafl‘. The Surveyor-General, Captain
William Mein Smith, of the Royal Artillery, is an officer

of the first ability and of great energy ; and under him are
three assistant-surveyors and twenty-two men. The sur
veying staii', (together with a Commissioner instructed to
negotiate further purchases of land) was despatched, on the
let of August, in the barque Cuba, which vessel carried a
cargo of merchandize for the purpose of barter, and to pro
vide against the possible contingency of any accident to the
Tory. Your Directors furnished the Surveyor-General with
full instructions in regard to the surveys, and especially to
the laying out the plan of the town. They desired that
ample reserves should be made for all public purposes, such

as a cemetery, a market-place, wharfage, and probable pub
lic buildings, a botanical garden, a park, and extensive
boulevards,—that a broad belt of land should be left for
public use between the town and the country sections,—that

in the form of the town the future should be provided for
rather than the present,—-and that the public convenience
should be consulted, and the beautiful appearance of the
city secured so far as possible, rather than the immediate

profit of the Company. Your Directors are fully aware how
much depends upon the judicious operations of the surveying
department , and it is their intention to add further strength
to the surveying force when necessary; so that the surveys

may always be kept in advance of the demand for land.

10. Having despatched the surveyors, your Directors

170

THE rmsr REPORT

proceeded to make the arrangements for the departure of
the first colony; which comprised not only labouring emi
grants, but a body of settlers of asuperior class, comprising
members of some of the oldest and most respectable families
in the kingdom. From the annexed tabular list (Appendix
A.) you will perceive that 216 settlers of the superior class.
and 909 labouring emigrants, have already been forwarded

to New Zealand by means of the emigration fund, and that
12 ships, whose united tonnage amounts to 5390 tons, have

been despatched thither by the Company. Six of the ships
were taken up exclusively as emigrant ships, by contracts,
containing all requisite provisions for securing the health and
comfort of the passengers. A statement of the price per
ton at which each ship was hired will be found in Appendix

A.

Every vessel, whether emigrantlor storeship, was taken

up by public competition, after advertisement and tenders;
and no contract has been entered into without the sanction
of a board of Directors, nor without a satisfactory report

from the Company’s surveyor of the sea—worthiness of the
vessel and her adaptation for the service intended. It has
been the uniform object of your Directors to select the best
and cheapest ships which it was in their power to obtain,
having regard on the one hand to the security, convenience,
and comfort of the emigrants, and on' the other hand to that
strict economy which it is their duty to exercise in the ad
ministration of every branch of the Company’s expenditure.
It was not to be expected that the rates of freight to a coun
try in the circumstances of New Zealand should yet have
fallen to the level of the freights to longer established Aus

tralian colonies; but with the growth of the infant settle
ments, and the increasing means of obtaining return freiglus,

the rates from British ports to New Zealand will of course
experience a gradual reduction. The emigrants on board
each of the Company’s ships were placed under the special
charge of a surgeon-superintendent, appointed by your
Dlrectors, and were subjected to regulations, framed with

the view of promoting their physical well-being, and moral

Improvement during the voyage.
_ 11- The capital invested by the settlers in property con
s'gned t0 the colony being very considerable, your Directors

2“":

or THE masc'rons.

>319” 1"“ ~ rw‘ '

171

found it necessary to charter one ship for the principal
purpose of conve ing passengers’ goods, for which there
was not room in t e emigrant ships. Your Directors have
also deemed it their duty to send out an ample stock of
provisions, to supply the first wants of the settlers—to

provide arms for their defence in case of unforeseen attacks,
--and to forward buildings to be erected near the place of
landing, sufiicient to aiford temporary shelter to several hun
dreds of women, children, and invalids, part of which will
form a hospital, where medical aid will be dispensed to all
such-as ma require it. These precautions your Directors
have considhred indispensable for the relief of the early ne
cessities of the infant community.
12. In regard to the two ships, (the Brougham and
Platina) despatched in the month of February last, it is
proper to eXplain that the Brougham was chartered for the
conveyance of a further supply of flour and provisions ren
dered advisable on account of the recently advanced prices
in neighbouring colonies, which will, at all events, render the
sale of such articles an operation of profit to the Company.

The Platina was appropriated to the obviously desirable
object of conveying to the colony the government-house
built in this country for Captain Hobson, R.N. the eventual

Lieutenant-Governor'of New Zealand.
13. Your Directors have been deeply impressed with
the importance of doing all they legitimately can towards

imparting to the colony the means of religious and moral
instruction. Accordingly a resolution has been passed
whereby a free cabin passage to New Zealand has been, and
continues to be offered to religious ministers of every deno
mination, provided the grounds of a plication in each case

are considered satisfactory. Your Directors are gratified
in stating that two clergymen, the one of the Church of
England, the other of the Kirk of Scotland, have already
availed of this resolution. The former (the Rev. John
Frederick Churton), proceeded in the Bolton, with an en

dowment from the Society for the Propagation ,of the
Gospel in Foreign Parts, to which the colonists added a

considerable sum by subscription; and the latter (the Rev.

