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# An Elementary Note: Contour & Virtual Integrals of Implicit Complex Functions - Images

John Gill

July 2015

Consider the following problem: Evaluate I = ( z )dz where both z(t ) and ( z ) are

defined implicitly, and t :0 1 . Assume the functions here are differentiable with respect to t
and (1)

F ( z , t ) = 0 and (2) G ( ) = f ( z ) .

## Solve for F ( z0 ,0) = 0 and G(0 ) = f ( z0 ) using traditional technique.

Differentiate both expressions with respect to t , producing
(1a)

d
dz
= ( , z , t ) . Now convert to discrete formats:
= z ( z , t ) and (2a)
dt
dt

## (1b) zk ,n = zk 1,n + n z ( z k 1,n , k n1 ) and (2b) k ,n = k 1,n + n (k 1,n , zk 1,n , k n1 ) , 1 k n .

n

Define (3) S n = n (k ,n z ( z k ,n , kn )) , n =
k =1

1
, Thus I = lim S n .
n
n

1

## W = f  dz = Re f ( z(t ))z '(t )dt

With the formula holding when both f ( z ) and z(t ) are given implicitly.

## The Zeno contours , zk ,n = zk 1,n + n z ( zk 1,n , k n1 ) , where

d F d
dz
=

= z ( z , t ) , can be
dt dt
dt
1

## expanded linearly: zn ,n = z0 + n ( z0 , 0n ) + n ( z0 , 1n ) +  + n ( z0 , nn1 ) z0 + ( z0 , t )dt , with

0

1
n
normally cannot be precisely stated although its value can be easily computed. However,

( z0 , kn ) := z ( zk ,n , kn ) , n = . I call this a virtual integral  due to the fact that the integrand
when z(t ) can be derived in closed form, ( z0 , t ) = ( z(t ), t ) and
1

## ( z ) = ( z , t )dt = ( z(t ), t )dt = z(1) z(0)

0

1
2t + i
Example 1 : F( z ) = z + e z = t 2 + it , G( ) = 2 + i = z . z ( z , t ) =
,
2
1 + ez
1

2t + i
. I = ( z )dz = ( z(t )) z(t )dt .1373 + .2264i
( + i ) (1 + e z )

The F( z ) contour is in green. Integral value is the red vector. And the blue contour is the
t

following: C (t ) = ( z( ))z ( )d , t : 0 1 .
0

Example 2 : F ( z , t ) = z 2 (t ) = 0 , (t ) = 4t 2 + 2it + 1 ,

G ( ) = (u + 2v ) + i(2u + 1) z = 0 , ( x + iy ) = u + iv . z0 = 1 , 0 = .5 + .75i .

## I = ( z )dz = ( z(t )) z(t )dt .7803 + 1.0858i

Example 3 : F( z , t ) = z 2 (2t it 2 + 1) = 0 , G( ) = e + i z = 0 .

## Example 4 : F : 2 + i = z and F( z , t ) = ze z + c t 2 = 0 , c .6742 .0725i , giving

z0 = .5 + i , 0 = .5 + .5i W = f  dz .3612 . The red VF is the force field F , the green

## VF is the field of contours.

The following are simple topographical images of ( z ) where z(t ) is unavailable or tedious to
unscramble.

