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MAPUA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY

Department of Physics
E302: HEAT AND CALORIMETRY
BUNDALIAN, Patrick John Edbert G.
patrickbundalian@g.c/2010140216/CPE-3
PHY12L-A1 Group 3

SCORE
Signed Data Sheet
(5)

Objective
(5)

Materials & Method


(10)

Observations and
Results (20)
Discussion &
Conclusion

=
=
=
=
=

(20)

Acknowledgment
& References (10)
Performance
(30)

TOTAL
(100)

August 10, 2015

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E302: HEAT AND CALORIMETRY


BUNDALIAN, Patrick John Edbert G.

OBJECTIVE
The experiment was carried out with the
intention to determine the specific heat of
a metal and the latent heat of fusion of an
ice. In addition, this experiment was
conducted to provide feasible explanation
to the theory governing heat and
calorimetry as defined in the equation:
=
It is no secret that when two bodies, which
are initially at different temperatures, are
placed in close contact, in time the
temperatures of the bodies will reach a
point of equilibrium. Provided no heat is
either lost or gained at the setting, the
quantity of heat lost by the hot body shall
be equal to the quantity gained by the cold
body:
=
It is assumed that the transfer of heat
between the thermometer and the system
is miniscule so there is no surprise that it
can be neglected.
If the net heat exchange with the
surrounding can be controlled to small
quantities, then the heat lost by the metal
sample shall roughly be the same as the
heat gained by the water and the
calorimeter cup!
MATERIALS AND METHODS

The following are the materials used in the


whole experiment (from left to right): (a)
Digital weighing scale, (b) Calorimeter, (c)
Aluminum and Brass, (d) Beaker, (e)
Thermometers, and (f) Portable stove.
(Please see figure 1)
For the first part, tap water was boiled for
the purpose of obtaining the specific heat
of both aluminum and brass. Please note
that due to the laboratorys airconditioning, the stoves heat was set to
max. (Please see figure 2)

Figure 2. Tap water was boiled and at the same


time, tap waters initial temperature was obtained.

Before submerging the metals in the


beaker with boiling water (Please see figure
3), the mass of both metals mm using the
digital weighing scale was obtained so as
the mass of the calorimeter mc and the
mass of the calorimeter with tap water. To
obtain the mass of the tap water mw
contained inside the calorimeter, the
obtained mass of the calorimeter with
water was simply subtracted by the mass
of calorimeter mc.

Figure 1. The materials used in the experiment.


Figure 3. Brass was heated in the boiling water.
The calorimeter was placed near to preserve heat.

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Aluminum was submerged in the boiling


water for roughly 10 minutes, this was
done to make sure that the metal will
conduct sufficient heat. The calorimeter
was placed near the stove; the principle
behind that was to lessen the time to
transfer the metal into the calorimeter
ensuring that the heat conducted by the
metal was preserved to near 100oC. This
method was also done obtaining the
specific heat of brass.
The aluminum was transferred inside the
calorimeter with tap water. Hot water is
denser than cold water hence to hasten the
process of heat exchange, stirrer was used
to mix the hot (ensued by the heat coming
from the metal) and cold water inside the
calorimeter by moving it up (supplying hot
water into the surface) and down
(supplying cold water into the bottom).
(Please see figure 4) The heat of the
mixture tmix was then recorded after the
observing that the thermometers indicator
ceased from increasing. That simply meant
that the systems temperature reached
equilibrium and heat exchange was
completed. The same procedure was done
to brass.
Thermometer

Metal

Tap water

After, ice was poured into the calorimeter.


(Please see figure 5)

Figure 5. Ice and hot water were poured inside


the calorimeter.

The thermometers temperature indicator


abrupltly decreased after the stirrer was
used to hasten the heat exchange. (Please
see figure 6)
Thermometer

Ice

Tap water

Stirrer

Calorimeter

Figure 6. Stirrer was used to hasten the heat


exchange ensued by the ice.

Stirrer

Calorimeter

Figure 4. Stirrer was used to hasten the heat


exchange ensued by the metal.

When the ice melted completely so the


equilibrium temperature was achieved, it
was the time to obtain the mass of the ice.
(Please see figure 7) First, the mass of the
calorimeter with melted ice was recorded;
after, the mass of the calorimeter with hot
water was subtracted to the mass of the
calorimeter with melted ice.

For the second part of the experiment, hot


water was poured into the calorimeter for
the purpose of obtaining the latent heat of
fusion of ice. The initial temperature of the
hot water was recorded. The mass of the
hot water was obtained by subtracting the
mass of the calorimeter to the mass of the
calorimeter with hot water.
Figure 7. Ice melted; equilibrium of temperature
achieved. Time to determine the mass of ice.