172

THE rmsr napon'r

Alexander Macfarlane), sailed from Glasgow in the Bengal
Merchant, with a liberal endowment from the National

Church of Scotland. The expediency of conferring endow
ments from the Company's lands upon all religious sects,
in aid of their respective forms of worship, and in sums
proportioned to the numbers of each sect, according to the
principle of the New Zealand Association of 1837, has not
escaped the consideration of your Directors, and they would
feel pleasure, if the increasing revenues of the Company
should, at an early period, justify them in granting such
endowments for religious, as well as educational purposes,
upon the principle mentioned.
14. The establishment of a circulating medium in the
new colony was one of the most obvious wants of the first
settlers. Your directors, with this view, have efi'ected an
arrangement with a bank of the first respectability, (the

Union Bank of Australia), for the opening of a Branch Bank
in New Zealand, and the manager and officers of this bank

have sailed in the Company’s ship Glenbervie. A colonial
currency will, by this means, be at once brought into cir
culation, and settlers are afforded the means of effecting
their pecuniary transactions with convenience and security.
The Union Bank issues bills on its New Zealand Branch
without any charge, on the money being deposited, thus
enabling Colonists to transmit their funds without any
deduction.

15. It is incumbent upon your Directors to acknowledge
with gratitude the remarkable encouragement they received
from public opinion during the progress of these operations.
The realization of your large land fund is of course entirely
attributable to the confidence of the public at large in our
principles and plans. The period of the departure of the
emigrant ships from London was marked by strong demon
strations of public sympathy, and the sailing of the Scotch
emigrants from the Clyde was hailed with a burst of enthu
siasm such has rarely has been witnessed. The dinner in
the Trade’s Hall at Glasgow, on the 22nd of October,
and the public meeting at the Mansion house, Dublin, on

the 2nd of November last, will be recorded as gratifying

or THE numerous.

173

proofs of the goodwill of persons whose station and in
fluence in society are such as to confer peculiar value upon
their approbation.

16. The active support of public opinion has proved of
the greater importance to your interests, inasmuch as your
Directors have, up to the present time, had to contend with
difficulties of no ordinary kind,-difiiculties which at the

time when their plan of action was formed, they had
no reason to apprehend,—and which they lament to state

have their origin in the hostile spirit entertained by Her
Majesty’s Executive Government towards this Company and
its objects. At the present day, when the national benefits
arising from systematic colonization are so well understood,
and so generally appreciated, it could scarcely have been
believed that Her Majesty’s advisers would have looked
with indifference upon any well contrived scheme for spread
ing the English name and race over distant lands, and for
raising up in another hemisphere new markets and new
consumers of the produce and manufactures of the mother
country. But in the present case, where not merely indif
ference has been exhibited, but the policy pursued towards

this body has been on every occasion to discountenance and
frustrate its operations, by‘ every means of which ofiicial
jealousy could avail, your Directors consider that they have

just grounds for complaining of the treatment, which as
representing the Company, they have received at the hands
of the government. Your Directors fully admit that it
would have been the duty of the government not only to
discourage, but absolutely to

prohibit and punish any

attempt by this, or any other association of private persons,
to invade in the slightest degree the legitimate authority of
the Crown, or of Parliament. But the supposition that
your Directors have ever entertained such views, or made

such pretensions, is one to which they are desirous of giving
the most positive contradiction, and is at total variance with
facts. The present Company was formed for the purpose
of employing capital in the purchase and re-sale of lands in
New Zealand, and the promotion of emigration to that
country. Its object has never been political, but purely
Q

174

THE sms'r REPORT

commercial, as will be best understood by reference to its
original prospectus published on the 2nd of May, 1839 :—
“ The purchase and improvement of waste lands in New
Zealand," said this prospectus, “has been already carried

on to a great extent, and with much advantage by mission
aries and others, who have settled in the country, as well as

by persons residing in the adjacent Australian Colonies;
and such an operation upon an enlarged scale is the pro
posed object of the New Zealand Company. The attention
and business of the Company will be confined to the
purchase of tracts of land,—the promotion of emigration
to those tracts directly from the United Kingdom,-—the
laying out of settlements and towns in the most favourable
situations,—and the gradual re-sale of such lands, according
to the value bestowed upon them by emigration and settle
ment. It is also proposed that to facilitate the transmission
of capital between England and New Zealand, the Com
pany shall act as agents for that purpose only. Such an
undertaking afi‘ords peculiar advantages to the employers
of a large combined capital, and is further suitable to a

Company, inasmuch as it can neither impede individual
enterprise, nor is liable to the competition of individuals,

and is capable of being managed at little expense and upon
a system of fixed routine.”
It is important to keep in view these objects of the
Company, as originally notified to the public, and never
since altered or departed from by your Directors, because

in the oflicial correspondence relative to New Zealand“,
recently laid before Parliament, there appears a letter’r
written by direction of the Marquis of Normanby, then
Secretary of State for the Colonies, in which the following

charge is made against the Company :—
“ Lord Normanby now for the first time learns that a
body of Her Majesty’s subjects are about to proceed to
New Zealand to purchase large tracts of land there, and to

establish a system quovemment independent cf the autho
* Par]: Paper, 8 April, 1840;
1- H. Labouchere, Esq: to Wm: Hutt, Esq, lst May, 1839:

h “was ~. .- .,_ '_.__ _.-.

or THE DIRECTORS.

