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**DESIGN OF BEAM ± SHEAR, DEFLECTION AND CRACK
**

When loads applied to beams produce not only bending moment but also internal shear forces. In the reinforced concrete beams, the primary longitudinal bending reinforcement is usually considered first. This leads to the size of the section and the arrangement of the reinforcement to provide the necessary moment resistance. Limits are placed on the amount of bending reinforcement to ensure that if failure were ever to occur, it would gradually, giv ing warning to the occupants. Once the primary longitudinal reinforcement has been determined, then the reinforced concrete beams are designed to resist the shear forces resulting from the various combinations of ultimate loads. Most of shear failure is frequently sudden and brittle, hence the design for shear must ensure that the shear strength equals or exceeds the flexural strength at all points in the beam. The manner in which shear failure can occur varies widely depending on the dimensions, geometry , loading and properties of the members. 3.1

Shear Failure Patterns

The figures below show the possible modes failure of shear in beam.

Case I : av / d > 6

av

d

v

Case II

: 2 < av / d > 6

av

d

v

1

Case III

: av / d < 2

av d

v

Figure 3.1

3.2

Shear Resistance

Taylor (1974) did research on shear resistance in reinforced concrete beam without shear reinforcement. He stated that in a reinforced concrete beam without shear reinforcement the shear is carried by a combination of three main components. These are :(i) (ii) (iii) concrete in the compression zone dwelling action of tensile reinforcement aggregate interlock across flexural cracks

Concrete in compression Vcz = shear in compression zone 20 ± 40% Va = interlocking between aggregates (35 ± 50%) tensile steel Vd = dwelling action (35 ± 50%) v

Figure 3.2

Total shear resistance given by the beam, Vc = Vcz + V a + Vd

The actual relationship between all forces is complex and is difficult to analyse theoretically. However BS 8110, simplified the analysis and design for shear reinforcement have been developed.

2

3.3

The Truss Analogy

**The analysis and design of a reinforced concrete beam in shear is based on the concept of an equivalent truss:
**

d b

o

d T

o

Link s

o

o

v

Figure 3.3

Applying the method of section for a stirrup spacing = d Tensile force in stirrup 0.95 fyv Asv = Shear at the section =V

In practice some of the shear is taken by the concrete so that 0.95 fyv Asv where Asv d fyv V vc Let V = v bvd = = V ± vc bvd the cross ± sectional area of the legs of the stirrup the effective depth the characteristic tensile stress for the links or stirrups the shear force the ultimate shear stress resistance of the concrete

= =

= =

Where v is the average shear stress at the section Then 0.95 fyv . Asv = (v - vc) bv d

3

With a stirrup spacing reduce d from d to sv the force in the stirrups is reduced proportionately, so that 0.95 fyv . Asv =

« Asv » « bv ( v v c ) » ¬ ¼!¬ ¼ S v ½ 0.95 ½

i.e.

[Link or stirrup sizes are usually smaller diameter and they are often of mild steel to minimize the radii of bends.]

Shear resistance of a Given Section ± Concrete + Stirrups

Total shear resistance, As shown

V

=

vbd

« Asv » « bv ( v v c ) » ¼ ¬ ¼!¬ Sv ½ ¬ 0.95f yv ¼ ½

Therefore re-arranging

vb !

Total shear resistance

vbd

Asv .0.95fyv v c Sv

Minimum Shear Reinforcement

sv

s v min

!

For mild steel (fy = 250 N/mm2) Asv ! 0.0016 bv sv i

£

« ¬

sv v

.

