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A new invention: Cyclic Addition

Mathematics
that repairs and perfects
An old invention: Number
By Jeff Parker

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Second Edition

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A New Invention: Cyclic Addition


Mathematics that repairs and perfects an Old Invention: Number.
(Second Edition 2013)
Copyright Jeff Parker 2013

A New Invention: Cyclic Addition


Mathematics that repairs and perfects An old Invention: Number.
Contents
Introduction 4
Object Count 8
Wheel 12
Circle 15
Pattern 18
Operation + 22
Common Multiple 26
Sequence 32
Whole Number 35
Rational Number 38
Fibonacci Number 40
Mysteries 44
Circular Addition 48
Cyclic Addition Step by Step
Step 1: Counting 55
Step 2: Place Value 61
Step 3: Move tens to units 71
Step 4: Remainder 73
Step 5: 7Multiple 80
Accuracy and Proof 86
A Collection of Emphasis on Cyclic Addition Number91
To infinite Whole Number
Hierarchy 93
Mapping and Cycle Tier by Tier 98
Counting Backwards 101
Pure Circular Fractions 103
Unify Whole Number with Fraction 111
Number in a practical World 113
How Cyclic Addition assists in teaching the Year R9
Mathematics Curriculum 116
Whats on the CDRom ? 124
Putting Cyclic Addition to the Test in the Classroom127
Table of Mapping Tier 2 and Tier 3 Counts 130

Introduction
Mathematical Number using Base 10 Place Value numeral by numeral has been with
us for over 1400 years. The invention of Number in the Western society took
hundreds of years to make good this invention. To apply basic arithmetic to the
modern Hindu-Arabic Numerals has only been with the Western Culture for a
relatively short time.
A New Invention: Cyclic Addition Mathematics is new. The form of the
Mathematical works is about 10 years old. The terminology and procedural
disciplines that make up this new work is constantly being perfected.
Why the need for more Mathematics ? Cyclic Addition is a world of Natural Number,
Rational Number and simple Irrational Number. This world unifies Whole Natural
Number with Circular Fractions. The Patterns that form with a Wheel and Number are
absolutely announcing the relationships that Whole Number has with all Number.
Cyclic Addition purports that the way Whole Number is formed leads the way for
applying Number in any strand of Mathematics and in any year of Mathematics at
School. Thus one hopes that it can be taught akin and beside all existing Mathematics
Curriculums. This Mathematics does literally reinvent the Wheel with Number.
What is Cyclic Addition Mathematics ? The Wheels, each with 6 numbers, Count
using Addition, these numbers are all jig-sawed together with Place Values, the wheel
rotates to move from hundreds to tens to units with Maths, a Remainder is found to
join this Wheel to a higher order Wheel. All the while Whole Number from the Wheel
all have a Common Multiple. This Multiple intertwines a natural sequence of numbers
to reveal all patterns of that Common Multiple. There are 6 count sequences to begin
with for each and every Common Multiple. These vary in length with the year level of
the student. These are the basics. A Mathematician prefers to use Number. Wait and
see.
The Wheel and all its circular Mathematics, uniquely combining Circle with Whole
Number, present a purity of just Mathematical Number so that this fundamental strand
of Maths is taught whole.
How is Cyclic Addition Mathematics communicated to a classroom setting ? This
book shows simple English terms that combine all the Maths together. Each chapter
has one word and all the corresponding Maths and outcomes relevant to the
Curriculum. There are about 30 terms with 5 basic steps governing most of the Cyclic
Addition Mathematics.
The Contents is structured to one chapter for each term. Where possible a term
indicates appropriate year levels.
Is there a simple Workbook of Cyclic Addition Mathematics ? Yes. Plenty of
exercises to master many Common Multiples with all the basic Step by Step Maths.
There is also a Guidebook that goes hand in hand with this Workbook.
The Cyclic Addition Mathematics has a strong foundation of Laws showing how it
was discovered. In fact there is a whole book that is highly Mathematical and written
for a simple audience to follow a world of Cyclic Addition.
4

Where does Cyclic Addition Start ? At a very lower primary level with whats termed
as an Object Count. Circular and 21 stars with 6 groups sequenced in a circle. Ready
to play with association of Number, Pattern, group or set of like objects, and Count.
The Circle is the strongest shape and Cyclic Addition makes the most of it. Each
Wheel is made with just 6 numbers. In fact a Wheel reading from the top 12 Oclock
position moving clockwise is 1 3 2 6 4 5 . Any other Wheel has a Common
Multiple like 2. This Wheel reads from the top again 2 6 4 12 8 10 . Note how
the structure of each multiple of 2 identically follows the sequence of the 1s. This
fact makes patterns easier, Mathematics with the Wheel simpler and recall of past
lessons with any Wheel faster and richer with understanding.
The Terms forming Chapters are set out in the Contents to best present Cyclic
Addition. To start with a setting for Cyclic Addition: Wheel, Circle, Pattern,
Operation + , Common Multiple and Sequence.
To head up the major Number groups yet still maintain unity is Whole Number,
Rational Number and Fibonacci. A beginner topic: Mysteries, Object Count, Circular
Addition.
The main topic of the book is the 5 steps of Cyclic Addition: Counting, Place Value,
Move tens to units, Remainder & 7Multiple.
To advance the study to an infinite Numerical level: Hierarchy, Mapping & Cycle,
Counting Backwards, Pure Circular Fractions and Unite Whole Number with
Fraction. A Practical look at some real world examples of Number. How to associate
Cyclic Addition with the Year R9 Mathematics Curriculum.
These terms have been selected to show A New Invention that conveys practical
knowledge and wisdom about Number. Some topics are mandatory learning while
others a mere glance at the Mathematics and away.
Theres a detailed look at the 4 pdf books in the final Chapter Whats on the
CDRom.
A Question to Start ? How do you improve a Number Grid of a continuous count by
1s from 1 to 10 on the first line, 11 to 20 on the second line and repeating the pattern
over and over until reaching 100 ? Cyclic Addition accomplishes this amongst many
other lessons.
Is Number 123 still one hundred and twenty three ? Yes. History and frequency of
mainstream use to preserve it shows that it remains as is. Bear in mind 123 is
universal across the globe and the English is with Australia.
Where to Start ? Start like a child with the Object Count. Build, Create, foster those
kindling thoughts and actions that govern the strength of the Child in his/her future
years of School and beyond.
Begin by inventing Cyclic Addition and fire up the Invention of Number.

++Lesson Plan. The Second edition of A New Invention: Cyclic Addition gives a
more practical emphasis.
Cyclic Addition has grown to a maturity from the start of ten numerals. Searching
constantly for a way to present Number has led to this book. The first 7 Chapters
introduce and bring to light the realm of Cyclic Addition. These short chapters
provide terminology, inter-connections with Mathematics and an absolutely original
way to receive Whole Number.
Cyclic Addition grows with the introduction of Laws. These aid setting up and
presenting Number. Also certain methods and an overall discipline to reach instant
rewards for the effort initially put into this subject. There is a definite building block
effect toward the mastery of Number. Early, simpler work might be apt for even the
most accomplished Mathematician. As this subject is purporting to be the way to
receive Whole Number, Rational Number and Fibonacci Number. Thus there are
many definitions and knowledge built around the Mathemaitcs.
Cyclic Addition starts with Circle and Number. This feat in itself to even suggest that
Number and Circle are perfect together is a tall ask. Cyclic Addition makes the most
of the Circle by actions with the Wheel. Moving around the Wheel in a circular
motion with Mathematics is at the very core of Cyclic Addition. Special Fractions that
are pure and circular have all numerators in a set of Circular Number.
Cyclic Addition is Infinite. Counting around a Wheel is potentially infinite. Climbing
a hierarchy of unified Wheels is also potentially infinite. Fractions that are circular are
also infinite. To draw a practical picture of this infinite nature requires mastery of
basics. Using mathematical Operations + with structure and form. Measuring
the revolution of a Circle of Numbers. Inter-connecting Wheels of Number with
procedure and discipline allows further mastery.
Cyclic Addition is with a Step by Step discipline. New techniques to evolve Number
and incorporate a Wheel, a Common Multiple, a Sequence, a Tier all require a Step by
Step method. All Steps are mathematical, all preserve the Wheel and Sequence of
Number, all actions constantly form a Common Multiple.
Cyclic Addition harnesses a Sequence of Number. A Wheel by Counting around the
Circle produces a sequence of Numbers. This sequence is inter-woven Mathematics of
a certain Common Multiple. The Wheel is the working tool to generate a certain
number of Sequences. All known patterns of a Number, termed Common Multiple,
are completely explored with the Wheel and Sequence. The Sequence is always a
natural incrementing order of Number.
Cyclic Addition completes Number with wholeness and perfection. Moving through
Place Value positions of Number is with Mathematics rather than names like units,
tens and hundreds. All Numbers with a Count are given a place, position and order
amongst all Number. All the possible patterns with a Number, called a Common
Multiple, are created from just Wheels. All Wheels have common Mathematics that is
transferred from the learning with one Wheel to all others.
Cyclic Addition can be for fun with just Circle, Number and Addition. Pick a Wheel,
pick a Start and Count around the Wheel. Progressive Totals in a sequence are made
from the Wheel and a beginner natural bonds a certain Common Multiple together.
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Cyclic Addition is a continuous Step by Step set of actions. Each Count with a Wheel
applies all 5 Steps. All Steps: Counting, Place Value, Move Tens to Units, Remainder
and 7Multiple are Mathematical and in order. All Steps use the Wheel. All Steps
preserve the Circle and Sequence of the Wheel. All Steps one after the other perfect
the Common Multiple of the Wheel. All Steps show perfect patterns from both the
Wheel and the continuous Count Sequence.
Cyclic Addition is holographic. Circular Addition is part of the basics of Cyclic
Addition. Circular Addition splits up all parts of the Wheel to show a coherent Whole
from all possible parts. A Wheels Mathematics and Step by Step workings used in a
simple form is likewise found in more complex Wheels. Making multiples from a
Wheel is the same rotation and portion of the Wheel as with all Wheels.
Cyclic Addition belongs to the subject Mathematics. Whole Number as a strand of
Mathematics is completely reborn. The strand is unified Mathematics. Whole Number
is perfectly placed next to the Circle. Whole Number is explored by a continuous
sequence of Number all with the same Common Multiple. All Operations + are
applied with Cyclic Addition. Operations + are completely learnt together to master
patterns and the Common Multiple. Whole Number and its relationship with like
other Whole Numbers all meld together. The initial Chapter Topics introduce Cyclic
Addition Whole Number as having qualities of the Wheel, Circle, Pattern, All
Operations + , one Common Multiple at a time, and inter-woven incrementing
Sequences generated from Counting.
Cyclic Addition and the School Curriculum. There is a whole Chapter at the end of
this book devoted to showing that perfect Number can be prepared for any other
Mathematics Strand in the subject. Cyclic Addition Number prepares infinitely
perfect Mathematics within the structure and form given by the books design and
blueprint for building the future of an Old Invention: Number.

Object Count
The diagram below shows 21 stars in a circle. The stars follow the pattern sequence
of 1 3 2 6 4 5 . The six sided stars around the circle are to encourage seeing
groups of objects at once like the six stars.
This talent of seeing patterned objects together is a wondrous gift. The sequence of
the groups resists itself as the child sees each group in turn.
How to perform an Object Count ? Start at each group and label a group with a
number. Let the child build and create the number to each group. The sequence is
naturally formed to be counted in a never ending circle.
Look closely at the sequence. Between 1 star and 2 stars is 3 stars (1+2=3). Between
2 stars and 4stars is 6 stars (2+4=6). Between 4 stars and 1 star is 5 stars (4+1=5).
A simple start of adding two groups next to each other. Another pattern emerges 5
stars + 1 star move around to the other side shows 6 stars (5+1=6). One star + three
stars is four stars (1+3=4). Three stars + two stars is five stars (3+2=5). Other groups
next to each other two stars + six stars is eight stars (2+6=8). Six stars + four stars is
ten stars (6+4=10). Four stars + five stars is nine stars (4+5=9).
In the early stages of Cyclic Addition counting backwards or forwards doesnt matter.
So these patterns can be in an anti-clockwise order. (1+5=6), (5+4=9), (4+6=10),
(6+2=8), (2+3=5), (3+1=4).

A little trickier is to count the same object twice. One star + one star is two stars
(1+1=2). This requires a duplication by thinking or imagining the same object again.
More likely to be done by accident than by teaching. So just count the two star group
as one star + one star together. Then the four star group as two stars + two stars
together. Then the six star group as three stars + three stars together.
There are other groups apart from each other. Five stars + three stars is eight stars
(5+3=8). Three stars + six stars is nine stars (3+6=9). Six stars + five stars is eleven
stars (6+5=11). The sevens are separated by two groups opposite each other on the
circle of stars. One star + six stars = seven stars (1+6=7). Three stars + four stars =
seven stars (3+4=7). Two stars + five stars = seven stars (2+5=7). And the other way
around (6+1=7), (4+3=7), (5+2=7).
As the sequence of stars becomes more familiar. Other objects, possibly 3-D solid
objects, can be chosen. However the sequence must remain in the order of
1 3 2 6 4 5 objects in a circle. Pattern the 21 objects so as to be similar shape,
size and can be grouped together for a count.
Lets start counting stars with three groups in sequence. Start clockwise. One star +
three stars = four stars, from above, then four stars + two stars = six stars (1+3=4,
4+2=6). Note the two additions and note the clockwise direction. Add the others.
3+2=5, 5+6=11 (3+2+6=11). 2+6=8, 8+4=12 (2+6+4=12), 6+4=10, 10+5=15
(6+4+5=15), 4+5=9, 9+1=10 (4+5+1=10). 5+1=6, 6+3=9 (5+1+3=9). Note how the
total of stars for three groups are unique. Six stars (1+3+2), eleven stars (3+2+6),
twelve stars (2+6+4), fifteen stars (6+4+5), ten stars (4+5+1), and nine stars (5+1+3).
This grouping of addition with objects and number is fundamental and consequently
introduced at the beginning of Cyclic Addition. Forming the nature of Whole Number
further on in primary years requires this talent. Grouping light into patterns helps
reading, writing, spatial recognition, object familiarity and assists in building
confidence with shape and colour to make sense out of an increasingly complex
material and technological world.
In later chapters, as in Cyclic Addition Counting, a Count starts from one of the six
numbers and counts around the Wheel of Numbers. Following the pattern of A count,
addition, total, the next count, addition, a new total, the next count, addition, a new
total and so forth.
Give the opportunity to continuously Count around the circle presenting a Total with
each new group. For example starting at 1+3=4, 4+2 =6, 6+6=12, 12+4=16, 16+5=21.
Work with the Object Count until there is a transition or a path made toward
Counting by Groups rather than Counting by Ones. A Number Grid of 1 to 100 in
rows of ten can be a start to show how the sequence hops over numbers to the next
Count Total.
There are six starting points with the circle of stars above. Counting around for 1
revolution around the circle with each start is 36 counts (66=36). Once the student is
confident with this Counting then its time to start with a Wheel of numerals instead
of stars. Making the leap from picture counting to numerals alone requires plenty of
practise.

++ Lesson Plan.
Discussion. The aim of Object Count is to form number with object. Assigning a
number with Cyclic Addition starts with Counting groups with 1 to 6 objects in turn.
Once 1, 2 and 3 objects are mastered use these to add to 4, 5 and 6. 4 =1+3 =2+2
=3+1 or 1+1+1+1. 5 =4+1 =3+2 =1+4= 2+3 =1+3+1 or 1+1+1+1+1. Actually
learning how to create a Count Number of objects begins with 1s and is transformed
with these groupings and even later with in sequence grouping.
Addition is exactly that adding Numbers together. The grouping to start can be any
order of two groups. Start with One 1+1=2, 1+3=4, 1+2=3, 1+6=7, 1+4=5, 1+5=6.
The Sequence around the Circle of Stars resists itself as the child develops.
Instruction and Guide. Find all the ways to build a group of stars.
2 =1+1,
3 =1+1+1 =1+2 =2+1,
4 =1+1+1+1 =1+2+1 =1+3 =2+2 =3+1,
5 =1+1+1+1+1 =1+3+1 =3+2 =2+3 =4+1 =1+4 =1+1+1+2 =2+1+2 =5,
6 =5+1 =4+2 =3+3 =2+4 =1+5 =2+2+2 =1+1+1+1+2 =1+3+2 =1+1+4 =1+2+1+2,
Though not complete these combinations show a way to join small numbers 1 to 6
with other small numbers.
Pattern and Sequence. At this early stage of Object Count the Grouping of stars to
represent a Number of stars is more important than the Sequence of Stars around the
Circle of 21 stars. Only after the Counting from 1 to 6 Stars is practised can in
sequence Counting be started. In the next Chapter Wheel Number is used in
sequence around the Wheel. This shows six number Counting sequence starting at
each of the 6 Groups around the Wheel. See Chapter Wheel.
Form and Structure. So the introduction of Counting with Groups relies on the
deconstruction of not only the Sequence around the Wheel but also the interrelationships between numbers 1 to 6 as with the Guide above. Without getting lost or
over use of the +1 all of the patterns above should be given equal weighting. This
is to encourage the transition from +1 to in sequence addition around the Wheel.
As the number of stars goes beyond 6 specifically from 7 to 21 there are a myriad of
ways to Count to these numbers. So the Wheel is introduced early to maintain order
and structure. Numbers 2 to 6 can easily be counted with just 2 groups as above.
However the 6 =1+3+2 =2+2+2 =1+2+3 =1+4+1 begins use of 3 numbers with
Addition to equal 6. So consequently the Wheel of Numbers is used to Count with
higher Numbers 7 to 21. In Chapter Place Value there is a basic list of how to make 1
to 10.
Instruction and Guide. Lets look at how to create numbers 7 to 21 from the Wheel.
7 =1+6 =3+4 =2+5 =6+1 =4+3 =5+2 =1+5+1 =3+1+3 =2+3+2 =1+3+2+1
8 =2+6 =5+3 =6+2 =3+5 =1+3+4 =5+1+2 =1+3+1+3
9 =4+5 =6+3 =5+4 =3+6 =3+3+3 =5+1+3 =4+3+2 =2+6+1
10 =5+5 =6+4 =4+6 =4+5+1 =5+3+2 =6+1+3
Then start to use the order of the Wheel with longer sequences to create Numbers 11
to 21.
11 =5+1+3+2 =3+2+6
12 =1+3+2+6 =2+6+4
13 =4+5+1+3
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14 = 2 pairs of opposite sides e.g. =1+3+6+4


15 =6+4+5 =3+2+6+4 =4+5+1+3+2
16 =6+4+5+1 =1+3+2+6+4
17 =2+6+4+5 =5+1+3+2+6
18 =2+6+4+5+1
19 =6+4+5+1+3
20 =3+2+6+4+5
21 = all six numbers in sequence starting from any one of the six Groups.
Guide. There are many other ways to make 11 to 21 from the Wheel and this
introduction has been simplified to highlight the use of moving around the Wheel in a
Clockwise direction.
Arithmetic. So Cyclic Addition forms Number other ways other than just 1 +1=2
+1=3 +1=4 +1=5 +1=6 Number is given at the beginning of Cyclic Addition to a
Wheel of 6 numbers and Addition around the Wheel constructs other Number.
Number is made perfect by its Addition of other smaller Number from the Wheel.
Later in the quest and search to perfect Number, Number is put into a sequence of
incrementing Number. These increments are always from the Wheel. The Wheel
starts with the circular 1 3 2 6 4 5 .
The Wheel actually joins Number in a continuous Count around the Wheel. For
example 18 =2+6+4+5+1 has 4 steps of continuous Addition. 2+6=8, 8+4=12,
12+5=17 and 17+1=18. So the Wheel is at the centre of creating the Number sequence
of 2 8 12 17 18. Cyclic Addition becomes a journey to create 18 from the Wheel
rather than merely 17 +1=18 +1=19. The higher the Number the longer the journey.
Discover and Explore. The Wheel 1 3 2 6 4 5 is the fundamental building block
of Cyclic Addition Mathematics. The effort to Count with the Wheel at the beginning
of this journey snowballs as further Mathematics is applied in later Chapters.
Cyclic Addition Discipline. Travelling along the journey brings rewards of stronger
Number and hence stronger Mathematics amongst all the other strands within the
subject. Counting around the Wheel brings together relationships of all the 6 numbers
within the Wheel and all the Numbers when Counting from the Wheel. Once a
teacher/child is confident with 6 Numbers in a circular Wheel the world is you ouster
and Number.
Later Chapters continue with this discipline and method of Whole Number.

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Wheel
The Wheel is the first term to begin a setting for Cyclic Addition Mathematics. All
know that a Wheel rotates around in a circular shape. Like the Earth orbiting the Sun.
Like a Bicycle wheel moving many from wo to go. Like a Frisbee being spun as it is
thrown and caught by two players.
The Wheel was originally called a Cyclic Addition Sequence. Later termed as the
Wheel. The Wheel can be interchanged with other wheels. The Wheel has circular
properties that are used, these are discussed in Circle.
The Wheel always takes the form of 1 3 2 6 4 5 . This is the first wheel and is
used to show talk through examples with Cyclic Addition Step by Step. These Steps
are in later chapters.
A major purpose of Counting with this Wheel 1 3 2 6 4 5 is to master Multiples
of 1. The following diagram shows the Wheel and six count sequences for one whole
revolution each. Note that all numbers from 1 to 21, except 7 and 14, are included in
the six counts. The 7 and 14 are included with the Cyclic Addition Remainder Step in
a later chapter. All multiples of one from 1 to 21 are included. This fact contributes to
the completeness of Cyclic Addition Mathematics.

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Note some numbers appear once 1, 2, 3, 8, 13, 18, 19 and 20. Others appear twice
4, 5, 9, 10, 11, 12, 16 and 17. Others three times 6 and 15. And the end of the
counting Cycle 21 is given 6 times. This layout contributes to the meshing and
knotting of multiples of 1 together.
Patterns of ones from 1 to 21 can be seen by hopping over counts.
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All six counts are with the Mathematical Operation Addition. All six counts are from
the one Wheel. All six counts have a multiple of 1. All six counts have the same
reference point of 21 at the end of one revolution around the Wheel.
The Counting with Addition forms a natural incrementing or increasing sequence.
Likewise a decreasing of number can be seen in the opposite direction. Cyclic
Addition builds with Addition firstly.
And Finding the Difference between numbers like 176=11 from (3+2+6), 154=11
from (5+1+3+2) and 124=8 from (2+6) uses the Wheel. The sequence and structure
of the Wheel is strengthened and acts as a building block for further Mathematics.
The form of a Wheel is always six numbers in a circle. A Wheel always has a single
Common Multiple. This Common Multiple is the number at the top of the Wheel. The
basic common multiples start at the familiar 1 to 10. Look closely at the seven wheels
on the title page and the three wheels below. Each Wheel shows 6 numbers in a
pattern.
The common multiple 1 1 3 2 6 4 5 = 1 3 2 6 4 5 .
The common multiple 3 1 3 2 6 4 5 = 3 9 6 18 12 15 .
The common multiple 2 1 3 2 6 4 5 = 2 6 4 12 8 10 .

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15

12
18

10

12

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This sequence combined with a particular Common Multiple forms the foundation of
Whole Number and Cyclic Addition Mathematics.
Counting with a single Wheel at a time is usually until mastery of patterns and
Common Multiple are achieved.
How far to Count ? Beginners 1 cycle for all 6 starts. (66=36 counts). Intermediate 3
cycles for all 6 starts (366=108 counts). Advanced 7 cycles for all 6 starts
(766=252 counts). Count with one wheel before moving onto another. The ones
being the simplest.
Cyclic Addition Mathematics in later Steps uses the sequence and common multiple
of a Wheel. This is demonstrated in later chapters. There is a connection to a higher
order of the same Common Multiple. Using wheel numbers to build a Count. Moving
numbers from tens to units with just the wheel. Joining the Count to a higher order
with just one number from the Wheel. This is called a Remainder. Found in later
chapters.
Cyclic Addition Whole Number is continuously created by just the Wheels.
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++Lesson Plan. The Wheel is exactly as it is. Although the positions of the six
numbers forming the Wheel remain still, all the actions of Cyclic Addition move
around the circular Wheel creating Mathematics.
The action of rotating around the Wheel is used with Counting. The Count can start,
like the previous example, at any one of the six positions of the Wheel. The Count can
be for practical sake between 1 to 7 cycles around the Wheel. Counting applies to all
Wheels of Cyclic Addition no matter the Common Multiple or the Tier Order.
Discover and Explore. Write out a Wheel in a circular format. Start with the Common
Multiples 1 to 10, then perhaps to 21, then the more advanced to 69. Put the Wheel
with a circle inscribed in the middle of the six numbers, at the top of a page. Then
Count in clockwise sequence around the Wheel. Start at any one of the six numbers
and count. Count for at least one cycle. Stop. Then Count again at another starting
position. Again at least for one cycle. Stop. Then Count again at another starting
position. Continue Counting for all six starting positions all with at least a cycle each.
This trains the child / student into using Mathematics with Wheel and circle. Uniting
Number with Circle at an early stage.
Form and Structure. The Wheel of ones being 1 3 2 6 4 5 . The Wheel of
threes being 3 9 6 18 12 15 and the Wheel of twos being 2 6 4 12 8 10 .
Look also at the seven Wheels on the cover page. Common Multiples one to seven are
shown. The Common Multiple being the number at the top of the Wheel.
Sequence and Circle. Make 9s with the positions of the Wheel. Common Multiple 1
Wheel use 4+5=9, 5+1+3=9. Both in sequence Counting around the Wheel. Common
Multiple 3 use 12+15=27, 15+3+9=27 again both in sequence Counting around the
Wheel. Common Multiple 2 use 8+10=18, 10+2+6=18. And again these are in
sequence Counting around the Wheel. Note also how simple multiplication is given
with the Common Multiple. Common Multiple 1 9=91, Common Multiple 3
27=93 and Common Multiple 2 18=92. So the Wheel gives the multiple of 9 for
each Common Multiple.
Review and Investigation. Try this exercise with the other Wheels start with the Cover
Page of this book. Now instead of making 9s practise making 8s (hint: 2+6) and
10s (hint: 6+4 and 4+5+1) and 11s (hint: 5+1+3+2) and 12s. Practise can be as high
as 21. Remember to keep in sequence when making the multiple with any Wheel.
Patterns with Number all come from the inherent structure and sequence of each
Wheel. As all multiples of 1 are shown with the Wheel 1 3 2 6 4 5 for as far as
the 6 Counts go. In our example this chapter all multiples of 1 from 1 to 21 are shown
with just one cycle of counting. Six starts all with one whole revolution. This
knowledge and practise of Cyclic Addition is mirrored with all other Common
Multiples. Counting all six starts ensures that all multiples of the Common Multiple
Wheel are included with the Count. So any multiple can be made from Counting
around a Wheel.
At this early Stage note the 5 Steps of Cyclic Addition listed in the Table of Contents
all apply the sequence and order of the Wheel. All the Mathematics within Cyclic
Addition comes from the Circle, Cycle and Sequence of the Wheel !
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Circle
A Circle is a perfect shape. Starting at a point around the circle one can move in a
continuous arc to return to the starting point. There is no limit as to the number of
times one revolves around the circle. Any arc or part of the circle can be placed upon
any other part of the circle.
The Object Count in the previous chapter is with Circle. Each group of stars forms an
arc around the circle. Counting with objects in this circle moves consistently around
the circle.
The placement of the six numbers around a wheel makes the Mathematics of the
Common Multiple simple. Look at the Wheel 1 3 2 6 4 5 below and make 9.

5
4

3
2

Simple 4+5, 5+1+3, 3+6 all = 9


Other sequences of numbers are used in making Place
Value a later chapter.
5+4, 1+3+5, 6+3, 3+3+3, 3+2+1+3, 1+3+1+3+1,
4+3+2, 3+5+1, 1+2+6, 2+1+3+2+1, 3+2+4 all = 9.

These sequences all preserve the order of clockwise


rotation of the sequence. And present 9. At this early
stage of Cyclic Addition the teacher and student need
not concern about the numerals 7, 8, 9 and 0. They are all introduced with addition
from this wheel and they appear upon Wheels with other Common Multiples.
All of the Counting Wheels with 6 numbers also form a Circle. Again the familiar
places of these 6 multiples make navigation around the Wheel simple. The effort put
into the first Wheel 1 3 2 6 4 5 is translated into the same Mathematics in other
Wheels. There are many Mathematical properties that are shared between the Wheels.
For instance mapping to find 91=9 with the wheel above can be used to map 92=18
and 93=27 from common multiple 2 and 3 wheels. Have a go making 18 and 27
from the Wheels on the previous page.
Cyclic Addition has a simple beginning that follows the Object Counting. This is
called Circular Addition. This is discussed in the beginner chapters. What is it and
how does it link with the 6 number Wheel 1 3 2 6 4 5 ? Circular Addition is a
mini-wheel of all wheels that can be made from preserving the sequence of this
wheel. Circular Addition is simply Adding with a circular sequence of 1 to 5
numbers. Like the 6 number wheel Circular Addition uses a progressive total to form
patterns and multiples from every mini wheel. Look at examples of mini wheels
below.

3
2

4
6

15

5
4

Look at the length of the Circular Addition sequence. Look at the positioning of each
mini-wheel. This length is from 1 to 5 numbers. Each mini-wheel has a cycle total.
This total is grouped with other mini-wheels. For example Total six has 5 miniwheels. 1 3 2, 5 1, 2 2 2, 3 3 and 6.
The Guidebook and Workbook have a complete list of all mini-wheels and grouping
them by their Totals. The Workbook has a complete set of Classroom exercises for all
possible mini-wheels generated from the original Wheel 1 3 2 6 4 5 . These
exercises are the practical beginning to Cyclic Addition following the Object Count.
Counting with 6 number Wheels at the start of Cyclic Addition is deemed to
advanced for early primary. Too much confusion with the 6 numbers around the
Wheel and how to keep check of where one is up to around the wheel as the child
Counts. So we start with Circular Addition and the mini-wheels.
Circular Addition is discussed in further chapters.
The Circle is used to show far more advanced pattern making around the wheel of six
numbers than a straight line of six numbers. Like the clock with the 12 up the top.
There is a defined structure that is used right through Cyclic Addition Step by Step
chapters.
Chapters of Cyclic Addition Step by Step show how the Circle is used to preserve
Mathematics with a 6 number Wheel. The Circle is used to form Place Value patterns
that add to each count total. Like the generation of 9 with the Wheel 1 3 2 6 4 5 .
The Circle is used to Move place values outside the units, typically in the tens and
hundreds, to the units. This is accomplished by moving one position clockwise
around the wheel. Only a Circle can accommodate this. The Remainder Step in
Cyclic Addition forms patterns around the circle. There are 270 possible Remainder
patterns formed for every wheel. These patterns produce a single number Remainder.
The Remainder is used to link a Count from a Wheel to a higher order Wheel.
So in summary the Circle is the only Mathematical shape that can constantly preserve
the Cyclic Addition Mathematics to master Whole Number or integer. Without the
Wheel there is no cohesion and unity of Whole Number. There is no universality to
actions of arithmetic. No order, no structure, no building-blocks and no wondering.
Number learning might only be by accident of many disjointed actions of repetitious
Mathematics. The learning of how any number fits with all Number is purposeless.

16

++Lesson Plan. Counting unravels the circle of the Wheel into a linear sequence of
Number. All of these Numbers share the same Common Multiple. Like a spool of
fishing line cast out into the sea or a thread on a cotton reel twirling around forming a
seam created by the sewing machine. The circular shape of any Cyclic Addition
Wheel serves the same purpose. To perfectly present a Count sequence generated
from the Wheel.
The Circle is also shown with an analogue clock. The Cyclic Addition Wheels are
just like the position of the even numbers around the clock. These form 6 equally
spaced points around a circle. Practise forming a wheel with a chosen Common
Multiple.
The snowflake is created with beautiful six pointed sides. The patterns are infinite.
There is an awesome symmetry of the hexagon shapes within them. These serve to
remind us of how perfect Nature shows a six pointed Circle.
The Wheels start with Common Multiples 1 to 69 for the first Tier. Thats 69 unique
Wheels to create and form Counts. Each Wheel has 6 unique Count sequences. Each
Count sequence can be for practical sake from 1 to 7 cycles in length.
The Hierarchy of these 69 Wheels grades a finer perfection of Number each new
successive Tier. The number of Tiers for any of these 69 Wheels is potentially
infinite. The Hierarchy is discussed in a later Chapter.
So all Wheels are Circular. All actions of the Step by Step Cyclic Addition
Mathematics are also Circular. A later Chapter Mysteries of the Wheel also show
Mathematical actions upon the Wheel preserve the sequence and Circular nature of
every Wheel.
The knowledge and practical workings of the Wheel 1 3 2 6 4 5 at the
beginning of Cyclic Addition is transformed to the use of all other Wheels. The use of
the Circle with Wheel 1 3 2 6 4 5 is also able to be transformed to all other
Wheels. This continuity of Circular action is unique and original to Cyclic Addition.
Discover and Explore. Pick a Wheel and practise looking at 2 numbers in clockwise
sequence. For example from the Wheel 1 3 2 6 4 5 look at the arc of 1 3, 3
2, 2 6, 6 4, 4 5 and 5 1. Try this with other hand written Wheels of your
own. Have a go with various Common Multiples. By simply looking at the two
numbers in sequence the Mathematician should be able to present the addition of the
two numbers. 1+3=4 four should be seen when looking at these two numbers next to
each other upon the Wheel.
Practise with this exercise can continue with 3 numbers clockwise, 4 numbers
clockwise and 5 numbers clockwise. There are 6 mini-wheels with each group of 1, 2,
3, 4 and 5 number sequences. Thus 65=30 mini-wheels. Practise seeing these groups
together is to perfect Circular Mathematics. Totals for each mini-wheel should be
seen when sighting the position of the mini-wheel. As the Wheel is circular all miniwheels have a specific length and arc around the circular Wheel. This contributes to
the Circle and circular Mathematics of Cyclic Addition.

17

Pattern
A Pattern is a repeating design that shows qualities of form, shape, colour with order
and structure that is naturally pleasing to the senses. When repeated the Pattern makes
sense of grouping like knowledge together. Number also has this quality. Its beauty
and harmony amongst all Number can be illuminated with Cyclic Addition.
The Circle has the repeating nature of rotation. Moving around the circle one notices
where one is easily from one relative position to another.
The Wheel of 6 numbers as mentioned also has an order and structure. Each Wheel
with its own Common Multiple defines the starting basics of a Number. For example
2 1 3 2 6 4 5 = 2 6 4 12 8 10 . As well as multiplying the original wheel
1 3 2 6 4 5 by 2, all positions of multiples of 2 remain the same. Look once
again at the 7 Wheels on the title page. All follow this Pattern.
Circular Addition with its miniwheels produce patterns. Remember the mini-wheels
for a total of six. These are 1 3 2, 5 1, 2 2 2, 3 3 and 6. When counting
with these, using literally circular addition, patterns of the Number 6 form. All its
multiples (16, 23, 32, 61) are presented with order and circle. A multiple of 6
patterns along the circular count sequence by adding along with these mini-wheels.
Not only does it present multiples of 6 (6, 12, 18, 24, 30) but it shows numbers
inbetween the sixes to resist and strengthen the pattern of sixes. See chapter Circular
Addition for detailed examples.
Cyclic Addition with 6 number Wheels also manifests patterns. Using the example
Wheel below with Common Multiple 2 being 2 6 4 12 8 10 . Count from a start
of 2 for two cycles.