175

rity of the British crown. It is impossible that his Lord
ship should do any act which would be construed into a
direct or indirect sanction of such a proceeding.”
The imputation contained in the above extract was
promptly repelled by Mr. Hutt, then acting as Chairman of
the Board, who on the day of his receiving Mr. Labouchere’s

communication, addressed to him in reply the following
explanatory letter, which your Directors regret to state has
been suppressed in the qfiicial correspondence laid before
Parliament by the Secretary of State. A copy is there
fore inserted here :—
MR. How To Me. Lanoncunan.
3, Southampton Street, Strand,
1st May, 1839.

Sm,

I have the honour to acknowledge the receipt of your letter
of this day’s date. In reply I have to request that you will be so
good as to assure Lord Normanby that the Company which I repre

sent does not contemplate, nor has ever imagined the possibility of
establishing a system of gOVernment in New Zealand either indepen
dently of the British Crown or any other way.

Our objects are solely commercial, being similar precisely to those
which have for the last twenty years actuated great numbers of Her
Majesty’s subjects in purchasing land in New Zealand.
With respect to the measure which you think it probable that
Her Majesty’s Government will adopt for regulating the Colonization
of New Zealand, I beg leave to submit, very respectfully, to Lord
Normanby, that the founders of this Company have long urged upon
Her Majesty’s Government the expediency, or rather necessity, of
adopting such measures. This indeed was the object of the bill
which I had intended to submit to the House of Commons, the notice

of whiCh I withdrew, in consequence of Lord Normanby’s assurance
to Mr. Somes, Mr. Halswell, Mr. H. G. Ward, and myself, that his
Lordship would undoubtedly introduce a measure for that purpose

during the present session.
The steps which we have taken, as a commercial body, have been
pursued with the more confidence in consequence of his Lordship‘s
assurance to that effect.
1 bare the honour to be, &c.
(Signed,)

WILLIAM I-IUTT.

The Right Hon. Henry Labouchere.
810., &c., &c.

Your Directors deeming the publication of Mr. Hutt's
letter to be very material to the character of the Company,

176

THE FIRST REPORT

requested that gentleman to address himself to Lord John
Russell, begging its publication. Accordingly the subj oined
correspondence followed :—
Mn. Hurr T0 Loan JOHN Russsrr.
New Zealand House, 9, Broad Street Buildings,

MY Loan,

23111 April, 1840.
Referring to the correspondence relative to New
Z ealand, laid before the House of Commons on the motion of your
Lordship, I have observed with surprise, that a letter addressed on the
lat of May, 1839, by me, as Chairman of the New Zealand Company,

to Mr. Labouchere, has been omitted. The publication of this letter
is of importance to the Company, as explanatory of their conduct on
a point in which it is seriously misrepresented in the previous letter

of Mr. Labouchere, which appears in the printed correspondence,
and it is absolutely essential to a right understanding of the proceed
ings of the Company by Parliament and the public.
I trust therefore that this letter will no longer be withheld by the
Colonial Oflice, but that it may be laid before Parliament without
delay.
I have the honour tol, be, 810.
(Signed),
The Right Hon. Lord John Russell,

WILLIAM Hu'r'r.

&c:, &c., 810.
Ma. VERNON Sun-n 'ro Mn. Hu'r'r.

Sm,

Downing Street, 2nd .May, 1840.
I am directed by Lord John Russell to acknowledge your
Letter of the 23rd ult., and to acquaint you, in reply, that your
Letter of the 1st May, 1839, was not included in the Correspondence
relative to New Zealand laid before the House of Commons, because

it appeared to his Lordship to be unimportant to the general question.
His Lordship desires me to assure you there will be no objection
offered to your moving for the document in question:
I am, &c.,

(Signed)

R; Vnanou San'rrr.

William Hutt, Esqz, M.P:

The circumstances connected with the above correspond
ence appear to your Directors so extraordinary, and the
suppression so remarkably unfair, as to require no further
comment. Many other indications of oflicial hostility will
be found in the correspondence laid before Parliament, and

for which your Directors are utterly unable to account.

In

one recent despatch from the Secretary of State for the

or THE nrnncrons.