0.95 fyv b

» v c ¼.bd ½

0.4bv 0.95f yv

¡

(v vc ) / sv

Eqn. Table 3.7 BS 8110

¢

¤

¥

¨§

¦

4

For high yield steel (fy = 460 N/mm2)

Asv ! 0.0009 bv ss i

Ultimate Shear Resistance of the Concrete, vc Value of vc are given in Table 3.8 of BS 8110 and can be calculated from the formula:

where

As

=

area of longitudinal shear reinforcement that continues a distance at least d beyond the section considered. partial safety factor = 1.25

K

=

100 As >3 bv d

400 As <1 d

If the characteristic strength of the concrete is greater than 25 N/mm 2 vc can be multiplied by (fcu/25)1/3 but fcu should not be taken as greater than 40 N/mm. To resist the shearing forces, bars may be bent up near the support as shown in figure 5.3. The bent-up bars and the concrete in compression are considered to act as an analogous lattice girder and the shear re sistance of the bars is determined by taking a section XX through the girder. From the geometry of part (a) of the figure, the spacing of the bent -up bars is

s b ! d '
cot E cot F
d

and the section XX the shear resistance of the single bar is

v ! 0.95fyv

sb

sin E

where Asb is the cross-sectional area of the bent -up bar.

«100 As » v c ! 0.79 ¬ ¼ bv d ½

©

1/ 3

« 400 » ¬ d ¼ ½

1/ 4

1 K

5

x

d' A sb

Anchorage Length

A sb

E F

d

x

(a) Single System

s ! d d'
cot E cot F

A sb

E F

sb

(b) Multiple System

Figure 3.4

For a multiple system of bent-up bars, as in part (b) of the figure, the shear resistance is increased proportionately to the spacing sb. Hence

1

! 0.95fyv

sin E sb

tE c t sb

or

d d' Vb ! Asb 0.95fy v cos E si E cot F sb

d d c

equation 4 BS 8110

6

The angles E and F should both be greater than, or equal to 45 o and the code requires that the spacing sb has a maximum value of 1.5d. With E = = 45 o and s b ! d 1
, equation 5.5 becomes d

V ! 1.34fyv Asb

and this arrangement is commonly referred to as a double system.

Example 3.1

**Ult. design load, w = 10KN/m
**

125

o

6m

o

V = 30 KN

250

o

v ! v bd

V = 30 KN

o

2 T 20 A S ! 629 mm 2

!

30x103 ! 0.96 125x250

Maximum shear stress, 0.8 fcu ! 4N / mm 2

**100 As 100 x 629 ! ! 2 .0 bd 125 x 250
**

v c ! 0.95 N mm 2

from Table 3.8 or

vc is derived from the expression

¨ 100 As ¸ 3 ¨ 400 ¸ 4 ¨ fc ¸ 0.79© ¹ © ¹ © ¹ ª bd º ª d º ª 25 º vc ! Km

1

1

1 3

2 T 12

7

! 0.792.0

1 3

¨ 400 ¸ 4 ¨ 30 ¸ © ¹ © ¹ ª 250 º ª 25 º

1

1 3

1.25

!

0.79 x1.26 x1.12 x1.06 ! 0.945 1.25

mm2

0.5v

v

v c 0 .4

**@ minimum links for the whole length of beam
**

Try R8, A sv = 101

**Asv 0.4bv ! Sv 0.95fy v
**

Asv 0.4 x125 ! Sv 0.95 x 250

! 0.2105

!

v

101 187 .5mm ! 480 " 0.75 d 0 .21

@ Use

R 8 175 mm

a R8 - 175

o

R8 - 175

o

!

v c 0.4 ! 0.95 0.4 ! 1.35

#

"

a 2 T 12

o

o

2 T 20

8

Example 3.2

Ult. design load w= 64 KN/m 250 5m

160KN

d = 450

160KN

o o

o o

4 T 20

Ultimate shear stress at support

V 160 x10 3 v ! ! ! 1.42 N mm 2 bv d 250 x 450

v

0.8 f cu .38 N mm 2 4

**@ The size of the beam is ok.
**

The ultimate shear stress is less than the maximum shear stress.