10

8
12
2

12

24

32

42

6
4

44

50

54

66

74

84

Patterns of the Number 2 are discovered. As all the 6 members of the Wheel are
multiples of 2 so to are all of the Counts possible with this wheel. The Count
Sequence shows multiples of 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14 and so on. All interwoven in a
circular sequence to join them together. The Nature of Common Multiple 2 is also
revealed. An even units numeral (2, 4, 6, 8, 0) in the count sequence above displays
patterns again to weave the evens or multiples of 2 together. This is just one simple
small 2 cycle Count with the Wheel. There are 5 other possible Counts and the
Counts can measure in length from 1 to 7 cycles.
Join any two numbers along the Count Sequence by just following the Wheel. From
24 to 50 map the Wheels movements of 8+10+2+6=26 a simple difference is shown.
From 44 to 74 map the Wheel movements 6+4+12+8=30 again the difference. Note
18

how that this works anywhere along the Count Sequence as the Count is from a
Circle.
These patterns strengthen not only multiples of 2 but the Wheel of Common Multiple
2 and other Wheels. As the effort put into this Wheel is translated into other Wheels.
Cyclic Addition Patterns from a Wheel are to perfect Number. The inter-relationships
with a Number or Common Multiple are with all Whole Number. The Wheel, like the
above Count with twos, joins the Count Sequence all together. Simple, while
effectively presenting 2s and showing infinite patterns of Number 2.
++Lesson Plan. A Cyclic Addition Count Sequence from a Wheel expresses the
perfect patterns belonging to that Wheels Common Multiple. The example of
Common Multiple 2 Wheel above shows one simple 2 cycle Count and has 5 other
partner Counts. With all six Counts from the Wheel 2 6 4 12 8 10 all multiples
of 2 are presented for as many cycles as counted.
Each new count along the Count Sequence of 2s above has 6 unique spacings from
the previous count. These spacings spread the Multiples of 2 apart to show order of
multiples of 2. These increment by the addition around the Wheel in Sequence and
prevent repetition and monotony. Allowing for the discovery of what Multiples of 2
look like, and how they interact together along the Count Sequence.
Research. Like last chapter let us draw upon the analogy of the Analogue Clock. The
clock face has 12 numbers incrementing from 1 to 12 by 1s. Each hour is known by
the small hands position from 1 to 12. Once past the 12 the clock hour hand begins
again at 1. So the circle of the hour moves from 1 to 12 back to 1 again.
The analogue clock has been with us for hundreds of years. Let us look at the minute
hand in detail. Many Analogue Clocks have markings to show the position of the
minute hand graded with 60 points around the circle. Each Number on the clock
shows the number of minutes with the multiple of 5 calculated to give the minute past
the hour. So for example the Clock 4 is multiplied by 5 to give 20, the Clock 6 is
multiplied by 5 to give 30, the Clock 9 is multiplied by 5 to give 45 and so on. So the
numbers position around the Clock dial is multiplied by 5 to give the minute position
around the same dial.
Cyclic Addition Wheels use 6 numbers in a Circle. The first Wheel 1 3 2 6 4 5
is used as a reference to creating all other Wheels. To make Common Multiple 5
Wheel like the Analogue Clock each position around the Circle is multiplied by 5.
This creates the Common Multiple 5 Wheel 5 15 10 30 20 25 . The 6 number
Wheel is perfectly circular moving from any number around to any other. The full
circle of Counting is marked by a Cycle and Mathematics applied later.
The minds eye can view a 6 number circle and its natural hexagon position for each
Number instantly. This prepares the way for many other Mathematical operations that
would not function effectively without just the 6 number Wheels.
So the 5s around the Analogue Clock are eventually formed by their position around
the circular face. 12 positions make it cumbersome and a long practical learning curve
to perform the multiplication of 5 by the hour hand number to receive the minutes. In
19

contrast the Cyclic Addition Wheel structure and form is simple to learn and multiply
by a Common Multiple to construct any new Wheel.
Lets look closely at patterns formed with the Common Multiple 2 Wheel. All six
Counts follow for just a simple 2 cycles each.

10

8
12
2
6
4
12
8
10

8
10
16
20
18
12

12
22
24
30
20
18

24
30
34
32
26
22

32
40
36
38
30
34

42
42
42
42
42
42

6
4
44
48
46
54
50
52

50
52
58
62
60
54

54
64
66
72
62
60

66
72
76
74
68
64

74
82
78
80
72
76

Lets look at pairs of counts in the same sequence that share a multiple. The first
sequence 8 12 share 4 as a common multiple. 12 24 share 6 and 12. 24 32 share 8.
42 and 84 share 14 in all 6 counts. 44 and 66 share 22. So just 12 numbers in an
incrementing wheel sequence show Multiples of 4, 6, 8, 12, 14 and 22 are
inextricably bound with Common Multiple 2.
The second sequence 10 30 40 share 10. 6 48 share 6. 48 and 64 share 4, 8 and 16.
40 48 52 64 and 72 share 4. 48 and 72 share 12. These 12 counts show Multiples of
4, 6, 8, 10, 12 and 16 within Common Multiple 2.
The third sequence 4 16 24 36 76 and 84 share 4. 16 and 24 share 8. 36 66 78 84
share 6.
The fourth sequence 12 20 32 72 80 and 84 share 4. 12 42 54 72 and 84 share 6.
20 30 share 10. 32 72 80 share 8. 54 72 share 18.
The fifth sequence 18 72 share 18. 20 60 68 72 and 84 share 4. 18 30 42 60 72
share 6. 8 and 72 share 8. 20 30 50 60 share 10. 20 60 share 20. 30 60 share 30. 60
72 share 12.
The sixth sequence 10 60 share 10. 12 52 60 64 76 and 84 share 4. 12 18 42 54
60 84 share 6. 12 60 share 12. 18 54 share 18.
So each of the 6 Count Sequences have a Mathematical story to tell of the Common
Multiple 2. Showing how other Multiples for example 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 18, 20
and so are all patterned and woven with these 6 Counts to create all numbers sharing
Multiple 2.
Move along each Sequence and form patterns that show the 2s for what they are!
20

84
84
84
84
84
84

Lets consider some of the more mysterious nature to Cyclic Addition Pattern
making. As the Mathematician applies the Cyclic Addition discipline one learns how
to read a Common Multiple. There are only 69 Common Multiples from 1 to 69. The
next Tier, Tier 2 has Common Multiples of 7 to 483 in multiples of 7 only. Tier 3 has
Common Multiples of 49 to 3381 in multiples of 49 only.
No matter the Tier one can read a Count by applying the knowledge of the first Tier
Common Multiple. Common Multiple 1 to 9 are just single numerals presenting the
character and mathematical nature of that numeral. Common Multiple 10 to 19
presents a 1 to all other numerals. For instance with the 12 the 1 is presented to the
units 2. No matter the Tier, 84=127 or 588=1277, the Counts can be read with
12 in mind. Such is the cohesion and unity of the Tier 1 Common Multiple with all
higher Tiers.
Another Example is 17. The 1 is presented to the units 7. By the time one Counts
with the 5th and 6th Tier the Common Multiple 17 starts to present partial fraction
sequences with a denominator of 49 and 7 respectively. Showing that the oneness of
the 7 or fractions of 7 are given with higher Tiers. In fact every first Tier Common
Multiple has this quality to show higher order with higher Tiers applied with Cyclic
Addition Step by Step.
This knowledge and insight is given early so the Mathematician can plan and receive
the qualities and patterns given by the First Tier Common Multiple 1 to 69.
So the way to read Common Multiple 1 to 69 is to acknowledge the tens numeral 1 to
6 being presented to any other numeral from 0 to 9.
Note also when reading a Count from left to right join the pairs of numerals that form
the Count. For example 124852 =240152 can be read with the qualities of the pairs
of numerals that make this Count. From left to right 12, 24, 48, 85 and 52 this
presents a story of larger Whole Number to form the complete Count. Liken this
method to Counting around a Wheel. One number in turn is added to the next, the
total is written and sounded, and then the next and so forth. This aids memory and
literally creates Number from Numerals.

21

Operation +
The basics of Mathematics and Numeracy at a beginner level starts with Number and
the four Operations + . Showing how addition and subtraction are opposites.
Likewise Multiplication and Division. How multiple additions of the same number
gives way to Multiplication. And groups of Subtraction form Division.
Cyclic Addition shows this unity of Operations + amongst its Mathematics.
And also presents a joining of Operations + with actions of the Wheel.
Lets now look at each operation in turn and how it is applied in Cyclic Addition.
Operation +. Cyclic Addition Step 1 is Counting. Counting begins with a clockwise
count around the Wheel starting at one of the 6 numbers. Counting can be called
cumulative or progressive Addition. Follow the example with Common Multiple 4
counting for 2 cycles beginning at 24.

20
16

24
24

40

60

64

76

12
8

84 108 124 144 148 160 168

Operation + and . Note within the Count sequence that all Numbers are multiples of
4. As all counts come from the Common Multiple 4 Wheel. The way Cyclic Addition
deals with Multiplication is to present patterns of a like Multiple such as the 4.
Operation . The Wheel has natural Multiplication within the positions of the
multiples around the Wheel. Starting at the top 14=4, 34=12, 24=8, 64=24,
44=16 and 54=20. The Wheel can also be used to make other factors or other
multiples of 4. For example 74=28 from 12+16, 84=32 from 8+24, 94=36 from
16+20, 104=40 from 24+16 and so on.
Operation +. Cyclic Addition Step 2 is termed Place Value. Simply make each
Count in the 2 cycles above from just the numbers upon the same Wheel.

24
4
12
8

40
16
20
4

60
12
8
4_

64
24
4_

76
12
24
4_

84 108 124 144 148 160 168


4
8
4 16 20 16_
8
8_ 20 12_
8
8
16_
8_
12_ 12_

Under the line Adds to the Count above the line. Start at 24, 4+12+8 from the Wheel
sequence. So to 40 with 16+20+4. The 60 shows multiples of 4 in the units, 12+8, and
the 4 tens. The 76 uses 12+24=36 and 4 tens. The 84 cycle end is simple. The 108
uses 8+20=28 units and 8 tens. 124 clearly single multiples of 4 in the units and tens.
The 144 uses 16+8=24 units and 12 tens. The 160 has no units and 16 tens. The 168
22

end of cycle with 8 units and 16 tens. All Place Values are from the Wheel. There is a
greater variety of choice as to how to build a Place Value. This example shows the
basics. Note carefully the overlap of multiples of 4 in the units into tens.
Operation +. Place Value pushes the boundaries of existing Place Value with just
Base 10 numeral by numeral Mathematics. All the while Common Multiples of 4 are
added with other Common Multiple of 4 to Add to the Count. This piecing the jigsaw
of Place Value Addition together prepares the way to join the Count with a higher
order for this Wheel.
Operation . Match each Place Value to the relative position around the Wheel. Use
the original Wheel 1 3 2 6 4 5 and how it maps upon the Common Multiple 4s
4 12 8 24 16 20 . The table below simplifies the process of whats in the units
and whats in the tens. This presents simple whole number division all the while with
Common Multiple 4.

24
1
3
2
6

40
4
5
1
10

60
3
2
10
15

64
6
10
16

76
3
6
10
19

84 108 124 144 148 160 168


1
2
1
4
5 40
2
20
5 30
2
2
40
20
30 30
21 27 31 36 37 40 42

Note the Place Value of the Count 60 with 12+8 units and 4 tens. From their positions
around the Wheel we can simply divide by 4 to receive 3+2+ 1ten or 3+2+10=15
Thus 604=15. Another example 76 with 12+24+ 4tens. From their positions upon
the Wheel receive the division by 4 to be 3+6+1ten or 3+6+10=19.
A check that the Operation has all worked is to go along the division line of
6 10 15 with the Wheel 1 3 2 6 4 5. Do a simple Count starting at the 6
position and follow the Count sequence. 6 the first division. 6+4=10 the second
division. 10+5=15 the third. 15+1=16 the forth. 192127to 42. With practise
these multiples of 1 and acting Mathematically with the Wheel 1 3 2 6 4 5
becomes second nature.
Operation . This action proves the other multiple where the other multiple
Common Multiple = Count. As all Counts for 2 cycles from 24 to 168 are all
multiples of 4. Thus Multiplication is proved by the action of Counting and Place
Value. This demonstrates operation + basics of the first two Cyclic Addition
Steps.
Operation . One can find the difference between numbers within a Count Sequence.
For example the above wheel. 76-24= 16+20+4+12=52 note the number of Counts
between the 24 and 76 is 4 which matches the counts around the Wheel. Obvious and
absolutely relevant to finding the Difference.
Operation . The Cyclic Addition Step Remainder subtracts a single number from
the Wheel to link the Count to a higher order of the same Wheel. The table below
shows 3 lines the same Count on the top line. Subtract the Remainder on the second
line to receive the higher order 7Mulitple on the third line. The Mathematics of
23

Remainder is pitched somewhere in upper primary and lower secondary. This is


discussed in a later Chapter.

24
24

40
12

60
4

64
8

76
20

84 108 124 144 148 160 168


- 24 12
4
8 20
-

28

56

56

56

84

84 112 140 140 140 168

Operation + . A whole section of the work of Cyclic Addition looks at Rational


Number. In particular recurring or circulating Decimal Fractions. These are special
fractions that aid the presentation of simple beginner Common Multiples from 1 to 7.
These Fractions are termed Pure Circular Fractions and are created as Circles of
Number and Fraction Remainder. To create one of these Fractions one needs only to
choose a Common Multiple and a direction of the Circle with some simple
Mathematics. For clockwise and for anti-clockwise + . To keep with the basics
of Cyclic Addition in these introductory Chapters the relevance of Fractions will be
left to a later Chapter.
For now two examples. The first example is denominator 7 and the second
denominator 19. All numerators from 1 to the denominator less one are shown.

.
.
7 1 4 2 8 5 7 1 4 2 8 5 7
2 1 4 2 3
2 1 4 2 3
Operation . The Pure Circular Fractions are formed either left to right or right to
left. Choosing left to right start at the 7. Use division and remainder to create the next
number 21 to the right. The Common Multiple used with this fraction is 5. 75=1 r2.
Place the 1 in the units and the remainder 2 in the tens to form 21. The next number
right is 215=4 r1. 4 units and 1 ten = 14. The next number right 145=2 r4. 2 units
and 4 tens = 42. The next 425=8 r2. Units 8 and 2 tens = 28. 285=5 r3. Units 5 and
3 tens = 35. The next 355=7 r0. Units 7 with 0 tens = 7.
The fraction is complete for two reasons. One all fractions of denominator 7 are
shown. Two the fraction sequence with remainder has begun to repeat. For
presentation purposes the sequence is repeated. This makes finding the fraction
easier.
Operation + . Lets look at Pure Circular Fraction 19. Use Common Multiple 2 to
create. This time start at the left 1. Work right. Multiply the units by 2 and add the
tens. 12 +0=2, write 2 left of 1. 22 +0=4, write 4 left of 2. 42 +0=8, write 8 left of
4. 82 +0=16, write the 6 in the units and below the 6 aligned to the tens write 1.
Continue using Addition and Multiplication to create the 18 number Pure Circular
Fraction. All fractions of denominator 19 are shown. See later Chapters for detail.
.

2
1

24

1
1

5
1

7
1

8
1

4
1

3
1

6
1

Cyclic Addition shows a way to unify Operations + . The strongest operation +


is used to build the Count Sequence and apply other Steps such as Place Value.
Number in a cohesive, ordered sequence brings a truth of how the Common Multiple
works with all Number. These are the basic beginner actions with Operations + .
There is no confusion as to where a number belongs. Whether part of a Wheel and the
corresponding Common Multiple or a Number found within a Count Sequence
generated from a Wheel. The way Numbers are brought together is perfect
application of Operation + .
The basic properties of Operations + are convincingly shown within a few basic
Cyclic Addition Steps.

25

Common Multiple
A Common Multiple suggests a group of Numbers with a multiple or factor common
to all. Forming a pattern with like multiples is probably how the list of Times Tables
were made.
Heres a familiar Table of Multiplication from 1 to 10.

1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

1
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9
10

2
2
4
6
8
10
12
14
16
18
20

3
3
6
9
12
15
18
21
24
27
30

4
4
8
12
16
20
24
28
32
36
40

5
5
10
15
20
25
30
35
40
45
50

6
6
12
18
24
30
36
42
48
54
60

7
7
14
21
28
35
42
49
56
63
70

8
8
16
24
32
40
48
56
64
72
80

9
10
9
10
18
20
27
30
36
40
45
50
54
60
63
70
72
80
81
90
90 100

When all the multiplication tables are thrown in together there is no pattern other than
a sequential addition from left to right and repeated from top to bottom. Perhaps
showing a increment moving down by the table Multiple. Individual Tables like 4s
and 8s are difficult to notice that 42=8. That 23=32=6. Basically a Count by ones
on the top row and the same on the left column.
The Sequential Addition moving down or to the right has some likeness to the basic
and over used adding a number continuously. The Twos start at 2+2=4, 4+2=6,
6+2=8, 8+2=10 and so on. The Table is learnt by rote rather than Mathematical
meshing of the Multiple. To discover 52 one requires the number of additions from
2 to 4 to 6 to 8 to 10. Reviewing the position of the row that 10 is on with the Table.
In summary the Table above a mixed assortment of Number with Common Multiple.
Its easy to follow a column or row with finger, but to look at the table for lower-mid
Primary the only obvious pattern is the Ones.
How does Cyclic Addition address the issue of Multiplication with a Common
Multiple ? In short Mathematics within the Wheel, a Common Multiple for each
Wheel and Counting around the Wheel to generate Number with the same Common
Multiple.
Continuous Addition is assumed in the table above, with Cyclic Addition Wheels
Addition is the fundamental building block of Mathematical Whole Number. The
Cyclic Addition Wheel of 6 numbers all with like Common Multiple are strengthened
with Cyclic Addition Counting and other Steps. The Wheel being circular is easy to
find a multiple of the Common Multiple. And easy to make higher multiples than 6
by simple patterns around the Wheel.
Actions of Cyclic Addition Step by Step always preserve the sequence and the
Common Multiple of each Wheel. The Mathematics within the Wheel preserves the
effort put into exploring and navigating a Common Multiple.
26

Lets look at the Common Multiple 2 Wheel. The sequence of multiples of two are
resisted and strengthened as one Counts with the Wheel. There is no or little
repetition of action as the Patterns from the Wheel are potentially infinite. Counting
can be practically up to 7 cycles around the Wheel.

10

8
12

6
4

The Common Multiple 2 generates all multiples of two from 2 to 294 with a 7 cycle
Count. Combine this with the other Place Value Steps and the true Nature of the
Common Multiple 2 is revealed. One can review a Count made in the past. As the 6
Count Sequences also have the circular nature within them.
The Wheel above has specific positions around the Wheel to describe multiples of 2.
From the top clockwise 12=2, 32=6, 22=4, 62=12, 42=8 and 52=10. These
positions are permanent and stabilise the routine of Mathematically acting with the
Wheel.
Six numbers around a Wheel is all that is required to build Multiples of 2. Starting at
any position around the Wheel and Counting clockwise produces all multiples of 2.
The multiples of 14, 28, 56, 70 excluded from the 6 Count Sequences are
introduced with Cyclic Addition Step 4 Remainder. So all 2s come from the Wheel
with Common Multiple 2.
Lets show a Common Multiple 4 Wheel again. And note the sequence of Numbers
around the Wheel.

20

16
24

12
8

Note how the first 3 multiples of 4, being 14=4, 34=12 and 24=8 share the same
sequence as the Common Multiple 2 Wheel above 22=4, 62=12, 42=8. The
Wheel has a unique quality of relative positions that present the Multiples in a Circle.
The 4 12 8 sequence shows instantly qualities of Common Multiple 2 and 4 are
shared. As three numbers in both Wheels are the same.
Lets show yet again another Common Multiple 6 Wheel upon the next page. Contrast
again with the Common Multiple 2 Wheel. Both Wheels share 6 and 12. 16=6 and
26=12 for Common Multiple 6. 32=6 and 62=12 for Common Multiple 2. Also
from Counting with Common Multiple 2 and applying the Cyclic Addition Place
27

Value Step the Wheel of Sixes can be simply made. 6=6, 8+10=18, 12=12,
4+12+2tens=36, 4+2tens=24, 10+2tens=30.

30
24

36

18
12

So there is a natural blending of making new Wheels from the previous building
block Mathematics. The sixes are also 23=6 so the same action of making the Wheel
can be from the threes. See Wheel with Common Multiple 3 below.

15

12
18

9
6

Simply note the sequence around the Wheel of what is shared between Wheels. Again
how to make the Wheel of Sixes from the Wheel of threes. 6, 18 and 12 are shared,
3tens+6=36, 6+18=24 and 18+12=30. So instantly there is shared knowledge between
the Wheels. Rather than aimless repetitive lists of Multiples 1 to 10 such as the 1010
grid above.
How to create Multiples of 5. Use Wheel with Common Multiple 5 with 3 Counts for
2 cycles each. Multiples to 210 are given. Look closely at the Count Sequences each
cycle. They mesh and weave together the Multiples of 5. Note the start and cycle of
every sixth
Count.

25

20
30

15
10

15

25

55

75 100 105 120 130 160 180 205 210

10

40

60

85

90 105 115 145 165 190 195 210

30
20
10

50
25
25

75
15
10
5_

80
30
5_

95 105 135 155 180 185 200 210


20
5 30
5 25 20 30 10
25 10_
5 15_
5 15 20 20_
5_
10_
15_ 15_ 15_

28

The last Count Sequence with Common Multiple 5 above includes simple Place
Values. These all Add to the Count directly above and serve to show that all Counts
from the Wheel 5 15 10 30 20 25 are multiples of 5. By building each Counts
Place Values one begins to understand the workings of Multiples of 5.
The three Count Sequences space out the multiples of 5 uniquely and all have the
same cycle at 105 and 210. As the six numbers around the Wheel add to 105, so no
matter the start, the cycle will be 105, 210, 315 The fact leads to perfecting the
Count Sequence, freeing it from error by missing Counts around the Wheel or by
doubling up a member of the Wheel. Simple Mathematical accuracy with circle.
Again the Wheel being Circular like the familiar Analogue Clock with dials, the
Wheel has a sense of where youre up to in the Count Sequence.
Each of the 3 counts have a Slinky or spring effect between the multiples of 5
counting around the Wheel. This perfects patterns of numbers by just merely reading
the sequence. In a later Chapter Cyclic Addition Step 4 Remainder each Count made
is given a remainder to join it to a higher order and test its accuracy in the cycle of
that Count.
Briefly note some simple patterns from Wheel 5. The obvious 5 or 0 in the units is
shown easily in the first Count Sequence by the frequency of 5s in the units and in
the following cycle 0s in the units. Note in detail the units 5. The first sequence
shows 1, 2, 5, 7, 10 and 20 tens with a 5 units. The second sequence 8, 10, 11, 14, 16,
19 tens with 5 units. The third sequence 7, 9, 10, 13, 15 and 18 tens with 5 units. All
three sequences show something unique and something of unity with Common
Multiple 5.
Once the Wheel and its positional Multiples of the Common Multiple are mastered
the Circular nature of the Wheel becomes a powerful Mathematical tool.
Circular Addition with the Wheel 1 3 2 6 4 5 also shows the beginner basics
of how to make a Multiple up from a simpler 1 to 5 number Wheel. The Multiple with
Circular Addition is given with each circle of Counting. Count with the Circular
Addition three number 1 3 2 sequence below and Count. The Count Sequence
below the Wheel is for 6 cycles starting at 1. So Multiples of 6 from 6 to 36 appear
every third Count.

3
2

10

12

13

16

18

19

22

24

25

28

30

31

34

Continue with Circular Addition using the two number sequence 5 1 . Count both
counts one starting at 5 the other starting at 1.

29

36

11

12

17

18

23

24

29

30

35

36

12

13

18

19

24

25

30

31

36

Circular Addition with the Multiple Total of 6 has three other Sequences to form
sixes. These are 2 2 2 , 3 3 and 6 . The twos and threes are repeated within
the Wheel to merely show a cycle total of 6.

3
2
2

10

12

14

16

18

20

22

24

12

15

18

21

24

27

30

33

36

12

18

24

30

36

26

28

30

32

34

Note how in the early stages the action of a cycle total is introduced. With reference
to the 6 counts all with a cycle total of 6, note how to build the sixes. The even
spacing of 6 is right through all the Counts. For example with the 5 1 the 5, 11, 17,
23.. hopping over the multiples of 6 are all 6 apart. As is with the Count starting at 1
the 1, 7, 13, 19, 25 and 31 hopping again over the multiples of 6 are all 6 apart.
The Circular Addition sequences 2 2 2 shows how the all evens or multiples of 2
contribute to multiples of 6. The Sequence 3 3 how the sixes appear with
mathematical increment of threes. Again the hop over any two Counts with 2 2 2
shows a spacing of 6. Hop over any 1 Count with 3 3 also has a spacing of 6.
This Circular Addition shows how to build sixes and multiples thereof. Circular
Addition contains the basics to prepare one for Cyclic Addition with 6 number
wheels. Especially Common Multiple 6 Wheel 6 18 12 36 24 30 .
The Circular Addition Sequence 1 3 2 has two other sequences one starting at the
3 the other starting at 2. The Workbook and Guidebook completely covers all
Circular Addition. A later chapter shows all Circular Addition Mathematics.

30

36

If Cyclic Addition is complete and infinite how many individual Wheels are there ?
There are Wheels with a Common Multiple 1 to 69 called the first tier. The second
tier and higher tiers, potentially infinite, are discussed in the Chapter Hierarchy. No
more, no less. There are Cyclic Addition Laws with supporting evidence that show
how the Wheels unify Whole Number with Rational Number.
Practically addressing a Primary audience of teacher and student well use just the
first 10 Wheels from Common Multiple 1 to 10 for Beginner. And 21 Wheels from
Common Multiple 1 to 21 for Intermediate. This leaves the Advanced student to
fathom and search the rest by themselves in later Schooling. The Classroom
Workbook follows this ideal.

31

Sequence
Traditionally a Sequence of multiple 6 is presented as only using the 6 and
continuously adding it to itself. From the Mathematics above there is much more to
Sequence and Cyclic Addition than first meets the eye.
A Wheel has a six number sequence which provides order and structure to each
Common Multiple. The Sequence is always the same form of a
common multiple 1 3 2 6 4 5 = any Wheel.
Cyclic Addition Counting produces 6 numbers in an incrementing sequence each
Cycle. The Sequence always has unique consecutive numbers. This fact is not to be
under-estimated. The uniqueness is used with mapping higher order and with tracking
the Remainder Pattern each Cycle.
The Sequence has hidden Mathematics within. Find the Difference using the Wheel
connects the prior Addition of the Count Sequence. Perfect Patterns of the Common
Multiple are all revealed because of the Sequence. Each Pattern dispels myth and
magic of the Common Multiple by replacing guesswork with Mathematical order and
discipline.
Lets look at Sequence with each Cyclic Addition Step. Counting generates unique
sequences. There are 6 possible Count sequences evolving from 6 starting points
around the Wheel. See illustration. All 6 Counts with Common Multiple 3 for 1 cycle.

15

12

18
3

12

18

36

48

63

15

33

45

60

63

24

36

51

54

63

18

30

45

48

57

63

12

27

30

39

45

63

15

18

27

33

51

63

All Multiples of 3 to 63 are shown. The 21 and 42 are shown with Cyclic Addition
Step 4 Remainder. See later chapter. Note the pattern of the Count Sequences. Look
at the Sum of Digits for each Count. The first Count Sequence 3, 3, 9, 9, 3, 9. The
second Count Sequence 9, 6, 6, 9, 6, 9. The other 4 Count sequences also show the
nature of Multiples of 3. So the Sequence of the Counts unveils the mystery of the
Whole Number 3.

32

The Count Sequence patterns the Common Multiple threes to the cycle 63. The order
of the highest Count in each Column changes as the Count moves along the 6 Counts.
All joining at the sixth Count Number 213=63.
Cyclic Addition Step 2 Place Value also uses Sequence. By using the last Count
Sequence above, starting at 15, Count this time for 2 cycles and apply the Place Value
Step.
15
6
9

18
12
6

27
12
15

33
3
3_

51
15
6
3_

63
3
6_

78
9
9
6_

81
12
9
6_

90
9_

96 114 126
6
6
6
9_ 18 12_
9_

To build a Count Number from the Wheel of threes above one uses Place Value
sequence. Start at the units add Place Values to equal the units. By 33 there is a tens
Place Value to be included as well. For example 51 build Place Values around the
Wheel to find a units 1. The only addition is 21 or 15+6. This leaves 3 tens to build
underneath the 15+6 totalling 51. The method and mini-procedure of applying units
first then tens then if applicable hundreds trains a child to read the numerals of a
Number from right to left. This is necessary for both Place Value and for Counting
Steps.
Cyclic Addition Step 3 Move tens to units. By applying the Wheel all Place Values
outside the units are moved to the units. This is accomplished by moving around the
Wheel clockwise one position for every place value outside the units. For example the
3_ tens in the Count 33 become 9 units, the next number around the Wheel
3 9 6 18 12 15 . The 6_ tens in 63, 78 and 81 all move to the units and become
18 units. The 9_ tens in 90, 96 and 114 all move to units and become 6 units. Lastly
the 12_ tens in 126 becomes 15 units. The sequence of the Wheel of threes allows this
movement of Place Values from hundreds to tens and tens to units. All with Wheel.
How to effectively show this action, Step 3, will be presented in a later Chapter called
Move tens to units. For now note the sequence and order of the Wheel are applied in
this Step following Place Value.
Cyclic Addition Step 4 Remainder. This step uses all of a Counts Place Values in the
units to find a single Number Remainder from the Wheel. This Mathematics is shown
in the Chapter Remainder later. Note for now the sequence of the Remainders each
Cycle is identical. The sixth Count has no Remainder, thus indicated as so.
Count
Remainder
7xMultiple

15
15
-

18
18
-

27
6
21

33
12
21

51
9
42

63
63

78
15
63

81
18
63

90
6
84

96 114 126
12
9
84 105 126

No matter how many Cycles are Counted starting at 15 the sequence of Remainders
patterning around the Wheel is the same. The are 6 Counts each have their own
unique Remainder sequences. All 6 Counts with the Wheel of threes have this
Mathematical sequential quality. In fact all Wheels belonging to the first tier, tier 1,
have a similar sequence of Remainder Patterns produced every cycle of Counting.

33

The Step Remainder is a Mathematical Subtraction from the Count to equal the
7Multiple. This is simple Maths showing the action of subtraction numeral by
numeral from the right units, moving left to tens, to hundreds, to thousands and so
forth. The beginner basics of acting with a Number in numeral sequence is applied
both with Counting forming Addition and Remainder forming subtraction.
Mathematically reading or citing a Whole Number can be acted with in both
directions. Numeral by Numeral from left to right and from right to left. This takes
practise and the decision to act in a certain direction, when called for, goes with the
Mathematical journey of Cyclic Addition.
Cyclic Addition Whole Number has a higher order of Numbers that follow tier 1.
Tier 1 has Common Multiples from 1 to 69. When one Counts with tier 2 and 3 the
sequence of the numerals to form a Whole Number are put to higher order. Where an
example at this stage might confuse rather than illuminate with Maths it is omitted.
Tier 2 and 3 are completely discovered with a later Chapter Hierarchy. This higher
order brings forth larger, longer Whole Numbers that are built with the strength of the
lower order. These larger, longer Numbers bring together the Mathematics of the
lower tiers and submit their Mathematics to a higher order.
Sequence therefore shows order by acting with a certain Wheel of 6 numbers and
applying Cyclic Addition Step by Step Mathematics. Sequence and order are at the
very heart of the union between Science and Mathematics.

34

Whole Number
Whole Number simply defines the set of infinite Counting Numbers
{ 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5...}. Other terms used include Natural Numbers omitting the zero.
Also the Positive Integers from the right of zero on a Number Line.
Whole Number with Cyclic Addition includes this traditional definition. However
what makes Cyclic Addition unique is its form, structure and presentation of Whole
Number.
Whole Number is considered to be generated from a Count Sequence. All the Whole
Numbers with a multiple of 1 are from the Wheel 1 3 2 6 4 5 . Even numbers as
high as millions with 6-7 numerals. This allows a precept of acting with that Whole
Number using Cyclic Addition Mathematics. So that order is maintained regardless of
the size of a Number.
Whole Number is considered to have a Common Multiple. The Number being
probably generated from a Cyclic Addition Wheel can be acted with that Wheel and
its corresponding Common Multiple.
Whole Number has its place, position and order amongst all Whole Number by its
inclusion within a Count Sequence. By a Cyclic Addition Count we can generate a
Whole Number amongst its piers, both along side it and acting with the same Wheel.
Whole Number has its order when a Number is submitted to a higher order. This
brings the Number to order and to state its Common Multiple and relative tier that it
belongs to. The higher tiers 2, 3 and above are detailed in Chapter Hierarchy.
Whole Number also has a beginning with Circular Addition to train the child and
teacher to uses Circular Mathematics with Number. Once patterns, multiples, cycles
and relationships are formed with Whole Number the basics can be given way to the
construction of Wheels with Common Multiples.
The exploration of Whole number is considered infinite as the number of tiers that
form the structure of any one of the tier 1 Common Multiples, from 1 to 69, is also
infinite. To start with the basics of tier 1 shows completeness and harmony with
Rational Number, specifically Pure Circular Fractions.
Practically, from experience, when Counting all Whole Numbers { 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5}
are not included. What is this statement and Why ? Cyclic Addition purports to show
that Numbers with a higher order from Counting with a higher tier 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and
so on present large Number with very perfect Place Value numeral by numeral
Sequences. These sequences preserve the use of large Number whilst maintaining a
Mathematical Order of Cyclic Addition. These actions of showing higher tiers with
larger, longer numbers is left to a later Chapter Hierarchy.
While there is this consistent approach to manifesting Whole Number, there will
always be order and perfect place value positions assigned to small and large number
alike.