177

Colonies, the course taken by this Company is characterised
as unjustifiable”.
what respect?

Your Directors unhesitatingly ask in

They appeal, with confidence, to you. and

to the public, against this strange language of her Majesty’s
advisers, and they throw back the imputation of unjustifiable
conduct against those who have done what in them lay,
first, to prevent your Colony from being planted at all,

and then to nip it in the earliest shoots of its opening
growth.
17. The nature of the Company has been always, as

already stated, exclusively commercial.

But your Direc

tors, from the first, felt a great and natural anxiety to se

cure for the colonists embarking under their sanction, the
protection and benefits of British law. Accordingly, at an
early period, they solicited and obtained an interviewf
with the Marquis of Normanby, then Secretary of State
for the Colonies, at which they urged upon his Lordship

the indispensable importance of making immediate provision
for this purpose. Although Lord Normanby, on that 0c
casion, declined to give any express sanction to the objects
for which the Company had been instituted, yet the assur
ances of his Lordship were so far encouraging, as to leave

no doubt in the mind of your Directors that the Company’s
purchases, being bomi fiole, would-be confirmed by the
crown, and to induce them to persevere, without hesitation,

in the investment of their capital for the purposes of the
intended colony. Shortly previous to the sailing of the
emigrants, your Directors again addressed the Marquis
of Normanby, requesting another interview, in order to
learn the nature of the arrangements contemplated by Her
Majesty’s Government, for enforcing British laws on the
arrival of the settlers. The interview sought was declined
by the Secretary of State, nor could your Directors obtain
any information on the subject, beyond the contents of the
Treasury-Minute of the 29th July, to which Lord Nor

manby referred them. It was only when your Directors
were satisfied of the hopelessness of placing any reliance
' Lord John Russell to Sir G.- Gipps, 4th Dec. 1839.
1- 13th June.
3
Q

178

THE FIRST REPORT

upon the care or caution of Her Majesty’s Government,
that they gave their sanction, (so far as they lawfully

might) to the voluntary agreement for order and self-de
fence, which has been published in the official correspond
ence*.
This agreement did not originate with your
Directors, but was framed, after much consideration, by the

Colonists themselves, as a temporary expedient for pre
venting the evils of anarchy and disorder after their
arrival in New Zealand. You are already acquainted with
the correspondence which ensued, in reference to the agree

ment, between the Secretary of State and one of your
Directors, and of the threat of the Secretary of State to
institute legal proceedings in consequence of the agreement.
Your Directors thereupon laid the agreement before an
eminent counsel, and having been advised by him that the

parties would not be justified by law in acting under it,
they immediately issued orders to the Principal Agent, and
all the Company’s servants, not to do any act whatever

under the agreement, the same having been abandoned by
your Directors.
e result will have been, that the law
of England will be respected in the Company’s settlements
even to the extent of inducing the settlers to abstain from
adopting any means of enforcing the law of England there.
Your Directors recommended, at all hazards, implicit
obedience to the course which, as they were informed, the
law prescribed.
They cannot, however, conceal from you

their apprehensions, that the dilemma in which the settlers
have thus been placed, may have involved them in some

degree of social disorder. And although your Directors
earnestly recommended to the colonists the formation of a
voluntary association for order, yet, reflecting that, in the

neighbourhood of the Company’s settlement, there would
be many lawless and dissolute persons, totally unaccustomed

to the restraints of law and morality, who would be pretty
certain to visit the settlement, and perhaps take up their

abode there, (a state of things which has unhappily been
too long permitted to prevail in most parts of New Zealand)
your Directors availed themselves of an accident, which
‘ Page 59.

or THE nmrcrons.

179

they trust may prove fortunate for the colony. Having
learned that the Rev. John Gare Butler, late of Sheffield,
held a commission, received from the Governor of New
South Wales, in 1819, whereby he was authorized to act
as a Justice of the Peace in any British settlements in New
Zealand, your Directors induced Mr. Butlerto return in

the Bolton, in the capacity of interpreter to the Company.
His commission, or Dedimus Potestatem, was as follows :—
“ By his Excellency, Lachlan Macquarie, Esq., Captain-General and.
Governor in Chief in and over His Majesty’s territory, called
New South Wales and its Dependencies, &c.
“ By virtue of the powers vested in me, I do hereby nominate,
constitute, appoint, and assign you, the Rev. Johu Butler, a Justice
to keep His Majesty’s Peace, and for the preservation thereof, and
the quiet rule and government of His Majesty’s people, within and
throughout the British settlements at New Zealand, a dependency of
the said territory.

“Given at Government House, Sydney, New South Wales, this
24th day of July, in the year of our Lord 1819.
(Signed)
“ L. Macauamn.”