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OBSERVATIONS AND RESULTS


Due to the cool temperature of the setting,
the experimental value of the results,
involving heat, did not bode well with the
supposed results we should have obtained
as seen in this experiment the
percentage of error became inevitably
high.
To determine the specific heat of the two
metals in the first experiment, this formula
was used:

= +

reflected in the table (Please see table 1):


[134.8(1)(33 29) + 46.9(0.217)(33 29)]
33.4(33 29)

Table 1. Det. SH of Metal

Here is the computation to come up with a


value for the latent heat of fusion of ice as
reflected in the table (Please see table 2):
=

|46.9(0.217)(4773)+198.8(4773)|35.8(1)(470)
33.8

Trial 1

Trial 2

46.9g

46.9g

Mass of water, mw

198.5g

186.2g

Mass of mixture, mmix

234.3g

232g

mass of ice, mi

35.8

45.8

Initial temperature of ice, toi

0C

0C

Initial temp. of calorimeter,


toc

73C

80C

Initial temp. of water, tow

73C

80C

Final temp. of mixture, tmix

47C

46C

LH of fusion, LF

104.553
cal/g

99.782cal/g

Actual Specific LH of fusion,


LF

80 cal/g

80 cal/g

Percentage of error

30.692
%

24.728%

Mass of calorimeter, mc

.
Al

Brass

Mass of metal , mm

33.4g

49.96g

Mass of calorimeter, mc

46.9g

46.9g

134.8g

142.8g

Initial temp. of metal, tom

80C

73C

Initial temp. of
calorimeter, toc

29C

29C

Initial temp. of water, tow

29C

29C

Final temp. of mixture, tmix

33C

31C

SH of metal, cm

0.3694ca
l/g-C

0.1469ca
l/g-C

Act. SH of metal, cm

0.2174
cal/g-C

0.0917
cal/g-C

Percentage of error

69.925%

60.161%

Mass of water, mw

= + ( 0)

Table 2. LH of Fusion of Ice

Here is the computation to come up with a


value for the specific heat of aluminum as

= 0.3694

= +

= 104.553

To determine the latent heat of fusion of ice


in the second experiment, this formula was
used:

DISCUSSION & CONCLUSION


This experiment is the perfect example why
having a controlled room temperature
when conducting heat transfer experiments
is vital because the core principle of each
trials boiled down to how the surroundings

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temperature is a prime catalyst to a bodys


temperature. This can better be illustrated
by picturing and analyzing the effect of
submerging ice, which is solid, in the
calorimeter with hot water almost
instantly, the ice melted into liquid form
because the ice absorbed the heat from the
hot water. The same goes when the heated
metal was submerged in the calorimeter
with tap water this time however, the
metal cooled because the tap water, which
is cooler than the metal, absorbed its heat.
This principle of heat transfer is called
conduction.
As observed in both part 1 and part 2 of the
experiment, the stirrer was pulled up and
down to hasten heat exchange. The idea
behind that, in my opinion, is to introduce
heat from the bottom of the calorimeter to
the surface of the calorimeter and to
introduce coldness from the surface of the
calorimeter to the bottom of the
calorimeter respectively. The principle
behind that is called convection as it talks
about how the hot part of a liquid, being
dense, will be forced at the bottom and the
cold part, being less dense, surfaces.
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT & REFERENCE

and how scooping the bottom part of the


coffee and pouring it back into the cup
looks more posh but at the same time
consumes less energy while ensuing same
effects as stirring the beverage while
blowing it in the attempt to cool it fast. I
acknowledge Sir De Leons meticulous
introduction and instructions; I really savor
the idea that eventually he gives out tips
on how to make the experimentation
process easier, practical, and most
importantly logical saving yourself from
giving common sense a bad name. And
last, I acknowledge the unubuiquitous
feeling of guidance from above you just
know youre favored.
Here the links of my trusted pages:
[1]http://www.asminternational.org/docu
ments/asmreadyreference/
[2]http://www.aplusphysics.com/courses/
honors/calorimetry.html
[3]http://www.owlnet.rice.edu/~msci301/
calorimetry.pdf
[4]http://www.bookrags.com/research/calorim

etry-woc/

As usual, this paper is not fully my


brainchild. So I give full credence to the
people and written materials who and
which helped me accomplish this work with
only few notable encountered difficulties
typing the entirety of this work being the
first.
I wont be a hypocrite not to acknowledge
my groupmates candid posts in our group.
These innocent posts shedded light on how
I will tackle the bumpy parts of this
experiment without having to suffer it first
before I get results. I acknowledge Maam
Novidas lecture, yet again, especially the
part where she talked about convection

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