35

Again practically, applying Whole Number to the world at large requires perfecting
place value positions numeral by numeral. As number becomes more complex there
are Laws available to maintain and protect Whole Number from any distortion.
Thus the Cyclic Addition basics and how to apply them is considered fundamental to
Number in a Mathematics Curriculum. As Whole Number is a major building block
for all other strands of Mathematics and higher year Schooling.
The clearer Whole Number is and its relationship with all Whole Number, Rational
Number and Irrational Number remains a high priority with Mathematics.
Whole Number therefore acts with other Whole Number by applying Mathematical
Operations + . Cyclic Addition includes all Operations + .
Whole Number with Cyclic Addition explores new boundaries for topics Place Value,
Circle, Sequence, Wheels and Common Multiple. These topics have been discussed
in some detail within their own Chapters.
Whole Number shows both Operations + together whilst Counting with a Wheel.
So knowledge of Addition and Multiplication traditionally learnt separately are
combined into one Whole Number Count. So that the Wheels particular Common
Multiple can be studied and patterned all through the entire length of the Count, cycle
by cycle. Those Counts with many factors like 144 will appear in many Counts from
many wheels but will be given an emphasis of the Wheels Common Multiple. Each
Count belongs to just one Common Multiple at a time allowing the student to master
just that Common Multiple.
Cyclic Additions Whole Number treats numeral by numeral Place Value in a special
way. Instead of using a word to assign a particular place value position Cyclic
Addition Place Value uses just numbers from the Wheel. The same Wheel as used for
Counting. Starting at the units position groups of Wheel numbers are matched to the
units position of a Count, then whats left over in the tens are also matched to the
Wheel, then hundreds if the Count is about 5 cycles or longer. These Place Values
often overlap into other place value positions to the left of the working position. An
example of the third tier number 7056 has well over a hundred possible Place Value
groups for the units, tens and hundreds. With Wheel 441 the units is 2646 and the tens
is 441 these add with vertical like addition to 7056. See Chapter Step 2: Place Value
for detailed example.
Whole Number goes further than just building Place Values it acknowledges the
positions of those Place Values selected and moves tens to units. This Cyclic
Addition Step 3: Move tens to units uses the Wheels circular Mathematics to
perform this. In our above example 7056 has 441 tens these move to 1323 units along
with the 2646. This Step confirms the 441 tens position within the Place Value
Addition and becomes an aid to finding the Remainder, the next Cyclic Addition
Step. Again all that is needed to perform this Step is again the same Wheel as is used
for the Count. All sharing the same Common Multiple.
Whole Number connects each Count with its next Tier of the Hierarchy. The next
Tier shares the same Common Multiple though having a higher order. The Cyclic
Addition Step 4: Remainder patterns all the Place Values moved to the units with the
Wheel to receive just one number from the Wheel. This single number when
36

subtracted from the Count reveals the 7Multiple. So the very nature of Subtraction is
used to join the Count with its counterpart the 7Multiple.
Cyclic Addition also has an order and hierarchy to Whole Number. Common
Multiples 1 to 69 Tier 1 Wheels have a Tier 2 Wheel that is exactly 7 times the Tier 1
Wheel. For example Wheel 9 27 18 54 36 45 has a Tier 2 of
63 189 126 378 252 315 . Tier 2 is treated similarly to that of Tier 1 using
Cyclic Addition Step by Step. Although Tier 2 has 14 possible unique Count
Sequences detailed in Chapter Hierarchy.
The Step 5: 7Multiple is actually from the Tier 2 Wheel of the same Common
Multiple. So the order of a Whole Number is shown by the 5 steps of Cyclic Addition
to join a higher order creating a place, position, pattern and purpose to applying all of
these Mathematical Laws.
These advanced Numeration skills of Cyclic Addition Step by Step contribute greatly
to the repair and perfection of Whole Number or Natural Counting Number.
So Whole Number travelling along the Cyclic Addition Step by Step journey presents
all the facets of Numeration and some new others like Circle, Wheel, Sequence,
combined Operation + and a constant Common Multiple. Along the journey
one finds that these unique Count sequences blend, ravel, weave and bind together to
form a strong cord of Whole Number.

37

Rational Number
Rational Number is a number that can be expressed as a fraction or ratio of integers.
Cyclic Addition works with Rational Number in two ways. Firstly to look at whats
termed Pure Circular Fractions. Secondly generating Fibonacci Ratios and beyond.
The Fibonacci Ratios are next Chapter.
Fractions as a study by itself is considered restating the obvious already included
topic in an existing Curriculum. So Cyclic Addition looks at only Denominators with
a units of 1, 3, 7 and 9. So forming at set of {1, 3, 7, 9, 11, 13, 17, 19, 21}
The other fractions can be defined in two categories. The first a fixed length fraction
which has solely multiples of 2 and /or 5. A denominator set of {2, 4, 5, 8, 10, 16, 20,
32, 40}. These produce only multiples of 2 and 5 and are thus excluded. In fact the
Mathematics of these fractions is left to Cyclic Addition Counting with Common
Multiple 2 and 5. The second set { 6, 12, 14, 15, 18, 22, 24, 26} are also left as
they are simply a mix of fixed length and circular fractions. Thus effort put into
these fractions is considered a duplication exercise and is thus omitted from study.
Pure Circular Fractions is a study of both Fraction, Remainder with that fraction and
Circle. A Pure Circular Fraction is with denominators having a units 9 being a set of
{9, 19, 29, 39, 49, 59, 69}. These Fractions incorporate all the other circular
fractions. For example consider denominators 9=33, 39=133, 49=77, 69=233,
99=119, 119=177, 129=433, 159=533, 169=1313, 189=219=277. These
denominators of units 9 show that their multiples and consequent fractions are
included within them.
For example lets look at Pure Circular Fraction 39. The number used to create this
fraction is 39+1 and use only the tens i.e. 4.
.
0
3
.
1
2

7
2

5
1

.
1
3

7
3

.
3
1

.
3
1

6
3

3
3

9
1

8
1

4
3

2
1

4
2

8
2
.
6
2

.
3

.
0
2

.
6

.
5
2

.
7

.
3
2

6
1

5
3

1
1

8
3

2
3

9
2

.
2

0
1

.
2
2

7
1

.
4
1

.
6
2

There are eight circles of fraction that form PCF 39. The number of numbers in the
PCF 39 are (66) + (21) = 38. One less than the denominator. The top line in each
circle is the fraction line and the line underneath is the remainder.
38

A fraction of denominator 39 is received by finding any numerator, placing a decimal


point to the right of the fraction line and circling right until the fraction repeats. For
example fraction 37/39 = .948717 recurring. Fraction 2/39=.051282 recurring. Add
the two fractions together to receive 39/39=1.
Fractions of 13 as 39=133 appear as all the multiples of 3. Fractions of 3 as
39=313 appear with multiples of 13.
There is a remainder sequence of threes that go through the whole fraction. Each
Circle has either a Remainder of 1, 2 or a multiple of 3.
The circular remainder sequences of 13 being 9 12 3 4 1 10 and
8 2 7 5 11 6 also go through the whole fraction sequence. As 13 and 26 have no
remainder from multiples of 13 no sequence is applied.
Complements of the sequences above are found by adding both lines of the fraction
together to form 39. This is considered the completion of the fraction sequence and a
receive of the Number 4. i.e. 39+1=4 (tens).
Further investigation of properties of Pure Circular Fractions and how they link up to
all of the Cyclic Addition Wheels is given in the Chapter Pure Circular Fractions.
The odd numbers excluding 5s that produce circular fractions are a strange bunch.
The exploratory realm of these Rational Numbers remains a mystery. Cyclic Addition
uses and applies these Pure Circular Fractions as a means to connect Rational
Number to Whole Number.
There is also a Chapter titled Unify Whole Number with Fraction which discusses
this apparent connection.
Fractions play an important part in the mysterious infinite circular number between 0
and 1. They represent a proportion or ratio connecting integer with integer. These
proportions are perfectly discovered by simple Mathematics of basic arithmetic.
Applying Operations + to both the fraction line and remainder one can form
almost any Pure Circular Fraction.
Consider also a constant ratio formed by Whole Natural Number as the Fibonacci
Sequence and others portray in the next Chapter.

39

Fibonacci Number
The Fibonacci Sequence is a perfect Ratio of two integer numbers. These two
Numbers form a proportion of roughly 1.618 : 1. This proportion is shown in plant
life, flowers, branches of trees and certain proportions of the human body.
How is this proportion made ? The Fibonacci sequence is generated by adding two
numbers to make the next number in the series. Note how to create the sequence.
Note the Fibonacci likeness to Cyclic Addition generating a continuous sequence of
Whole Number. This sequence is potentially infinite.
1+1=2
1+2=3
2+3=5
3+5=8
5+8=13
8+13=21
13+21=34
21+34=55
34+55=89
55+89=144
89+144=233
144+233=377
233+377=610
377+610=987
610+987=1597
987+1597=2584
Thus the sequence is usually written just with Numbers, as is Cyclic Addition.
1

13

21

34

55

89 144 233 377 610 987 1597 2584

By treating two numbers as a fraction like 144/89=1.6179775. Each new number in


the Fibonacci sequence progressively makes the Ratio approach a perfect irrational
Number.
Cycle
Proportion
Decimal Fraction
1
1:1
1.0000000
2
2:1
2.0000000
3
3:2
1.5000000
4
5:3
1.6666667
5
8:5
1.6000000
6
13 : 8
1.6250000
7
21 : 13
1.6153846
8
34 : 21
1.6190476
9
55 : 34
1.6176471
10
89 : 55
1.6181818
11
144 : 89
1.6179775
12
233 : 144
1.6180556
13
377 : 233
1.6180258
14
610 : 377
1.6180371
15
987 : 610
1.6180328
40

In fact this Ratio can be expressed algebraically as ( square root(5) +1) 2 which is
roughly in its decimal fraction form :
1.61803398874989
The beauty of this ratio is that its inverse or (1 1.61803398874989) produces the
same sequence of numerals right of the decimal point. To express this number
accurately use (square root(5) 1) 2. So both Numbers when multiplied together
equal 1.
1.61803398874989 0.61803398874989 1 or very close to it.
Note how integer formed the Fibonacci Ratio and how when its reciprocal or inverse
of the integer fraction are multiplied together equal integer 1.
An investigation using the internet on this extra-ordinary Ratio is worthwhile. Look
for how the spiral patterns are formed with Mathematics. How they act upon the
Natural surroundings we see every day.
So perfect is this sequence that it even connects with the Pure Circular Fraction 109.
Start with the Fibonacci Sequence, move left one numeral of the fraction sequence
PCF 109 below it. Create the PCF 109 starting at 1 move right to left with
Operations + and . Work with the Multiple (109+1 tens only=) 11.
1
1
2
3
5
8

6
4

4
7
7

2
1
6
7

9
9
4

6
8
7

1
5
8
5
0

5
8
1
6

3
1
7

8
4

5
9

3
5

2
4

1
1

1
3
7

4
3

2
7
0

41

These are just the first 23 of 108 numbers from PCF 109. The Fibonacci sequence is
shown from a start of 1 to 6765, the 20th number in its series. The ratio after the 20th
number in the Fibonacci cycle is approx. 1.618033963 . Accurate to 7 decimal places.
So this seeming irrational number ( sq root (5)+1 )2 can be perfectly shown with a
sequence of Whole Number and joined to a Fraction Sequence.
Are there any other perfect Numbers like the Fibonacci Ration called phi ? Yes.
There is a Perfect Number between all Whole Numbers. And it has its perfect
reciprocal between 0 and 1 sharing the same sequence of numerals for the decimal
fraction.
Lets discover the Perfect partners to phi. Consider between 2 and 3.
1+(22)=5
2+(25)=12
5+(212)=29
12+(229)=70
29+(270)=169
70+(2169)=408
169+(2408)=985
408+(2985)=2378
985+(22378)=5741
This sequence merely add the first number to 2 or double the second number to
create the next number in the sequence.
What Fraction is made with 57412378= 2.414213625. This decimal fraction can be
presented as an equation = sqr root (2) +1. So if one continues with the sequence
above from 5741 to 15994428 the decimal fraction if 15994428 6625109 =
2.41421356237309 as accurate as the computer Excel spreadsheet allows.
A test simply multiply this number by its inverse.
2.41421356237309 0.41421356237309 = 1 or extremely close.
How to generate the other phi like numbers that have this perfect quality of numeral
by numeral perfection stemming from the integer ratio.
Use the formula to find the ratio. ( Sqr root (4 + n2 ) + n ) 2
Put n=0, (sqr root (4+0)+0)2 = 1
Put n=1, (sqr root (4+12)+1)2 = (sqr root(5) +1)2 1.61803398874989
Put n=2, (sqr root (4+22)+2)2 = sqr root(2) +1)
2.41421356237309
2
Put n=3, (sqr root (4+3 )+3)2 = (sqr root(13)+3) 2 3.30277563773199
Put n=4, (sqr root (4+42)+4)2 = sqr root(5)+2
4.23606797749979
Put n=5, (sqr root (4+52)+5)2 = (sqr root(29)+5) 2 5.19258240356725
Put n=6, (sqr root (4+62)+6)2 = sqr root(10)+3
6.16227766016838
The inverse follows the formula above with a small change.
Inverse = ( Sqr root (4 + n2 ) n ) 2.

42

This exploration into irrational numbers shows the inherent connection between
integer, fraction both decimal and ratio as well as its representation as an irrational
number. Cyclic Addition, in later Chapters, follows this connection between fraction,
exponential and Whole Number. All unified Mathematics.
Test the Fibonacci Sequence with the matching to the applicable Pure Circular
Fraction (PCF). And check on the calculator the multiplication of numbers 2 apart and
the square of the number in the middle are always 1 apart. i.e. Either 1 less or 1 more,
in fact it oscillates between 1 and -1.
++Lesson Plan. The second Phi ratio above sqr root(2)+1: 1 also connects to the
whole numbers from the sequence to the PCF 119. As with the previous Phi Ratio
start at 1 move left one numeral for each successive number in the sequence. The
working multiple is (119+1)= 12 tens. See the Pure Circular Fractions Chapter to
generate the PCF 119 below.
1
2
5

1
7

1
4

4
3
4

1
7
6
2

9
0
6
1

8
5
8
8
0

3
0
0
3
9

1
3
7
2
2

3
4
8
5

5
8
6
2

2
7
6
1

3
4
0

0 6 7 2 2 6 8
8 8 2 3 8 10 10

9
7
1

4
8
8

1
0
5

6
8

7
9

0 7 5 6
9 6 7 3

2
0

1
9

0 2 5 2
3 6 2 1

And so the Pattern of forming Phi and its counterparts for higher numbers is
presented in a sequence of Number. The third Phi is found by adding the first number
to three times the second. Forming the Sequence
1

3 10 33 109 360 1189 3927 12970 42837 141481

This sequence connects to the Pure Circular Fraction 129. As above the ratio
converges to (sqr root(13)+3)2.

43

Mysteries of the Sequence


What identifies the original sequence 1 3 2 6 4 5 from other Mathematics of
Primary Years ?
Basically one can act with the Sequence using Cyclic Addition Mathematics and the
sequence is preserved.
Lets perform Mathematics upon the sequence and note the resulting form of the
Sequence.
The first Mystery. Use two Wheels 1 3 2 6 4 5 and visualise placing one wheel
upon the other, rotate one Wheel and Add the two Wheels together.

4
6

4
6

1
3
2
3
2
6
4
5
8
remainder from 7
4
5
1

6
4
10

4
5
9

5
1
6

1
3
2
2
6
4
3
9
6
remainder from 7
3
2
6

6
5
11

4
1
5

5
3
8

1
3
2
1
3
2
2
6
4
remainder from 7
2
6
4

6
6
12

4
4
8

5
5
10

6
1
7

4
3
7

5
2
7

1
6
7

3
4
7

2
5
7

3
2

Rotating the Wheel around in all six positions is shown by these four additions. By
finding the Remainder from 7 the sequence is always preserved.
44

The second mystery. Multiply the original sequence 1 3 2 6 4 5 by the numbers


one to eight.
Original Sequence x 1
Remainder from multiples of 7

1
1

3
3

2
2

6
6

4
4

5
5

Original Sequence x 3
Remainder from multiples of 7

3
3

9
2

6
6

18
4

12
5

15
1

Original Sequence x 2
Remainder from multiples of 7

2
2

6
6

4
4

12
5

8
1

10
3

Original Sequence x 6
Remainder from multiples of 7

6
6

18
4

12
5

36
1

24
3

30
2

Original Sequence x 4
Remainder from multiples of 7

4
4

12
5

8
1

24
3

16
2

20
6

Original Sequence x 5
Remainder from multiples of 7

5
5

15
1

10
3

30
2

20
6

25
4

Original Sequence x 8
Remainder from multiples of 7

8
1

24
3

16
2

48
6

32
4

40
5

Original Sequence x 7
Remainder from multiples of 49

7
7

21
21

14
14

42
42

28
28

35
35

Note how the sequence 1 3 2 6 4 5 is always preserved. The sevens are without a
remainder from 7. In fact all Tier 1 Common Multiples from 1 to 69 have this
quality. Showing that the Mathematics upon any Wheel has the same fundamentals as
the original sequence 1 3 2 6 4 5 .
The Third Mystery. Division upon any number in the sequence with a denominator 7
and the sequence is again preserved. Note the bold remainder.
. 7 1 4 2 8 5
7 ) 5. 0
4 9
1 0
7
3 0
2 8
2 0
1 4
6 0
5 6
4 0
3 5
5
5 1 3 2 6 4 5
45

The fourth Mystery. Fractions of seven come from multiplying all of the numbers in
the sequence by 7. Start with the sequence 1 3 2 6 4 5 and multiply each number
by 7. Place the units on the fraction line and the tens as the remainder below. The
fraction has been repeated to show all fractions of 7.

.
.
7 1 4 2 8 5 7 1 4 2 8 5 7
2 1 4 2 3
2 1 4 2 3
The fifth Mystery is Remainder or Subtraction. With certain fractions where the
denominator is a multiple of 7 the sequence 1 3 2 6 4 5 goes right through as a
pattern of subtraction to reveal multiples of seven.

.
1 0 2 0 4 0 8 1 6 3 2 6 5 3
1
2
4
3 1 1 3 2 1
0 6 1 2 2 4 4 8 9 7 9 5 9 1
3
1 1 2 2 4 4 3 4 2 4
4
.
8 3 6 7 3 4 6 9 3 8 7 7 5 5
1 3 3 1 2 3 4 1 4 3 3 2 2
Start at 1. This has a remainder of 1. Next right 10-3=7. Next 2. Next 20-6=14. Next
4. Next 40=5=35. Continue all the way along the fraction by subtracting
1 3 2 6 4 5 to leave a multiple of 7. This is the uniting of fraction and remainder
sequence with 1 3 2 6 4 5 . This is good practise to reveal how the original
sequence 1 3 2 6 4 5 acts upon Number to give a Multiple of 7.
The Sixth Mystery is Circle. All of the other 5 mysteries apply circle with the
Mathematical Operation + . No matter where one starts with the sequence
1 3 2 6 4 5 and acts upon it with operation the Circular nature is shown.
Addition of the sequence upon itself and the circle is preserved. Multiplication of all
members of the sequence and the sequence again remains circular. Division shows
and infinite remainder sequence that translates into a limitless Circle. The Fractions of
7 is also infinite and circular. The Sequence travels through the other fraction 7 times
each cycle and is also Circular.
So one might expect that all Cyclic Addition actions with Wheels stemming from the
original sequence 1 3 2 6 4 5 both preserve the sequence and are Circular.
This leads to the unfolding of the greatest mystery Cyclic Addition Step by Step
Mathematics. Counting, Place Value, Move tens to units, Remainder and 7Multiple
Steps all preserve the sequence and are all Circular. This very fact greatly contributes
to the constant repair and perfecting of Whole Number. Hence the title of the
book.
Lets briefly contrast Cyclic Addition Numeracy with Traditional Whole Number
Numeracy.
46

Cyclic Addition relies on the sequence and circle of the Wheel to construct Whole
Number. All operations + acting upon the Wheel preserve the sequence and
circle.
Traditional Whole Number can apply distinct operations + to a Number and
Whole Number is preserved. Traditional place value positions remain the same no
matter what Whole Number Maths is applied. Likewise with Cyclic Addition all
Mathematics uses the Wheel and the sequence and circle remain the same.
So Mathematics with the Cyclic Addition Wheels one receives perfect Whole Number
simpler, easier, quicker and richer pattern making than just the Traditional
Mathematics acting on any Whole Number.
Traditional Mathematical Arithmetic is performed with any of the 10 possible
numerals in each place value position forming a Whole Number. Whole Number
acting with any other Whole Number is usually with an operation + in between.
This equation yields an answer of a Whole Number, most of the time, again. The
relationship between all three components of the equation need not be related to each
other in any way, shape or form. By following this Mathematical path Number and
just any old Number is preserved for the traditional place value positions that it
purports to present.
Cyclic Addition forms a Wheel to present circle, cycle, sequence, common multiple
and a continuous order of Whole Number. There are 5 steps to Cyclic Addition and all
mathematically act with the Wheel. And all Cyclic Addition Steps preserve all of
these facets: circle, cycle, sequence, common multiple and put order to Whole
Number. Operations + are unified with the 5 Steps. Counting with the Wheel
operations + are brought together to aid pattern making of the Common Multiple.
Place Value shows operations + with Wheel Mathematics. Remainder shows
operation joining each Count with a higher order all of the same Common Multiple.
The 7Multiple Step unifies the next Tier of the Hierarchy again with the constant
Common Multiple.
Cyclic Addition also shows Pure Circular Fractions. These are shown with special
circular denominators. Numerators from 1 to the denominator are present. These are
fractions from zero to one. These Fractions are created with a working multiple to
construct all fraction sequences with a remainder. This knowledge of circle and
remainder shows perfect Mathematics of the working multiple at the same time.
Operations + are used to construct a Pure Circular Fraction from right to left.
Operations and remainder are used in the opposite direction from left to right.
Cyclic Addition merges the knowledge of the 5 Steps and Pure Circular Fractions
together to show how Whole Number and Rational Number serve each other.
Cyclic Addition has an immediate order that is constructed at the beginning of the
Mathematical journey. There are newish concepts of working with Whole Number
like circle, cycle, sequence and common multiple. All these act with the 5 Steps to
become the most effective and perfect path to mastering Whole Number.

47

Circular Addition
After a study of the setting for Cyclic Addition and addressing the types of Number
one might ask when does the practical start. It starts with Circular Addition.
Following on from the Chapter Object Count.
Circular Addition pulls all of the sequence 1 3 2 6 4 5 apart maintaining order
and circle. Applying Mathematics of Addition with smaller 1 to 5 number sequences.
These sequences all come from the original sequence.

4
6

3
2

Working with 1 to 5 number sequences first prepares the way for the whole 6 number
Wheels. Firstly lets create a table of all 1 to 5 number sequences formed by the
Wheel 1 3 2 6 4 5 . The table groups the total of the Circular Addition Sequence
with others of equal total. For instance the total 6 has three sequences 6, 5 1 and
1 3 2. The 6 is a one number sequence, the 5 1 a two number sequence, and the
1 3 2 a three number sequence.
Cycle
Total
1
2
3
4
5
6

8
9
10

Circular Addition
Sequence
1
2
3
4
1
5
3
6
5
1
2
4
5
6
4

Cycle
Total
11
12

13
15

2
1
3
6
5
1
4
5

16
2
17
3
1

18
19
20

3
5
2
1
4
6
3
4
6
1
2
5
2
6
3

Circular Addition
Sequence
2
6
1
3
2
6
4
3
2
6
5
1
3
4
5
2
6
4
5
1
3
4
5
1
3
2
6
6
4
5
1
3
2
6
4
5
4
5
1
2
6
4

2
4
6
1
3
5

A Circular Addition Multiple is formed also by repeating the shorter sequences. A one
number sequence is repeated once, twice, thrice and four times. A two number
sequence is repeated just once. This forms all the other Circular Addition sequences.
Three, four and five number sequences are not repeated as they would be longer than
the 1 to 5 numbers used for Circular Addition.
Our working example will be 10. Notice the two sequences above 6 4 and 4 5 1.
Also repeating the 2 to form 2 2 2 2 2 and repeating the 5 to form 5 5. Less
obvious is the repeating of 3 2 to make 3 2 3 2 another Circular Addition
48

sequence. Remember just 1 to 5 number sequences. Master these then move on to 6


number Wheels.
Lets see what the table looks like with all of the repeated sequences included with the
30 others above.
Common Circular Addition
Multiple Sequence

1
2
2
3
3
4
4
4
4
5
5
5
6
6
6
6
6
8
8
8
8
9
9
9
10
10
10
10
10
11
11

1
1
2
1
3
1
2
1
4
3
1
5
2
3
1
5
6
4
2
2
1
4
3
5
2
3
4
6
5
3
5

Common Circular Addition


Multiple Sequence

1
1
3
2
1
2
1
2
3
3
1
4
2
6
3
5
3
1
2
2
5
4
5
2
1

2
2

3
3
2
3
1

6
3

2
2

12
12
12
12
12
12
13
15
15
15
15
15
16
16
16
16
17
17
18
18
18
19
20
20
20
20
24
25
30

2
1
5
3
4
6
4
6
5
3
3
4
2
6
4
1
2
5
2
6
4
6
5
6
4
3
6
5
6

6
3
1
3
4
6
5
4
5
2
3
5
6
4
4
3
6
1
6
6
5
4
5
4
4
2
6
5
6

4
2
5
3
4
1
5
5
6
3
1
2
5
4
2
4
3
4
6
4
5
5
6
4
6
6
5
6

6
1
3

4
3
3
6
1
4
6
5
2
5
5
1
5
4
4
4
6
5
6

3
2

4
6
1

4
5
5
6

Look carefully at the table above showing all common multiples from 1 to 20, and 24,
25 and 30. The 7, 14 and 21 common multiples are shown with Cyclic Addition 6
number Wheels. Look at the strength and completeness of the simple Wheel
1 3 2 6 4 5 .
49

The Workbook has this complete range of mini-wheels as a Classroom practical


lesson. There is a brief look at the Workbook at the end in the last Chapter of this
book. The Workbook can be found on the CD-Rom as a pdf file. Any pages can be
printed and used in a classroom setting.
So lets Count with Circular Addition. Our working example is Common Multiple 10.
The mini-wheels are given to maintain the link of the Circle with the rest of Cyclic
Addition. These 5 mini-wheels are all thats needed to Count with Common Multiple
10. Each Cycle of Counting with these mini-wheels forms a multiple of 10.

2
2

3
2

2
3

9 10 14 19 20 24 29 30 34 39 40 44 49 50 54

6 10 15 16 20 25 26 30 35 36 40 45 46 50 55

5 10 11 15 20 21 25 30 31 35 40 41 45 50 51

6 10 16 20 26 30 36 40 46 50 56 60 66 70 76 80
4 10 14 20 24 30 34 40 44 50 54 60 64 70 74 80

5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 55 60 65 70 75 80

50

8 10 12 14 16 18 20 22 24 26 28 30 32

8 10 13 15 18 20 23 25 28 30 33 35 38 40

7 10 12 15 17 20 22 25 27 30 32 35 37 40

The mess of Whole Number in these early stages is put to order, circle, sequence and
a multiple. All this is with the discipline of Circular Addition.
Each Count above shows a new multiple of 10 every complete cycle of Counting. The
6 4 and 5 5 every second count, the 4 5 1 every third counts, the 3 2 3 2
every fourth count and 2 2 2 2 2 every fifth count.
Notice the units pattern showing the nature of Common Multiple 10 matches all the
way along each Count. The spacing of 10 is evenly presented with again the number
of numbers in each mini-wheel. For example 6 4 the first count 6 +10= 16, 26, 36,
46, 56, 66 and 76 are all both two numbers apart in the Count and differ by the 10.
With 3 2 3 2 the 10 is shown every fourth number along the Count sequence 2, 12,
22, 32 and 5, 15, 25, 35 and 7, 17, 27, 37 and the cycle total 10, 20, 30, 40.
Counting with these Circular Addition mini-wheels should be for a length long
enough to show sufficient patterns of the common multiple. This may vary from
student to student.
Note the number of Counts with any mini-wheel is the number of unique numbers in
the mini-wheel. For example 4 5 1 has 3 unique Counts, 5 5 only 1 Count,
3 2 3 2 has 2 unique Counts one starting at 3 and the other 2.
Note how 10 in the first cycle of the above Counts is formed. 1+(4+5)=1+9=10,
2+(2+2+2+2), 2+(3+2+3), 3+(2+3+2), 4+6, 4+(5+1), (2+2)+(2+2+2), 5+5, (1+4)+5,
5+(1+4), (3+2)+(3+2), (2+3)+(2+3), 6+4, (5+1)+4, (2+2+2)+(2+2), (2+3+2)+3,
(3+2+3)+2, (2+2+2+2)+2, (4+5)+1 all =10. So all the numbers from 1 to 9 are
included with the above Circular Addition.
Circular Addition presents these numbers in-between multiples of 10 to show the
nature of Common Multiple 10 with other number. These numbers in-between have a
pattern that aids presentation of the Common Multiple. This pattern repeats every
cycle of Circular Addition.
Work through the Circular Addition Sequence table above and begin to fathom the
richness and Mathematical patterns formed with a Common Multiple group of miniwheels. Note the effort required in Common Multiple 12 with all its factors and how
simple Common Multiple 13 having only one mini-wheel. The aim always is to
perfect Whole Number.
51

As Counting with the mini-wheels progresses from Object Count to Circular


Addition, one is preparing the basics of all Circular Whole Number Cyclic Addition
Mathematics. This all starts next chapter with 6 number Wheels.
All of the Mathematics used in Circular Addition is put to work with Cyclic Addition
in Counting, in Place Value and reviewing a Count Sequence. No effort is left to
waste. There is a domino effect of learning with Cyclic Addition Mathematics.
++Lesson Plan. The Common Multiple 10 has 5 mini-wheels. When these form
Counts with Circular Addition the Common Multiple is shown amongst other Count
Numbers. The very nature of Common Multiple 10 is shown by Counting with all 5
mini-wheels.
Note the simple pattern with all of these 5 mini-wheels. The units numeral in each
cycle is repeated. This suggests the nature of Common Multiple 10s has a repeating
numeral in the units. Such is the case with these Circular Addition Counts. And with
the Cyclic Addition 6 number Wheel 10 30 20 60 40 50 . So the effort put into
Circular Addition is translated into perfecting Cyclic Addition with the same
Common Multiple.
Lets look in detail at some other Common Multiples from 1 to 21. One of the most
complex Circular Addition Common Multiples is the 12. It has 6 mini-wheels. Each
one serving a purpose to present 12s each cycle.
The mini-wheel 2 6 4 shows all the multiples of 2 within each cycle of 12. Note
the patterns. 2+(6+4), 4+(2+6), 6+(4+2), (4+2)+6, (2+6)+4, (6+4)+2 and 3 end of
cycle 12s.
The mini-wheel 1 3 2 6 shows all numbers from 1 to 12. (1)+(3+2+6),
(2)+(6+1+3), (3)+(2+6+1), (1+3)+(2+6), (3+2)+(6+1), (1+3+2)+(6), (6)+(1+3+2),
(6+1)+(3+2), (2+6)+(1+3), (2+6+1)+(3), (6+1+3)+(2), (3+2+6)+(1) and 4 end of
cycle 12s. Contrast these Counts with the mini-wheel 2 6 4 above.
The mini-wheel 5 1 5 1 shows the spacing of 5 and 6 so as not to mix up either.
(1)+(5+1+5), (5)+(1+5+1), (5+1)+(5+1), (1+5)+(1+5), (1+5+1)+(5), (5+1+5)+(1) and
2 end of cycle 12s. Contrast this mini-wheel with the simple 6 6 .
The mini-wheel 6 6 shows 26=12 or 6+6=12 each cycle. By the action of
Circular Addition all multiples of 6 are shown to the end of the Count. Multiples of 12
are shown every second Count. This also trains one to look for the cycle multiple of
12 amongst the multiples of 6. So there is no confusion the 26=12.
The mini-wheel 4 4 4 shows 34=12 or 4+4+4=12 each cycle. Again the action of
Circular Addition shows all multiples of 4 and the multiples of 12 every cycle of 3
Counts. (4)+(4+4) and (4+4)+(4) and the cycle end 12s. Contrast the cycle end every
third Count with the cycle end for mini-wheels 6 6 and 3 3 3 3 .
The mini-wheel 3 3 3 3 shows 43=12 or 3+3+3+3=12 each cycle. Again
Circular Addition shows all multiples of 3 for the entire length of the Count.
Multiples of 12 appear every fourth Count. (3)+(3+3+3)=3+9, (3+3)+(3+3)=6+6,
(3+3+3)+(3)=9+3 and cycle end 12s. Note also the 6s are shown every second
Count as well as the cycle end 12s.
52

So Circular Addition with Common Multiple 12 mini-wheels completely show the


nature of Common Multiples of 12. All factors of 12 being 1, 2, 3, 4 and 6 are shown
and inter-woven within the Count Sequences. All numbers from 1 to 12 are shown
like that of the example Common Multiple 10.
Lets consider Common Multiple 11. There are just 2 mini-wheels both similar to
each other. Note how Common Multiple 11 has no factors unlike the 12.
The mini-wheel 3 2 6 shows (2)+(6+3)=2+9, (3)+(2+6)=3+8, (3+2)+(6),
(6)+(3+2), (2+6)+(3), (6+3)+(2) and 3 cycle end 11s. The Count of 2 is put in
between the 3 and 6 to produce a cycle of 11.
The mini-wheel 5 1 3 2 shows four numbers each cycle unlike the 3 2 6 with
3 numbers each cycle. A subtle difference. The mini-wheel replaces the 6 with
simply 5 1 . The Counts each cycle map out the 11s as such. (1)+(3+2+5)=1+10,
(2)+(5+1+3), (3)+(2+5+1), (1+3)+(2+5), (3+2)+(5+1), (5)+(1+3+2), (5+1)+(3+2),
(2+5)+(1+3), (2+5+1)+(3), (5+1+3)+(2), (3+2+5)+(1) and 4 end of cycle 11s. Note
how neatly all numbers in-between cycle end multiples of 11 are shown. In fact the
mini-wheel sequence is so perfectly showing all of these numbers in between that
only (5)+(6) is shown twice.
Unlike the Common Multiple 10 the 11s increment the tens and units by 1 each
cycle. To show this Mathematics perfectly all numbers in between each multiple of 11
are present in all 4 counts with mini-wheel 5 1 3 2 . So that each cycle the
Mathematician can see the units and tens both increment by one on all numbers to the
end of the Count. This knowledge prepares one to Count with Cyclic Addition 6
number Wheel 11 33 22 66 44 55 . So no matter the skill level with numeracy
that the student has, Cyclic Addition Mathematics can accommodate all.
Lets consider Common Multiple 18. There are 3 mini-wheels each starkly different
from one another. So one suspects that each mini-wheel has a story to tell.
The Mini-Wheel 6 6 6 is by far the simplest. Showing 36=18 or 6+6+6=18. As
with the 6 6 mini-wheel with Common Multiple 12 all multiples of 6 are shown to
the end of the Count. Every third Count presents a multiple of 18. Every three Counts
actually perfectly parts the multiples of 12 by placing 2 numbers with the same
multiple as is the cycle end 18s.
The mini-wheel 4 5 4 5 shows a very simple (4)+(5+4+5)=4+14,
(5)+(4+5+4)=5+13, (4+5)+(4+5) and (5+4)+(5+4)=9+9, (4+5+4)+(5)=13+5,
(5+4+5)+(4)=14+4 and the two cycle end 18s. Note the 9+9=18 is shown in two
Counts.
The mini-wheel 2 6 4 5 1 is rather more complex. Break down the structure of
the mini-wheel to factors of 18. The 2s of 18 are shown with 2+6+4+(5+1)=2+6+4+6
which shows all multiples of 2. The 3s of the 18 are shown with
(1+2)+(6)+(4+5)=3+6+9 by (1+2)+(6+4+5), (6)+(4+5+1+2), (4+5)+(1+2+6),
(1+2+6)+(4+5), (2+6+4)+(5+1), and (6+4+5)+(1+2). The 6s of 18 are shown
(6)+(4+5+1+2), (5+1)+(2+6+4), (2+6+4)+(5+1), (4+5+1+2)+(6). The 9s of 18 are
shown (4+5)+(2+6+1) and (2+6+1)+(4+5). As well as the 5 cycles end multiples of
18.
53

All numbers between multiples of 18 bar (7)+(11)=18 are shown. The others
(1)+(2+6+4+5)=1+17, (4)+(5+1+2+6)=4+14, (5)+(1+2+6+4)=5+13,
(6+4)+(5+1+2)=10+8, (1+2+6+4)+(5)=13+5, (2+6+4+5)+(1)=17+1.
Notice how the Circular Addition mini-wheel 2 6 4 5 1 shows multiples of 2, 3,
6 and 9 with the one sequence. By joining numbers within the mini-wheel the inherent
structure of 18 becomes obvious. Again preparing the Mathematician to Count with
Cyclic Addition 6 number Wheels with Common Multiple 6, 9 and 18.
This knowledge of circular Counting translates again into perfect Mathematics with
the Cyclic Addition 6 number Wheels next chapter.