Under this commission, Mr. Butler has repeatedly
acted, by apprehending offenders, and sending them to
Sydney for trial. Your Directors trust that it will have
armed him with the requisite authority to preserve the
peace of the Company’s settlement, and will have partially
remedied the evils which must otherwise have resulted from
the non-establishment of any description of legal tribunal
by Her Majesty’s Government.
18. You will have observed that in Mr. Butler’s com
mission, New Zealand is expressly described as a dependency

of the territory of New South Wales. This description is
in perfect accordance with the acts of possession performed
by Captain Cook, the original discoverer, in l769,—with
the Royal commission granted to Captain Phillip, in 1787,
—and with the Proclamation of the Governor of New
South Wales in 1814, in pursuance of which, several other

persons besides Mr. Butler, were appointed magistrates in
New Zealand, and who performed magisterial functions in
various parts of these islands accordingly *. You will not
" See Petition from the Merchants of London.

180

rm: rmsr nnronr

fail to remark the discrepancy between the language of the
public documents last cited, and that of a memorandum of
the Secretary of State for the Colonies recently published in
the official correspondence. This memorandum lays great
stress on the recognition by Parliament, and by his late
Majesty, of the fact that New Zealand is not a part of the
British dominions; thereby meaning, as your Directors in_

fer, that Her Majesty has no more right of pre-emption
from the natives, than France, or any other foreign power.
Without attempting, on the present occasion, to discuss at
length questions of international law, your Directors cannot
but lament the inconvenient position, to say the least, in
which the colonists are placed, by the inconsistency thus
appearing between the public acts of the British Govern~
ment affirming the dependence of New Zealand upon the
British crown, and the recent official memorandum, in

which even the right of pre-emption of Great Britain as
against foreign powers in those islands, would seem to be
repudiated by the Secretary of State.
19. It is the belief of your Directors that from the year
1769 downwards, Great Britain as the discovering power
has possessed the sole right of acquiring territory from the
natives of New Zealand, or in other words, that she holds

the sovereignty of those islands against all foreign civilized
powers.

The Treasury-VIinute, dated 19th July, 1839,

(which forbids the exercise of British dominion, until after
cession of sovereignty by the native chiefs shall have been
obtained,) has been erroneously supposed by some to
amount to a disclaimer of British sovereignty, whereas
your Directors conceive the question of paramount sove
reignty cannot be affected by acts having for their sole
object to procure the consent of the natives to the pro
ceedings of the government. The Treasury-Minute should
be regarded as prescribing a course which the Crown is en
titled to adopt in conducting the relations which Great
Britain alone is entitled to hold with the native chiefs.
_This construction appears in accordance with principles of
international law which are recognised by other civilized
states: and, if to pursue the just and and humane policy of

"mg fairly with the aborigines in British dependencies,

or THE numerous.

181

were to be construed as a repudiation of sovereign rights,
and an admission of foreign pretension, then such tender
ness towards the aborigines might have the efl'ect of ex
posing them to the rough handling of powers by whom the
principle of justice to savages is not acknowledged, and
would tend rather to their destruction than to their advan
tage. For although the British Government may fulfil its
own contracts and obligations towards the aborigines with
that strict and undeviating justice required at its hands in
.such transactions, it would he obviously impracticable for
it adequately to fulfil such obligations, or to shield the
natives effectually against injury and wrong, if it remained
in the power of any foreign state to pursue a contrary
policy towards the same aborigines, under the sanction of a

right alleged to be derived from a repudiation of sovereign
rights by the British crown.
20. The attention of your Directors has been fixed on
the excitement which has prevailed in France with reference
to New Zealand, since the departure of Captain Hobson
and the publication of his instructions and the Treasury
Minute. The facts of the formation of a. French Company,
with a very small paid-up capital, and the despatch of one
ship from Rochfort, would be unimportant in themselves,
were it not for the aid afforded to the expedition by the
French government, and the alleged intention of that
government to plant a penal settlement at Banks’s Penin
sula. These foreign pretensions have been so strongly
condemned by the public voice, as expressed especiallyat
the great meeting in Guildhall of the merchants, bankers,
ship-owners, and other inhabitants of London, on the 15th
April last, that it is only necessary for your Directors to

declare their entire concurrence in the prayer of the peti
tion to the Queen and both houses of Parliament, unani
mously adopted at that meeting, “ that these valuable
islands may be preserved to Her Majesty’s dominions, and
the regular authority of British law, and a lawful system of
colonization established throughout the same, under a dis

tinct and sufficient colonial Government."
21. The official correspondence will put you in posses

sion of the instructions issued by Her Majesty’s Govern

182

THE rmsr naron'r

ment to Captain Hobson, R. N., the present Consul, and
eventual Lieutenant-Governor.
Two points in these
instructions appear open to objection; first, the contemplated
cession of sovereignty is to be sought less as regards the
whole country, than as to “those districts within or ad

jacent to which Her Majesty’s subjects may acquire lands
or habitations," which coincides with the Treasury-Minute,

whereby the authority to obtain cession of sovereignty is
expressly limited to territories possessed by British sub
jects: secondly, according to the Treasury-Minute and in
structions, any territories in New Zealand, of which the

sovereignty shall have been so ceded, are to form a part of
the colony of New South Wales, and to be governed by

laws enacted by
Sydney. Your
authority should
and they deem it

the Governor and legislative council at
Directors regret that Captain Hobson’s
have been limited by such restrictions,
a matter of paramount importance to the

well-being of the colonists, and the good government of the

settlements, that New Zealand should be altogether detached
from the jurisdiction of the Governor and council of New
South Wales, and placed under the distinct and separate
jurisdiction of a Governor on the spot, corresponding directly
with the Secretary of State.

