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OIL AND GAS

TRANSPORTATION

Pressure Drop in
Pipe Systems

Lesson Outcomes
At the end of lecture, students should be

able to:
Explain the basic principles to determine
pressure drops in piping
Describe flow equations for liquid flow and
compressible flow
Apply flow equations to calculate pressure
drop in various types of pipe

Lecture Outline
Introduction

Basic principles applied for pressure drop

determination
Fluid flow equations
Liquid flow
Gas flow
Examples

Introduction
Piping

design in production facilities involves


selection of pipe diameter and wall thickness.
The pipe size selected must be sufficient to transport
fluid from one point to the other (e.g. one process
equipment to another).
The concepts of pressure drop are applied for all
types of pipe.

Basic Principles
In pressure drop calculation, the basic principles of

fluid mechanics are applied. It includes:


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Reynolds Number
Flow Regimes
Bernoullis Theorem
Darcy-Weisbach Equation
Moody friction factor

Basic Principles Reynolds Number


Invented by Osborne Reynolds in the 1880s

A dimensionless parameter that relates the ratio of

inertial forces to viscous forces


Expressed by general equation:

( S .G)Ql
For liquid: Re 92.1 d

For gases:

Re 20100

Qg S
d

DV
Re

Basic Principles Flow Regimes


Describe nature of fluid flow

Two basic flow regimes for single-phase fluid:


Laminar
A stable well-ordered state of fluid flow in which all pairs of
adjacent fluid particles move alongside one another forming
laminates
Characterized by smooth streamline and highly ordered motion
Re<2000

Turbulent
Characterized by velocity fluctuations and highly disordered
motion
Re>4000

Basic Principles Bernoullis Theorem


Energy contained in fluids is expressed in terms of

the potential energy contained in an equivalent


height or head of a column of the fluid.
Bernoullis theorem breaks down the total energy at
a point in terms of
1.

2.

3.

The head due to its elevation above datum of zero potential


energy
A pressure head due to the potential energy contained in the
pressure in the fluid at that point
A velocity head due to the kinetic energy contained in the
fluid

Basic Principles Bernoullis Theorem


Assume :
1.
No energy added to the fluid by pump or compressor
2.
Fluid is not performing work
2

V1
P2 V22
Z1 144 Z 2 144 H L
1 2 g
2 2 g
P1

Basic Principles Darcy-Weisbach Equation


States that friction head loss between two points in a

completely filled, circular cross section is


proportional to velocity head and the length of pipe
and inversely proportional to the pipe diameter

fLV 2
HL
D2 g

Basic Principles Darcy-Weisbach Equation


The Darcy-Weisbach equation forms the basis for

numerous other equations to determine pressure


loss in specific applications
The friction factor fudge factor already takes
into account the viscosity, density and internal
pipe roughness
How to find friction factor?

Moody Diagram
Fanning friction factor

Basic Principles Moody Friction Factor


Determined from Moody resistance diagram

Friction factor is a function of the Reynolds number

and the relative roughness of the pipe

For Laminar flow,

64
f
Re

For turbulent flow,

f is a function of both pipe

roughness and Reynolds number

Basic Principles Moody Diagram

Basic Principles Moody Friction Factor

Basic Principles Fanning Friction factor


Laminar Flow (Re<2000)
Friction factor, f has a direct relationship to the Reynolds number
Pipe roughness has no effect on the friction factor
f=16/Re

Pf 0.000668

LV
d2

Turbulent Flow (Re>4000)


Friction factor, f depends on Reynolds number and the relative
roughness of the pipe, /D
f=0.042/Re0.194 (large pipe >8)
f=0.042/Re0.172 (small pipe 8)

2 fLV 2
Pf
x
gc d

Fluid Flow Equations


Few flow problems can be solved with an acceptable degree

of accuracy when using equations designed to fit idealized


application.
Flow regimes and associated pressure drop discontinuities
are complex phenomena and require complex equations to
predict their relationships.
For engineering design purposes, several empirical
formulae have been developed to fit particular
circumstances in predicting flow capacity and pressure
drop

Fluid Flow Equations


For liquid flow:
Darcy-Weisbach

Equation
General Equation
Hazen Williams Equation
For gas flow:
General Equation
Weymouth Equation
Panhandle Equation
Spitzglass Equation
For two-phase flow

Fluid Flow Equations - Liquid Flow


Darcy-Weisbach Equation
General Equation

fLV 2
P 0.0013
d

fLQl2 ( S .G.)
P (11.5 10 )
d5

Hazen-Williams formula

Q11.85L
H L 0.015 4.87 1.85
d C

Fluid Flow Equations - Liquid Flow

Fluid Flow Equations - Gas Flow


General Equation

d P P 2
Qg 0.199

ZT1 fLS
5

Panhandle A Equation

2
1

2
2

P P
Qg 0.020 E
ZT1 Lm S

2
1

2
2
0.853

0.058

2.62
d

Panhandle B Equation

P P
Qg 0.028E
ZT1Lm S

2
1

2
2
0.961

0.51

2.53
d

Fluid Flow Equations - Gas Flow


Weymouth Equation

2
2
2

P
2
Qg 1.11d 2.67 1

ZT1 LS

Spitzglass Equation
1

hw d 5
Qg 0.09

3.6

LS
1
0.03d

Fluid Flow Equations - Gas Flow


Recommended guidelines for the usage of

gas flow equations


GAS FLOW EQUATION

USAGE

GENERAL EQUATION

Most general usage

WEYMOUTH EQUATION

For small diameter, shot-run pipes


Within production facilities where
Reynolds Number are expected to be
high

PANHANDLE EQUATION

For large diameter, long-run pipes

SPITZGLASS EQUATION

Low pressure vent-line, less than 12


diameter

5 minutes Q & A