54

Cyclic Addition Step 1: Counting


What is brought to mind when one hears the Mathematical term Counting. Perhaps a
variety of ways to Count objects or form a patterned sequence of numbers. Count by
1s (1 2 3 4 5), Count by twos (2 4 6 8 10 12), count by a multiple of 5 (5
10 15 20 25), Count backwards (10 9 8 7 ), Count using square numbers (1 4
9 16 25 36), Count using triangular numbers (1 3 6 10 15) and Count
forming a pattern with mixed operations + e.g. 2n+3 (5 7 9 11 13). This covers
a great proportion of traditional pattern making taught in the basics of a Whole
Number Curriculum.
What is presented with Cyclic Addition Counting. A start with Object Counting
forming patterns with like objects and grouping them to form the beginning of Whole
Number. From there Circular Addition to bring together order, circle, sequence
common multiple and operation + with Whole Number. This is the beginning of
applying the Wheel 1 3 2 6 4 5 with all its component parts called mini-wheels.
Cyclic Addition prepares one to use 6 number Wheels with the previous Chapter
Circular Addition with 1 to 5 number mini-wheels. The Circle is consistent and
represents an infinite rotation around the Wheel, counting all the way.
Cyclic Addition uses the Mathematics within the Wheel to perform all Steps 1 to 5.
Step 1: Counting, Step 2: Place Value, Step 3: Move tens to units, Step 4 Remainder
and Step 5: 7Multiple. These Steps form the nature of Whole Number with Cyclic
Addition. Each Step has a Chapter. And each Step is united with all others.
Cyclic Addition Counting with 6 number Wheels starts with the 1 3 2 6 4 5 .
Counting all 6 ways from the 6 starts. This perfectly patterns the Common Multiple 1
through all the 6 Count Sequences. The example below Counts 6 ways for 3 cycles.

6
1

12

16

21

22

25

27

33

37

42

43

46

48

54

58

63

11

15

20

21

24

26

32

36

41

42

45

47

53

57

62

63

12

17

18

21

23

29

33

38

39

42

44

50

54

59

60

63

10

15

16

19

21

27

31

36

37

40

42

48

52

57

58

61

63

10

13

15

21

25

30

31

34

36

42

46

51

52

55

57

63

11

17

21

26

27

30

32

38

42

47

48

51

53

59

63

55

Note the starting point around the Wheel is the same on the 1st, 7th and 13th Counts.
All exactly one cycle apart. The end of each cycle is marked by a multiple of 21=73.
At this stage, with this Common Multiple 1 Wheel, no other number has a multiple of
7. The 7s are left to resist these counts by the use of a Remainder. See Chapter
Cyclic Addition Step 4: Remainder.
Each pair of consecutive numbers in the above example of 6 Count Sequences is
unique. Duplication of Count Sequences is avoided.
Counting, as above, can be performed without the other steps. Its discipline follows
Circular Addition with a 6 number Wheel. In fact one can pickup a Count from
anywhere along the Count Sequence and match the movement clockwise around the
Wheel. This preservation of the Wheel makes for accuracy and precision with this
Step.
Counting is usually for a whole number of cycles, somewhere between 1 and 7 cycles.
This represents a complete revolution of the Circle and proper Mathematics. Finishing
the Count with an end of cycle multiple of 21 is used in later Cyclic Addition
Mathematics. Tracking where the next Count is to be found joins Circle with Count.
One needs to monitor the number of Counting cycles completed.
Counting all 6 Count Sequences is considered more whole and complete as all
multiples of Common Multiple 1, to the end of the Count, are discovered. If a count
sequence is missed so to are other numbers. Again Cyclic Addition aims for
completeness. No particular Count Sequence, of the possible 6, is given any
Mathematical preference. Thus all 6 bind the Counts together to form a strong rope of
Common Multiple 1. This shows a Counts order, increment, place and relative
position amongst fellow Counts from the same Wheel.
There are simple presentation standards with Cyclic Addition. Practical, logical,
enabling simple review and to prevent errors. The Wheel is usually put at the top of
the page with a circle in the middle and the 6 numbers around the wheel in a rough
hexagon shape. The clearer the circle, the easier the Counting around and around.
The Cyclic Addition Workbook for classroom practical lessons uses many templates.
These are convenient tables with fill-it-in spaces and guiding Count Sequences. Worth
viewing the pdf on the CD-Rom to aid setting up a Counting Lesson.
Constant Addition can be written with workings and in line addition on the left page
with the Count Sequence on the right. So the already practised art of vertical addition
starting at units, then tens and hundreds and so on is preserved. Aim though to keep
the Count Sequence free from mess and interruption with other workings. This aids
pattern making with the prevailing Common Multiple and other Cyclic Addition
Steps.
A Cyclic Addition Number is considered to have no space in-between numerals
forming that Number. Likewise there is a significant space between Numbers within
the Count Sequence. One to two numeral spaces is enough. Consistent width space
even more useful.
For younger Primary School Mathematicians using 11mm lined paper allows for clear
large, easy to review and reread, Numerals and Numbers.
56

Number with Cyclic Addition can be likened to a simple parallel with the spelling of
words. As the sounds have meaning and a relationship within the sentence. So to do
Cyclic Addition Numbers have pattern and a Mathematical relationship within the
same Count and Common Multiple.
Each Count Sequence from a Wheel has a beginning and a end. Starting at a particular
place around the Wheel and finishing with a whole number of cycles.
A Clockwise Count with any Wheel is written from left to right continuing down the
page. Anyone counting backwards need to use the reverse of English Print. Counting
backwards is addressed in a later Chapter.
Cyclic Addition Counting Tier 1 is targeted at a Primary Level. Tier 2 and 3 are not
beyond them, but requires significant mastery with other Wheels. Tier 2, tier 3 and
higher can be sighted in the pdf book Wheels on the CD-Rom. In fact all Common
Multiples from 1 to 69 have there own Reference Page. Each page has 7 tiers and
links to pure circular fractions are shown. These Reference Pages will not be shown in
this book. Refer instead to the pdf book Wheels on the CDRom. They are a helpful
guide to Counting with multiple tiers.
Cyclic Addition Counting can be for many tiers provided that the Common Multiple
remains the same and each new consecutive Wheel is presented and used upon the
Counting Page. Present Tier 1 Wheel, Count, the Tier 2 Wheel, Count, the Tier 3
Wheel and so on.
Cyclic Addition pattern making allows for complete exploration of a single Common
Multiple as and when Counting with higher tiers. Pattern Making with a Common
Multiple becomes perfect.
Counting begins with the lowest order tier 1 Wheel. Once sufficient knowledge is
received progress to the higher order tier 2 Wheel. Following the Tier 2 is Tier 3,
following Tier 3 is Tier 4 and so on. Each new order climbs from one tier to the next,
in sequence, the higher Tier brings forth new knowledge that also incorporates all that
comes before in lower Tiers. This Tier by Tier structure of Counting is presented in
Chapter Hierarchy. One can review these Wheels, Tier by Tier, in the pdf on the
CDRom.
Cyclic Addition follows place value assignments using the complete set of modern
Hindu-Arabic Numerals and the zero. Each numerals place value position in a
number has a base 10 assignment. Units 100 , Tens 101 , Hundreds 102 ,
Thousands 103 , Ten Thousands 104 , Hundred Thousands 105 , Millions
106 and so on from the rightmost numeral in the units to the left increasing
exponentials of 10 by 1 for each place value position left. Cyclic Addition is not here
to question an established 1400 year old invention of Number, merely to perfect
Number with Cyclic Addition Mathematics.
A Flag, Signal or Mark is given at each cycle of Counting. One might expect, as we
mark a year with January 1, as a whole orbit around the sun, that Cyclic Addition
might mark a whole cycle of Counting. This is performed by the Remainder in a later
Chapter. When there is no remainder and a Count equals its 7Multiple counterpart
this is marked as the end of a cycle.
57

There appears to be a lot of order that surrounds Cyclic Addition Mathematics. This
order shows that nothing with Whole Number is by accident. There is a purpose, a
truth and a scientific discipline to reach that Whole Number perfection. This
accompanies the Cyclic Addition Mathematics.
The templates in the Workbook are specifically designed to lead the student of Cyclic
Addition into the higher orders and higher Tiers of this new Mathematics.
From a Primary Schooling Mathematics viewpoint the first Tier Common Multiples
from 1 to 69 might be an abundance of Cyclic Addition. For the budding
Mathematician there might be reason to study the higher Tiers. This is left to a later
stage in this book.
The childs skill and talent varies, thus the length of the count sequences 1 cycle, 2
cycles, 3 cycles, 5 cycles or perhaps as far as the child enjoys making patterns with
multiples of 1.
The pattern of incrementing the tens place value position following the units 9
number becomes natural. And incrementing the hundreds place value position
following the tens & units 99. Cyclic Addition as illustrated in the above Count
with common multiple 1 shows perfect incrementing from one tens numeral to the
next. From one hundreds numeral to the next. There is a completeness to this as the
mathematician explores other common multiples. This numeric skill is still required
but other numerals are used to receive the increment of the next ten. The count with
Cyclic Addition can count just before a ten, right past a ten or land directly upon
the next ten.
For example the common multiple 9 asks for its parallel with common multiple 1
and the two numbers are added together to present a 1 in the tens with literally
nothing in the units as a zero. This amongst other Cyclic Addition greatly contributes
to the success of moving through numerals forming Number.
Counting using continuous Addition, thus being titled as Cyclic Addition is the
basic building block for Mathematical Number. Only Mathematics offers this path of
unifying numerals in an ordered and patterned way rather than treating then as mere
symbols. Number provides a way to link common shape together with an object
Count. With the aid of light and like shape simply present pattern to Number.
Counting brings forth magnitude, ratio and proportion, quantity and estimation,
exactness and preciseness.
Counting is the beginning of exploring almost all other strands of Mathematics :
Number, Pattern, Algebra, Ratio, Rates and Measurement, Tables and Graphs,
Fractions and Decimals, Space, Area and Volume, Angles, Chance and Data in any
curriculum.

58

To finish the Chapter Cyclic Addition Step 1: Counting we use Wheel Common
Multiple 2 and a 7 cycle Count.

10

8
12

6
4

2
8 12 24 32 42 44 50 54 66 74 84
86 92 96 108 116 126 128 134 138 150 158 168
170 176 180 192 200 210 212 218 222 234 242 252
254 260 264 276 284 294
6 10 22 30 40 42 48 52 64 72 82 84
90 94 106 114 124 126 132 136 148 156 166 168
174 178 190 198 208 210 216 220 232 240 250 252
258 262 274 282 292 294
4 16 24 34 36 42 46 58 66 76 78 84
88 100 108 118 120 126 130 142 150 160 162 168
172 184 192 202 204 210 214 226 234 244 246 252
256 268 276 286 288 294
12 20 30 32 38 42 54 62 72 74 80 84
96 104 114 116 122 126 138 146 156 158 164 168
180 188 198 200 206 210 222 230 240 242 248 252
264 272 282 284 290 294
8 18 20 26 30 42 50 60 62 68 72 84
92 102 104 110 114 126 134 144 146 152 156 168
176 186 188 194 198 210 218 228 230 236 240 252
260 270 272 278 282 294
10 12 18 22 34 42 52 54 60 64 76 84
94 96 102 106 118 126 136 138 144 148 160 168
178 180 186 190 202 210 220 222 228 232 244 252
262 264 270 274 286 294
Count with Circle, Count with Cyclic Addition.

59

++Lesson Plan. Consider the relationship that was shown last chapter with each miniwheel and its properties with the Common Multiple. Lets show how the circular 6
number Wheel 1 3 2 6 4 5 contributes to other multiples other than the Common
Multiple 1. Use the Common Multiple 1 Count for 3 cycles illustrated at the
beginning of this Chapter.
Multiples of 1 are shown by individual numbers around the Wheel 1 3 2 6 4 5 .
No matter the start moving from one Count to the next Count multiples of 1 are
clearly shown.
Multiples of 3 play a significant part as a cycle with the Wheel 1 3 2 6 4 5 adds
to 21. Lets group the Wheel Counts into multiples of 3. (3)+(2+6+4)+(5+1),
(2+6+4)+(5+1)+(3), (5+1)+(3)+(2+6+4) and (1+3+2)+(6)+(4+5), (6)+(4+5)+(1+3+2),
(4+5)+(1+3+2)+(6). Note distinctly how with each of the 6 Count Sequences have 2
multiples of 3 and the cycle end 21 each and every cycle.
Multiples of 2. (1+3)+(2)+(6)+(4)+(5) and (2)+(6)+(4)+(5+1)+(3). Note there is an
odd number left over with the cycle of 21. Using these groups there is an even pattern
which converts to an odd pattern by +5, an odd, in the first sequence and +3, also an
odd, in the second sequence. Treat the +(1+3) as +4 and the +(5+1) as +6 to form an
even hop in the Count Sequence.
Multiples of 6. (1+3+2)+(6)+(4+5) and (2+6+4)+(5+1)+(3). These two groupings of
the Wheel Counts highlight the 6 and 12. The first sequence has 6+6+9 the second
sequence 12+6+3. Note the +(4+5) = +9 and the +3 increment the count by 3 as a
remainder from multiples of 6. So as to highlight the odd to even and even to odd
movement of the multiples of 3. As 3+3=6 the 3 and 6 work in partnership with these
groupings of the Wheel 1 3 2 6 4 5 .
Multiples of 4. (1+3)+(2+6)+(4)+(5). This grouping shows (4)+(8)+(4)+(5)=21 a
cycle. Note again the +5 shift the remainder from multiples of 4 forward by 1
(4+1)=5. So the movement of the Counts with groupings of 4 return to multiples of 4
every 4 cycles (214)=84. As 8 is a partner with 4 (24=8) the 2+6=8 works with the
multiples of 4. Note the four starting points to work with this grouping.
(1+3)+(2+6)+(4)+(5), (2+6)+(4)+(5)+ (1+3), (4)+(5)+ (1+3)+(2+6) and
(5)+(1+3)+(2+6)+(4) whilst always maintaining the Wheel sequence, circle and order.
Multiples of 5. (3+2)+(6+4)+(5)+(1). This grouping shows (5)+(10)+(5)+(1)=21 a
cycle again. Note the similarity in the structure of the grouping to form addition with
5s and the 4s directly above. There is a remainder of +1 in each cycle of counting.
So one might expect that the pattern of 5s mastered in Circular Addition lessons,
using Common Multiple 5, 10, 15 and 20, brings knowledge to the Cyclic Addition 6
number Wheel. Note the four, cycle, starting points like the Multiples of 4 above.
(3+2)+(6+4)+(5)+(1), (6+4)+(5)+(1)+ (3+2), (5)+(1)+ (3+2)+(6+4) and
(1)+(3+2)+(6+4)+(5).
So Counting with 6 Number Wheels like the beginning 1 3 2 6 4 5 have all
multiples of 1 to 6 inherent within them. When counting with Cyclic Addition using a
6 number Wheel look for the movement of the multiples of 1 to 6 Common
Multiple. No matter the Common Multiple the structure given above will apply to all
Wheels.
60

Cyclic Addition Step 2: Place Value


The term Place Value brings to light the positions of numerals within a number. Base
10 Number has units in the 100 place value, tens in the 101 place value and hundreds
in the 102 place value and so on reading from the rightmost numeral proceeding left
one numeral at a time.
Cyclic Addition makes full use of traditional Place Value assignments to units, tens,
hundreds and so on.
Cyclic Addition Place Value merely builds a Count Number from scratch with the
same Wheel. Using all Numbers in the Wheel and following the Circular nature of the
Wheel. Again preserving the circle and sequence.
Place Value is performed with the same Wheel as is used for Counting. In fact all
Cyclic Addition Steps from 1 to 4 use the same Counting Wheel.
Place Value building begins with the units, then proceeds to tens, then if the Count
Sequence is long enough to hundreds. The Counts units numeral is matched to the
Wheel units numerals and built. There might be numerals that overlaps from the units
into the tens, this is part of the Place Value building. Once the units is matched
proceed to the tens with what is left over to build the tens, as with the units, to equal
the Counts tens numeral. The tens may overlap into the hundreds. Likewise continue
to build the hundreds and the remaining numerals to the left. Until all Place Values
equal the Count.
Place Value building is designed to be from the 30 Circular Addition mini-wheels.
Forming a circle of numbers from any one of these wheels to be matched to a Place
Value position. This circle of numbers can be, like the mini-wheels, from 1 to 5
numbers in length. There are a lot of possibilities to start with so this Primary edition
of Cyclic Addition will look at Beginner Place Value and Advanced Place Value.
Beginner Place Value builds with just simple 1, 2 or 3 numbers from the Wheel.
These numbers add together to equal the Count. Lets look at a simple example with
Common Multiple 1
Wheel. A Count above the
line for 3 cycles
starting at 6.
1

6
6
1
3
2

10
4
5
1

15
3
2
1_

16
4
2
1_

19
3
6
1_

21
1
2_

27
3
4
2_

31
1
3_

36
1
5
3_

37
2
5
3_

40
6
4
3_

42
2
4_

48
2
6
4_

52
2
4_
1_

57
1
6
5_

58
4
4
5_

61
1
6_

Note how each Counts Place Values are built. The sequence of the Wheel is used
often. Again to preserve circle and sequence. Note how simple Place Values can build
61

63
2
1
6_

any number with the Common Multiple 1 Wheel. In fact the next table illustrates the
beginner set of Place Values that can be used with the above Wheel.
Total
1
2
2
3
3
3
3
4
4
4
4
5
5
5
5
5
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
6
7
7
7
7
7
7

Place Value Set


1
2
1
1
3
1
2
2
1
1
1
1
4
1
3
2
2
3
1
5
1
4
2
3
3
2
4
1
6
1
5
2
4
3
3
4
2
5
1
1
3
2
2
2
2
1
6
2
5
3
4
4
3
5
2
6
1

Total
8
8
8
8
8
8
8
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
10
10
10
10
10
10
10

Place Value Set


2
6
3
5
4
4
5
3
6
2
4
1
3
5
1
2
3
6
4
5
5
4
6
3
1
2
6
1
3
5
2
6
1
3
2
4
3
3
3
5
1
3
4
6
5
5
6
4
1
3
6
1
4
5
3
2
5
4
5
1

Look at all the simple possibilities that form a Place Value Set. Using 1, 2 or 3
numbers. The Total column is the addition of the Place Value Set. The total should
match the place value position of the Count.
Where a three number set is used, either repeat a single number, follow the sequence
clockwise or follow the sequence for at least 2 numbers. For example 8=4+1+3 where
1 3 is from the sequence. 9=3+2+4 where 3 2 is from the sequence. At this early
stage building a Place Value Set is from a variety of ways.
The Workbook has a range of beginner Place Value exercises with Common
Multiples 1 through to 10. There is a start to the Place Values and the child, middle
Primary, can fill-it-in with the missing Place Value numbers to equal the Count
above. The ample templates collection has both fill-it-in and blanks to encourage
developing the Place Value Step in preparation for Advanced Place Value. Again see
the CD-Rom pdf file Workbook.
Lets introduce another Common Multiple with Place Value. The following example
shows a 4 cycle Count with Common Multiple 6. The start is 18.
62

30
24
18
6
12

30
24
6

66
6
6_

36

18
12

90 120 126 144 156 192 216 246 252


30 36
6 24 18 12
6
6 12
6_ 24 12_ 12_ 18 18_ 30 24_ 24_
6_
12_
18_

270 282 318 342 372 378 396 408 444 468 498 504
30 12 18 18 12 18 24 12 24 30 18 24
24_ 30 30_ 24 36_ 36_ 12 36 12_ 18 24_ 36_
24_
30_
36_ 36_ 30_ 6_ 6_ 12_
36_ 18_
A talk through of the above Place Value Step. Note instantly in the first Count that the
units Place Values 6+12=18 overlap into the tens. The third Count is a simple
assignment of 6 units+6tens=66. The 90=30units+6tens note the overlap teaches the
nature of the Common Multiple 6. 120=(36+24)units+6tens. This is shown instead of
12 tens to build 10Place Value total in the units position. Note 126 and 144. The 6
remains neatly in the units, whereas the 24 overlaps into the tens.
As the Count progresses so to does the complexity of the tens Place Value aside the
units. The table of beginner Place Values asks the student to build the Counts with, in
this example, Multiples of 6. Using creativity apply Mathematics to the Wheel by
Addition around the Wheel.
Lets introduce another example with this creativity of Place Value. Using the
Common Multiple 6 Wheel start this time from 12 for again 4 cycles.
12
6
6

48
12
12
12
12

72 102 108 126 162 186 216 222 240 252


12 12 12 18 24
6 12
6 6_ 12
36 18 30 12 18 12_
6 30 18_ 24_
24 12
6 36 12_ 6_ 18
6
6_ 6_ 6_
18_ 18_

288 312 342 348 366 378 414 438 468 474 492 504
6 12
6 24
6 18 18 18 30 30 36 24
18 24_ 36 24 30_ 36_ 18 12_ 18
6 36 6_
24 6_ 30_ 6_ 6_
18 30_ 12_ 18 24_ 18_
24_
18_
12_
30_ 6_ 18_ 6_
6_
24_
36_
18_
Note each Place Value Set in units and tens follow one of the 30 mini-wheels of
Circular Addition. In fact this is the preparation needed for Advanced Place Value.
To show these Place Value Sets we will use all 30 mini-wheels. These follow.
63

3
2

5
4
6

3
2

5
4

4
6

64

4
6

3
2

4
6

4
6

5
4

3
2

3
2

3
2
65

The previous two pages show 30 Mini-Wheels. All follow the sequence of the original
Wheel 1 3 2 6 4 5 . There are 6 mini-wheels with 1 number all starting at a
unique position. Likewise there are 6 mini-wheels in each group of 2 number
sequences, 3 number sequences, 4 number sequences and 5 number sequences.
A Place Value Set is simply 1 to 5 numbers Counting around any of there 30 miniwheels above in clockwise sequence. Start at any number Count and stop at any
number. Remember for a sequence of only 1 to 5 numbers. This is the leap from
Beginner to Advanced Place Value. Using more of the Wheel, both longer Place
Value Sets and using only one mini-wheel for any particular Place Value.
By using only these mini-wheels to create a Place Value Set this ensures both the
preservation of the Wheel sequence and provides ample creativity to form an
abundance of unique Place Value Sets. Striving for expression of creativity whilst
following the laws of circle, sequence and order with the Counting Wheel is a major
factor in this Cyclic Addition Step.
So how many Place Value Sets are there in the Wheel 1 3 2 6 4 5 ? The 5 page
table of Place Value Sets shows all 270 possible Sets. And how it is made from a
mini-wheel. The Mathematics of how these Sets are derived is shown in the book
Guidebook. Again the Guidebook pdf is found upon the CD-Rom.
The following 2 pages has 5 out of the 30 mini-wheels with all corresponding Place
Value Sets. Note how simple it is to make a Place Value Set with the circular miniwheel next to the Place Value Sets.
Look carefully at the 2 pages of tables. There are no duplications, no overlapping and
no set of 1 to 5 numbers is missed. The mini-wheels shown all have a starting position
of number 1 at the top of the Mini-Wheel.
From these 45 Place Value Sets one can practise forming any of the 270 Sets by
merely rotating the mini-wheel around the 6 number Wheel (270=456). So for
example move 1 3 around to make 3 2, 2 6, 6 4, 4 5 and 5 1 and follow
the pattern of mini-wheel 1 3 to produce any Place Value Set with 2 number miniwheels. Use 1 3 2 mini-wheel to show the patterns of Place Value sets with 3
number mini-wheels. Likewise 1 3 2 6 for four number mini-wheels and
1 3 2 6 4 for five number mini-wheels. This helps to visualise and create any
Place Value Set Total by using the Laws of following 1 of the 30 mini-wheels.
There is again an abundance of practical hands-on Workbook exercises that present
many Place Value Set fill-it-ins. These exercises show a plentiful range of Place
Value Sets with Common Multiples 1 to 21. As well as some blanks to allow for
further creativity. For those wanting to see more examples of Advanced Place Value
go to the Guidebook. See the pdf files on the CD-Rom.
A Place Value Set is designed to be simply rotation and Counting with a mini-wheel
using the 6 number Wheel. Once sufficient Place Value is accomplished with
Common Multiple 1 Wheel. Move to the next Common Multiple Wheel.
This concludes Cyclic Addition Step 2: Place Value. Next chapter we basically
move any Place Value Set in the tens and reposition it in the units.
66

1
1

2
1
1

3
1
1
1

4
1
1
1
1

5
1
1
1
1
1

4
1
3

5
1
3
1

8
1
3
1
3

9
1
3
1
3
1

4
3
1

7
3
1
3

8
3
1
3
1

6
3
2
1

9
3
2
1
3

11
3
2
1
3
2

3
2
1

6
2
1
3

8
2
1
3
2

9
2
1
3
2
1

3
2

6
1
3
2

7
1
3
2
1

10
1
3
2
1
3

67

11
3
1
3
1
3

12
1
3
2
6

1
4
6

16
1
3
2
6
4

68

3
2

13
1
3
2
6
1

12
3
2
6
1

15
3
2
6
1
3

9
2
6
1

12
2
6
1
3

14
2
6
1
3
2

7
6
1

10
6
1
3

12
6
1
3
2

18
6
1
3
2
6

13
2
6
4
1

16
2
6
4
1
3

11
6
4
1

14
6
4
1
3

16
6
4
1
3
2

5
4
1

8
4
1
3

10
4
1
3
2

16
4
1
3
2
6

3
2

16
3
2
6
4
1

++Lesson Plan. The Place Value Step applies Mathematics of the Wheel to each place
value position. Instead of the traditional names attached to each place value position
within a Number Mathematics of the Wheel is used instead. By building each Place
Value Set by Set until all Place Values equal the Count. By building all numerals
within a Number until all Place Value Sets equal the Count.
Applying a mini-wheel 1 to 5 number sequence to each Place Value Set starts off like
traditional place value. Forming Place Value Sets with Common Multiple 1 Wheel
1 3 2 6 4 5 is just like how we have always read a Number. So many units, so
many tens and so many hundreds. Applying only the numbers within the Wheel.
There can be up to 5 numbers forming a Place Value Set for each of units, tens and
hundreds. So each numeral is brought together with all the others.
This bringing together of numerals is made perfect by the overlap of units into tens,
tens into hundreds, and hundreds into thousands and so on. As the Wheels start to
apply larger numbers to form Place Value Sets this overlap takes effect. This
perfection of place value shows the glue that binds numerals of a Number together.
All the while the Common Multiple is also made perfect by the Place Value Step. The
very Mathematical nature of the Common Multiple is experienced while in this
exploration stage of finding the next best Place Value Set.
Constantly exploring the mini-wheels within the Counting Wheel to discover and
choose a precise Place Value Set is at the very heart of Cyclic Addition.
Mathematically proving the Count Number is a multiple of the Common Multiple or
the Counting Wheel. All Place Value Sets combine and unite all place value positions
to equal the Count. This is so that there is a Mathematical proof to the origin of the
Count. In fact the Place Value Step is to prepare and present each Count in turn to a
higher order of the same Common Multiple. No Cyclic Addition Mathematics is left
to waste all steps are deliberate and intentional.
The overlap is to merely present a Place Value Set with its units of each number in the
appropriate position units, tens or hundreds. The rest of the other numerals in a
Place Value Set will naturally overlap into other positions. This requires Mathematics
to form each Set so that all Sets equal the Count.
Look back at the 5 mini-wheels 1, 1 3, 1 3 2, 1 3 2 6 and 1 3 2 6 4 and
creating 45 Place Value Sets with them. Note the groups within the Place Value Sets.
The number of groups are the number of numbers in the mini-wheel. 1 for 1, 2 for
1 3, 3 for 1 3 2, 4 for 1 3 2 6 and 5 for 1 3 2 6 4. All members of each
group within each mini-wheel have a different length from 1 to 5 numbers. Note to
the Set totals within each group are unique. No matter the Wheel forming these Place
Value Sets all follow the same practise and mathematical discipline.
Once mastering the possible 270=456 Place Value Sets whether by forming them by
hand, practise with Counts, playing with all 30 mini-wheels, picking a total and
finding all possible Place Value Sets for that total, one can apply this Wheels
knowledge to all other Wheels with Cyclic Addition.
Lets form a practical by finding all the Place Value Sets that add to 9 and 11 using
Wheel 1 3 2 6 4 5 . Note the Total is to the left the Place Value Set is in the
middle and the mini-wheel to the right.
69

Set Total
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
9
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11
11

1
1
1
2
2
3
3
3
3
3
4
4
5
5
6
1
1
1
2
2
2
3
3
3
3
4
5
5
5
6
6
6

Place Value Set


2
6
3
5
3
1
3
1
3
2
6
1
2
4
2
1
3
3
3
5
1
6
3
2
5
1
3
4
3
3
2
5
4
5
1
6
4
4
5
5
1
3
6
3
1
3
1
2
6
2
5
1
2
1
3
5
2
1
5
1
3
2
6
3
2
4
1
5

1
1

2
5
1
1
1
4
1
3
5
6
3
4
5
4
3
5
4
6
4
5
3
1
3
5
1
2
5
5
6
3
1
5

Mini-Wheel
6
4
5
1
3
3
3
2
3
2
6
5
1
3
3
2
1
4
2
5
1
5
2
1
5
4
5
1
2
3
2
1
3
6
1
1
4
2
3
1

3
5
6

1
4

3
6
3
1
5
1
3
6
6
3
2
4
3
5
6
2
3

2
1
3
2

2
5
2

6
2

4
6

Note the variety and creativity used to form 9 and 11. Note all Place Value Sets are
again simply 1 to 5 numbers from a mini-wheel. The mini-wheel is presented to prove
the circular order surrounding the creation of Place Value Sets. Each Set is deliberate
and sequenced to show how to arrive at 9 and 11 using the Common Multiple 1
Wheel 1 3 2 6 4 5 .
The whole table of 270 possible Place Value Sets for this Wheel is shown in the
Guidebook on the pdf file on the CD-Rom. This table shows all Place Value Sets
with a range of totals from 1 to 30. Generally though only 1 to 20 are practically used
and have more possibilities than the higher totals.
Practise matching these Place Value Sets above to the Wheel 1 3 2 6 4 5 . Prove
how to make 9 and 11 with just the Wheel. Then later make 9Common Multiple
and 11Common Multiple on any other Wheel. Explore and discover these
Mathematical relationships with other Common Multiples from 1 to 69 and higher
Tiers. As always Cyclic Addition preserves the Wheel circle, cycle and sequence with
Mathematical order and discipline.

70

Cyclic Addition Step 3: Move Tens to Units


Traditional Number announces the positions of numerals within a number by naming
each position to the left of units. For example 123 the 1 hundred is first, twenty
second and three third. This presents the sequence of numerals in the number 123
with order. The order has some unusual anomalies like 14 is fourteen, the four is said
before the teen or one ten. Longer numbers have longer names usually read from the
leftmost numeral to the right.
Cyclic Addition leaves the naming of these place value positions of a number to this
tradition. However Cyclic Addition applies Mathematics to each place value in a
number. Firstly with continuous addition by Step 1: Counting, then building the
Count with the Wheel and addition by Step 2: Place Value, then moving place values
outside the units to the Units with Step 3: Move Tens to Units.
These Steps of Cyclic Addition use constant Mathematics to forge, to shape and to
sequence the order of numerals in a number. A Number has a place, position and an
order amongst all Whole Number with Cyclic Addition Mathematics.
Move Tens to Units is a small step in-between Place Value and Remainder. The aim
of Move tens to units is to prepare the Place Values in the units to make a single
number Remainder. The Remainder is then subtracted from the Count to equal the
7Multiple. That simple. This Mathematical discipline remains the same for all
Cyclic Addition Counting and all Wheels.
Move tens to units is an action of applying the sequence of the circular Counting
Wheel. Thus preserving again in Step 3 the circle and sequence of the Wheel.
What is the Mathematics of Move tens to units ? To show this Step 3 we will use
Common Multiple 3
Wheel and a Count for 4
cycles starting at 15.
3

15

12
18
Count
Place Value

15
12
3

18
9
9

27
12
15

Move tens
Count
Place Value

Move tens

33
3
3_

141
9
12
12_
15

144
15
9
12_
15

153
3
15_

159
9
15_

51
15
6
3_
9

63
3
6_

177
18
9
15_
3

189
9
18_

18

12

78
12
6
6_
18

81
18
3
6_
18

90
9_

96
6
9_

204
12
12
18_
12

207
15
12
18_
12

216
6
3_
18_
-

222
12
9_
12_
-

114
6
18
9_
6

126
6
12_

240
6_
18_

252
12
9_
15_
6
3

18
12
71

15

The Count is on the top line and beginner Place Values below. Each Place Value in
the Tens literally moves around the Wheel one number and this next number
becomes Move tens. For example the 3_ tens in Count 33 move to 9 units. The 6_
tens in 63 moves to 18 units. The 9_ tens in 90 moves to 6 units. The 12_ tens to 15
units. The two place values in Count 216 add to 21 so there is no remainder, thus no
move tens to units. The two tens place values in Count 252, being 9_ and 15_ move to
6 and 3 units respectively.
Where there are no tens Place Values there is no Move tens to units. Where there are
two Place Values in the tens, like the last two Counts, two Move tens to units are
presented.
The Mathematics is simple. The Tens Place Value has a Remainder, the next Step in
Cyclic Addition, of the next number clockwise around the Wheel. The Wheel actually
becomes a remainder sequence for 21 being 3 9 6 18 12 15. For detailed Maths
see the pdf Guidebook on the CD-Rom.
Remember we are searching for the Remainder, the next Step 4, to join the Count
with its 7Multiple counterpart. The Wheel sequence provides this perfect
Mathematics to join those Place Values outside the tens with the Remainder Step 4.
So Move tens to units operates with the Wheel. Moving one number clockwise
around the Wheel for each place value position to the left outside the units. For a tens
Place Value Set move one number clockwise around the Wheel. For a hundreds Place
Value Set move two numbers clockwise around the Wheel.
This method of Moving tens to units shows what to do with Place Values outside
units. If there are complex advanced Place Value Sets in the units and tens, then other
methods can be used. Calculate the Remainder first, see next Chapter Remainder,
and then perform the Move tens to units. With practise one become fluent in using
the Wheels Mathematics and Step 3 and Step 4 merge, to find the Remainder and
corresponding 7Multiple.
Thus the method that is the most accurate and simple is preferred. Usually calculating
the Remainder for each Place Value Set in each of the units, then tens, then hundreds
then combining them is best. This accuracy of finding the Remainder is discussed
next Chapter Remainder.
Practical Examples of the Cyclic Addition Step 3: Move Tens to Units and Step 4:
Remainder are presented again in abundance upon the Workbook and Guidebook
pdf files found on the CD-Rom.
++Lesson Plan. Note the Mathematics found in the Mysteries Chapter the third
mystery Division. The illustration shows a long division example with the Wheel
1 3 2 6 4 5 as the circular remainder sequence. And the divisor being 7 or the
7Multiple. This shows that no matter the Wheel Common Multiple the Mathematics
of Move Tens to Units literally remains the same. The Remainder of the next place
value position moving right is the next number clockwise around the Wheel. As the
Wheel is circular and all Place Values are from the Wheel this Step always works.