22. Your Directors cannot but advert with regret to
another fact. disclosed in the official correspondence, which
they consider a serious departure from sound principles of
colonization, by Her Majesty’s Government. They refer
to the reduction of the price 'of Crown Land in New
Zealand to 5s. per acre, until 123. per acre shall be the
usual upset price, in the Australian Settlements’l‘. Your
Directors are unable to reconcile this proceeding with the
principles recognised by Her Majesty's Government, in
their instructions to Captain Hobson, and in their more re

cent instructions to the Commissioners for Colonial Lands
and Emigration. But your Directors have determined to
persevere in their adherence to the approved plan of sale at
an uniform and sufficient price, and notwithstanding the
' obstacle thus thrown in their way by the Government, they

Wlll continue to sell at their established price of ll. per acre
* Lord J. Russell’s despatch to Sir G. Gipps, 4th Dec., 1839.

or THE nmncrons:

183

and at no lower rate, guaranteeing to purchasers that 15s.
per acre shall be applied exclusively as an emigration fund,
so that the actual sum reserved by the Company is 5s. per
acre only.
23. The lamentable results of the absence of any
authorized system of the disposal of land in New Zealand,
have unhappily, of late years, become too notorious. They
have been exposed by several able writers and have been
brought prominently before the public in the Report of the
Lords’ Committee of 1838. Your Directors will not with
hold from you their opinion, that the practice of Land
sharking, or the acquisition of land from the barbarous

natives by private persons, without any reserves for the use
of the natives, or indeed any sort of regard for their just
rights, has inflicted irreparable injury upon the aborigines
of the soil, and at the same time has proved highly demora

lizing to British settlers.

Upon mature reflection your

Directors see no other efi'ectual remedy for these evils, than

for the government to take upon itself the duty of a trustee
for the public, and to become the sole proprietor of all the
lands in New Zealand, on the principle of equitable compen
sation to those who have bomi fide obtained possessions
there. _ It would be easy to avoid injustice to present
holders by allowing them a pre-emptive right of purchase
over such lands as they have already acquired, at an esta
blished price per acre, allowing them in each instance as a.
drawback the amount of their actual expenditure in acquir—
ing the land and conveyingemigrants thereto. The means
would thus be at once opened to the government of re-dis
posing of the Crown lands to individuals upon the most
approved method, viz., that of an uniform and suflicient
price, with the employment of the purchase-money as an
emigration fund. A well-devised plan of this description
would have the hearty concurrence of your Directors, as

fraught with no injustice to the interests of the Company,
and eminently calculated to strengthen the hands of the
government, and to promote the moral and social improve

ment of all classes of the inhabitants of New Zealand.
24. From the first moment when the mission of Captain
Hobson came to their knowledge, your Directors have been

184

THE FIRST nnronr

anxious to promote its success by every means in their
power. Accordingly theyhave from time to time instructed
the Company’s officers in New Zealand to spare no exertion
in rendering to Captain Hobson all possible aid and assist
ance, and to do whatever might tend to his comfort and con
venience. The following are extracts from despatches to
the Principal Agent on the subject.

The Secretary to Colonel lVake/ield, 16th
September, 1839.
“Captain Hobson sailed very lately in the Druid frigate from
Plymouth. It is the wish of the Directors that in case you meet
with that gentleman, you should give him any personal assistance
that he may require and you may be able to afi'ord.v and they need
not express to you how much pleased they will be if your co-opera
tion with him should prove of any service in the public duties with
which he may be charged.

The Secretary to Colonel Wakefield, 14th
November, 1839.
“Finally, with reference to my letter of 16th September last, I
am again desired to impress upon you the anxious wish of the Direc
tors that you and all the servants of the Company should do what
ever may be in your power to promote the success of Captain
Hobson’s mission, and to accelerate as much as possible the time,
when it is to be hoped that he, as HerMajesty’s Representative, may
establish a British authority, and the regular application of English
law, not only in the Company’s settlements, but throughout the
islands of New Zealand."