Example 5 : ( z , t ) = iz 3 (t 2 + it + c ) = 0 , ( z , t ) =

2t + i
. ( z ) = ( z , t )dt :
3iz 2
0

## (The z in the integral is actually z0 )

-1.2<Re(z)<1.2 , -1.2<Im(z)<1.2

Example 6 : ( z , t ) = Sin( zt ) iz (t 2 + it + c ) = 0 , ( z , t ) =
1

( z ) = ( z , t )dt :
0

-15<Re(z)<15 , -15<Im(z)<15

2t + i zCos( zt )
.
tCos( zt ) i

Example 7 : (z , t ) = zte z z2 (t 2 + it + c ) = 0 , ( z , t ) =

2t + i ze z
.
te z (1 + z ) 2z

( z ) = ( z , t )dt :
0

-15<Re(z)<10, -15<Im(z)<15

Example 8 : ( z , t ) = z3t iz (t 2 + it + c ) = 0 , ( z , t ) =
1

( z ) = ( z , t )dt :
0

-5<Re(z)<5, -5<Im(z)<5

2t + i z 3
.
3z 2t i

## Example 9 : (z ,t ) = Ln(z(t + 1)) z2 (t 2 + it + c ) = 0 , ( z , t ) = z

1

( z ) = ( z , t )dt :
0

-2<Re(z)<2, -2<Im(z)<2

2t + i 1 / (t + 1)
.
1 2z 2

## Example 10 : ( x , y ;t ) = ( x + Sin( y )) + i ( y Cos( x )) (t 2 + it + c ) = 0 ,

1

2t Cos( y )
1 2tSin( x )
. ( z ) = ( z , t )dt :
( z , t ) =
+i
1 Sin( x )Cos( y )
1 Sin( x )Cos( y )
0

-10<Re(z)<10, -10<Im(z)<10

## Example 11 : ( x , y ;t ) = xCos( y ) + iySin( x ) (t 2 + it + c ) = 0 , ( z ) = ( z , t )dt :

0

10<Re(z)<10, -10<Im(z)<10

## Compositions of Sets of Implicit Contours

Suppose the set of Zeno contours arising from an implicit function is designated:

[ m ] : m ( z , t ) = 0

dz
= m ( z , t )
dt

## Then compose sets of contours in the following manner:

[ 1 ]  [ 2 ] :

dz
= 1 (2 ( z , t ), t ) = * ( z , t )
dt
1

## This leads to virtual integrals

* ( z ) = * ( z , t )dt
0

Example 12 :
1 =

[ 1 ] : 1 ( z , t ) = z3 (t 2 + it + ) = 0 , [ 2 ] : 2 ( z , t ) = te z + z (t 2 + it + ) = 0

2t + i
2t + i e z

=
.
,
2
3z 2
1 + te z

* ( z ) = * ( z , t )dt :
0

-.5<Re(z)<2 , -1<Im(z)<2.5

Example 13 : [ 1 ] : 1 ( z , t ) = tz 2 + z (t 2 + it + c ) = 0 , [ 2 ] : 2 ( z , t ) = e zt iz 2 (t 2 + it + c ) = 0
1

1 ( z , t ) =

2t + i z 2
2t + i ze tz
. * ( z ) = * ( z , t )dt :
, 2 ( z , t ) =
2tz + 1
te tz 2zi
0

-3<Re(z)<8 , -10<Im(z)<10

Integrals of Contours
Suppose for an implicit function ( z , t ) = 0 involving an undetermined constant c we consider
the set of contours { z(t ) } . Individual contours are determined by = (c ) = z0 so that we
1

may graph ( ) = z( , t )dt topographically over a part of the -plane (which lies
0

## Example 14 : ( z , t ) = iz 3 (t 2 + it + c ) = 0 (example 5). ( ) = z( , t )dt :

0

-1.2<Re(z)<1.2 , -1.2<Im(z)<1.2

## Example 15 : ( z , t ) = z3t iz (t 2 + it + c ) = 0 (example 8). ( ) = z( , t )dt :

0

-5<Re(z)<5, -5<Im(z)<5

## Implicit Contour Integrals

We wish to evaluate the integral

## Example 16 : Given f ( x + iy ) = xCos( y ) + iy sin( x ) and the contour derived from

= te z + z (t 2 + it + ) = 0 , z0 = z(0) , evaluate I = f ( z )dz .

## The last condition exists when = z0 . We have

z (1)

( ) =

2t + i e z
f ( x + iy )dz = f ( x(t ) + iy(t )) ( x(t ), y(t )) dt where =
. A simple
1 + te z
0

topographical image results from graphing ( ) over part of the complex plane.

-10<Re(z)<10, -10<Im(z)<10

 J. Gill, Informal Notes: Zeno Contours, Parametric Forms, & Integrals , Comm. Anal. Th. Cont. Frac., Vol XX
(2014)