72

Cyclic Addition Step 4: Remainder


The Remainder within Cyclic Addition connects the Count to a higher order of the
same Common Multiple. This higher order is termed 7Multiple.
A traditional remainder in Mathematics is with whole number division showing
whats left over from dividing a number by a another whole number. This remainder
has little significance with either the denominator or numerator.
Cyclic Addition Step 4 uses a Remainder to bridge the working Counting Wheel with
a higher order Wheel both having the same Common Multiple.
Simply the Remainder is a single Number from the 6 number Counting Wheel.
With each Count subtract a Remainder from it to equal the 7Multiple. The formula
Count Remainder =7Multiple. This formula applies to all Cyclic Addition
Counting. Every Count with every Wheel, no matter the tier of the Wheel, uses this
formula.
Either the Remainder or the 7Multiple can be zero / nothing. Typically for most
Counts the end of a cycle is marked without Remainder. When starting a Count there
are 1, 2 or 3 Counts without a 7Multiple.
How to find the Remainder. Following Steps 1, 2 and 3 work with all Place Values in
the Units. Match all these Place Values to the Wheel. Apply Remainder Laws from
patterns with just the Wheel. And receive the single number Remainder.
If there are longer Place Value Sets, 3, 4 and 5 numbers, in the units and tens, the
Remainder Step treats these Sets one at a time. Keeping simple and methodical.
Finding a single number Remainder for each Set and combining them to find the final
Remainder.
Applying Remainder Laws converts multiple Place Values in a Set to one number.
The following is a table shows Remainder Laws for simple two number Sets. Lets
introduce these Remainder Laws. A one number Place Value Set has a Remainder of
that same Number. Always from the Wheel. A two number Place Value Set has 4
laws to follow. These laws apply to all Wheels whenever calculating a Remainder.
The first Law. 2 Place Values of the same Number from a Wheel gives a Remainder
two numbers clockwise around the circular sequence.
The second law. 2 Place Values next to each other in the Wheel, move clockwise 3
numbers around the circular sequence.
The third law. 2 Place Values two numbers apart in the Wheel, the Remainder is the
Number in the middle of both from the circular sequence.
The fourth law. 2 Place Values three numbers apart, or opposite each other, in the
circular sequence gives no Remainder as they both add to a 7Multiple.
These four Laws are the simplest and most commonly used. Others exist and can be
found in a giant table in the pdf Guidebook on the CD-Rom.
73

Set
Total
1
3
2
6
4
5
2
6
4
12
8
10
4
5
8
10
9
6
3
9
6
11
5
8
7
7
7
7
7
7
3
9
6
18
12
15
6
11
12
15
10
9

Place Value Set


1
3
2
6
4
5
1
1
3
3
2
2
6
6
4
4
5
5
1
3
3
2
2
6
6
4
4
5
5
1
1
2
3
6
2
4
6
5
4
1
5
3
1
6
3
4
2
5
6
1
4
3
5
2
1
1
1
3
3
3
2
2
2
6
6
6
4
4
4
5
5
5
1
3
2
3
2
6
2
6
4
6
4
5
4
5
1
5
1
3

Remainder
1
3
2
6
4
5
2
6
4
5
1
3
4
5
1
3
2
6
3
2
6
4
5
1
3
2
6
4
5
1
6
4
5
1
3
2

4
6

3
2

The above Patterns showing beginner Place Value Sets with Wheel 1 3 2 6 4 5 .
These are grouped with like pattern around the Wheel. Each pattern has 6 like
patterns. The four Laws mentioned are shown with 2 number Place Value Sets above.
The total of the Place Value Set is shown on the left with its corresponding
Remainder on the right. Note simply the Remainder with Wheel 1 3 2 6 4 5 is
the Remainder from multiples of 7. Or in the case of other Common Multiple Wheels
the Remainder is whats left over from the nearest 7Common Multiple. So addition
of the Place Value Set to find the Remainder is relevant and can be applied anytime.
74

When Counting with Cyclic Addition there is a pattern of 6 remainders each cycle.
This pattern stays the same for the length of the Count Sequence, whether 1 cycle or 7
cycles. Repeating every cycle.
Use the Remainder Pattern as a guide to find the next Count around the Wheel. Once
the 7Multiple is found the next Count can progress. Manipulating the Wheel with
this remainder pattern strengthens the circle and sequence. Tracking the next Count
from the previous Remainder is efficient and good use of the Circle within the Wheel.
Finding Errors. If selecting a number to count with, from 6 Numbers, is in error, the
Remainder will be out of pattern and incorrect in the sequence of Remainders through
the cycle. The Remainder protects the Count. So, before one Counts with the next
number around the Wheel, the correct Remainder will reveal its position around the
Wheel. The circular Mathematics of Count, Place Value, Move tens to units, and
Remainder is to ensure accuracy and precision with all Cyclic Addition Steps.
Lets show how the Remainder works with an example. Using Common Multiple 5
Wheel for 4 cycles starting at 20.

25
20

30
Place Value

20
20

45
30
15

50
30
20

65
15
5_

Remainder U

20

10

15

20
-

10
35

15
35

230
30
20_

255
5
15_
10_

30
20_
25
20
210

5
25_
5
10
245

Count

105
5
10_

15
5_
15
30
35

75
20
5
5_
25
5_
15
5
70

260
10
25_

275
10
15
25_

10
25_
5
15
245

25
25_
5
30
245

Remainder T
Move Tens
Remainder
7xMultiple

Count
Place Value

Remainder U
Remainder T
Move Tens
Remainder
7xMultiple

15
10
150
25
25
10_
15
10_
30
10
140

155
5
15_

170
20
15_

5
10_
30
105

125
25
5_
5_
25
10_
30
20
105

5
15_
10
15
140

20
15_
10
30
140

285
25
10
25_

315
15
15_
15_

335
20
15
30_

360
10
5_
30_

365
15
30_
5_

380
30
25_
10_

25_
5
5
280

15
30_
20
315

30_
20
20
315

10
10
350

15
15
350

30
30
350

180
10
20
15_
30
15_
10
5
175

210
10
10_
10_
10
20_
25
210

390
20
20
15_
20_
5
5
385

420
5
15
15_
25_
20
5_
15
420

75

Lets talk through the above Count with Common Multiple 5. Count 20 has 1 Place
Value thus the same Remainder, no tens. Count 45=30+15 uses Law 3 two apart
given a remainder in the middle of these numbers on the Wheel. Count 50=30+20
uses Law 2 two numbers in sequence rotate 3 numbers around the Wheel from 20 to
give a Remainder of 15. Count 65=15+5tens. The Remainder T(ens) is 5 moving to
15 units, then add the Remainder U(nits) to it to receive final Remainder of 30. Count
75=20+5+5tens. Remainder U=25 by addition, Remainder T=5 moving to units as 15,
applying Law 2, the Remainder =5. Count 105=5+10tens. Remainder U=5.
Remainder T=30. Remainder U+T=5+30=35 a 7Multiple thus no Remainder. The
Count 105 is actually= to the 7Multipe. Follow the rest of the 4 cycle Count with the
Remainder Laws. Note the Remainder pattern every cycle.
The grid design shows Remainder U and Remainder T as individual Mathematical
operations. Finding the final single number Remainder to the Count requires addition
of Remainder Units and Tens. Simple step by step Maths to join the Count is with its
7Multiple counter-part. The next Chapter Step 5: 7Multiple comes from
subtracting the Remainder from Count.
Lets discuss the Remainder Pattern that forms cycle by cycle. The first Count in a
cycle = Remainder. Move around 1 number clockwise to the next Count in the Wheel.
Apply Cyclic Addition Step by Step to find the second Remainder. Move around 2
numbers anti-clockwise to the third Count. Cyclic Addition Step by Step to find the
third Remainder. This Remainder is the fourth Count. From the fourth Remainder
move anti-clockwise 1 number to the fifth Count. Follow Cyclic Addition Step by
Step to find the fifth Remainder. Move either clockwise or anti-clockwise 3 numbers
to the sixth Count. The final Count in the cycle end will yield a Remainder of nothing.
Remember to continue the Count next cycle from the same position as the previous
cycle.
A simple illustration of a 1 cycle Count for all 6 starts with Common Multiple 1
Wheel. Note the Remainder Pattern around the Wheel is the same for all 6 Counts.
Count
Remainder

1
1

4
4

6
6

12
5

16
2

21

Count
Remainder

3
3

5
5

11
4

15
1

20
6

21

Count
Remainder

2
2

8
1

12
5

17
3

18
4

21

Count
Remainder

6
6

10
3

15
1

16
2

19
5

21

Count
Remainder

4
4

9
2

10
3

13
6

15
1

21

Count
Remainder

5
5

6
6

9
2

11
4

17
3

21

76

4
6

3
2

This pattern of Remainders is the same for all Tier 1 Counting, and most of the higher
tier 2, 3 and so on Counting. See Chapter Hierarchy.
Note the 7Multiple follows the 7Common Multiples within the Count. If the
7Multiple is incorrect, the Remainder should be checked. Check the Counts
Counting addition, check the Place Value Sets all add to equal the Count, check
Remainder tens and hundreds, Moving these Tens to Units, and the pattern of
Remainders to form a final single number Remainder. The 7Multiple should
increment by 7common multiple or be the same as the previous 7Multiple.
Otherwise search for the problem. This is a major signal to the mathematician that
there is an error of Mathematics when then Count cannot be submitted to only one
7Multiple.
Each Cyclic Addition Step including the Remainder relies on the previous Step. If one
Step is inaccurate or weak mathematically all other Steps will show that weakness.
This is the beauty and unity of Cyclic Addition.
Again the Remainder action upon each Count preserves the Wheels sequence, circle
and Common Multiple.
To unify Whole Number is to present each Count to a higher order 7Multiple. The
Remainder accomplishes this task of preparing the Mathematician to Count
completely with the higher order. See next Chapter 7Multiple and Hierarchy.
The Workbook has again an abundance of Remainder classroom lessons. These are
found in the pdf Workbook upon the CD-Rom. There are also answers to all
Workbook practicals found in either the Guidebook or Answers again within
applicable pdf upon the CD-Rom.
Further Mathematics with uses Remainder position around the Wheel to enhance the
sequence of numerals forming a Count. To do this match the single number
Remainder to the position upon the Wheel and apply the Mathematics of that
multiple, one of 1 3 2 6 4 5 , to reading the Count. The Count is with Common
Multiple 6 starting at 24 for 2 cycles.

30
24
Count
Remainder
Wheel Multiple

24
24
4

54
12
2

60
18
3

78
36
6

90
6
1

36
126
7

18
12
150
24
4

180
12
2

186
18
3

204
36
6

216
6

252
-

Act upon each Count with the Wheel Multiple. For example see the 24 and 150 as
multiples of 4 joining units and tens like common multiple 4. For 54 and 180 see the
evens. For 60 and 186 see joining of numerals like sum of digits for multiples of 3.
For 78 and 204 as with multiples of 6. For 90 and 216 see the singularity of ones.
77

++Lesson Plan. Lets look at the practical side of finding a remainder. Look at the
Place Value Chapter with the 5 mini-wheels and corresponding 45 Place Value
Sets. These 45 Place Value Sets show all patterns. There are 6 like patterns for each
displayed Set. Thus a total of 270=456 Sets for the Wheel 1 3 2 6 4 5 .
To find a Remainder from any of these 45 Place Value Set patterns requires matching
the 1 to 5 numbers to the 6 number Wheel. Literally use fingers and eyes to match the
Set to the Wheel. Find a Pattern or two or three simple patterns to reduce the 1 to 5
numbers on the Wheel to a single Remainder. There are over 70% of Place Value Sets
containing at least 1 pair or pattern of 7s. These can be eliminated from the
Remainder to leave a simpler Set.
When matching the Place Value Set to the Wheel let the Sequence go. What matters is
their position on the Wheel. Forming a pattern and from that pattern a Remainder
emerges. Addition of the Place Value Set is not required. There may be instances
where adding their relative positions around the Wheel 1 3 2 6 4 5 together and
finding the Remainder from multiples of 7. This shows the position of the Remainder
on any Wheel.
There are 5 ways to form a 7Multiple to eliminate these numbers from the Place
Value Set. The first is Law 4 with two numbers opposite each other on the Wheel like
2 5=7. The second is two pairs of numbers with opposites on the Wheel patterned
like 1 3 6 4 =14. The third is two of a number and the next two numbers
clockwise around the Wheel patterned like 1 3 2 1=7. The fourth is one number
and two of the next number clockwise around the Wheel patterned like 4 6 4=14 or
1 5 1=7. The fifth is four numbers in sequence and two of the third number in the
four number sequence. The Wheel patterned like 2 6 1 3 2. All of these 5 patterns
within any of the 270 Place Value Sets can be used to eliminate numbers to leave just
the Remainder. The table below refers to these as Eliminating 7s.
The following Table shows all 45 Place Value Set patterns. These are grouped by the
number of numbers used on the Wheel. i.e. A mini-wheel of 1 to 5 numbers. The
middle column shows how to eliminate many of the numbers that make up the Set to
yield an obvious Remainder. The Remainder is always either one number from the
Wheel 1 3 2 6 4 5 or nothing.
Note also the other not so obvious pattern that emerge from these Sets. A One number
pattern repeated moves around the wheel in a particular rotation. 1 =1 the
Remainder. 1 1= 2 moving 2 numbers clockwise. 1 1 1=3 moves one number
clockwise. 1 1 1 1=4 moves 4 numbers clockwise. 1 1 1 1 1=5 moves
backwards anti-clockwise one number.
A three number pattern. No matter the order of the sequence 1 3 2 or 3 2 1 or
2 1 3 when searching the Wheel the Remainder is the next number clockwise.
By leaving only 2 or 3 numbers in the Place Value Set the Remainder then follows the
two number Laws discussed earlier this chapter. And making the calculating of a
Remainder simple. As with all Cyclic Addition Steps mastering these Remainder
Patterns one can apply them universally to all Wheels.

78

Place Value Set

Eliminate
7's

Remainder

One Number Pattern


1
1
1
1
1

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
Two Number Pattern
1
3
1
3
1
1
3
1
3
1
3
1
3
1
3
1
3
1
3
3
1
3
1
3
1
3
1
3
Three Number Pattern
1
3
2
1
3
2
1
1
3
2
1
3
3
2
1
3
2
1
3
3
2
1
3
2
2
1
2
1
3
2
1
3
2
2
1
3
2
1
Four Number Pattern
1
3
2
6
1
3
2
6
1
3
2
6
1
3
2
6
1
3
2
6
1
2
6
1
3
2
6
1
3
2
6
1
6
1
3
6
1
3
2
6
1
3
2
6
Five Number Pattern
1
3
2
6
4
3
2
6
4
1
2
6
4
1
2
6
4
1
3
6
4
1
6
4
1
3
6
4
1
3
2
4
1
4
1
3
4
1
3
2
4
1
3
2
6

1
2
3
4
5
4
5
1
2
4
1
4

3
3

1
1

3
3

3
3
3

1
1
1

3
3
3

1
1

3
3

2
2

3
3

1
1

3
3

2
1

3
3

2
2

1
1
6
3
6
6
2
6
6
6
6

6
3
1
3
1
1
6
1
1
1
6

1
1
6
1
6
6
1

3
3
1
3
1
4
3

4
4
1

3
3
3

6
3
6
2
4
3
6
1
2

1
1

2
6
6

4
4

1
6

3
4

5
6
5
1
2
5
3
5
4
2
2
6
2
4
2
5
1
3
2

79

Cyclic Addition Step 5: 7Multiple


Traditional Order of Whole Number is termed with moving from Units to Tens, from
Tens to Hundreds, from Hundreds to Thousands. This order is almost ancient and aids
in the description of the sequence of numerals forming Whole Number.
Cyclic Addition observes this order. Repairing and perfecting use of the place value
positions to form Whole Number. Step 1: Counting uses addition. Step 2: Place Value
builds each numeral by numeral. Step 3: Move tens to units acknowledges place
values by moving the Wheel. Step 4: Remainder makes patterns with the Common
Multiple to link the Count to a higher order.
Cyclic Addition Step 5: 7Multiple is the beginning of using this higher order.
Basically connecting the Count with the next higher tier, tier 2 Wheel. The Common
Multiple remains the same. The Tier 2 Wheel is simply 7 Counting Wheel.
So the Common Multiple 1 Wheel 1 3 2 6 4 5 has the next tier of exactly 7
each member of the lower tier. Three Wheel examples follow to aid visual
understanding. Tier 1 with Common Multiple 1, 2 and 3 is shown above and Tier 2
below.

5
4

6
7

35
28

10

21
14

42

12
70

14

56
84

6
4

42
28

15

12
18
105

21

84

9
6

63
42

126

Every Count made with Tier 1 is submitted via Remainder to Tier 2. One might say
all tier 2 is, is Common Multiple 7, 14 and 21. Yes they are. The Tier 2 is the
connection of a Tier to a higher order. This higher order brings larger Whole Number,
more intricate Addition with Counting, matching Place Values and finer pattern
making with the same Common Multiple.
How is Common Multiple 7 a higher order than Common Multiple 1. Common
Multiple 1 shows all Whole numbers to the end of the Count. Showing all other
multiples mixed in Count Sequence with others. Teaching that the Common Multiple
1 can be any number. Common Multiple 7 follows this aim of Tier 1 and presents
multiples of 7 that achieve the same aim.
80

Common Multiple 7 has qualities that mirror a higher order of Common Multiple 1.
The Count Sequence mixes all numerals against all others showing higher order
patterns and sequence than Common Multiple 1.
Likewise Common Multiple 2 has a Tier 2 of Common Multiple 14. The Cyclic
Addition with Tier 2 shows higher truths and perfects the Tier 1.
Multiplying all members of the Wheel by 7 to create the Tier 2 Wheel comes from the
Counting with Tier 1. A 7 cycle Count with Common Multiple 1 Wheel reaches 147.
A 7 cycle count with Tier 2, Common Multiple 7 Wheel reaches 1029. Thus the
Whole Numbers increase by a magnitude of 7 each Tier. As the student climbs to
higher tiers the Whole Numbers get larger and require more Mathematical expertise.
Counting is with more numerals to form the Count Sequence. Place Values
significantly overlap into other base 10 positions. Addition of Place Values and
forming a Remainder requires a higher degree of Mathematical expertise.
Lets complete the previous Count with Common Multiple 5 last Chapter. Only
Step 5: 7Multiple
35
remains.
5
105
175
15
25

20
30
Count
Remainder
7xMultiple

Count
Remainder
7xMultiple

10

70

140
210

20
20
-

45
10
35

50
15
35

65
30
35

75
5
70

105
105

125
20
105

150
10
140

155
15
140

170
30
140

180
5
175

210
210

230
20
210

255
10
245

260
15
245

275
30
245

285
5
280

315
315

335
20
315

360
10
350

365
15
350

380
30
350

390
5
385

420
420

The Common Multiple 5 is submitted to Tier 2 Common Multiple 35=75. In the first
cycle note Counts 45 50 and 65 have a 7Multiple of 35. These three Counts join to
35 via the Remainder. In fact with all 6 Counts from the Wheel shows all 6
remainders with the Tier 2 7Multiple 35. All remainders around the Wheel are
shown with every 7Multiple.
This Mathematics is the completion of a Count and signifies a Counts position, order
and remainder within a higher Order of the same Common Multiple. Once the
7Multiple is proved accurate and in harmony with the previous 7Multiple then and
only then can the next Count take place.
Note with the Count above the pattern of 7Multiples increases by 35 at the same
numbers within a cycle. The second count (+35), the fifth count (+35) and the sixth
count (+35) every cycle with this Count. Other starts around the Wheel produce other
81

patterns of 7Multiple. This contributes to perfecting the relationship between Count,


Remainder and the next tier, Tier 2, 7Multiple.
In any 7 consecutive Counts with Cyclic Addition there are always 4 increasing
7Multiples. When Counting if the Remainder increases the 7Multiple is the same
as the previous Count. If the Remainder decreases the 7Multiple increments to the
next 7Multiple. The next 7Multiple is proved by Whole Number matching with the
Tier 2 Wheel. Proving that the 7Multiple comes from the Tier 2 Wheel.
In the above Count the Remainder decreases on the second, fifth and sixth Counts
within a cycle thus presenting the next new 7Multiple. The Remainder increases in
the first, third and fourth Counts within a cycle, thus presenting the same 7Multiple
as the previous Count. See above Table and note Remainder pattern.
As mentioned if the 7Multiple is perfect and in union with the Count via correct
Remainder this proves all other Cyclic Addition Steps to be true.
The action of checking the 7Multiple against its own Wheel provides a nexus
between the Tier 1 Wheel and the Tier 2 Wheel. See above Common Multiple 5 and
35 Wheels with the Count.
Once there is sufficient Counting with all 6 starts from a Tier 1 Wheel one can
progress with the Tier 2 Wheel of the same Common Multiple. Venturing into a
higher order, to explore Whole Number with Tier 2 and Tier 3 Wheels requires a
decision of the Mathematician. Whether to Count with other Common Multiples 1 to
69 or stay with the one Common Multiple.
This journey of Cyclic Addition Mathematics into higher Tier Wheels is discussed in
Chapter Hierarchy.
Lets discuss further 7Multiple Mathematics. The 7Multiple is actually introducing
the next Tier 2 Wheel. The 7Multiple shows how the Counting system works. How
tiers and their subsequent tiers are perfectly blended together with the simple
Counting Wheel. This Counting system works universally again preserving the
Wheels circle and sequence.
The 7Multiple = Count at the end of each cycle. Thus the 7Multiple actually
becomes part of the Counting Sequence with a Tier 1 Wheel. Showing the unity
between Tier 1 and Tier 2 Common Multiples. This flags the end of a Counting cycle
and guides the same pattern of Remainders next cycle.
In any one Count sequence a 7Multiple can appear with one, two, three or four
consecutive Counts. This depends on where around the Wheel the start of the cycle is.
With Wheel 1 3 2 6 4 5 starting a cycle at 1 there will be 4 consecutive Counts
with the same 7Multiple. Starting a cycle at 2 or 6 or 4 there will be only 2
consecutive Counts with the 7Multiple. When teaching Cyclic Addition the use of
the first 7 Wheels, for simplicity sake, should be enough to present all the practical
workings and Mathematics.
The same Count Number from the same Wheel generated by another starting point
has the same 7Multiple. In fact the formula CountRemainder=7Multiple gives
82

this fact. Obviously regardless of the Place Value choice the Remainder is the same
thus so to the 7Multiple.
Just a two cycle Count with a Tier 1 Wheel shows all members of the Tier 2 Wheel
via the declaration of all 7Multiples. This ensures that the higher order is clearly
acknowledged amongst all Cyclic Addition Step by Step.
How often do the 7Multiples appear ? Counting with Wheel 1 3 2 6 4 5 the
7Multiples are 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42 The 21 and 42 are cycle end Counts and
appear 6 times once for each start. There are a further 1+1+1+2+2+3=10 Counts with
Remainder that use the cycle end 7Multiple. The 7 and 28 appear only with
Remainder and shown 1+2+2+2+2+1=10 times. The 14 and 35 appear also only with
Remainder and are shown 3+2+2+1+1+1=10 times. There are thus 10 Counts with
Remainder for each 7Multiple. Thus 6 Tier 1 Wheel starts generating Count
Sequences for a cycle of 6 counts each = 36 Counts. This Shows the relevance of end
of cycle marker or multiple of 21Common Multiple as its frequency of use
displays.
The further one Counts with higher Tiers, Tier 2 and Tier 3, the further the
Mathematical perfection of the 7Multiple.
To finish this Chapter lets look at a pattern of Wheels with a Common Multiple using
factors of 4. i.e. Common Multiple 4, 12, 8, 24, 16 and 20. The Wheels have been
meshed together starting at various positions. Note the vertical difference between all
of the Wheels is the 7Multiple or multiples of 28=74.
4
60
32
144
32
60

12
12
40
96
96
40

8
36
8
120
64
120

24
24
24
24
80
80

16
72
16
72
16
100

20
48
48
48
48
20

For those who like Number Patterns continue this with Common Multiple 1 to 6
matching with the front title page. Match the numbers of any two Wheels, except the
Wheel in the middle, by rotating one wheel and visually place it upon the other
Wheel. There is only 1, 2 or 3 numbers that will match. Note the difference between
the two Wheels for all the other numbers. Repeat this comparison of all Wheels
having a factor of 1. What pattern is shown by the title page ?
The Cyclic Addition Step 5: 7Multiple is the conclusion of the nuts and bolts of
Cyclic Addition Mathematics. Further exploration with Cyclic Addition is by way of
pursuing how the Wheel works with higher Tiers and Counting with higher Tiers.
How to Count with multiple tiers of the same Common Multiple. Showing the
journey of Cyclic Addition Whole Number to be infinite and full of endless wonder.

83

5
4

35

28

42

21
14

Count
Remainder
7xMultiple

1
1
-

4
4
-

6
6
-

12
5
7

16
2
14

21
21

22
1
21

25
4
21

27
6
21

33
5
28

37
2
35

42
42

Count
Remainder
7xMultiple

3
3
-

5
5
-

11
4
7

15
1
14

20
6
14

21
21

24
3
21

26
5
21

32
4
28

36
1
35

41
6
35

42
42

Count
Remainder
7xMultiple

2
2
-

8
1
7

12
5
7

17
3
14

18
4
14

21
21

23
2
21

29
1
28

33
5
28

38
3
35

39
4
35

42
42

Count
Remainder
7xMultiple

6
6
-

10
3
7

15
1
14

16
2
14

19
5
14

21
21

27
6
21

31
3
28

36
1
35

37
2
35

40
5
35

42
42

Count
Remainder
7xMultiple

4
4
-

9
2
7

10
3
7

13
6
7

15
1
14

21
21

25
4
21

30
2
28

31
3
28

34
6
28

36
1
35

42
42

Count
Remainder
7xMultiple

5
5
-

6
6
-

9
2
7

11
4
7

17
3
14

21
21

26
5
21

27
6
21

30
2
28

32
4
28

38
3
35

42
42

Note the 6 Counts each for 2 cycles with the Common Multiple 1 Wheel above. The
two cycle counts show a 7Multiple with 6 increments of 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42.
These 7Multiples appear in the Common Multiple 7 Wheel above the table. Look at
the way the 7Multiple increments to the next 7Multiple each cycle.
There are 10 Count Numbers from 1 to 6 these have no 7Multiple. There are 10
Counts from 8 to 13 these have 7 as a 7Multiple. There are 10 Counts also from 15
to 20 these have 14 as a 7Multiple. There are 6 Counts with 21 that have no
Remainder thus equal the 7Multiple 21. The total Counts for 1 cycle equals
10+10+10+6=36 Counts in all. The same pattern of 7Multiples is found in the
second cycle.
Note how the Counts 21 through to 27 have a 7Multiple of 21. These connect the
first cycle with the second cycle. The Remainder pattern is identical for both cycles.
Note the number 7 in the 7Multiple for each of the 6 Counts. The 7 appears
1+1+2+1+3+2=10 times. The Number 14 appears 1+2+2+3+1+1=10 times. The
Number 21 excluding the end of cycle 21 appears also 3+2+1+1+1+2=10 times.
Likewise all 7Multiples appear 10 times each and the end of cycle multiples of 21
appear 6 times. This is how to discover the Tier 2 Common Multiple 7 Wheel.
84

The 7Multiples are matched against the Common Multiple 7 Wheel as soon as the
Remainder is deducted from the Count. Proving that the 7Multiple is in fact a
multiple from the Wheel 7 21 14 42 28 35.
The 6 Counts with Common Multiple 1 Wheel exclude 7, 14, 28 and 35. The only
way to link and unify the Tier 1 and Tier 2 Wheels is via calculation of the
7Multiple. These numbers are deliberately excluded from the Tier 1 Counting so as
to emphasise the action of the calculation Count Remainder = 7Multiple. By this
the joining of Tier 1 and Tier 2 is complete and then the next Count from Tier 1 can
commence.
The Common Multiple 7 Wheel or Tier 2 of Common Multiple 1 Wheel is simply a
higher order of the same Common Multiple. The 7Multiple prepares the
Mathematician to Count with Tier 2 Wheel on its own. Counting with Common
Multiple 7 Wheel shows relationships with Whole Number that cannot be grasped by
Common Multiple 1 alone.
The Common Multiple 7 Wheel prepares the way to receive the other Tier 2 Wheels
like Common Multiple 14=72, 21=73, 28=74, 35=75 and so on.
The way to Count with higher Tiers 2 and 3 is found in Chapter Hierarchy. These
Tiers have more intricate webbing and meshing of more unique Counts to bind the
Tier 2 Wheel Cyclic Addition: Counting together.
The Remainder serves to show each Count Numbers place, position and relative
order amongst pier Counts. So that any Count can be given a Remainder and a Tier so
as to know where it belongs and how it connects to the next higher Tier.
Tier 2 Cyclic Addition: Counting, like that of Tier 1, connects to Tier 3 via the same
method of calculation. Using Remainder to reveal the 7Multiple or Tier 3 Number.
The calculation of the 7Multiple serves to initiate and strengthen the Tier 2 Wheel.
Preparing the Tier 2 Wheel for exploratory Mathematical pattern making. The Tier 2
Wheel starts with simple Tier 1 Cyclic Addition. And the Tier 2 continues the journey
of a particular Common Multiple from 1 to 69.

85

Accuracy and Proof


Traditional Primary Mathematics uses one or just a few of elements of Maths to form
a question. This testing of classroom material has just one answer. The way that the
child forms the answer is not assessed the same way that the answer is.
Cyclic Addition has many Mathematical elements. Lets look closely at how Cyclic
Addition forms an answer.
The first task is to select a Wheel Common Multiple. Once selected the Wheel is
written at the top of the page. The sequence of the Wheel is paramount. The child
neatly puts the 1Common Multiple at the top and following in a clockwise
direction with all 6 numbers. Forming Common Multiple 1 3 2 6 4 5 . The
Maths within the Wheel helps build the Wheel. In sequence 1+3+2=6, 1+3=4, and
3+2=5 shows the first 3 numbers in any Wheel help build the next three. Also a
simple pattern of two numbers either side add to the number in the middle. 1+2=3,
2+4=6 and 4+1=5. So the Wheel Common Multiple is proved right at the start.
The next task is Counting with the Wheel. The child selects a start and should attempt
to remember this start every cycle. Every sixth Count or the end of a Cycle is marked
by a multiple of 7 and a zero Remainder. This aids mapping where the child is up to
within the Count Sequence. This encourages the child to self-check their Count. As
one mistake within the Count and that mistake continues from that Count onwards.
This is prevented by a few ways.
The Cyclic Addition Place Value Step rechecks the Count. Making sure that the
Number can be built from the Wheel, proving it a Common Multiple of the Wheel.
The Remainder pattern within a cycle shows whether a Count is true and correct. If
the Remainder is wrong most likely the incorrect member of the Wheel has been
selected to Count. The Remainder picks up this potential error.
If a Place Value is calculated in the wrong place value position this will show up as an
incorrect Remainder. Its wise perhaps to suggest the forming of a new Place Value
Set. Check that it equals the Count and Move ten to units performed after calculating
the remainder for each place value position.
If the Remainder Pattern is matched to the Wheel incorrectly or the application with
Laws of Remainder inaccurate. Redo this step again. Match each Place Value Set to
the Wheel and manipulate the Wheel to find the final Remainder. It takes practise, but
with the correct Remainder and 7Multiple the Count is proved perfect.
Lets contrast a simple example with Common Multiple 2 Wheel Counting for 2 cycles
starting at 10. And make some simple errors to see how Cyclic Addition would pick
them up.
Try mucking up each Cyclic Addition Step. And follow the ripple effect with
Mathematics for the rest of the cycle.