The Secretary to Colonel Wakefield, 7th
December, 1839.
“Although the Directors feel assured thattheir previous instruc—
tions will have led you to do whatever may have been in your power
to promote the success of Captain Hobson’s mission, yet they are
induced to think, in consequence of Mr. Vernon Smith’s letter, that
some more specific directions may be of service, by leading to a more
efficient co-operation on your part with Captain Hobson, in the steps

by which the success of his mission may be best secured. You will
observe by the Treasury-Minute, of which a copy has been before
transmitted to you, and to which the Directors have been referred, by
Her Majesty’s Government, for information as to the views and pur

poses of the Crown, in despatching Captain Hobson to New Zealand,
that he is directed to obtain cession of the sovereignty to Her-Majesty
of“ such territories therein as may be possessed by British subjects .

or true pisscrons.

185

It is most expedient, therefore, that. wheneveryou purchase land for
the Company, you should obtain at the same time a cession of the
sovereignty over such lands to Captain Hobson, on behalf of the
crown. And in cases where you may have purchased lands already,
without at the same time obtaining cession of the sovereignty to the
crown, the. Directors trust that you will spare no pains to obtain such

cession, with the least possible delay. Whenever you have' the op
portunity also, it 'is most desirablein case Captain 'Hobs'on should
think such a step not inconsistent with his instructions, and should
wishit to be taken, that you should obtain cession of sovereignty, to

him. on behalf of the Crown, as to parts of the country where the
Company may not have purchased any lands. It may further hap'
pen to be in your power to facilitate Captain Hobson‘s operations,

by assisting him in obtaining extensive cessiOns of land, as well as’of
sovereignty, tothe Crown, and there can be no doubt that if this
should be accomplished asto the greater parts of the islands, the
important object of enabling the British government to establish a
beneficial
greatly
facilitated. system ' in the
' disposal
'
' Mof lands
' ‘ i would
i ' “lbe' very
'
' '
' ' 5“ In'all these points the Directors wish that you should confer
with'CaptainHobson, and‘place at his'disposal all the resourcesat
your command.

They imagine that the interpreters, Mr. Butler,

Nayti, and Mr. Batts, may be of essential service to Captain Hobsbn,
and if you find that either or both of the Company’s vessels. Tory
and Cuba, can be beneficially used for the public service, you will
not fail to place them at Captain Hobson’s disposal.
'
“ In case Captain Hobson should desire it, you will provide him
with a proper site forhis government house, at the Company’s prin

cipal settlement, and afford him any assistance in building it up, and
making it a comfortable residence.

In'case' he should require it,

you'will also supply his party with provisions from the Company’s
stores.
'
. “ So far: the Directors are enabled positively to instruct the ser

vants 0f the Company. With'respect to the settlers generally, over
whom they pretendth to exercise any other influence than that
which they trust may be due to their unceasing desire to promote the
advantage of all who have emigrated under their guidance, they
.trust that the view 'which they have taken of this subject may meet
with general approval. They are satisfied that .theiuterest of every
settler is deeply concerned in the most complete and early success of
Captain Hobson’s mission; and it is really for the sake of the
settlers, for whose fate “they cannot but feel the greatest anxiety,
that-they hail with so much satisfaction Lord John Russell’s invita

tion, ,(it may alrnost be termed,) to the Company and the settlers, to
\aidcin promoting-the objects of Her Majesty’s government."
JYour, Directors entertainno doubt that Colonel _Wake

field ‘willjcordially actluput‘o .the spiritllof) these instructions,

_-H_..——- .

r“

186

THE rmsr REPORT

and they trust that the difl‘icultios of Captain Hobson's
mission may, by the active aid of the Company's servants,
and of the colonists, be yet, in a great measure, effectually

surmounted.
25. It is with the most lively satisfaction that your
Directors announce to you the receipt of two important
despatches from Colonel Wakefield, on board the Tory, the
former dated at Teawaite, Queen Charlotte’s Sound, on the
2nd September, the latter in Cloudy Bay on the 10th Octo

ber last. Extracts from these despatches have already
been printed and circulated amongst you, and you cannot
but have derived high gratification from the communication
made by Colonel Wakefield, in his last despatch, of the ac
quirement of the valuable harbour of Port Nicholson, and

the whole surrounding territor , comprising a surface of
nearly a million square acres. tis impossible to appreciate
too highly this valuable purchase, either as regards the ad
mirable locality of the harbour, or the fertility, salubrity,
and beauty, of the surrounding country. From the map
exhibited to you, it will be seen that Colonel Wakefield had
fixed the site of the first settlement on the shores of the
inner harbour, or port, called Lambton Harbour, in honour

of your first Governor, the Earl of Durham. Upon the
first town to be built on this spot your Directors have
seized the earliest opportunity of conferring the illustrious
name of “ Wellington," a. name so eminently calculated to
connect with the future city some of the most honourable
national associations of the mother country. That the
town is now in the course of erection your Directors enter
tain little doubt, and they confidently hope, that under the
favour of Providence, the whole body of the colonists of

last season are at this time located on the shores of Lamb
ton Harbour.
26. Your Directors submit to your approval the an
nexed financial statements B and C, showing the receipt
and expenditure of the Company from the day of its forma
tion up to the present time, and its general assets and liabi
lities. Although a considerable balance thus appears in
fayour of the Company, yet after mature consideration your

Directors have determined to recommend to you to postpone

or THE DIRECTORS.