100As » 0.79 « ¬ bv d ¼ ½ vc ! «100 As » ¼ ¬ bv d ½

1 3 1 3

400 fcu d
25

1 4

1 3

Km

1 3

**«100x1257 » !¬ ¼ 250 x 450 ½
**

1 4

! 0.56

13

400 d

1 4

¨ 400 ¸ !© ¹ ª 250 º

1 ! .6

1 3

14

fcu 30 25
! 25

1 3

! .2
1

14

13

1 1 v c ! 0.790.56
.6
.2

13

13

1.25

9

! 0.79 x 0.824 x1.125 x1.06 1.25

v c 0.4 ! 1.02 N mm 2

v c 0.4

0.8 fcu

**@ shear reinforcement is required
**

Asv b v c
v ! Sv 0.95fy v

! 250 .42 0.62
1 0.95 x 250

! 0.84

Try R8, Asv = 101mm2

Use link R8 ± 100

Nominal reinforcement

Asv 0. 4b ! Sv 0.95fy

! 0.4 x 250 ! 0.42 0.95 x 250

**Try R8, Asv = 101 mm2 Sv =
**

101 = 24 mm < 0.75d (337.5) 0.42

%

@

v

! 101 0.84

! 120 mm 0.75d 337 .5mm

$

! 0.62

mm

10

Use links R8-225 Shear resistance R8-225

Asv b( v v c ) ! Sv 0.95fyv

101 250( v v c ) ! 225 0.95 x 250

V V
! 0.43

c

v V

= 0.43 + 0.62 = 1.05 N/mm 2 = vbd

= 1.05 x 250 x 450 = 118.0 KN or

» « A 0.95ffy ! ¬ sv . Vc ¼bd b ½ Sv

« 101 0 .95 x 250 » . !¬ 0 .62 ¼ 250 x 450 250 225 ½

**! 1.05 x 250 x 450 ! 118 .80KN
**

160.0KN 118.0KN

a

**a 118 ! 2.5 160 a ! 1.84m
**

R8 - 100 R8 - 225

118.0KN 160.0KN

R8 - 100

0.66

3.68m

0.66m

11

3.4

Summary of design procedures for shear reinforcement according to BS8110

(1) Calculate ultimate shear stress

v!

V bv d

0.8 fcu or 5N mm 12 , which is the lesser.

(2) Check (3) Determine

v!

**c from Table 3.8 BS 8110 or from formula.
**

0.79? As bvd A 3 ?400 d A 4 100

1 1

Km

where K m ! 1.25 (4) If v < v c , for member of minor structural shear reinforcement can be omitted but for beam of structural importance minimum links should be provided.

Asv

!

v

0.4bv 0.95fyv

(5) If 0.5Vc

V

V

Asv !

0.4bv 0.95fyv

0.8 fcu or 5N mm 2 links should be provided

V (6) If c 0. 4 V

Asv bv Vc
V ! 0.95fyv Sv

(7) Choose a link size and spacing (8) Plot shear force diagram with shear resistance of concrete and minimum links. Specify arrangement. The spacing of the links,

Sv " 0.75d

&

c

0.4 , minimum links should be provided

12

Deflection

Having analysed the section at ultimate limit state and calculated the necessary reinforcement for the moment and shear, it is however necessary to consider to check that the serviceability limit state are satisfied. The three principal criteria regarding serviceability are that, when a member is subjected to the forces and moments that arise from working load, deflection, vibration and cracking must not be excessive. However BS 8110 stated that for reinforced concrete members, the general requirements to be regarded as acceptable limit are (a) that the final deflection (including all time-dependent effects such as creep and shrinkage as well as those of temperature) of each horizontal member below the supports must not exceed span/250, and (b) that the deflection occuring after the construction of a partition or the application of a finish should not exceed the lesser of span/350 or 20 mm for non brittle partition, and span/500 or 20 mm for brittle materials. That can be expressed as follow:

a1 a2

a1 a2 a2

= = >

a1 + a2

deflection before erection of partitions, etc. deflection after erection of part itions span or 20 mm whichever is the lesser 350 span > 250

13

Example 3.3 Deflection

Refer Example 3.1

W=10 kN/m

As req ! 490 .4 mm

**As prov ! 629 .0mm
**

6m

o

o

M!