86

10

12
Count
Place Value

Remainder U
Remainder T
Move Tens
Remainder
7xMultiple

10
6
4

12
4
8

18
8
10

22
2
2_

10
10
-

12
12
-

4
4
14

2
2_
6
8
14

34
8
6
2_
2_
6
6
28

42
2
4_
2
4_
12
42

52
6
6
4_
12
4_
12
10
42

54
4
10
4_
4_
12
12
42

60
2_
2_
2_
6_
4
4
56

64
4
6_

76
4
12
6_
2
6_
4
6
70

4
6_
4
8
56

Count 10 has Place Values 6+4 from the Wheel in sequence. If a child miss adds the
Place Values they wont equal the Count. Thus the Place Value step would be
repeated. The second Count 12 with the Wheel Counting +2 though simple lets put
+6 instead. 16 for two counts has a remainder of 2 (162=14). The First Remainder is
10 the second remainder is two numbers anti-clockwise from the first count i.e. 12.
Thus there is an error in the remainder pattern within the cycle. A quick check on
what number follows 10 around the Wheel reveals the error. Note the whole
Remainder Pattern for the cycle ( 10 12 4 8 6 ) and the same the next cycle.
Count 22 if the Place Values were just 2+2 rather than 2+2tens, the remainder would
equal 4 instead of 8. The previous count has a remainder of 4 thus there is an error.
Move tens to units from 2 is simply and visually matched to the Wheel. Rather
difficult to make a wrong Step. Never the less any other number chosen other than 2
tens moves to 6 units will give a remainder out of pattern and incorrect with the Count
Number. The 7Multiple will be also wrong (224=18) rather than 14 from the
previous 7Multiple.
The Remainder Pattern also has a simple pattern to aid this navigation around the
Wheel during the cycle. Add the first and third remainders to equal a 7Multiple, and
add the fourth and fifth remainder to also equal a 7Multiple. Basically these pairs of
remainders are opposite each other on the Wheel. Simple to prove from Count to
Count.
Count 34 if it had Place Values 4+2tens these would not equal 34 and the remainder
would be 10 rather than 6. The Place Value Units 8+6=14 thus a remainder units .
Count 42 with Place Values 4+2tens instead of 2+4tens gives a Remainder of again
10 rather than the end of cycle with zero Remainder.
Count 52 with another number counted from the Wheel say 6 +42=48. The
Remainder would be 6 and would be duplicating the Remainder from the fifth number
in the previous cycle Count 34. And visually the first Remainder equals 10. Another
obvious error simple to make at the start of a new cycle and simple to correct.
87

84
4
2_
6_
4
8_
10
84

Count 60 with a Remainder Law of three place values of the same number. If a 4 was
used in the Remainder tens and Moved to units as 12, the 7Multiple would be in
error. 6012=48. As the 7Multiples increment by 14. Thus the next 7Mulitple is
42+14=56.
Remember the Wheel of Tier 1 with a simple Common Multiple shows the basics of
how Place Values are build to equal the Count, how to form a Remainder along with
all of the Cyclic Addition Step by Step Maths. This Mathematics is translated and
transformed into other Wheels, whether they be higher Tiers 2 and 3 or another
Common Multiple like 13, 17 or 19, require more practise to spot addition errors.
Once the Child becomes familiar with the Remainder Pattern and can rely on it to
unveil any error, the Child may be inclined to explore Advanced Place Values. These
strengthen the Wheel, Common Multiple pattern making and all the while preserve
the sequence of the Wheel. From a standpoint of Mathematics, the more creativity of
expression whilst applying the Cyclic Addition discipline, the more the Child makes
good discovery and navigation of Whole Number.
The mature Mathematician with ample practise may eventually do away with the
template as shown above and in the Workbook practical exercises. Of course once
confident in the Mathematics of a certain Common Multiple, stop there and choose
another Wheel. Whether that be a higher Tier or a more difficult Common Multiple
from 1 to 69.
The inner workings of Circular Addition pave the way to excel with Advanced Place
Value techniques. Using any of the 30 mini-wheels to guide the creation of a Place
Value Set. Again once applied to a simple Wheel, the Mathematics translates to any
other 6 number circular Cyclic Addition Wheel.
The computer numerals in a table align the units to units and tens to tens easily. Thus
the Workbook classroom practicals are made for largeish print. This trains the eye
and Mathematics to work with more complex Place Value. And improves vertical
Addition as well. A big Wheel at the top of the page makes for good positioning with
fingers around the Wheel to find a single number Remainder. This is no mean feat.
Recognising which numbers around the Wheel and converting simple Remainder
Laws with the Place Value Sets takes practise as it is Circular.
Basic errors like addition with the Count are shown with the Place Value Step, again
with a Remainder Step and yet again with 7Multiple Step. This order of Cyclic
Addition makes for accurate Mathematics as the error is discovered by the child using
all the Steps properly.
Encouraging students to use proof rather than guess-work to come up with an answer
requires absolutely perfect Mathematics. Like life there is more than one way to
create an answer. This choice, made early in life, to search for a way to find certainty
with Mathematics and Science leads to career paths of that choice.
++Lesson Plan. Lets combine Proof with Presentation requirements of Cyclic
Addition. This is a group of Tier 1 Common Multiples that have laws to complete the
rule of 9s by adding 1s. This addition of 1 unit to the Common Multiple 9 Counting
allows the receive of 1 ten and literally nothing in the units. Lets begin working with
88

a Common Multiple, present the laws of completion to that Number and receive how
that Law proves the Common Multiple.
Common Multiple 9 presents 1 unit and receive 1 ten. So with each Count with the
Wheel 9 27 18 54 36 45 present a 1 coming from the Wheel 1 3 2 6 4 5 .
The 9s ask for their parallel from the 1s. Completing the 9s to initiate the first tens
numeral. For a simple one cycle Count starting at 18 follow the Law of Completion.
Count
Match 1's
Receive 10's

18
2
2_

72
8
8_

108
12
12_

153
17
17_

162
18
18_

189
21
21_

This action of completion also proves the Count is from Common Multiple 9 Wheel.
The Match 1s can come from the Place Value Step to find the Other Multiple
where Other MultipleCommon Multiple= Count. See Chapter Operations+.
Common Multiple 19 presents 1 unit and receive 2 tens. As with the above, Count
with the Wheel 19 57 38 114 76 95 present a 1 from the Wheel 1 3 2 6 4 5 .
Count
Match 1's
Receive 10's x2

57
3
6_

95
5
10_

209
11
22_

285
15
30_

380
20
40_

399
21
42_

This action of completing Multiple of 19 presents the 2 tens from the formation and
addition of 1 unit. Also proving the Count is from Common Multiple 19 Wheel.
Common Multiple 29 presents 1 unit and receives 3 tens. As with above, Count with
the Wheel 29 87 58 174 116 145 and present a 1 from the Wheel
1 3 2 6 4 5.
Count
Match 1's
Receive 10's x3

29
1
3_

116
4
12_

174
6
18_

348
12
36_

464
16
48_

609
21
63_

This action of completing the Multiple of 29 presents the 3 tens from a simple
addition of 1 unit for every multiple of 29. Also proving the Count is from the
Common Multiple 29 Wheel.
Likewise Common Multiple 39 +1 receives a 4 in the tens place value position. The
aim is to show a completing of the 3 tens and the forming of 4 tens. And all the while
proving the Count is from Common Multiple 39 Wheel.
Again likewise Common Multiple 49 +1 receives a 5 in the tens place value position.
Even though 49=771 is the third tier of the 1. The Common Multiple 49 is a first
Tier Multiple in its own right. This completion step can be used partially to prove a
number is from the third tier or multiple of 49.
Again likewise Common Multiple 59 +1 receives a 6 in the tens place value position.
Showing how with Cyclic Addition Counting the 5 is completed by the units addition
of 1s to receive 6 in the tens.

89

Again likewise Common Multiple 69 +1 receives a 7 in the tens place value position.
This number in the tens is from Tier 2. So the Common Multiple 69 Tier 1 is seen as a
the finish of Tier 1 and the beginning of Tier 2.
These Laws of following a Cyclic Addition Count with Common Multiple 9, 19, 29,
39, 49, 59 and 69 by Common Multiple 1 and adding the two parallel Counts
contributes greatly to the perfection of carry Whole Number from one place value
position to the next.
There are other Common Multiples that can use this + to units and receive + tens.
Although they are not as formal or considered as important as the +1s above.
The Common Multiple 18, 27, 36, 45, 54 and 63 are multiples of 9. Add the
corresponding 18+2, 27+3, 36+4, 45+5, 54+6, 63+7 to receive 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 in
the tens. This action trains one to use the Law of 9s effectively proving the Count is
from Common Multiple 18, 27, 36, 45, 54 and 63. While proving 18=92, 27=93,
36=94, 45=95, 54=96 and 63=97 might seem simple, following the parallel
Count with Multiples 2, 3, 4, 5, 6 and 7 also proves the position of the Count in any
Count sequence.
The Common Multiple 38 and 57 are multiples of 19. Though a little more obscure
this +2s and +3s in the units to receive +4 and +6 in the tens, still stands as a valid
test for multiples of 38=192 and 57=193.
Finally the Common Multiple of 58 treats the presentation of +2 units and receives a
+6 in the tens following Common Multiple 29 as 58=292.
This action of completion with Common Multiple 9, 19, 29, 39, 49, 59 and 69 puts
new light onto the multiples of 10. From practise with the above Laws and Cyclic
Addition with these Common Multiples prepares one to act very simply and perfectly
with Common Multiple 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, 60 and 70. The zero units in multiples of
ten becomes a simple and Mathematical place value marker. This is very helpful when
the zero appears in any other place value positions.

90

A Collection of Emphasis on Cyclic Addition Number


A Cyclic Addition Count may have from time to time a particular emphasis to
accentuate a Mathematical Truth of the Number. The list of emphasis follows.
The Tier. Which Tier of the Wheels Common Multiple does the Count belong to. Is it
the Counting Tier or a Tier higher or two Tiers higher. Having a Reference Page as a
guide to inter-tier Mathematics is helpful for this purpose.
The Other Multiple. The formula Common Multiple Other Multiple = Count
always applies no matter the Tier or Count or even the direction. The Other Multiple
might be stronger with factors than the Counting Common Multiple. This aids the
inclusion of the Common Multiple with all Counts from the one Wheel. The Other
Multiple should serve the pattern making with the Common Multiple.
How the Remainder resists the Count. The relative position of the Remainder around
the Wheel Common Multiple1 3 2 6 4 5 assists in reading and formulating
Mathematics of a Count Number. Often there is unique knowledge given to the Count
Number from presenting the Remainder to the Count.
Making 7Multiples from within the Count Sequence. A Cycle of Counting can be
perfected by adding two numbers with a Remainder together to form a 7Multiple.
This action can also have a place value position emphasis as well. Adding the first and
third Counts or the fourth and fifth Counts yields a 7Multiple. This applies to almost
all Cyclic Addition Counts. All 6 from Tier 1, 12 of 14 from Tier 2 and 18 of 21 from
Tier 3 and above.
Finding the Difference. Perhaps showing a true place for Subtraction. By moving
around the Wheel to find the difference subtraction is seen as moving from one
number to another number within a particular Count Sequence. Subtraction other than
the formula Count Remainder = 7Multiple is not used in a reverse of addition.
Rather its purpose is to connect the Count to its nearest 7Multiple counterpart.
The next Tier 7Multiple. When Counting and applying Cyclic Addition step by step
one finishes the Count by declaring the 7Multiple. This Number has significance
with gluing the Count Sequence together with a higher order. And preparing the
Mathematician to Count with this higher Tier. All the way along the Wheels of a
particular Common Multiple are presented Tier by Tier in succession.
The Hierarchy for a Common Multiple. A Reference Page from the book Wheels
shows the first 7 Tiers of each Common Multiple. How these unite together to form a
Counting Structure of a Common Multiple is revealed by working with these
Reference Pages. Knowledge of how a Common Multiple works Tier by Tier is
partially shown by the higher Tier Wheels and how the next higher Tier Wheels
receive from the submission of lower Tier Wheels.
The Remainder Pattern. Each Cycle of Counting has a 6 number remainder pattern
guided by their positions around the Wheel. This guides continuous Counting and
makes for good and accurate Cyclic Addition. So the Mathematician knows where
within the cycle he/she is.

91

The way all Counts of a Common Multiple mesh, band, weave and rope together. One
major purpose of Cyclic Addition Mathematics is to reveal how a Common Multiple
works with all Number. Obviously as one climbs to higher Tiers the knowledge
revealed becomes finer and finer with longer Number and more intricate place value
Laws. All Counting with a Common Multiple serves to discover the practical
knowledge and workings of the higher Tiers. There is a strange and unusual
completeness by Counting all Sequences of a Wheel. This Wholeness and universality
is all pervasive, omni-potent and omni-present. To date no other Whole Number
Mathematics can stand together with the Cyclic Addition discipline.
Advanced Place Value Sets. Applying Cyclic Addition Step 2: Place Value can be any
sequence of 1 to 5 numbers from any particular mini-wheel. There are 30 mini-wheels
to every Cyclic Addition 6 number Wheel. This makes a possible 270 Place Value
choices to apply to each place value position. Thus providing ample creativity to form
this Steps Mathematics with just numbers from the Wheel. Preserving the Wheels
sequence and circle. One of the highest priorities of Cyclic Addition is to exalt the
Wheel of 6 numbers forming a Circle. To act mathematically with a Wheel and all the
while preserving its sequence and circle.
Positions of the Cyclic Addition 6 numbers around the Wheel. All Cyclic Addition
Step by Step discipline preserves the sequence and circle of the Wheel. Upon starting
Cyclic Addition with a new Wheel one should present some basic Addition
Mathematics to connect all Numbers around the Wheel. The Common Multiple of a
Wheel is matched to its place within exponentials of Pure Circular Fraction 69. Thus
forming a unity of Whole Number and Rational Number.
Prove the Count is a Common Multiple and tier of the Counting Wheel. Although the
Cyclic Addition Place Value Step accomplishes this aim, one should also endeavour
to find patterns with a certain Common Multiple and Tier. Patterns that prove a
Numbers Common Multiple and Tier.

92

Hierarchy
The Hierarchy of Cyclic Addition is formed by Step:5 7Multiple and moving from
a lower Tier to a higher Tier. The basis of the Hierarchy is to climb to higher Tiers
with higher order to perfect Mathematical Whole Number.
The Hierarchy climbs from the first tier to the second and operates all Steps with the
Second Tier. A Count can move from the first tier, stop and start again with the
second Tier. Once the second Tier is started all Cyclic Addition Steps 1 to 4 use only
the second Tier Wheel. That requires a complete leap with Steps: Counting, Place
Value, Move Tens to Units and Remainder to all be with the new Tier 2 Wheel.
The second Tier is simply 7Wheel used in the first Tier. For example Common
Multiple 2 Wheel is created by 7 2 6 4 12 8 10 = 14 42 28 84 56 70.
The Hierarchy of Wheels shows an order for each 6 number Wheel. The higher the
Tier the higher the order. Some whole numbers belong to more than one Common
Multiple. For instance number 144 is a Count from Common Multiple 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8,
9, 12, 16, 18, 24, 36 and 48. And some numbers start at a higher order like 147. This
number 147=377 belongs to the third Tier with Common Multiple 3 and part of
Common Multiple 1 Wheel 49 147 98 294 196 245.
Once a Tier 1 Common Multiple is mastered with all 6 Count Sequences then Tier 2
can begin. Tier 1 Wheels have only 6 unique Counts from 6 starting positions around
the Wheel. Tier 2 Wheels have a possible 14 unique Counts. These Counts are
generated from both Wheels. Tier 3 Wheels have a possible 21 unique Counts. These
Counts are generated from all three Wheels. The detail of how to Map all of these
Counts so as not to duplicate or miss any is left to Chapter Mapping.
Performing Cyclic Addition Step by Step with Higher Tiers 2 and 3 actually forms
truths and knowledge about a Common Multiple that cannot be grasped by the lower
Tier 1.
As Tier 1 forms 6 remainders in-between all 7Multiples. The 7Multiples of Tier 1
are exactly the same as Tier 2 Counts. Tier 1 prepares to resist and rope each Tier 2
Number of the same Common Multiple.
How to create a Tier 2 Count. Present Tier 1 Wheel of a chosen Common Multiple.
Count with Tier 1 for exactly 1, 2 or 3 cycles. The Count will end upon a 7Multiple
or Tier 2 Number. To prove this the Remainder equals zero. Present Tier 2 Wheel for
the same Common Multiple. Continue the Count for a chosen number of cycles with
the new Tier 2 Wheel. By combining Cyclic Addition with both Wheels, first Tier 1
then Tier 2, new possible Count Sequences are generated.
Tier 2 Wheels have 14 possible unique Counts using this manipulation of starting
with Tier 1 Wheel, stopping at the end of a cycle, and continuing with the Tier 2
Wheel. Counting this way generates 8 new Count sequences with unique consecutive
Numbers. And 6 Count sequences just using Tier 2 Wheel in like manner that Tier 1
Wheel is used.
Lets talk through a Count with Wheels from the first and second Tier. The Common
Multiple is 1. The first tier counts for 2 cycles beginning at 6.
93

6
Count
Place Value

Remainder U
Remainder T
Move Tens
Remainder
7xMultiple

6
2
4

10
5
5

6
6
-

3
3
7

15
3
2
1_
5
1_
3
1
14

16
3
3
1_
6
1_
3
2
14

19
4
5
1_
2
1_
3
5
14

21
1
2_
1
2_
6
21

35
28

42
Count
Place Value

Remainder U
Remainder T
Move Tens
Remainder
7xMultiple

27
3
4
2_
2_
6
6
21

31
1
2_
1_
1
3_
2
3
28

36
6
3_

126
35
21
7_
7
7_
21
28
98

161
21
14_

168
28
14_

21
14_
42
14
147

28
14_
42
21
147

6
3_
2
1
35

37
6
1
3_
3_
2
2
35

40
2_
2_

189
7
42
14_
14_
42
42
147

203
28
35
14_
14
14_
42
7
196

4_
5
5
35

42
2
1_
3_
2
4_
5
42

21
14

56
14
42

98
28
7_

7
7
49

28
7_
21
98

The first Tier Count is for 2 cycles ending at Count 42. The Mathematician elects to
stop at the end of a cycle and continue with Tier 2 Wheel. This Wheel is 7Wheel for
Tier 1. Or simply Common Multiple 7.
The connection with Tier 2 is from Count 42 to Count 56. The next Count 98 is the
7Multiple for the Tier 2 Wheel. So 4 spaces are put before Count 56 to show where
abouts within the cycle the first Tier connects the second Tier. From Count 98 to
Count 245 is a complete cycle Counting with Tier 2.
Note once we move from Tier 1 to Tier 2 all Cyclic Addition Steps are with the Tier 2
Wheel. From Count 56 to Count 245 all Place Values, all Remainder U and T, Move
tens to units and the Final Remainder are with Tier 2 Wheel. The 7Multiple is from
the next higher Tier, Tier 3.
94

245
35
21_
35
21_
14
245

Note also that the end of Cycle markers of 98 and 245 are not multiples of 21 like 147
and 294. As there are 14 possible unique Counts with a Tier 2 Wheel the other
7Multiples are shown at the end of the Cycle. A whole cycle with Tier 2 is 147.
There are Counts that land on 49, 98, 147, 196, 245, 294 all of the 7Multiples.
This is demonstrated in the Chapter Mapping.
Treat the Count 98 as a 7Multiple, as with Tier 1 Count 21 and 42, all are end of
cycle markers. This helps the familiar Remainder Pattern mastered with Tier 1 Cyclic
Addition. The Remainder Pattern for Tier 2 is 28 14 21 42 7 . All 6 Count
sequences from Tier 1, and 12 of the 14 from Tier 2, follow the same Remainder
Pattern around the Wheel. Lets Count with just Tier 2 Wheel Common Multiple 7 by
itself. Note the Remainder Pattern matches the above pattern. Start the 2 cycle Count
with 28.

35

28
42
Count
Place Value

Remainder U
Remainder T
Move Tens
Remainder
7xMultiple

28
7
21

63
21
42

70
42
28

91
21
7_

28
28
-

14
14
49

21
21
49

21
7_
21
42
49

105
21
14
7_
35
7_
21
7
98

147
7
14_
7
14_
42
147

21
14
175
35
7_
7_
35
14_
42
28
147

210
35
35
14_
21
14_
42
14
196

217
7
21_
7
21_
14
21
196

238
28
14_
7_
28
21_
14
42
196

252
14
28
21_
42
21_
14
7
245

This is one of 6 starts just with Tier 2 Wheel. The Remainder Pattern is the same as
the previous Tier 2 Count above (28 14 21 42 7 ). However the end of cycle
7Multiples are 147 and 294. Thus using the Tier 1 Wheel as a start new Counting
Sequences with Tier 2 are formed.
Any one of 14 possible Count Sequences have unique consecutive numbers. Thus any
pair of Tier 2 Counts along the sequence, like 91 and 105, is unique. This
Mathematically justifies the effort to work with both Tier 1 and Tier 2 Wheels to form
other Count Sequences.
So in summary, a Counting Hierarchy of Wheels exist for each Common Multiple.
Starting at Tier 1 the Wheel is Common Multiple 1 3 2 6 4 5 . Tier 2 Wheel is
just 7 Common Multiple 1 3 2 6 4 5 . And Tier 3 Wheel is simply
77 Common Multiple 1 3 2 6 4 5 . Counting with lower tiers and
submitting a Count with a zero Remainder to the next higher Tier, new Count
Sequences are formed.

95

294
14
28_
14
28_
35
294

A Counting Hierarchy for 7 Tiers is found in the Wheels pdf book on the CD-Rom.
For those interested in infinite Mathematics with the Wheels.
++Lesson Plan. To climb the Hierarchy one requires a Wheels reference page. These
are found in the pdf book Wheels. Each page has 7 Tiers of a distinct Common
Multiple ranging from 1 to 69. There is an example of Common Multiple 1 Wheels at
the end of the Pure Circular Fractions Chapter.
This order of Wheels is to introduce the Cyclic Addition pathway to the
Mathematician. Choose a Common Multiple then Count with Cyclic Addition by the
Tier One Wheel. Once sufficient pattern making, discovery and exploration of Tier
One is received stop and commence with Tier Two Counting. Likewise the new
knowledge from Tier Two surpasses that of Tier One. And Tier Three to that of Tier
Two. Thus bringing together a Hierarchy of Wheels and Whole Number.
The Wheels Reference Page for the Counting Common Multiple is usually present
throughout all of the Counting. This aids inter-Tier Mathematics and continually asks
the Mathematician to join the Tiers of the Hierarchy with Mathematics. For example
lets review the first Two Tier Count with Common Multiple 1 and 7 at the beginning
of this Chapter. The 7Multiple shows Numbers from Tier 2 Wheel. The 7, 14, 21,
28, 35 and 42 are all from the Common Multiple 7 Wheel below.
Linking Wheels using the same example happens at the Count 42. This Count is
obviously from Tier 1 and without Remainder making it a 7Multiple thus from the
Tier 2 Wheel. Treat 42 as the first Count of Tier 2 Common Multiple 7 Wheel. Why?
42 has a Tier 2 Remainder of 42 and 56 the next Count has a Remainder of 7. Moving
from Remainder 42 to Remainder 7 showing where abouts within a cycle these
Counts lie. This can be seen a little clearer by the observation of the next cycle
Remainder Pattern. This is important inter-Tier Mathematics. And should be followed
using the Wheels Reference Page.
Cyclic Addition Step by Step proves that each Count is the same Common Multiple as
that of the Wheel. There may be other ways to prove the Tier and the Multiple. These
supplement Cyclic Addition. Like Common Multiple 3, 6, 9, 12, 15, 18 and 21 are
visually easily seen and recognised as the working Common Multiple. The 3 with
Sum of Digits, the 6 with evens and sum of digits, the 9 with sum of digits=9, the 12
with multiples 3 and 4, the 15 with multiples 3 and 5, the 18 with multiples 9 and 2
and the 21 with 3 and 7.
Since the beginning of Cyclic Addition the declaration of all Tiers has been
mandatory. Present Tier 1 no matter whether Counting with it or a higher Tier. Then
present Tier 2 again whether Counting with it or a higher Tier. Then present Tier 3
and again whether Counting with it or starting at a higher Tier. This declaration
supports the truth and knowledge from the lower Tiers to be presented when Counting
with the Higher Tiers. All Tiers are declared in order from Tier 1 to Tier 2 to Tier 3
and so on up to the Counting Tier. This practise also shows where the Wheels come
from and supports the Laws and Mathematics that are born with the Wheels
Reference Pages.
The length of a Second Tier Count should be for a Number of Cycles either equal or
less than the First Tier Counting. Likewise the Third Tier Counting should be for a
Number of Cycles again either equal to or less than the Second Tier Counting.
96

Regardless of the previous experience the Mathematician has with Whole Number
one should begin Cyclic Addition Counting with Tier 1. Once sufficient practise and
Mathematics is mastered from Tier 1 then and only then move to Tier 2 Cyclic
Addition. Likewise there are 14 possible Counts with Tier 2 Wheels. Once these have
been mastered move on to Tier 3. Likewise Tier 3 Wheels have a possible 21 Counts.
Again once these are mastered move on to Tier 4.
The Mathematician can focus on just Tier 1 Wheels. Attempting all 1 to 69 Common
Multiples before venturing into higher Tiers. This decision is left to the wise and
practised Cyclic Addition student and Teacher.

97

Mapping and Cycle Tier by Tier


Most use a Map to guide a start, a direction, a path and a completion or finish. So to
Cyclic Addition Maps each Count Sequence with both the Wheel and Cycle.
The first Tier Wheels with Common Multiple 1 to 69 are simple to navigate around
the Counting. Each Wheel has 6 starting points and thus 6 unique Counts. The first
Count beginning a Cycle is unique. This Count follows straight after the 7Multiple.
This is how the Mapping works.
Using the Common Multiple 1 Wheel there are 6 Counts that land upon the end of
cycle 21. The first Count following this end of cycle is unique for all 6 starts. Thus
conforming to the Law that all Cyclic Addition Counting with any one Wheel has
only unique consecutive numbers.
This method used in Mapping all Tiers 1, 2, 3 and higher prevents duplication and
missing any Counts.
The second Tier Wheels with Common Multiple 7 to 483 in multiples of 7 require
more detailed Mapping. The Table of Counts, found on the last page of this book,
show visually all 14 second Tier Counts for two cycles. This table is with the simple
Common Multiple 1 and 7=71, both Tier 1 and Tier 2 wheels are shown. The table
shows how Cyclic Addition for this Wheel Maps between 147 and 294 for a whole
cycle. Follow along with this Table of Counts to practically begin Mapping.
Each Count is a vertical column of counts that uses Wheel 1 and 7. The first 6 Counts
use just Common Multiple 7 Wheel. All 6 starts show from 147 to 294 and the
stepping around the wheel of each count. The next 6 Counts use both the first Tier and
the second Tier Wheels. These 6 Counts start with 1, 2 or 3 cycles from Tier 1. Then
join the Tier 2 Wheel. These also fall upon 7Multiples of 49 and 98 marked on the
table in bold print. The first Count after 49 and 98 is a unique member of the Wheel
7 21 14 42 28 35 . Thus forming 6 unique Counts again with unique consecutive
numbers.
Simply note that the next Count when beginning Counting with the Tier 2 Wheel
forms unique consecutive pairs of Numbers. As the first 6 Counts hop over 49 and 98
this proves the second 6 counts are unique. And the last two counts hop over all
7Mulitples or multiples of 49.
Note the meshing of these 6 Count Sequences with the previous 6. No duplications
are made. One cycle from 49 and 98 is 196 and 245 respectively. So each Count
following a 7Multiple shows the same spacing of 7s pattern as the previous cycle.
There are 2 other Count Sequences shown on the right. These also use Tier 1 and Tier
2 Wheels. They are generated by counting with Tier 1 for a cycle or two and
continuing with Tier 2. Note between the band of multiples of 7 between 147 and 294
how these two sequences mesh with the others. These two Count Sequences have very
special and simple Remainder Patterns. Basically a cycle of 6 Remainders follows
behind the Count number upon the Wheel.
These 14 Count Sequences shown on the Table, for a length of 2 cycles, are the only
Counts possible with the Tier 2 Wheel. No more no less.
98

This Mathematics relies on the student Mapping the next Count following the
7Mulitple. Note the pattern of how often a Count Number with a Tier 2 Wheel is
made. Under the column of Counts there shows 6 counts for 147. Every multiple of
21=73 within that cycle between 147 and 294 is presented 6 times. These multiples
of 7 are 168, 189, 210, 231, 252, 273 and of course the end of cycle 294. Other
multiples of 7 in-between the multiples of 21 are all counted three times each
Number. For example 154 and 161 are counted 3 times each.
Another fact, the 6 counts following 154 and 161 are all unique Numbers from around
the Wheel 7 21 14 42 28 35 . This is also true for multiples of 21=73. The
pattern shows all members of the Wheel 7 21 14 42 28 35 are used in the
following Count. Thus again the Law that all counts have unique consecutive
numbers.
This Mathematical brilliance in meshing, banding, weaving and roping all Tier 2
Counts together present the order of Common Multiple 7 Cyclic Addition.
Those progressing with higher Tier 3 Wheels require even more detailed Mapping of
the Cycle and the count following the 7Multiple. In fact simply every Count Number
with Tier 3 is counted 6 times and each Count that follows is a unique member of the
Tier 3 Wheel. For those Mathematicians venturing further to Tier 3 Cyclic Addition
see Tables of Tier 3 Mapped Counts on the last 2 pages of this book.
In brief find the cycle end marked with zero Remainder and map the next Count of the
higher Tier. These should all be unique otherwise there is something missing or
duplication of the same Count Sequence.
The reason for working through all 14 Count Sequences with Tier 2 is to master how
Cyclic Addition presents the higher order whilst asking for higher Mathematical
expertise with the same Common Multiple. All the while Cyclic Addition protects and
preserves the Tier 2 Wheel with Mathematics.
++Lesson Plan. Lets progress further into the depths of Cyclic Addition. Consider
again the last page of Tier 2 Counting with Common Multiple 7. The first 6 vertical
Counts use only the Tier 2 Wheel. As mentioned previously. The second 6 require
manipulation with both Tier 1 and Tier 2 Wheels.
Look carefully at the 3 Counts that fall on 49=771 a 7Multiple. The first begins
the second Tier with 42 49 70 thus the first Count within a cycle and
Remainder after 49 is 21. The second Count begins Tier 2 Wheel with
21 49 84 has a Remainder of 35 with the new cycle. The third Count begins
Tier 2 Wheel with 28 49 63 has a Remainder of 14 again with the new cycle.
Observe the next 3 Counts that being a new cycle with the second Tier at 98. The
first Count 63 98 105 has a Remainder of 7 to begin the cycle. The second
Count 84 98 140 has a Remainder of 42 again to begin the cycle. The third
Count 56 98 126 has a Remainder of 28 again to begin the cycle.
These are the only Counts that include 49 and 98 end of cycle 7Multiples. Note the
six Remainders above as mentioned are all unique numbers from the Tier 2 Wheel
7 21 14 42 28 35 . And note the number of cycles Counting with Tier 1 Wheel.
99

Either 1, 2 or 3 cycles only is all thats needed to begin Counting unique Counts with
Tier 2 Wheel.
This Mapping technique of joining Tiers with the minimum of Counting with lower
Tier 1 perfects the possible number of Counts with the Tier 2 Wheel.
The last 2 vertical Counts on the table are quite simple in nature. Note the Tier 2
sequence 21 63 91 126 133 154 and its Remainder Pattern. Look carefully at
this Pattern (21 14 42 28 35 7) this follows the next Count within the cycle. In fact
the best way is to map both the Counting around the Wheel and the Remainder
Pattern together. The Remainder just simply follows the Count one number behind the
Wheel. Likewise the next and last Count Tier 2 sequence 42 77 84 105 119
161 has a Remainder Pattern of (42 28 35 7 21 14). Again map both the Count
sequence and the Remainder Pattern onto the Common Multiple 7 Wheel.
These 14 possible Counts with Tier 2 Wheel can be for a number of cycles or effort
that has been put into Tier 1 Wheel of the same Common Multiple. One might like to
test this proof of only 14 Tier 2 Counts. Create a Tier 1 Count for 1 to 7 cycles and
connect Tier 1 to Tier 2 at any end of cycle. Start with any number from Tier 2
Wheel, repeat, any number from Wheel 7 21 14 42 28 35 . The result will be a
repetition of Count sequences. Thus these repeating Counts are ignored on the basis of
the Law that all Counting with a specific Tier has unique consecutive Numbers. This
is a small challenge to prove the method used in the Table of Mapping found in the
last Chapter of this book.
Likewise as this method is used for Common Multiple 1 it to can be used for any
Common Multiple 1 to 69 applying Tier 1 and Tier 2 Counting.
Tier 3 Mapping in some ways is simpler than Tier 2. All 21 Counts within a cycle
have the extraordinary Pattern of all 6 numbers from Tier 3 Wheel. Mapping again is
with end of cycle 7Multiples and the following Count being a unique number. Thus
with 3 7Multiples each cycle all with unique numbers following produces 18=36
unique Counts. And like Tier 2 Counts there are 3 Counts with Tier 3 that hop over all
7Multiples. These 3 Counts have the same Remainder Pattern as that of the last 2
Tier 2 Counts above.
To view Tier 3 Counting with Common Multiple 1, 7 and 49 see the last 2 Pages of
this book. All 21=6+6+6+3 Counts are presented for a whole Tier 3 cycle to show the
meshing, weaving, banding and roping of Tier 3 Cyclic Addition. The 21 Counts
listed on both pages are identical. Merely one page has a Mapping grouping of the
21=6+6+6+3 and the other page has a Wheel Pattern showing how the wheel works
with all 21 Counts. Note the simple spiral of the Wheel position around the Cycle
between 1029 and 2058 on the last page.

100

Counting Backwards
As a Wheel can go forwards and backwards one might ask can Counting around the
Cyclic Addition Wheels be also forwards and backwards ? Cyclic Addition works in
an anti-clockwise direction as well as the tried, trusted and true way of clockwise.
Lets introduce Counting Backwards with some presentation requirements.
The Wheel is written at the bottom of the page. The Cyclic Addition Step 1: Counting
is written from right to left, up a line then continuing again right to left. This is to
preserve the practised English print and line return. Progressing to a Tier 2 Wheel
continue up the page and literally Count backwards.
Once a Cyclic Addition Count begins in an anti-clockwise direction one is required by
Law to continue counting all 6 starts in the same anti-clockwise direction.
Cyclic Addition Step 2: Place Value is simply performed in the reverse of clockwise
Place Value. Advanced Place Value using the 30 mini-wheels are simply 1 to 5
numbers moving in an anti-clockwise direction.
Cyclic Addition Step 3: Move tens to units remains in a clockwise rotation one
number for every place value position outside the units. Moving from tens to units
remains exactly the same.
Cyclic Addition Step 4: Remainder is also basically the same. The 4 Remainder Laws
converting 2 Place Values in the units to a single number Remainder are identical
results merely viewed in reverse. For more complex Place Values in the units and tens
simply emphasise the anti-clockwise direction when finding a Remainder.
The Remainder Pattern each cycle funny enough turns out to be Mathematically
perfectly in reverse of the common pattern applying to all 6 Tier 1 and all 14 Tier 2
Counts. We leave the art of discovering this pattern and moving from Remainder to
the next Count around the Wheel to the exploring Mathematician.
Cyclic Addition Step 5: 7Multiple is calculated the same way.
CountRemainder=7Multiple. Matching the 7Multiple to a Tier 2 Wheel to check
the accuracy of the Count is performed in an anti-clockwise direction.
There are 6 new Counts created with any Common Multiple Tier 1 Wheel. These
Counts generate new consecutive numbers thus are deemed to be relevant in the
perfection of Cyclic Addition Mathematics.
There are exactly 14 new Counts with any Tier 2 Wheel. Again both Tier 1 and Tier 2
Counting around the Wheel is in an anti-clockwise direction. The student can use the
same Mapping techniques as mastered in clockwise Tier 1 and 2 Counting.
As with Tier 1 once a Tier 2 Wheel is introduced then all Cyclic Addition Steps 1 to 4
are with a Tier 2 Wheel. The Count follows the Wheel as does all Cyclic Addition.
The Chapter closes with a 2 cycle Count with Common Multiple 3 Tier 1 Wheel. All
6 starts are shown and note almost all pairs of Count Numbers are unique relative to
Counting Forwards.
101

15

12
18

9
6

Count

126

123

114

108

90

78

63

60

51

45

27

15

Count

126

111

108

99

93

75

63

48

45

36

30

12

Count

126

114

99

96

87

81

63

51

36

33

24

18

Count

126

108

96

81

78

69

63

45

33

18

15

Count

126

120

102

90

75

72

63

57

39

27

12

Count

126
126

117
12
105

111
6
105

93
9
84

81
18
63

66
3
63

63
63

54
12
42

48
6
42

30
9
21

18
18
-

3
3
-

Remainder
7xMultiple

Counting Backwards provides a resistance to going loopy in the one clockwise


direction.
For keen observers of Count Sequences one will notice that the Count before cycle
end, the fifth and eleventh counts, together with cycle end, the sixth and twelfth
counts are duplicated. Count Pairs of (54 63) and (63 66) are duplicated. However any
three consecutive numbers in the above 6 Count Sequences are unique. Thus
strengthening the resolve to put effort into exploring Counting Backwards.
Also the Remainder Pattern, as mentioned, the first and second counts in a cycle add
to equal a 7Multiple. Likewise the third and fifth counts add to equal a 7Multiple
also. This is exactly the reverse of Counting Forwards. So writing backwards for an
anti-clockwise Count produces the same Remainder Patterns as forwards. Thus
justifying the effort with Mathematical reason to write backwards. Bearing in mind
some languages on the Earth write from right to left, the opposite of English print.
++Lesson Plan. In completion with whole Mathematics of Cyclic Addition this
Chapter asks for simple decisions. After Cyclic Addition Step by Step with a first Tier
Common Multiple in a clockwise direction one can stop and start again in an anticlockwise direction. Both sets of Counts, 6 clockwise and 6 anti-clockwise, are from
the same Common Multiple Wheel. Or the Mathematician can Count just in a
clockwise direction and move onto Tier 2 also in a clockwise direction. Or attempt
Common Multiples 1 to 69 all in the same clockwise direction. This choice is left to
the Mathematician.
With this decision the Mathematician choosing both directions with Tier 1 must
confront the natural resistance presented by incrementing Counts in both directions.
This warning to reading a Count sequence in both directions is for the learned.
102

Pure Circular Fractions


The Rational Number in Cyclic Addition will only address Pure Circular Fractions.
The rest of the study of Fractions can be found in any modern text book.
A Pure Circular Fraction is termed Pure as it is made from only 1 Number. And
termed Circular as all the fractions are infinite and circular in sequence.
Following on from the Chapter Rational Number. Pure Circular Fractions are only
those with a denominator with units 1, 3, 7 or 9. i.e. A Denominator set of { 1, 3, 7, 9,
11, 13, 17, 19, 21, 23, 27, 29, 31, 33, 37, 39}. Denominators with a units 1, 3 or 7
are considered incomplete and are multiplied by 9, 3 or 7 to equal a units 9. Thus the
Denominator set { 9, 19, 29, 39, 49, 59, 69, 79, 89, 99, 109} includes all the other
multiples.
The 3 is included in 9=33, the 7 in 49=77, the 11 in 99=119, the 13 in 39=133,
the 17 in 119=177, the 21 in 189=219, the 23 in 69=233, the 27 in 189=277 and
so on.
The Numerator is only an integer between 1 and the denominator less 1. Thus all
fractions are literally between 0 and 1.
The Pure Circular Fraction is created with the denominator number +1 and only the
tens portion of the Number. For example PCF 49 is created with 49+1 with tens only
makes 5. Lets term this Number 5 as a Working Number.
Lets make the Pure Circular Fraction 49 from scratch. 49=77 so the fractions of 7
are shown with multiples of 7. See the 6 number circular decimal fraction below.

