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Additional Examples of Chapter 3:

Discrete-Time Signals and Systems in the Frequency Domain


Example E3.1: Determine the DTFT X(e j ) of the causal sequence

x[n] = A n cos(o n + )[n],

where A, , o , and are real.

n e

j0 n j
e

+ e j0 ne j
[n]
2

Answer: x[n] = cos(o n + )[n] = A

A j
A j
j n
j
e e o [n]+ e
e o [n] . Therefore,
=
2
2
1
1
A j
A j
j
X(e ) = e
+ e
j
j .

j
j
2
1 e e o 2
1 e e o
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Example E3.2: Determine the inverse DTFT h[n] of


H(e j ) = (3 + 2 cos + 4 cos2 )cos( / 2)e j / 2 .

e j + e j
e j2 + e j2 e j /2 + e j/ 2 j / 2
Answer: H(e j ) = 3 + 2
+
4


e
2
2
2

1
= 2 e j2 + 3e j + 4 + 4e j + 3e j2 + 2e j3 . Hence, the inverse of H(e j ) is a
2
length-6 sequence given by h[n] = [1 1.5 2 2 1.5 1], 2 n 3.
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Example E3.3: Let X(e j ) denote the DTFT of a real sequence x[n]. Determine the inverse
DTFT y[n] of Y(e j ) = X(e j3 ) in terms of x[n].

(
(

)
)

Answer: Y(e j ) = X(e j3 ) = X (e j )3 . Now, X(e j ) = = x[n]e jn . Hence,


n

j
jn
j 3
jn 3
Y(e ) =
y[n]e
= X (e ) =
x[n](e
) =
x[m / 3]e jm .
n =
m=
n =

x[n], n = 0, 3, 6,K
Therefore, y[n] =
otherwise.
0,
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Example E3.4: Without computing the DTFT, determine whether the following DTFT has an
inverse that is even or an odd sequence:
n3 , N n N,
x[n] =
0,
otherwise.
3

Answer: Since ( n) = n , x[n] is an odd sequence with an imaginary-valued DTFT.


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Additional Examples of Chapter 3:


Discrete-Time Signals and Systems in the Frequency Domain
Example E3.5: Let X(e j ) denote the DTFT of a real sequence x[n]. Determine the DTFT
Y(e j ) of the sequence y[n] = x[n] * x[n].
Answer: Let u[n] = x[n], and let X(e j ) and U(e j ) denote the DTFTs of x[n] and u[n],
respectively. From the convolution property of the DTFT given in Table 3.4, the DTFT of y[n]
= x[n] * u[n] is given by Y(e j ) = X(e j ) U(e j ) . From Table 3.4, U(e j ) = X(e j ). But
2

from Table 3.2, X(e j ) = X *(e j ). Hence, Y(e j ) = X(e j ) X * (e j )= X(e j ) which is
real-valued function of .
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Example E3.6: Without computing the inverse DTFT, determine whether the inverse of the
DTFT shown in Figure E3.1 is an even or an odd sequence.
j

X(e )

Figure E3.1
Answer: X(e j ) is a real-valued function of . Hence, its inverse is an even sequence.
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Example E3.7: A sequence x[n] has zero-phase DTFT as shown in Figure E3.2 Sketch the
DTFT of the sequence x[n]e jn / 3.
j
X(e )

/ 3

/3

Figure E3.2
Answer: From the frequency-shifting property of the DTFT given in Table 3.4, the DTFT of
x[n]e jn / 3 is given by X(e j( + /3) ). A sketch of this DTFT is shown below.

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Additional Examples of Chapter 3:


Discrete-Time Signals and Systems in the Frequency Domain
X(e j(+ /3) )
1

2 / 3 / 3

/3

2 / 3

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Example E3.8: Consider {x[n]} = {3 0 1 2 3 4 1 0 1}, 3 n 5, with a DTFT

given by X(e j ) . Evaluate the following functions of X(e j ) without computing the transform
itself: (a) X(e j0 ) , (b) X(e j ), (c)

j0

(c)
(d)
(e)

X(e

)d, (d)

X(e j ) d , and (e)

2
dX(e j )
d.
d

x[n] = 3 +1 2 3 + 4 +1 1 = 3.

n=

x[n] e jn = 3 1 2 + 3 + 4 1 +1 = 1.

n =

X(e

X(e

Answer: (a) X(e ) =

(b) X(e j ) =

)d = 2 x[0] = 4 .

j 2

) d = 2

j 2

x[n] 2 = 82 . (Using Parseval's relation)

n =

dX(e )
d = 2
d

n x[n] 2 = 378. (Using Parseval's relation with differentiation-

n =

in-frequency property)
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