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TRANSPORTATION

Pressure Drop in

Pipe Systems

Lesson Outcomes

At the end of lecture, students should be

able to:

Explain the basic principles to determine

pressure drops in piping

Describe flow equations for liquid flow and

compressible flow

Apply flow equations to calculate pressure

drop in various types of pipe

Lecture Outline

Introduction

determination

Fluid flow equations

Liquid flow

Gas flow

Examples

Introduction

Piping

selection of pipe diameter and wall thickness.

The pipe size selected must be sufficient to transport

fluid from one point to the other (e.g. one process

equipment to another).

The concepts of pressure drop are applied for all

types of pipe.

Basic Principles

In pressure drop calculation, the basic principles of

1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

Reynolds Number

Flow Regimes

Bernoullis Theorem

Darcy-Weisbach Equation

Moody friction factor

Invented by Osborne Reynolds in the 1880s

Expressed by general equation:

( S .G)Ql

For liquid: Re 92.1 d

For gases:

Re 20100

Qg S

d

DV

Re

Describe nature of fluid flow

Laminar

A stable well-ordered state of fluid flow in which all pairs of

adjacent fluid particles move alongside one another forming

laminates

Characterized by smooth streamline and highly ordered motion

Re<2000

Turbulent

Characterized by velocity fluctuations and highly disordered

motion

Re>4000

Energy contained in fluids is expressed in terms of

height or head of a column of the fluid.

Bernoullis theorem breaks down the total energy at

a point in terms of

1.

2.

3.

energy

A pressure head due to the potential energy contained in the

pressure in the fluid at that point

A velocity head due to the kinetic energy contained in the

fluid

Assume :

1.

No energy added to the fluid by pump or compressor

2.

Fluid is not performing work

2

V1

P2 V22

Z1 144 Z 2 144 H L

1 2 g

2 2 g

P1

States that friction head loss between two points in a

proportional to velocity head and the length of pipe

and inversely proportional to the pipe diameter

fLV 2

HL

D2 g

The Darcy-Weisbach equation forms the basis for

loss in specific applications

The friction factor fudge factor already takes

into account the viscosity, density and internal

pipe roughness

How to find friction factor?

Moody Diagram

Fanning friction factor

Determined from Moody resistance diagram

64

f

Re

Laminar Flow (Re<2000)

Friction factor, f has a direct relationship to the Reynolds number

Pipe roughness has no effect on the friction factor

f=16/Re

Pf 0.000668

LV

d2

Friction factor, f depends on Reynolds number and the relative

roughness of the pipe, /D

f=0.042/Re0.194 (large pipe >8)

f=0.042/Re0.172 (small pipe 8)

2 fLV 2

Pf

x

gc d

Few flow problems can be solved with an acceptable degree

application.

Flow regimes and associated pressure drop discontinuities

are complex phenomena and require complex equations to

predict their relationships.

For engineering design purposes, several empirical

formulae have been developed to fit particular

circumstances in predicting flow capacity and pressure

drop

For liquid flow:

Darcy-Weisbach

Equation

General Equation

Hazen Williams Equation

For gas flow:

General Equation

Weymouth Equation

Panhandle Equation

Spitzglass Equation

For two-phase flow

Darcy-Weisbach Equation

General Equation

fLV 2

P 0.0013

d

fLQl2 ( S .G.)

P (11.5 10 )

d5

Hazen-Williams formula

Q11.85L

H L 0.015 4.87 1.85

d C

General Equation

d P P 2

Qg 0.199

ZT1 fLS

5

Panhandle A Equation

2

1

2

2

P P

Qg 0.020 E

ZT1 Lm S

2

1

2

2

0.853

0.058

2.62

d

Panhandle B Equation

P P

Qg 0.028E

ZT1Lm S

2

1

2

2

0.961

0.51

2.53

d

Weymouth Equation

2

2

2

P

2

Qg 1.11d 2.67 1

ZT1 LS

Spitzglass Equation

1

hw d 5

Qg 0.09

3.6

LS

1

0.03d

Recommended guidelines for the usage of

GAS FLOW EQUATION

USAGE

GENERAL EQUATION

WEYMOUTH EQUATION

Within production facilities where

Reynolds Number are expected to be

high

PANHANDLE EQUATION

SPITZGLASS EQUATION

diameter

5 minutes Q & A

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