.
.
7 1 4 2 8 5 7 1 4 2 8 5 7
2 1 4 2 3
2 1 4 2 3
The Working Number is 5. Start with 7 5 = 1 r2. Use whole number division and
record the remainder of 2 with the 1. The 1 is placed on the fraction line, next numeral
right of the 7 and the remainder of 2 is placed underneath the 1 in the tens position.
This forms the next number. Notice 21 is a multiple of 7. Continue right by division
with the Working Number. 21 5 = 4 r1. The 4 is on the fraction line and the 1 below
in the tens making 14 becoming the third number in the sequence. 14 5 = 2 r4. Place
the 2 on the fraction line and 4 below in the tens, forming 42 to the right of 14. The
next number is 42 5 = 8 r2. Write 8 on the fraction line and 2 below in the tens,
forming 28 to the right again of 42. The next number is 28 5 = 5 r3. Write the 5 on
the fraction line and 3 below in the tens, forming 35 to right once again of 28. The
next number in this Pure Circular Fraction is 35 5 = 7. This is equal to the first
number chosen in the sequence, thus the fractions of 7 are complete. Mark the whole
PCF 7, being part of PCF 49, with dots above the beginning of the circle and the end
of the circle. Thus showing a 6 number Pure Circular Fraction sequence.
How are fractions of 7 made. Convert the fraction denominator to 49. 1 / 7 = 7 / 49.
Find the numerator within the fraction. Place a decimal point right of the 7. Apply all
numerals to the right of the 7 until the numerator appears again. Thus 1 /7 = .142857
103

recurring or circulating infinitely. The fraction is shown twice to emphasise making


any of the 6 fractions of 7.
The Pure Circular Fraction 7 also has complements equalling 49. Spaced three apart
along the PCF are 7+42, 21+28, 14+35, 42+7, 28+21, 35+7. These form together to
complete the fractions of 7. Thus 1/7 + 6/7 = 7/7 = 1. The 1 plus the Remainder
always equals our Working Number in this case 5.
Lets continue with PCF 49 and all the other fractions of 49. Start with a simple
number like 1. Proceed with division of the numerator with the Working Number.
1 5 = 0 r1, forming 10. 10 5 = 2, forming 2. 2 5 = 0 r2, forming 20. 20 5 = 4,
forming 4. 4 5 = 0 r4, forming 40. 40 5 = 8, forming 8. 8 5 = 1 r3, forming 31.
31 5 = 6 r1, forming 16. 16 5 = 3 r1, forming 13. 13 5 = 2 r3, forming 32.
Continue this PCF 49 for 42 numerators or numbers. See illustration below.

.
1

0
1

0
2

8 9 7 9 5
4 3 4 2 4

0
4

1 6 3 2 6 5
3 1 1 3 2 1

0
3

1 2 2 4 4
1 1 2 2 4
.
9 1 8 3 6 7 3 4 6 9 3 8 7 7 5 5
4 1 3 3 1 2 3 4 1 4 3 3 2 2

The 42 Numerators above have complements in a vertical alignment. 1+48, 10+39,


2+47, 20+29 These are matched to complete the pure circular fraction 49. And
perfect the Working Number 5.
Again, as with the partner numerators with multiples of 7, the fractions with
denominator 49 can be easily made. 2/49= .040816 3265 30612 2 448 97 959183
6734 69387 7 551 02 circulating with the whole PCF sequence to finish with the
number 2. The spacing within the decimal fraction is to aid counting the 42 numerals.
The 42 numerators and the 6 numerators with multiples of 7 equal the total 48
numerators of the PCF 49. Again the complements completing 49. That simple. Note
how the multiples of 49 = 77 gives clues as to the formation of the PCF.
The Pure Circular Fraction can also be formed from left to right. Using Multiplication
and Addition. Lets start at 5 on the above table. Multiply the numerator 5 by the
Working Number 5 and Add the remainder below. 55=25, forming 25 place left of 5.
Next left is 55=25 +2=27, forming 27. Next left is 75=35 +2=37, forming 37. Next
left is 75=35 +3=38, forming 38. Next left 85=40 +3=43, forming 43. Next left
35=15 +4=19, forming 19.
Note with the above discipline of creating a complete PCF the Working Number, in
this case 5, is given a work-out. Constantly applying Mathematical operations
+ , to the Working Number. Forming absolutely perfect Fraction sequences.
Thus connecting Mathematical arithmetic with Fractions.
The above PCF unifies with Cyclic Addition via use of remainder from multiples of 7.
Note the pattern formed is the original Wheel 1 3 2 6 4 5 . Also the Cyclic
Addition Wheel with Common Multiple 7 is shown with PCF 7. This hints at a
104

unification of Whole Number and Rational Number. We learn later that both these
fraction sequences are entirely found with Cyclic Addition Counting. Again a further
connection between Whole Number and Rational Number or PCFs.
There is knowledge of Number 5 within the fraction sequence itself. By just reading
the fraction from left to right one perfects the Number 5 and its inherent properties
within all Whole Number.
Exponentials of 5 are also shown to connect with this Pure Circular Fraction. See the
Table below. The Numerator is written underneath the continuous fraction of 7. The
numerator is multiplied by exponentials of 5. 3551 =175, 3552 = 875, 3553 =4375,
3554 = 21875, 3555 = 109375 and 3556 = 546875. Likewise with the numerator 14
multiplied by exponentials of 5 form the pattern below. Each new exponential is
placed one numeral position to the left of the previous.

.
.
714285714285714285714285714
35
14
175
70
875
350
4375
1750
21875
8750
109375
43750
546875
218750
By vertically adding the exponentials, the Mathematician connects the exponentials of
5 to the fraction sequence. Merely vertically add 5=5, 5+3=8, 5+7=12, 5+7+1+1 ten
from the previous column = 14, 1+5+7+8=21, 2+5+7+3=17, 1+5+7+8+4=25.
This Mathematical structure of exponentials appears with all numerators of PCF 49.
Thus joining Whole Number Exponentials to Pure Circular fractions with simple
child-like Addition Mathematics.
Another example with numerator 27 from the longer 42 numeral fraction sequence.

.
102040816326530612244
.
897959183673469387755
27
135
675
3375
16875
84375
421875
105

The exponential Maths is 2750 =27, 2751 =135, 2752 =675, 2753 =3375, 2754
=16875, 2755 =84375 and 2756 =421875. Add the units columns to equal the
fraction. Thus again connecting Mathematics of Whole Number with the Fraction
sequence. All inter-relating Mathematics acting upon Whole Number 5.
Lets explore now the Mathematics of other Pure Circular Fractions. Start with Pure
Circular Fraction 9. This PCF uses a Working Number, 9+1 tens only, =1.
1 3 2 6 4 5
.
.
.
1 1
2
.
8

.
8

.
7

.
2

.
3

.
3

.
4

.
4

.
7

.
6

.
6

.
5

.
5

Fractions of 9 are found by, again like 49, selecting a Numerator, placing a decimal
point right of it and following the sequence until it circles. The fractions of 9 are a
simple one number repeating or circling infinite sequence. For example 1/9=.11
Note there are just 8 numbers that make up the PCF 9. The Law shows that there are
always the denominator less one Numerators forming the PCF.
Pure Circular Fraction 19
The PCF Working Number, 19+1 tens only, =2. Use Wheel 2 6 4 12 8 10.
.
5 2 6 3 1 5 7 8 9
1
1 1 1 1
.
4 7 3 6 8 4 2 1 0
1
1 1
1
Follow this simple art of mastering the beginning of 2s by practising writing this
PCF. Start at 5 2= 2 r1, forming 12. 12 2= 6, forming 6. 6 2=3 forming 3.
3 2= 1 r 1, forming 11 and so on for 18 numerators. The sequence shows how simple
the 2 is by writing the exponentials of 2 with this PCF.
.
.
0 5 2 6 3 1 5 7 8 9 4 7 3 6 8 4 2 1
1
2
4
8
1 6
3 2
6 4
1 2 8
2 5 6
5 1 2
1 0 2 4
2 0 4 8
4 0 9 6
8 1 9 2
106

Pure Circular Fraction 29


The Working Number, 29+1 tens only, =3. Use Wheel 3 9 6 18 12 15 to create.
.
4

1 3 7
1 2 2

5 8
2 1

0 3 4 4
1 1 1 2

0 6 8 9 6 5
2 2 2 1 1 1

2 7
2 1
.
5 1 7 2
2
1

Note how complements equalling 29 are shown vertically. An example of a fraction


with Denominator 29. Use Numerator 4 and place the decimal point right of it.
4 29 = .137 931034 48275 862 068965 51724 recurring infinitely.
Pure Circular Fraction 39 is shown in Chapter Rational Numbers. Pure Circular
Fraction 49 is shown above. Thus the next Pure Circular Fraction is 59.
The Working Number, 59+1 tens only, =6. Use Wheel 6 18 12 36 24 30 to
create. Remember one can create it in either direction or both and use it as a proof.
.
3 3 8 9 8
2 5 5 4 1

0
3

0 8
5 2

4 7 4 5 7 6 2
4 2 3 4 3 1 4

1 1
1 5

8 6 4
3 2 2
6
3

0 6 7 7 9
4 4 4 5 3

0 1 6 9 4
1 4 5 2 5

1
3

5 2 5 4 2 3 7 2 8
1 3 2 1 2 4 1 5 4
.
1 3 5 5 9 3 2 2 0
2 3 3 5 1 1 1
2

The complements of 59 are shown spaced three fraction lines apart. This completes
the Working Number 6.
Make any fraction with Denominator 59 from all of the 58 number sequence above.
The fractions of 59 are perfect and complete with this circle of number. Combining
Whole Number Numerator with decimal fraction in one simple to generate sequence.

107

Pure Circular Fraction 69


The Working Number, 69+1 tens only, =7. Use Wheel 7 21 14 42 28 35 to
create. The shape of this final PCF is 322 number sequences and 21 number
sequences. Note the 3 sequences show a pattern. By dividing each numerator by 3 the
first sequence has a remainder of 2, the second a remainder of 1 and all the third
sequence is multiples of 3. The complements of 69 are found by meshing the first and
second sequences, and the third sequence is added to itself in the fraction line below.
7 21 14 42 28 35
.
9 4 2 0 2 8 9 8 5
2 1
2 6 6 5 3 3
7
1

2
3

.
0
4

5
5

2
5

.
7

5
2

3
4

8
4

6
6

3
1

2
5

..
3
2

.
4

5
5

9
1

6
3

.
5

1
4

9
3

1
3

0
5

1
1

2
2

6
1

6
2

6
2

1
.
1

2
1

..
6
4

Use the above 5 circular sequences to form any fraction with denominator 69. To find
the fraction 669, find the 6 in the sequences above, place a decimal point to the right
of the 6. 669= .0 869 56 521739 1304 34782 6 recurring infinitely.
The following page shows two unified parts of Cyclic Addition. The first is from the
Pure Circular Fraction 69 above with exponentials of 17n . The second is the Wheels
for Common Multiple 1 showing the first 7 Tiers. The Exponentials link to the PCF.
Each Wheels Common Multiple 1, 7, 49, 343, 2401, 16807 and 117649 Tier by Tier is
equal to the consecutive Exponentials of 17n . As each new Tiered Wheel is 7 the
previous Wheel and each Exponential is 7 the previous. Thus linking the three, Pure
Circular Fractions, Exponentials and Wheels together with Mathematics.
This linking is performed with all Numerators i.e. all Common Multiples 1 to 69.
These are shown in the pdf book Wheels on the CD-Rom. For those wanting a
constant Reference Page to aid inter-Tier Cyclic Addition Mathematics. This shows
harmony with Whole Number, Rational Number and Exponentials.
108

.
.
7536231884057971014492
1
7
49
343
2401
16807
117649
1 3 2 6 4 5
7 21 14 42 28 35
49 147 98 294 196 245
343 1029 686 2058 1372 1715
2401 7203 4802 14406 9604 12005
16807 50421 33614 100842 67228
84035
117649 352947 235298 705894
470596 588245
This Reference Page, 1 of 69, is in large print to aid Cyclic Addition all 5 Steps with
higher Tiers and the Mathematics involved between Tiers. Although presented in
straight line Wheels they provide a handy visual tool to guide the Mathematician.
See the whole pdf book Wheels on the CD-Rom for completeness.
109

Lets step back from the workings of a Pure Circular Fraction and concentrate on the
unity of these fractions with Cyclic Addition as a whole.
As mentioned all 69 of Cyclic Addition Reference Pages show equality and unity with
Whole Number (from the Wheels) and Exponentials (from the Fraction Numerator
7n). The Exponentials of a certain Common Multiple from 1 to 69 are presented, as
the above example shows, with each consecutive Number stepped down one numeral
to the left. By adding the Exponentials units place value position vertically these equal
the fraction line of Pure Circular Fraction 69.
How is the Pure Circular Fraction, for example 69, completed. One way, by Counting
with all Tier 1 Wheels from Common Multiple 1 to 69. The second way, by sounding
and sighting the 69 Numerators in the fraction sequence with a perfect object numeral
Count. The third way, to complete the fraction with complements of 69. By adding
fraction sequences together. The fourth way, is to complete the 69+1=7 tens, in both
Cyclic Addition Counting with Common Multiple 69 and the Numerator 69 sequence.
This last method is deemed as Cyclic Addition Law.
This Completion of Common Multiple 69 presents a perfection and preparation of
Cyclic Addition Tier 1 ready for commencement of Tier 2.
So to perfect Whole Number, a chief aim of Cyclic Addition, one is required to
master both how to construct a Reference Page from scratch and Cyclic Addition with
Wheels 1 to 69.
The building of Pure Circular Fractions merges with Cyclic Addition Counting next
Chapter. By showing that more than by accident all Pure Circular Fractions can be
expressed by Whole Number Cyclic Addition with higher Tier Counting. Many
examples are shown next Chapter.
As the Pure Circular Fractions are Circular and the Cyclic Addition Wheels are
Circular as well, this completion is necessary to escape the literal infinity of the
Circle, and bring it down to a manageable human Whole Number. Like the simple
Mathematics of Counting with a Wheel and completing a cycle with a
Count=7Multiple, the Circle of the Pure Circular Fraction is also completed.
To reach this stage of Cyclic Addition is a milestone and considered to be the mastery
of Whole Number. The higher Tiers await the climb to an even higher point. Tier by
Tier Counting with the hierarchy of Cyclic Addition.
Thus the Mathematician is ready to use The New Invention: Cyclic Addition to
preserve and protect, to repair and perfect, the Old Invention: Number.
Why should Whole Number be reduced to ten symbols ? When applying perfect
Mathematics of Cyclic Addition one can restore Whole Number. To make it
mathematically useful for all to use in every day life.
The simplicity of the Wheel with Number and its Step by Step Mathematics puts the
journey of Cyclic Addition within reach of many people. Those people have the
opportunity to lead and preserve Number. Returning Number to its utmost purity. By
this anyone can understand and apply Number in a worldly way. Anywhere anytime.
110

Unify Whole Number with Fraction


The first and foremost unification is with the above Pure Circular Fraction 69 and the
Cyclic Addition Wheels.
There is a school of thought that believes there is a nature to continuous Number like
that of Pure Circular Fraction (PCF) and that to of Whole Number generated by
Cyclic Addition. This Mathematics shown briefly attempts to join and pattern these
two types of Number with identical sequences of numerals.
A Cyclic Addition Wheel will be introduced with a circular modification to enable
perfect matching with consecutive numerals from a Pure Circular Fraction. This
modification adjusts a Whole Number and converts it to a partial Fraction sequence.
Counting with the Tier 2 Wheel above 7 21 14 42 28 35 perfectly meshes with
Pure Circular Fraction 7. Note the Wheel also contributes order to the sequence of
Pure Circular Fraction 7. This sequence is unique as the Wheel matches both the
fraction sequence and the remainder from Pure Circular Fraction 7.
Counting with Tier 1 Wheel meshes the simple Pure Circular Fraction 9. Simply
numerals 1 to 8 are found from Cyclic Addition with this Wheel.
Counting with Common Multiple 9 meshes with Pure Circular Fraction 11. Simply
pairs of numbers adding to multiples of 9.
Counting with Common Multiple 61 with the Tier 4 and adding a modification of 56
thousands 1 (+20923) gives a Pure Circular Fraction 13 sequence of 076923. Thus
6 numerals are matched with just one Wheel number.
Counting with Common Multiple 1 using Tier 5 (2401) and adding a modification of
12 tens1 gives 5 numerals from Pure Circular Fraction 119 02521. Every count
with Tier 5 Wheel add 12 tensmultiple to the Count. For example
4802+(12tens2)=05042 5 numerals from Pure Circular Fraction 119.
Counting with Common Multiple 1 using Tier 6 (16807) and adding a simple
modification of 1unit1 gives 5 numerals from Pure Circular Fraction 119 16808.
There is a cycle number of 86/119 to add to each Count Number multiple.
Counting with Common Multiple 1 using Tier 7 (117649) and subtracting a simple 2
units modification from every Count Number multiple. For example
1176493=352947 (23) = 352941 a six number patterned sequence from Pure
Circular Fraction 17. Note how the next Counting Tier, Tier 6 from Tier 5, supported
the other Pure Circular Fraction sequence 119=177.
As these last 3 meshings are with Common Multiple 1 they also can act upon other
Common Multiples from 1 to 69 Tier 5, Tier 6 and Tier 7. Thus the Pure Circular
Fraction 119=177 sequences perfectly support the creation of Whole Number with
these higher Tiers.
Counting with Common Multiple 29 Tier 3 (1421) with no modification presents 3
place values from units, tens and hundreds to mesh perfectly with Pure Circular
111

Fraction 19. For example 14216=8526 and 526 is found directly in the sequence of
the fractions 19.
Counting with Common Multiple 37 meshes with 3 numerals from Pure Circular
Fraction 27. Again rarely, no modification. For example 374=148 and these 3
numerals are found within Pure Circular Fraction 27.
Counting with Common Multiple 61 using Tier 6 (1025227) and meshing with a
modification of +414 units1 = 1025641 from the Pure Circular Fraction 39. This
pattern to mesh 7 consecutive numerals continues into the next Tier 7.
Counting with Common Multiple 57 using Tier 4 (19551) and a modification of 58
thousands presents a 5 numeral sequence from Pure Circular Fraction 49.
(19551+58000= 77551 this starts at the numerator 1 which makes it easy to Count
and mesh to the fraction.
Counting with Common Multiple 57 using Tier 5 (136857) and a modification of 6
thousands presents a 6 number sequence from the simple Pure Circular Fraction 7.
Showing all starting points or all numerators of the fraction perfectly. For example
1368572=273714 +12000= 285714 directly from the fractions of 7. Notice once
again how the next Tier supports all the sequences within the fraction (49=77).
Counting with Common Multiple 27 using Tier 4 (9261) and a modification of 4
hundreds presents a 4 number sequence from the Pure Circular Fraction 59. For
example 92615=46305 +5400=48305 showing 8305 from the fraction 59
sequence.
Counting with a finality with Common Multiple 69 Tier 2 (483), having attempted all
other Common Multiples, meshes to the Pure Circular Fraction 69 with counting
multiples of 9 only (i.e. 14491). This meshing has a part of a fraction 19/69 to
include with every Count. For example 48324=14498=11592 +(19/69 8)=2+
14/69) meshes to a five number sequence from fraction 69 (11592+2=) 11594. This
is no mean feat to exactly match the pattern of Whole Number to Fraction is to part all
other 5 digit Numbers or a hundred thousand parts. Quite difficult to achieve.
A further discovery of Common Multiple 7 Tier 8 (5764801) also perfectly meshes to
PCF 69. The modification is 323=1719 in the hundreds place value position. There
is also part of fraction (31/69)n to add to every count. This is an amazing 8 digit
perfect sequence from the PCF 69. Thats a hundred million parts on a number. One
should Count to 695764801 all six ways. Lets perform an example with n=7. Start
with (57648017)+(323007)+(731/69)=40353607+226100+3= 40579710 eight
digits straight from Pure Circular Fraction 69. The 8th Tier completes the PCF 69.
Thus this is an ample selection of examples perfecting how Cyclic Addition Wheels
present pattern meshing with Pure Circular Fractions. Some require whats termed a
modification or a way to convert Whole Number to Fraction sequences or continuous,
circular Number. See all Wheels listed above in the pdf Wheels on the CD-Rom.
The Mathematician should be able to create both Whole Number and Rational
Number from the beginning and pattern mesh both. This is perhaps the greatest way
of showing how perfect Whole Number and Rational Number are in unity with all
Number by this Cyclic Addition Mathematics.
112

Number in a Practical World


Lets now take a simple journey around the neighbourhood to find uses for Number.
Several Shops and Department Stores are chosen and the manager was asked how do
you use Number ?
Time
Bus Arriving at a stop
Bus Ticket
Meeting time
Work start and finish
Sunset
Shape of the Moon
Eternal Patterns of stars at night
Distance
Walk to a bus stop
Space between Library shelves
Bush Walk on rough ground
Walk through shopping complex
Flow of Liquids
Petrol Litres
Gas
BBQ
Drinking Water
Washing
Shower
Cooking
Ratio
Driving braking distance
Walking distance
Gears on a Bi-cycle
Square
Western society exalts the Square
Pizza Bar
Weigh Dough
Weigh Meat
Change
Lots of Things to price (Deli)
Garage Sale

Toys R Us
Sales
Percentage increase / decrease of labour
compared to sales
Counting number of stock Quantity
No of mark ups and mark downs
Radio Rentals
Cash Sales
Rentals
Loan Agreements
Size TVs
Specs of Computers Ram, Hard Drive, Processor
Fridge Litres
Weight of Washing Machine
Wattage of Speakers
Boot Maker
Adding Up
Pricing Things
Measuring Things
Camera Shop
Film Speed
Photographic Sizes
Model No for Cameras
Battery Codes
PLUs Product Codes
Pricing
Flower Shop
Count everything out
Pricing and Money
Cake Shop
Pricing
Stock Numbers
Pay
Running Whole shop
Ordering for dates
113

Price
Number of Customers
Size of Clothing
All the same size
Hair Dresser
Appointment time
Pricing
Hungry Jacks
Key what the order is
Key what the Price is
Chemist
UKF Coding of stock item to
receive price
Newsagent
Lotto
Change
Counting Magazines
Adelaide Shaving Centre
Till Money
Monthly Stock-take
Harris Scarfe
Mens Pants sizes
Shirt Sizes
Register Monies
Jeweller
Selling & Buying
Cash Out
Balance at Night
Quotas
Target $ Value & Amount of items
sold
Wendys
Count Stock / Stock-Take
Times of Staff
Pay Rates

114

Locksmith
Prices
Coordinates on computer engraver
Cash Register
Phone number on pet tags
Bike Shop
Prices
Quantity of stock
Bar Codes
Counting Money
Pins on EFTPOS
Dates
Size of Wheels
Frame Sizes
Workshop tool sizes
Book Seller Angus and Robertson
Invoicing
Book has an ISBN Number to identify each book
Pricing Books
Sales
Top Ten Books
Phone to ring customers
Hours of Work
Tobacconist
Prices
Adding / Taking out stock
Woolworths
Numbers used for Products
Prices
Change money handling

Chinese Cooking Food Court


Using calculator and Register for Money

The Car use of Number with some detail.


Rego Month
Insurance Cost
Speedo (speed & km)
Taco (revs of motor)
Temperature gauge
Tyre Pressure
Petrol Gauge
Trip Meter
Seat belt for each person
Tyre tread depth
Intermittent Wipers
Cruise Control
Tyre Size
Rego Number 3 numerals
Radio Frequency
Angle Mirrors
Heater /AC Fan speed
Central / Manual lock doors
Car Clock
Speed Limiter
Shopping bags in boot
Rotation Steering Wheel
Rotation 4 Wheels
Driver Seat position
Window open close height
Engine Gear Manual / Auto
Loose change for parking Meter
Boot Space to fit
So different Shops selling various Goods and Services have many uniquely tailored
uses for Number. They vary in magnitude and proportion, they vary in frequency of
use and all literally apply Number.
The Car looks not only at Number, but measure and proportion, goodness of fit and
performance, a scale of all sorts. Lots of Mathematics just in a ordinary Car.
So were asking the Child and young Student to be prepared for many various types
of Mathematics that carry on through their working lives no matter where their travels
lead them.
Mathematics prepares a child to enter specialist fields of Science including
Engineering, Medicine, Computing, Economics, Banking & Finance, Accounting, and
Management. There is perfect Mathematics within Music and some Art, History and
War, Timelines of Civilisations, and Trades Men and Women. So no matter where
their heart and mind leads the next generation lets hope the Mathematics taught to
them is strong enough to support the use of Mathematical Number. Sending a Child
on a similar journey asks them to explore the world and how Number is used within
it.
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How Cyclic Addition assists in teaching year R-9 Mathematics Curriculum


The greatest living example of Whole Number and how it functions Mathematically
with all Whole Number is Cyclic Addition. No other Mathematics can unify and
incorporate all the features of Cyclic Addition shown in prior Chapters.
The purpose of teaching Cyclic Addition, rather than replacing anything out of the
existing Curriculum Framework, is to show perfection with All Number.
Once Number begins to be made perfect, all use of Number with other Strands of the
Curriculum can be seen clearer and with a Whole lifetime view. Application of
Number to anything, any NAPLAN question, any relativity, any time, any weights
and measures, any graph, any table, any numeric data, any calculator action, any
Metrics, any measurement and most importantly any patterns within Number are also
made perfect. A natural preparation for perfecting other Strands of Maths.
Lets start with a Year Level and the Strands of the Curriculum other than Number.
Obviously as stated the whole of Cyclic Addition doesnt cover the whole of Number.
And obviously the whole of the Number strand is yet to include Cyclic Addition
Mathematics. So for a time lets exclude the literal overlap, and whats missing in the
already amazing breadth and width of the Number Strand for all Years R7.
This Chapter will include 3 time bands Year 3, Year 5 and Year 7. Following the
Naplan Numeracy Test Years.
Year 3 teaches Number, Statistics, Measurement, Geometry and Probability.
Year 5 teaches Number, Statistics, Measurement, Geometry and Probability.
Year 7 teaches Number, Pattern, Geometry, Measurement, Tables and Graphs, Angles
and Triangles, Chance and Data, Time, Ratio and Rates, Space and Algebra.
The Year and Strand are given to complement Cyclic Addition Mathematics. How
Cyclic Addition aids and helps out the particular Strand is discussed.
Year 3 Number. Cyclic Addition is a way and a truth to present Whole Number in all
its form. Thus one might expect a transition period, between years and decades and
centuries, to fully comprehend the usefulness and application of Cyclic Addition
within the school and World we live in.
Cyclic Addition with its natural incrementing sequences all with a patterned Common
Multiple easily shows order of Number from high to low, from 2 numerals to 3 to 4
numerals and beyond. Perhaps a futuristic way of completely transcending the
reliance upon Base 10 names and 1, 10, 100 grids to visually show how numerals join
with other numerals to make Whole Number. Perhaps both ways can be taught in sync
so that the child benefits from the historical use of Number and a future pathway to
repair and perfect the invention of Number.
Number between number, again number words and number in numeral form. Simple
tables of small number to convey information. Number patterns and series of number
or a simple sequence to fill-in the answer. Addition in a myriad of forms is taught
with Cyclic Addition. Visually counting groups of objects with practise is simpler.
Teaching how both Addition and Multiplication work together with a Cyclic Addition
Count. Showing find the difference between numbers aids in Subtraction. Cyclic
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Addition Step by Step shows all operations + . Grouping objects with light to
Count and pattern is a natural action forthcoming from Cyclic Addition.
Number with Money shows numerals clearly with Cyclic Addition purity alloyed by
nothing else other than Number with Number. So attaching Number to Coin and
Notes becomes easy Addition. Showing the limitations of 5c ,10 c ,20 c , 50c , $1 and $2
forming patterns of payment and change. Cyclic Addition addresses all of these coin
denominations by unique common multiples and Wheels. These Wheels link how to
use coins and notes to find the right amounts necessary to purchase items with money.
Number with Pattern goes hand in hand with Number and Wheel Counting. Visually
patterns are seen quicker and with higher perfection applying number to each pattern.
A series of simple Number 2, 4, 6, 8, _, _ is made perfect with the mastery of a Wheel
and Cyclic Addition basic Step 1: Counting.
Number Sentences ask to form an equation. Cyclic Addition has stable and consistent
equations with all Steps. These Steps show again universal equations applying to
Wheels to master Whole Number. So the inter-relationship between operations in a
number sentence are distinguished easier. Such is the practise of Cyclic Addition.
Asking a child to communicate in a Mathematical way is invariably asking them to
manipulate Number and forms that Number takes to somehow measure the way
something works. This form and measure can be anything, however the purity of
Number must remain consistent otherwise it cannot be translated into use with many a
form. This applies to all operations + with Whole Number.
Year 3 Statistics. A simple table of number or line marking in fives for units depict
the relationship of Counting within like groups. The art of seeing a simple Count of a
Group of Objects requires significant practise in early childhood as this mandatory
action of Counting is used by all sub-consciously and very frequently. Patterning the
society that we live in is formed at such an early age that perfecting Object Counting
and Pattern making with like object has become a fundamental part of any early
childhood schooling. Practise of reading a Table both vertically and horizontally can
also be improved by mastering the Circle and movement around it. This is achieved
with Cyclic Addition.
Year 3 Geometry. Finding the right position within a Table is assisted again by the
Wheel of Cyclic Addition. Managing where something is within a choice of 6
numbers all with a Common Multiple is a talent and perfects both circle, number and
movement between all six choices. This dramatically shows up and down, and left
and right covered within position. Shapes and Angles are again shown by the Cyclic
Addition Wheel. This Wheel has a likeness to a naturally occurring snowflake, with
six sides and six identical shaped forms of ice crystals. Thus Cyclic Addition Wheels
can also be seen in a light of naturally occurring Number like that of 10 fingers. The
Shape will always be Mathematical but the Names and tags and labels may vary.
Jigsaw puzzles to fit and complete a shape is also with curve and pattern to match.
The practise of visualising 3-D shapes on paper requires more of actual touch and
piecing the flat shapes that make up the 3-D object. Clock Faces and hour and minute
hand angles are improved with use of Circle. Symmetry patterns are influenced by
reflection or mirroring. This talent requires copying the pattern in a reflected form
upon a line. This requires pattern making of line, circle and other shapes.

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Year 3 Probability. Choosing an item, occurrence or number from a group requires


some knowledge of the whole group. How many in the whole group and how many of
like items within the same group returns back to basics of patterning like objects in a
group. Selecting one from that group means a patterned choice amongst alternatives.
Cyclic Addition Number forming Place Values from just the Wheel asks the child to
choose from various alternatives to make the same Place Value Set. This talent
extends to shape, form and colour from Number rather than the other way around. The
reliance is upon the strength of Number rather than a recognition of what type of
pattern is presented. Probability Laws down the schooling track, years 9-10, relies
almost wholly upon Number and formula. Choosing a probability from a wheel or pie
with various proportions given to a number asks for the distinction of space using a
number as a symbol of that space. Representing gambling with number rather than
Mathematics. Number is presented as a convenience rather than Maths education.

Year 5 Statistics often shows two way Tables. There is two aspects compared to each
other by use of Number. The number can be a simple count, time, or money. Cyclic
Addition brings an accuracy and rids most confusion with looking up results on a
table. The chart increments are clearer and simple count upon charts easier to see. Pie
Graphs are easier to see a proportion and the whole split into parts of the pie.
Year 5 Measurement Metric System is simpler with clearer Place Value of base 10
utilising relationships with 1, 10, 100 and 1000. Scale of measurement whether
container or ruler is easier to see multiples of graduation upon an object. Weights and
scale balance shows simpler visual relationships with equality and counting. Finding a
perimeter using addition with a sequence of number. Drawings upon a grid simpler to
follow. Maths with measurement of Metrics length is simpler. Time and the workings
of the ratios of hours: minutes: seconds 24:60:60 simpler to understand how to count
with a clock. Perimeter length and breadth discerned with easier verticals and
horizontals. Numerics unquestionably simpler.
Year 5 Geometry The nature of a circle and angles are easier to comprehend how far
an angle is around 360o . Working with a circle and grids to find axes of symmetry is
clearer with seeing the grouping of more objects in order. The number of sides and
shapes forming a net are put together with a numerical amount. Solid faces are a
simple count. The Cyclic Addition Circle shows a completeness of shape. This is then
translated to other shapes. Position on a Map is simpler to follow directions as the
Circle shows all directions.
Year 5 Probability Chance of choosing balls from a container is a Count from the
Whole sum of objects within the Container. Similar Shapes are patterned quicker and
easier with the practise of Cyclic Addition. A Number of numbers likewise. Fraction
proportions easier to simplify. For example 5/10 = or 1 out of 2.
Year 5 Number. Cyclic Addition Number covers and specialises in Place Value,
Operations + , Patterns with sequences, fractions and decimals. All types of
inter-relationships between them. Glance again at the contents of the literal infinite
nature of Whole and Rational Number.