WL2 10 X 6 2 ! ! 45.0KNm 8 8

L d basic = 20 (Table 3.9, simply supported

rectangular section)

The design service stress in the tension reinforcement in a member may be estimated from,

Asreq 1 x fs ! 2 f y 3 As Fb prov

490 ! 2 x 460 x x1 3 629

! 238 .9 N mm 2

14

**Modification factor for tension reinforcement
**

! 0.55

477 fs

M ¸ ¨ 120© 0.9 ¹ bd 2 º ª

e 2.0

2 T 12

o

250

o

! 0.55

477 238.9

¨ 45.0x10 6 ¸ ¹ 120© 0.9 © 125x1252 ¹ ª º

! 0.55

477 238 .9 1200.9 5.76

! 0.85

Modification factor for compression reinforcement 100 A' s 100 x 226 ! ! 0.72 125 x 250 bd

1.20 0.06 1.14 0.22

M. F = 1.19

0.5

0.72

0.75

0.22 ! 0.25 0.06

a = 0.053

'

15

**100 A' s prov bd 1 100 A' s prov 3 bd
**

1 0.72 ! 1 0.19 ! 1.19 3.72

**N
limit ! 20x0.85x1.19 ! 20.2mm d N
actual ! 6000 ! 24.0mm d 250 N
actual > N
limit d d
**

@ Deflection is not satisfactory. Hence , it is advisable to increase the size of the

beam.

16

Cracking

As with deflection, any crack in reinforced concrete will not be excessive. Excessive cracking and wide deep cracks affect durability and this leads to corrosion of reinforcement although strength may not be affected. BS 8110 states that for reinforcement concrete cracking should be kept within reasonable bounds. Cracking is controlled by specifying the maximum distance between bars in tension. The spacing limits are specified in clause.3.12.11.2. The clause indicates that in normal condition the internal or external exposure the bar spacing given will limit crack widths to 0.3mm. The rules are asBar s diameter less than 0.45, the largest bar in the section should be ignored except when considering bars in the side faces the beams. 1. The clear horizontal distance s 1 between bars or groups near the tension face beam should not be greater than the values given in Table 3.28, the code which are given by the expression.

o

o

o o

o o

Sb

anti ± crack reinforcement

S2 S2

o

o

Sb

o

o

o o o o o

S1 S1

S1

where S1 > value in Table 3.28 S2 > ½ S1 Sb > 250mm

17

Example 3.4

(a)

225

30

o

o

2 T 16

450 R8 - 150

y

o

S1

y

o

2T

Refer 3.12.11.2.3 BS 8110

Clear horizontal distance between bars in tension,

**S1 ! b 2cov er
2 li ks
2 bar
J J
**

! 225 230
28
225
! 99mm

Allowable clear distance between bars = 155 ( Table 3.28, fy = 460 and no redistribution 0%) Clear distance between the face of the beam and nearest longitudinal bar in tension

S2 !

y

2

y 2 bar 2 J

y ! cov er J links bar 2 J ! 30 8 25 ! 50 .5mm 2

S2 ! 50.52 50.5 2 25 ! 58.9mm

(

2

18

Allowable distance = 155 x 0.5 = 77.5

@ S2

77.5mm

@ satisfied

(b)

300mm 40 2 T 20

R10 - 200 1500mm

S2 25

o o

S1 25

o

S1 25

o o

5 T 25

**Clear distance between horizontal tension bar s
**

li ks

300 230 2 325 A 10 !? 2

! 72.5mm

155mm

@ O.K

S2 !

y!

y 2 y 2 bar J 2

cov er Jlink Jbar

2

! 30 10 25 ! 52.5 2

2 2 S2 ! 52.5 52.5 25

)

S1 !

?b 2cov er
2J
3J
A

bar

2

2 19

! 61.7mm

h > 250mm

77.5mm

**@ Bars should be provided in side faces of beam to
**

control cracking. Distance between bars

**Sb ! 200 mm " 250 mm
**

Minimum size of bar

S b ¸ J" ¨ b © fy ¹ ª º

"

200 x 300

460

= 11.4mm

@ Provide T12 @ 200 mm

20

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