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Uploaded by John Gill

Further elementary explorations of integrals of implicit functions, with imagery.

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John Gill

July 2015

Consider the following problem: Evaluate I = ( z )dz where both z(t ) and ( z ) are

defined implicitly, and t :0 1 . Assume the functions here are differentiable with respect to t

and (1)

F ( z , t ) = 0 and (2) G ( ) = f ( z ) .

Differentiate both expressions with respect to t , producing

(1a)

d

dz

= ( , z , t ) . Now convert to discrete formats:

= z ( z , t ) and (2a)

dt

dt

n

Define (3) S n = n (k ,n z ( z k ,n , kn )) , n =

k =1

1

, Thus I = lim S n .

n

n

1

With the formula holding when both f ( z ) and z(t ) are given implicitly.

d F d

dz

=

= z ( z , t ) , can be

dt dt

dt

1

0

1

n

normally cannot be precisely stated although its value can be easily computed. However,

( z0 , kn ) := z ( zk ,n , kn ) , n = . I call this a virtual integral [1] due to the fact that the integrand

when z(t ) can be derived in closed form, ( z0 , t ) = ( z(t ), t ) and

1

0

1

2t + i

Example 1 : F( z ) = z + e z = t 2 + it , G( ) = 2 + i = z . z ( z , t ) =

,

2

1 + ez

1

2t + i

. I = ( z )dz = ( z(t )) z(t )dt .1373 + .2264i

( + i ) (1 + e z )

The F( z ) contour is in green. Integral value is the red vector. And the blue contour is the

t

following: C (t ) = ( z( ))z ( )d , t : 0 1 .

0

Example 2 : F ( z , t ) = z 2 (t ) = 0 , (t ) = 4t 2 + 2it + 1 ,

G ( ) = (u + 2v ) + i(2u + 1) z = 0 , ( x + iy ) = u + iv . z0 = 1 , 0 = .5 + .75i .

Example 3 : F( z , t ) = z 2 (2t it 2 + 1) = 0 , G( ) = e + i z = 0 .

z0 = .5 + i , 0 = .5 + .5i W = f dz .3612 . The red VF is the force field F , the green

The following are simple topographical images of ( z ) where z(t ) is unavailable or tedious to

unscramble.

Example 5 : ( z , t ) = iz 3 (t 2 + it + c ) = 0 , ( z , t ) =

2t + i

. ( z ) = ( z , t )dt :

3iz 2

0

-1.2<Re(z)<1.2 , -1.2<Im(z)<1.2

Example 6 : ( z , t ) = Sin( zt ) iz (t 2 + it + c ) = 0 , ( z , t ) =

1

( z ) = ( z , t )dt :

0

-15<Re(z)<15 , -15<Im(z)<15

2t + i zCos( zt )

.

tCos( zt ) i

Example 7 : (z , t ) = zte z z2 (t 2 + it + c ) = 0 , ( z , t ) =

2t + i ze z

.

te z (1 + z ) 2z

( z ) = ( z , t )dt :

0

-15<Re(z)<10, -15<Im(z)<15

Example 8 : ( z , t ) = z3t iz (t 2 + it + c ) = 0 , ( z , t ) =

1

( z ) = ( z , t )dt :

0

-5<Re(z)<5, -5<Im(z)<5

2t + i z 3

.

3z 2t i

1

( z ) = ( z , t )dt :

0

-2<Re(z)<2, -2<Im(z)<2

2t + i 1 / (t + 1)

.

1 2z 2

1

2t Cos( y )

1 2tSin( x )

. ( z ) = ( z , t )dt :

( z , t ) =

+i

1 Sin( x )Cos( y )

1 Sin( x )Cos( y )

0

-10<Re(z)<10, -10<Im(z)<10

0

10<Re(z)<10, -10<Im(z)<10

Suppose the set of Zeno contours arising from an implicit function is designated:

[ m ] : m ( z , t ) = 0

dz

= m ( z , t )

dt

[ 1 ] [ 2 ] :

dz

= 1 (2 ( z , t ), t ) = * ( z , t )

dt

1

* ( z ) = * ( z , t )dt

0

Example 12 :

1 =

[ 1 ] : 1 ( z , t ) = z3 (t 2 + it + ) = 0 , [ 2 ] : 2 ( z , t ) = te z + z (t 2 + it + ) = 0

2t + i

2t + i e z

=

.

,

2

3z 2

1 + te z

* ( z ) = * ( z , t )dt :

0

-.5<Re(z)<2 , -1<Im(z)<2.5

Example 13 : [ 1 ] : 1 ( z , t ) = tz 2 + z (t 2 + it + c ) = 0 , [ 2 ] : 2 ( z , t ) = e zt iz 2 (t 2 + it + c ) = 0

1

1 ( z , t ) =

2t + i z 2

2t + i ze tz

. * ( z ) = * ( z , t )dt :

, 2 ( z , t ) =

2tz + 1

te tz 2zi

0

-3<Re(z)<8 , -10<Im(z)<10

Integrals of Contours

Suppose for an implicit function ( z , t ) = 0 involving an undetermined constant c we consider

the set of contours { z(t ) } . Individual contours are determined by = (c ) = z0 so that we

1

may graph ( ) = z( , t )dt topographically over a part of the -plane (which lies

0

0

-1.2<Re(z)<1.2 , -1.2<Im(z)<1.2

0

-5<Re(z)<5, -5<Im(z)<5

We wish to evaluate the integral

= te z + z (t 2 + it + ) = 0 , z0 = z(0) , evaluate I = f ( z )dz .

z (1)

( ) =

2t + i e z

f ( x + iy )dz = f ( x(t ) + iy(t )) ( x(t ), y(t )) dt where =

. A simple

1 + te z

0

topographical image results from graphing ( ) over part of the complex plane.

-10<Re(z)<10, -10<Im(z)<10

[1] J. Gill, Informal Notes: Zeno Contours, Parametric Forms, & Integrals , Comm. Anal. Th. Cont. Frac., Vol XX

(2014)

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