187

the declaration of a dividend, until intelligence shall have

been actually received of the arrival and location of the
main body of the emigrants of last year upon the Company's
lands. That period will, in the judgment of your Directors,
be the most appropriate for making among the Shareholders
such a distribution of surplus profits as the increased wealth
apd stability of the Company may reasonably entitle them to
0 mm.
27. Of their own labours during the past year your Di
rectors will merely observe, that they have devoted them
selves to a task which has proved by no means a light one,
and has required on their part unremitting vigilance and
attention. Since the commencement of the Company’s
business on the 2nd May last, there have been held 55
general Boards of Directors fully attended, and 76 Com

mittees at which from three to six Directors were usually
present. In addition to these duties, it has devolved upon
your Directors to hold frequent conferences with the colo~
nists and others, to inspect the emigrant ships, and to
exercise the requisite superintendence over the whole busi
ness of the Company. The removal of your establishment
to the present house in Broad Street Buildings, so well suited
to the purposes of the Company, in respect both of accom
modation and locality, will, it is hoped, meet your approba

tion.
28. In conclusion, your Directors have to state that

they are about to renew emigration to the principal settle
ment, and entertain no doubt of being able to carry forward
the operations of the Company, during the ensuing season,
with vigour and effect. Numerous settlers are preparing
for their departure, and in several parts of the country local
associations are in the course of formation, having for their
objects to purchase tracts of this Company’s lands, and to

effect settlements of persons emigrating from the particular
districts where the associations are formed. The Plymouth
Company of New Zealand is already in operation, in the
west of England, and has met with that degree of public
support, which from the high character of its Directors
might naturally be anticipated. Your Directors cannot but

regard the Plymouth Company as a valuable and important
a2

188

FIRST REPORrTMdF‘THE mnecrons.

connexion, and are most anxious topromote the success of

this and similar institutions; For they are satisfied that'tlie
more
our principlegand'phris
diifused, and
the
more favour'
they are likely tO‘are
findknown
inwthe and
discernmentgood sense of the BritiSh'pnblic;
It only reinains for your Directors to] submit to your
approval the deed of Settleine'nt now presented, including

the list of Directors proposed to be elected for the ensuing
three years. The majority of' the Directors now proposed
are those to who'mzyour affairs have hitherto been confided.
and, should it be your pleasure to re-elect‘ them, they offer

_\i0u their assurance that they will continue to devote them
selves with assiduity to the~ work} you have enabled them to
begin, and which, notwithstanding all obstacles, has hitherto

proceeded under their management with such unexampled
success.
London, May 14th, 1840.

~7—

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of
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REMARKS.
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Oct
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date
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labouring
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APBSaTsRACeT.n—gCaebrins.

APPENDIX
A.

ditto

dim.
Slcenge
|
1.
Ditto

.1
t
18
10'
30
100

of
goodq
4I
tons
1
00

A1List
Ships
Zea
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of
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'0
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0
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0

1
{

I
1

}J.Hemery....!
36“
30'Glaigow
6
96’
£6
Oct.
64
1
503
4
3
5
21
51*.3.
12

lure.,

‘ 1840

APPENDIX B.

A Statement of the Receipts and Payments of the New
ZEALAND COMPANY, from the 2nd JIay, 1839, (the

date of thefbrmation of the Comping/J to the 13th
May, 1840, inclusive.
RECEIPTS.
I

s.

:1.

£

s

d.

Subscribed Capital, being 4000 Shares of

£25 each . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 100,000 0 0
Total of Lands sold . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107,290
Interest on Cash, Forfeited Deposits for
Land, and Sundries . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
2,639

0

0

1

9

8

4

Total of Receipts....£2l2,35l 10

1

Passage Money and'Freight by sundry
ships...... . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . ..

2,522

212,351 10

l

PAYMENTS.
For Land in New Zealand, viz., at Kai
para, Hokianga, the Thames, Herd‘s
Point, “'aikeké and Paroa, and the

PortNicholson Territory. . . . .. .. . . ..
The ship Tory, and her cargo . . . . . . . . . .
Adventure per Cuba..

. ..,. . .. . . .

35,815 9 4
15,320 19 11
8,603 13

8

8,334

6

Provisions, Stores, $20., shipped for the
ony . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
Buildings for the reception of Emigrants

inNewZealand . . . . . .
..
Surveying Instruments and stores . . . . . .

6

76811 8
444 8 2

Passage of Emigrants, their Maintenance

previous to embarkation, and incidental
expences connected therewith . . . . . . . .

20,412

1

1

S