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Year 7 Number. The calculator is introduced to a student of this year. The calculator
requires the right equation entered into it to produce the right answer. The numbers
are keyed into it left to right operation and another number left to right and then
equals. This talent requires reading of numerals and sequence of operation to be
perfect to receive the correct calculator driven answer. A skill of undoubtedly reading
and recording of number, operation and translating Mathematics that can be found on
the calculator. Highly numerical, highly operational and highly sequential actions to
drive the machine. Again Mathematical discipline that is gained from Cyclic
Addition.
Fractions mixed and otherwise require a simple whole number division. This is shown
in creating Pure Circular Fractions. To join the technique of finding a fraction ratio in
its decimal form or simpler form is given with Cyclic Addition Number.
The Purity of Cyclic Addition Whole Number prepares the way for a question of form
and subject applying Number. As all Whole Number is gradually discovered with
Cyclic Addition so to is the perfection of forming how Number applies to a given
situation. For example Count of edges on a shape, converting fractions, Metric
equivalents, cubic shapes stuck together, forming a simple fraction or rational
number, one or two operations upon a Number, increasing size of repeating shape to
find a numerical increase, data line and arrow to convey information, Digital and
analogue clocks and the conversion of a problem to Mathematical Logic and
numerical form shows a maturity with Mathematics.
Mathematical Concepts that directly use Number within a numeracy Curriculum
framework are also potentially endless. Just to name a few that apply to Number.
Average, older, find angle, litre, km, no of people, number words like one eighth,
ratio, how many, perimeter, number line, map scale, compass, tonnes, operations +
, hours and minutes, table of number and relationship to physical object count,
area, shape, half, one-quarter, not equal to, percentage, to mark an exam, age, largest,
dozen, equivalent, halfway, ordinal order of a pattern, temperature, number line,
profit, measuring container, distance and this is a small list from a couple of pages of
Naplan-Like test questions for Year 7. All the more reason to search for a Way to
instantaneously return Number to a perfect state. Rather than smashing all of the
above words and Mathematical logic questions against Number to form Number. In
the authors opinion Number can be perfectly applied to anything with the proviso that
Number itself is left untainted or deformed into an unnatural state.
Each way of communicating Mathematics via topic relies on a certain representation
of Number. There are a myriad of ways to converse with Number, while Number acts
as an agent to the terminology used. So why isnt there a way to return number to a
steady state ? To a uniform way being undisturbed by all this Mathematics that is
taught with an underlying assumption that Number remains forever Number. This
question of returning Number to that purity and perfection that it is just before you act
with it and again just after some Mathematical exercise. This is what this book and
practise of Cyclic Addition is attempting to achieve. To find a way a path a direction
to follow that brings Number back to that original steady state every time we act with
Number in any form.
Lets continue with Year 7 Number. Simple fractions require simple even rough
decimal equivalents. Cyclic Addition Rational Number uses both ratio of numerator
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and denominator and its exact decimal equality. Often requiring interchanging them
from one to the other. Operations with fractions likewise.
Year 7 Number Decimals. Constantly referring to how a fraction is made. This topic
could include the 3 types of fractions shown in Chapter Rational Number. Number
Sequences with a decimal place shows reliance upon continually using and
questioning the decimal place to learn where it comes from. A Number Line can be
viewed as the same numbers extended in a opposite direction. Ratio and Fraction go
hand in hand. Multiplying a constant like 1inch = 2.54cm to convert between imperial
and Metric Measures is made simple. An aboutness or magnitude of a Ratio to the
whole portion is perfect with Cyclic Addition Number. The continuously
incrementing counting sequence shows a numbers place amongst all other. This fact
gives a child exact proportions needed to master the art of Ratio and proportion.
Year 7 Patterns and Algebra. Cyclic Addition pattern making with Number is
undoubtedly the most all encompassing and complete way receive patterns. Again and
again simple object counting to reveal like patterns in match sticks, shapes,
tessellations, tiling and symmetry all use the formation of patterns with Number.
Invariably all patterns have some grouping and uniting within it so as to form the
pattern. Number plays an important role in receiving these patterns. Testing the
childs mind with a collision of two patterns within one sequence asks to destroy the
continuity of a natural occurring incrementing sequence. Cyclic Addition again
repairs this inter-play with Number. Number Grids are simpler to read. Algebraic
form comes invariably from a Numeric Pattern. These patterns eventually end up
upon a graph using equations. Algebra mostly shows the relationship that an unknown
quantity has with a known pattern. These are expressed in terms of an equation or
group of equations. Exponential patterns are shown for their nature with Cyclic
Addition pure circular fractions chapter.
Year 7 Space. Counting aids viewing cube shapes in all three directions. The Cyclic
Addition wheel is circular and makes for completeness with other shapes. Visualising
3D shapes with rotation and view upon 2D paper requires hands on memory of the
shape and rebuilding the perfect 3D shape over and over to make a 2D view. This is
used with cubes, prisms, pyramids, cylinders, spheres and the like. Also considering
the compass with rotation and reflection on a axis is simpler with a command of the
circle.
Year 7 Perimeter, Area and Volume. Multiplication where required. And knowing the
step by step Mathematical mechanics of the question to use a calculator. The keying
entry used to obtain to right answer requires mastery of again perfect Number and
perfect shape. Knowing formula aside number builds this basic mechanics of 2D and
3D relationships. The Number again should serve the inter-relationships amongst all
of these formula. So again a reliance upon starting with perfect Number to receive the
nature of this Mathematics Strand.
Year 7 Angles. The sum of angles from a formula again follows that of Space. Again
the requirement to manifest the shape from nothing and apply Mathematics to it. The
same goes with Number. How does one call upon this perfect mind of creating the
next numerical relationship without starting with perfect Number. Constant
manipulation of building 180o with triangle, 360o with circle and compass, 180o with
straight line, 120o with hexagon, other 2D shapes and again Number serves degrees of
angle.
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Year 7 Rates and Measurement. Speed has relativity for measure. Along with length,
volume of liquid, land area, time zone around the world, weight all apply Number
with a measure. All rely on this perfection of Number to return the relativity. While
the relativity or measure remains stable the Number varies and is reliant again upon
Number serving the relativity.
Year 7 Chance and Data. Probability is formed from fractions of the whole. Averages
or mean requires a total and number of numbers within that total. A combination of
formula and Number again to abide by probability laws. Now these Laws are
established ways of understanding how selecting a choice from alternatives given
randomness and proportion. Missing information often requires gluing known results
and piecing together the whole like a irregular shaped jig-saw. An example of this is
small business accounting where often not all the information to form proper accounts
is available and the Accountant is required to make judgements from the available
data. Dealing with Money requires many a formula to calculate a return or profit for
the investment. This year level is a beginning to a wider field of subjects stemming
from this Mathematics strand. Tables and Graphs almost always tabulate 2 aspects of
Number which is used to measure how these two interact. For example time and
temperature with the day. Outcomes from correctly reading the graph have dramatic
implications upon many lives.

Lets consider the Mathematics Curriculum of Year 9 in Secondary Schooling. This is


a list of Mathematics Outcomes that apply Number. Ponder over Number put into a
pure form, as does Cyclic Addition, perfecting the other strands and mathematical
content of the Curriculum. These outcomes are from a Year 9 Mathematics Text.
Number and Algebra. Find the highest common Factor of a set of Whole Number.
Use divisibility tests. Operate with Integer. Apply order to operations (bedmas).
Operate with Fractions and Decimals. Rounding decimal numbers. Using Percentages.
Convert between fractions, Decimals and Percentages. Use Ratios. Simplify
exponentials of algebra and number. Use a Calculator as and when required.
Algebra and expansion. Language of Algebra. Convert words to algebraic symbols.
Like terms in an algebraic expression. Add and Subtract Algebraic fractions. Multiply
and Divide algebraic fractions. Expand and simplify algebraic products (a+b)(c+d)
with Foil Rule. Simplify perfect Squares. Express in formula Perimeter and Area of
figure.
Surds and Pythagoras. Evaluate and approximate Square Roots. Operate with Surds.
Solve equations in form X2 =k. State Pythagoras Rule and Law. Find sides of Triangle
using Pythagoras. Right Angled Triangles. Test for Pythagorean Triples. Solve 2 and
3 dimensional geometric problems.
Percentages and Business Applications. Convert Fractions and decimals into
Percentages. And the Reverse. Express quantity as a percentage. Calculate Profit,
Loss and Discount. Act with Percentage and Money. Use Simple interest formula.
Perform Compound Interest calculations with formula. Interpret Graphs, Charts and
Tables and use percentage calculations to analyse information.
Measurement. Convert between units of Length, Area, Volume, Capacity. Calculate
perimeter of polygons and Circles. Formula for calculating areas of rectangles,
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triangles, Parallelograms, trapezia, Circles and ellipses. Surface Area of solids with
plane faces, cylinders and spheres. Select and Apply formulae in problem solving.
Coordinate Geometry. Plot points on 4 quadrants of the Cartesian Plane. Find
dependent and independent variables in a relationship. Use linear graphs in problem
solving. Join points of a graphs to make equation of straight line. Determine the slope
of a line and y intercept from y=mx+c. Use formula for slope of line. Find equations
from a line on a graph. Find point of intersection of two lines given equations.
Linear Equations and inequalities. Balance an equation. Use flow charts to build up
algebraic expressions. Solve linear equations by isolating the unknown. Solve
simultaneous equations. Use inequality signs <>=. Use a Number Line to show
solutions to linear inequalities. Translate information into algebraic expression. Find
unknown from a formula.
Geometry. Apply angle terms and theorems. Triangle terms and theorems. Find
Interior and exterior angles. Construct a triangle given sides and angles. Identify,
prove and state triangle congruence. Apply this in deductive proof. Use properties of
quadrilaterals in problem solving.
Statistics. Distinguish between categorical and quantitative discrete and continuous
data. Bias in Sample. Dependent and independent variable. Organise and display
discrete data by frequency table. Recognise symmetry and skewness of distribution.
Find mean, median and mode of data set. Also from a table, column graph or stem
and leaf plot. Use a graphics calculator or computer package to analyse dataset.
Compare and report on discrete data.
Factorisation and quadratic equations. Identify the Highest Common Factor in
algebraic expressions. Remove this from expressions. Factorise the difference of two
squares. Factorise quadratic trinomials in the form x2 +bx+c. Solve problems using
quadratic equations.
Chance. Describe probabilities in qualitative terms. Interpret numerical values from 0
to 1. Interpret table data from survey. Carry out chance investigations. Define a
sample space. Illustrate a sample space on a tree diagram or 2 dimensional grid. State
the connection between the probability of event and its complement. Multiply
probabilities to determine likelihood of two events occurring . Find probabilities from
sampling experiments. Use probabilities to find expected outcomes. Calculate the
probability of winning or losing from odds. Interpret probability situations from
technology.
Transformations and trigonometry. Define and recognise the transformations:
Translation, reflection, rotation and enlargement. Consequently draw image from
each. Determine centre and angle of rotation. Find centre of rotation symmetry. Find
axis of symmetry from figure. Find scale factor and centre from enlargement. Identify
similar triangles and solve problems. Use Scale diagrams. Determine the length of a
side from three sided right angle triangle. Find sin0, cos0 and tan0 from unit circle.
Use Calculator to find sin0, cos0 and tan0. Define three trigonometric ratios in a right
angled triangle. Choose and apply trig ratios to solve problems.
This list of outcomes shows Number is so inter-twined with almost all Mathematical
Strands of the current Curriculum. Consider a space in the Curriculum for Cyclic
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Addition. The Year 9 Level must complement the rest of the use of Number. Along
with other Cyclic Addition Topics like Circle, Rotation, Pattern, Rational Number,
Fibonacci Series, Common Multiple amidst a World of numerical interpretation.
There is definitely a balance between introducing perfect Number to use and apply
practically anywhere along the Primary and Secondary Schooling Years.
This balance of perfecting Number with Cyclic Addition Mathematics actually
perfects the other Strands that also apply Number. With the basics of Cyclic Addition
one is not interrupted by the constant abuse and overuse and repetitious destruction of
Number against Strands listed above. One can return Number to that steady state
discussed earlier. One can bring Number instantly to a perfect form based on the
talent of the student and teacher.
Number currently serves many a Strand within the Subject Mathematics and other
Subjects in later secondary schooling. Number must therefore be absolutely perfect so
that the content of assessable material presents its true scholastic message to the
student. This assessable material should not pin itself against number rather Number,
any number, should serve the Subject as a whole.
For example a graph with two axes, a dependent variable and an independent variable
both numeric. One should be able to interpret all the data of the graph with Number,
Pattern and Form. Even attaching a formula to express the data. Once the graph is
finished with, Number in the minds of the Student should return to a perfect state.
Thus Number with all of its Cyclic Addition attributes to create Number remains as it
is. The creation of Number must absolutely serve the rest of Mathematics. This tall
ask of Number is to completely surround Number with Cyclic Addition Mathematics.
All of its Laws and Protocol to create and form Number become paramount.
This text A New Invention: Cyclic Addition is Mathematics and Number for
Schooling years. Whether Number is created and formed in early Primary or is made
perfect with higher Tier Cyclic Addition in middle secondary school is no matter. The
grading to a specific Year Level is the heart of a Teacher with this Subject. To tailor
the knowledge and practise of Cyclic Addition to specific Year Levels and to those
exploring the Subject Mathematics and Number.
The Guidebook and Workbook detailed in Chapter Whats on the CD-Rom?
presents a methodical start to the discipline of Cyclic Addition. This begins to test the
infinite subject of Mathematical Number. Once the Workbook is complete the student
and teacher should be able to master Number in any given Mathematical situation.
And the journey of Cyclic Addition is infinite and endless enough to inspire all
creative minds with a heart for Mathematics.

123

Whats on the attached CD-Rom ?


The works of Cyclic Addition are considered to be the basic and complete building
blocks for Whole Number, Rational Number and their inter-relationships. The author
asserts that this is best taught in a school environment within the subject of
Mathematics. The Australian school system is believed to be the ideal starting place to
learn, to teach, to master Cyclic Addition Mathematics.
Cyclic Addition cannot be found, as yet in the year of this book, upon the internet.
Nor can it be found within a text book either Aussie or otherwise.
There are basically 4 pdf books. A Workbook, a Guidebook, a Wheels book and this
A new Invention: Cyclic Addition book. All of these books teach Cyclic Addition.
However the tailoring to a Primary School audience has been primarily the main
purpose of this book A new Invention: Cyclic Addition.
The Workbook has been made from Word and Excel tables. To start at a beginner
level Object Counting in a circle with pattern, grouping, order, circle and sequence.
To progress with replacing objects with 6 Numbers in a circular disc termed a
Wheel. This wheel is given as a framework to begin Counting with Number. This is
called Circular Addition as this consistently describes the action used by the child.
There are beginner pictures with each Counting sequence to aid the parallel learning
of counting with Objects and counting with Number. This Chapter is a fair wack of
the whole Workbook. Building the basics of circular Number. Without these beginner
basics the strength of the circular Wheel cannot be harness to the full.
The Workbook follows with Cyclic Addition Step by Step. First Basic Counting
with a 6 number Wheel and new Wheels with new Common Multiples are introduced.
The second Step Place Value beginner is combined with Counting so that both steps
follow after one another. There are considerable number of exercises and is for
mastery of each Common Multiple at a basic level. For lower primary Year levels this
may be plenty to master the use of the Cyclic Addition Wheel and Number.
The Workbook follows with Wheels which introduces new Common Multiples to the
Cyclic Addition Mathematics. There are 21 Wheels of which any can be copied onto a
page and work begun.
The Workbook follows with Advanced Place Value Step. Showing how to create
advanced place value and how to generate any place value set from a Wheel.
Beautiful inner workings of relationships with circle and wheel are presented.
The Workbook follows with Cyclic Addition Count + Place Value Advanced Level.
Instantly applying the previous chapters work to step by step Cyclic Addition. Again a
large Chapter with ample Place Value Mathematics to show the breadth and length of
how to form any Place Value Set from the Wheel. This step is fundamental to Cyclic
Addition. There are an abundance of unique Wheels and even blanks to entice
creativity and Mathematical expression with Cyclic Addition Mathematics.
The Workbook follows with Cyclic Addition Remainder + 7Multiple Steps
Advanced Level. This is simply a continuation of the previous Place Value Step,
again at an advanced level, to complete the unification of all Cyclic Addition Steps
discussed in earlier Chapters Cyclic Addition Step by Step. Again rather than
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duplicating the previous steps most of the Counting and Place Value Steps have been
filled in. Thus one can concentrate solely upon this Remainder and submitting a
Count Number to a 7Multiple.
The Workbook finishes with a rough direction to follow for those driven in the
Mathematical Field of Cyclic Addition Number. Suggesting the Student explores for
themselves the whole realm of Cyclic Addition. Covering multiples Tiers 1, 2 and 3.
Using a Remainder fully. Counting to even higher Tier 5. Finding the other multiple
within a Count. Applying Circular Addition to any Cyclic Addition Counting
sequence. Completely investigating the creation of all Place Value Sets.
The Guidebook is a book that is primarily Mathematics with just Number. It
contains a wonderful rendition of Cyclic Addition Number. The Circular Addition
Wheels are completely presented in a circular form. Portraying the mini-wheels of
Circular Addition perfectly. Mathematics of what to look for within Circular
Addition. So that no effort with the whole Cyclic Addition is ever wasted. All
contributes to a perfect whole.
The Guidebook continues with Circular Addition Answers. The Circular Addition
Sequence is given and the corresponding tables of numerical answers follow.
The Guidebook continues with Cyclic Addition with 6 Number sequences. Looking at
Mathematics within the sequence. And the Counting answers with Common Multiple
1 to 7 Wheels.
The Guidebook continues with Cyclic Addition Place Value and a complete Place
Value Table of all 270 Place Value Sets for Common Multiple 1. A handy reference
even for other Common Multiples to aid creating and inventing Place Values that
abide by the mini-wheel rotation laws.
The Guidebook continues with application and complete examples of the Place Value
Step. There are 7 Wheels given to example. And an amazing array of Place values just
for Count Number 144 and all possible Place Value Sets with all applicable and
relevant Common Multiples.
The Guidebook continues with Remainder. All complete 270 Place Value Sets for
Common Multiple 1 are given a single number Remainder. This shows the circular
nature of patterns and Remainder Laws that form with all Place Value Sets.
The Guidebook continues with the Cyclic Addition Step: Remainder and 7Multiple.
These are complete illustrative and comprehensive examples. Showing all Cyclic
Addition Steps 1 to 5 with easy to follow movements of the Wheel. There are 7
Common Multiples given to example.
The Guidebook continues with Cyclic Addition Hierarchy. Showing 7 examples of
multiple Tiers and higher Tier Cyclic Addition Counting. This is to show also the
sheer flexibility of Cyclic Addition to create a Count with multiple Tiers.
The Guidebook finishes with a complete 14 Counts for Tier 2 and 21 Counts for Tier
3. This presents advanced Mapping techniques used to navigate through all Count
sequences so as not to double up or miss any. And finally a conclusion of
Mathematics with just Number.
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The Wheels Book is from the Laws book presented to High Schools and Colleges in
2011. The Laws book has been deemed to be custom made and converted into this
book A New Invention: Cyclic Addition. As the teacher audience and schooling is
for Primary Level and this book has been written to suit.
The Wheels book shows all 69 Reference Pages. This is in exactly the same form as
the 1 page of wheels following Pure Circular Fraction 69. Showing common
multiple 1 Wheels for 7 Tiers as well as its connection with Pure Circular Fraction 69
and the Exponentials of 17n . See previous chapter Pure Circular Fractions for
illustration.
All of the numerators from 1 to 69 making Pure Circular Fraction 69 sequence are
shown. There is one Common Multiple per page. Complementing Common Multiples
adding to 69 are shown on opposite left and right opening pages.
When working with Cyclic Addition the Wheels Reference Page with a solitary
Common Multiple allows one to join Mathematical Number with inter-Tier
Mathematics. See Chapter Hierarchy. So this Reference Page is treated as a guide to
working with higher Tiers of the same Common Multiple. And is recommended to be
printed out completely for those Mathematicians delving into the higher Tiers with
finer and richer knowledge of Whole Integer Number. For space reasons only just
Common Multiple 1 has been included in this book.
There is a complete study of Pattern Making with any particular Common Multiple.
To prove, especially with higher Tier Number, that a Count Number belongs to a
certain Tier. For example the Tier 5 Wheel of Common Multiple 1 is 2401 7203
4802 14406 9604 12005. Any Count with this Wheel has a simple pattern of
moving the two numerals making units to the hundreds forming a multiple of 25.
24+01=25, 72+3=75, 48+2=50, 144+6=150, 96+4=100 and 120+5=125 all multiples
of 25. This pattern belonging to Common Multiple 1 can also be applied to other
Common Multiples. As once a Count is proved to have a pattern belonging to that
Wheel this joins the nature of the Common Multiple with the Cyclic Addition. As
mentioned there is a whole realm of Pattern Making with the book Wheels.
Together with the joining of a sequences of numerals within a Wheel to a Pure
Circular Fraction. Meshing Whole Number with Pure Circular Fraction is another area
of Pattern Making that this book has just touched upon. Thus the purpose of always
having on hand the collection of ordered Wheels.
A little history of the Wheels. This ordered collection of Wheels was created in 2002
and hand-written. The circular Wheels were instantly joined to the Pure Circular
Fraction 69 by exponentials of 7. As the top number of every Wheel is presented on
the Reference Page twice, once in a Wheel and once in the exponentials joining to the
Pure Circular Fraction. This Number is also termed throughout this book as the
Common Multiple. Later the 5 Step by Step Cyclic Addition Mathematics was
created. Templates to teach Cyclic Addition step by step like in the pdf Workbook
came a lot later. The Mathematics required a while to mature into a wholeness of an
Invention.
The mastery of English Language has various maturity stages in ones life with its
command of use. One hopes that those applying Cyclic Addition earlier and grow
with it, that they can choose the best Mathematical paths along their own journey.
126

Putting Cyclic Addition to the Test in the Classroom


Lets briefly contrast and complement Traditional Whole Number and Cyclic
Addition. The Curriculum Chapter briefs how Cyclic Addition can contribute to the
Subject Mathematics Years R-9.
By Year 9 the whole topic of Natural Whole Number has been assessed for Years.
And becomes an assumed knowledge. Whereas the parallel learning of Cyclic
Addition Whole Number can be assessed from Reception to Year 9+ with relevance
to the Year Level and ability of the student.
Firstly a Topic of Cyclic Addition is sighted and relevant assessable knowledge is
given. Bear in mind the completely practical Workbook (215pages) content is detailed
in Chapter Whats on the CD-Rom?.
The Wheel preserves the Sequence and Circle. See Mysteries and Cyclic Addition
Step by Step. Pure Circular Fractions also preserve the sequence and circle. Discuss
the Mathematics that preserves the Sequence and Circle.
Laws that govern Cyclic Addition Mathematics. The whole text is full of Laws and
guidelines to allow simpler achievement and mastery of Cyclic Addition. Wheel
Laws. Operations + acting in unison. How to preserve the Wheels Sequence
and Circle. Presentation requirements for example displaying the Wheel tier by tier on
the Counting Page. Cyclic Addition Step by Step. Counting clockwise in sequence
and forming progressive totals to master a Common Multiple. Place Value is always
from one of 30 mini-wheels and only 1 to 5 numbers in length. Move Tens to Units in
an order of the Wheel. Multiple Place Values converted to a single Remainder.
Revealing the 7Multiple to the Count via Remainder.
Circular Mathematics. The whole book exalts the Circle. Test the strength of the
Circle with Cyclic Addition Step by Step. For example Place Value choice is always
obedient to the Wheel and mini-wheel. Pure Circular Fractions are always in a
Circular form showing all numerators of a single denominator. The simple Object
Count within a Circular Sequence of 21 stars as the opening Chapter shows.
Pattern and Common Multiple. Each Wheel acting with Cyclic Addition has a
Common Multiple. Every Counts Step by Step Mathematics tests this Common
Multiple. All Patterns of a Wheels Common Multiple are revealed.
Proving all Counts have unique Consecutive Numbers. With any Wheel all Counting
no matter the Tier, one should be able to present all Counting without duplication and
without exclusion of possible Count Sequences. Presenting Tier 1 all 6 Counts. Tier 2
all 14 Counts. And Tier 3 and higher Tiers all 21 Counts for each Wheel. Requiring
manipulation of Wheel, Remainder, Common Multiple, Pattern and 7Multiple.
Wheels and their universality amongst all Cyclic Addition. What is common with the
Mathematics of all Wheels. The Structure of a Common Multiple Tier 1 to Tier 7.
Finding the Other Multiple within a Count. Place Value Selection. Remainder Laws
and Mathematics. Cycle end and tracking of Remainder. Inter-Tier Mathematics with
the 7Multiple and Remainder.

127

Circular Addition. Presenting all mini-wheels for Wheel 1 3 2 6 4 5 . Showing


repeating mini-wheels. Grouping mini-wheels by cycle total. See Chapter Circular
Addition with example Cycle Total 10. Discuss Number truths and Patterns of each
Total. The inherent Mathematics of each Total Number from 1 to 20. How does this
prepare the student for Cyclic Addition 6 number Sequences.
Ratio and Proportion. Rational Number specifically shows Pure Circular Fractions
complete. List all decimal Fractions of a PCF denominator where all numerators are
found within a single set of circular sequences. Create a PCF See Chapter PCF. Show
the infinite nature to a PCF and a Fibonacci Sequence. Show the convergence to a
perfect irrational Number from a Whole Number Sequence. And join this Whole
Number sequence to a PCF.
Magnitude and Size. Counting with Cyclic Addition for all 6 Tier 1 Counts presents a
knotting and meshing of incrementing Number all with the same Common Multiple.
Cyclic Addition Mathematics of the Wheel presents the Size of a Number with Count,
with Place Value and Again with Remainder + 7Multiple. These three Mathematical
methods build and form the Size of a Number all in unison with Common Multiple.
Operations + are all serve the Cyclic Addition order and Law. See Chapter
Operations + . Literally how is one Count connected to another. How is a
Common Multiple mastered. Build a Place Value from the Wheel. Prove the Count is
from the Wheel. Use Pattern, use Wheel Mathematics of Count Sequence, Place
Value, Remainder + 7Multiple. Whole Number is shown with Step by Step
Arithmetic and Mathematics. Pure Circular Fractions with a Working Number.
Common Multiple and Factors. All Counts with a Wheel all have the Same Common
Multiple regardless of the Tier. All factors from 1 to the end of the Count Sequence
are presented. This Cyclic Addition meshing, banding and weaving of Count
Sequences unites each Count with all others of both the same Common Multiple and
Whole Number complete.
Wheel Mathematics with 1 3 2 6 4 5 . Show how Multiples of 1 to 6 are
perfectly presented by just Counting with the Wheel. For example 3 is shown by
(1+3+2)+(6)+(4+5) and (3)+(2+6+4)+(5+1). All 6 starts show multiples of 3 with this
Common Multiple 1 Wheel.
Cyclic Addition Step by Step. All Steps are given to test in the Workbook. See
Chapter Whats on the CD-Rom?
Joining Tiers with Cyclic Addition. Using a Reference Page with 7 Tiers of a given
Common Multiple from 1 to 69. See Guidebook on the CD-Rom for Multi-Tier
Mathematics examples.
Counting Backwards. Finding 6 new Tier 1 Counting Sequences with the same Wheel
by Counting Backwards. Presentation requirements. Tracking and Mapping
techniques.
Unify Whole Number with Pure Circular Fractions. See same name Chapter.
Understand the relationship between circular Counting with Whole Numbers and
Circular sequences of Number with Pure Circular Fractions.
128

Emphasis on Cyclic Addition Number has a Chapter of its own. These topics listed in
the Chapter A Collection of Emphasis are highly practical and easily assessable
within the Cyclic Addition framework. These are merely listed rather than presenting
a duplicated content within Cyclic Addition.
The Tier.
The Other Multiple.
How the Remainder Resists the Count.
Making 7Multiples from within the Count Sequence.
Finding the Difference.
The next Tier 7Multiple.
The Hierarchy for a Common Multiple.
The Remainder Pattern.
The way all Counts of a Common Multiple mesh, band, weave and rope together.
Advanced Place Value Sets.
Positions of the Cyclic Addition 6 Numbers around the Wheel.
Prove the Count is a Common Multiple and Tier of the Counting Wheel.
In Conclusion this book presents a way, perhaps the first, way to apply and study
Number. There are many ways to navigate through Cyclic Addition. This presentation
of Numerical knowledge is intentionally both new and original. Thus one hopes that
Cyclic Addition is given a fair hearing along with other Laws of Mathematics.
Natural Number or Whole Number is a big topic to tackle. Used everywhere across
the globe and its numerals presented in a common form from 0 to 9. Cyclic Addition
is put side by side of our current Numeric System of a questionably out dated, place
value position system reliant on just Base 10 Mathematics to connect numerals
forming a Number.
Cyclic Addition adheres to many existing Mathematical Laws of Number. For
example Operations + acting upon Number and existing laws of Number are
preserved. The universality of Number remains as it is. The applications of Number,
where both the historical use of Number and the new Cyclic Addition Number can be
seen side by side.
Cyclic Addition asks for an opportunity to be tested in a school/college environment.
Leading to individual student creations of Number from a Cyclic Addition standpoint.
This allows development of how to Teach Cyclic Addition Mathematics at the
school level.
The timeless nature of the Cyclic Addition Mathematics makes it attractive to Teach
and Learn. A Subject of Mathematics and the Strand of Number within it will be
taught for many a year to come. The challenge for the Teacher is to find a way to
Teach Cyclic Addition appropriate to match the academic skill at each Year Level.
All the while not limiting a Student gifted or talented within the Subject.

129

Cyclic Addition Sequences for tier 1 & 2


1
3
2
6
4
7
21
14
42
28

Multiple
of 7
147
154
161
168
175
182
189
196
203
210
217
224
231
238
245
252
259
266
273
280
287
294

Counts
6
3
3
6
3
3
6
3
3
6
3
3
6
3
3
6
3
3
6
3
3
6

5
35

7
28
42
84
112

21
35
77
105
140

14
56
84
119
126

42
70
105
112
133

28
63
70
91
105

35
42
63
77
119

147
154

147

147

147

147

147

1
4
6
12
16
21
22
25
27
33
37
42
49
70
84
126

4
9
10
13
15
21
56
63
84
98
140

168

175

175
182

189

182
189

189

168
175

168

217
224
231

161
168

189
196

210

189

196
210

210

203
210

203
210

217
224

231

231
238

252

252
259

259

231
238

252

238
252

245
252

245

245
252

266

266
273

273

280
294

224
231

231

259

266
273
287
294

161
168

182
189
196

203
210
217

1
4
6
12
16
21
63
91
126
133

294

3
5
11
15
20
21
24
26
32
36
41
42
77
84
105
119

154

161
168

294

5
6
9
11
17
21
42
56
98
126

154

273

273

273
280

308
315
336
350
392

301

280
294

287

287

329
357
392

315
350
357
378
392

294
301
336
343

130

3
5
11
15
20
21
49
84
91
112
126

2
8
12
17
18
21
28
49
63
105
133

6
10
15
16
19
21
27
31
36
37
40
42
48
52
57
58
61
63
98
105
126
140

315
343

315
322
343

308

147
154
161
168
175
182
189
196
203
210
217
224
231
238
245
252
259
266
273
280
287
294

Cyclic Addition Sequences Tiers 1, 2 & 3


1
3
2
6
4
5
7
21
14
42
28
35
49
147
98
294
196
245

Multiple
of 49 Counts
1029
6
1078
6
1127
6
1176
6
1225
6
1274
6
1323
6
1372
6
1421
6
1470
6
1519
6
1568
6
1617
6
1666
6
1715
6
1764
6
1813
6
1862
6
1911
6
1960
6
2009
6
2058
6

49
196
294
588
784

147
245
539
735
980

98
392
588
833
882

294
490
735
784
931

196
441
490
637
735

245
294
441
539
833

1029
1078

1029

1029

1029

1029

1029

2
8
12
17
18
21
42
56
98
343
392
539
637
931

1176

1323

1274
1323

1323
1421
1519
1568

1617

1372

1274
1372

1078

1421
1470

1176

1764
1862

1323
1421
1470
1519

1666
1715

1666
1715

1715

1715

1715
1764

1813

1813

1813

1862
1911

1519
1568
1617

1617
1715
1764

1813
1862

1225
1274

1421

1519
1568
1617
1666

1666

1911

2058

1127

1274

1568

1862

2058

1127

3
5
11
15
20
21
42
56
98
126
161
168
189
203
245
392
490
784
980

1372

1862

1911

1960

1911
1960

2009
2058

1176

1127
1176

35
42
63
77
119
147
441
637
882
931

1225

1470

1568

1960

28
63
70
91
105
147
294
392
686
882

1225

1421

1764

42
70
105
112
133
147
392
441
588
686
980

4
9
10
13
15
21
42
56
98
196
490
686
931
980

1323
1372

1666

1960
2009
2058

1176

1617

1862
1911

6
10
15
16
19
21
49
245
490
539
686
784

7
28
42
84
112
147
154
175
189
231
259
294
539
588
735
833

1078

1519

1666
1764
1813

5
6
9
11
17
21
49
84
91
112
126
168
196
392
637
686
833
931

1078

1470

1617

1764

1323
1372

1470
1568

1813

14
56
84
119
126
147
343
588
637
784
882

1274
1372
1421

1470
1519

3
5
11
15
20
21
49
343
539
784
833
980

1176
1225

1225
1274

1
4
6
12
16
21
49
98
245
343
637
833

1078
1127

1127

1225

2058

21
35
77
105
140
147
196
343
441
735
931

1078
1127

2009

1911
1960

1960
2009

2009

2009

2058

2156
2401
131

7
28
42
84
112
147
154
175
189
231
259
294
343
490
588
882

1
4
6
12
16
21
42
56
98
126
161
168
189
203
245
441
686
735
882
980

2107
2352
2401

2205
2254
2401

2107
2156
2303
2401

2107
2401

2205
2401

2303
2499
2744

2254
2450
2695
2744

2107
2303
2548
2597
2744

2205
2450
2499
2646
2744

2156
2205
2352
2450
2744

2156
2254
2548
2744

2156
2352
2597

2107
2205
2499
2695
2940

2254

49
196
294
588
784
Multiple
of 49 Counts
1029
6
1078
6
1127
6
1176
6
1225
6
1274
6
1323
6
1372
6
1421
6
1470
6
1519
6
1568
6
1617
6
1666
6
1715
6
1764
6
1813
6
1862
6
1911
6
1960
6
2009
6
2058
6

1029
1078

1
4
6
12
16
21
49
98
245
343
637
833

28
63
70
91
105
147
294
392
686
882

21
35
77
105
140
147
196
343
441
735
931

3
5
11
15
20
21
42
56
98
126
161
168
189
203
245
392
490
784
980

245
294
441
539
833

7
28
42
84
112
147
154
175
189
231
259
294
343
490
588
882

2
8
12
17
18
21
42
56
98
343
392
539
637
931

42
70
105
112
133
147
392
441
588
686
980

1029
1078
1127

1127
1176

1274
1323
1372

1372
1421

1421
1470

1470
1519

1519
1568

1617

1568
1617

1666

1666
1764
1813

1862

2156
2401

2205
2450
2499
2646
2744

1764
1813
1862

2205
2401

2254
2450
2695
2744

2303
2499
2744

1911
1960

2009
2058

2156
2352
2597

1862
1911

1960
2009

2107
2303
2548
2597
2744

1568

1715
1764
1813

1911

2058

2107
2352
2401

1519

1666
1715
1764

1862

2009

2254
2205
2254
2401

1666
1715

1960

2058

1470

1617

1911
1960

2058

2156
2205
2352
2450
2744

1617
1666

1813

1911
2009

1421

1568

1764

1862
1960

2107
2156
2303
2401

1568
1617

1813

1911

1372

1519

1715
1764

1862

1274
1323

1470
1519
1568

1176
1225

1274

1666
1715

1813

1225

1617

1715

1127
1176

1421
1470
1519

1029

1127

1372
1421
1470

147
245
539
735
980

1078

1176

1323
1372
1421

35
42
63
77
119
147
441
637
882
931

4
9
10
13
15
21
42
56
98
196
490
686
931
980

1029

1127

1274
1323
1372

98
392
588
833
882

1078

1225
1274
1323

3
5
11
15
20
21
49
343
539
784
833
980

1029

1176
1225
1274

294
490
735
784
931

1078
1127

1176
1225

14
56
84
119
126
147
343
588
637
784
882

1
4
6
12
16
21
42
56
98
126
161
168
189
203
245
441
686
735
882
980

1029
1078

1225
1323

196
441
490
637
735

6
10
15
16
19
21
49
245
490
539
686
784

7
28
42
84
112
147
154
175
189
231
259
294
539
588
735
833

5
6
9
11
17
21
49
84
91
112
126
168
196
392
637
686
833
931

1960
2009

2058

2107
2401

2107
2205
2499
2695
2940

2009
2058

2156
2254
2548
2744
132