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# OIL AND GAS

TRANSPORTATION

Pressure Drop in
Pipe Systems

Lesson Outcomes
At the end of lecture, students should be

able to:
Explain the basic principles to determine
pressure drops in piping
Describe flow equations for liquid flow and
compressible flow
Apply flow equations to calculate pressure
drop in various types of pipe

Lecture Outline
Introduction

## Basic principles applied for pressure drop

determination
Fluid flow equations
Liquid flow
Gas flow
Examples

Introduction
Piping

## design in production facilities involves

selection of pipe diameter and wall thickness.
The pipe size selected must be sufficient to transport
fluid from one point to the other (e.g. one process
equipment to another).
The concepts of pressure drop are applied for all
types of pipe.

Basic Principles
In pressure drop calculation, the basic principles of

## fluid mechanics are applied. It includes:

1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Reynolds Number
Flow Regimes
Bernoullis Theorem
Darcy-Weisbach Equation
Moody friction factor

## Basic Principles Reynolds Number

Invented by Osborne Reynolds in the 1880s

## inertial forces to viscous forces

Expressed by general equation:

( S .G)Ql
For liquid: Re 92.1 d

For gases:

Re 20100

Qg S
d

DV
Re

## Basic Principles Flow Regimes

Describe nature of fluid flow

## Two basic flow regimes for single-phase fluid:

Laminar
A stable well-ordered state of fluid flow in which all pairs of
adjacent fluid particles move alongside one another forming
laminates
Characterized by smooth streamline and highly ordered motion
Re<2000

Turbulent
Characterized by velocity fluctuations and highly disordered
motion
Re>4000

## Basic Principles Bernoullis Theorem

Energy contained in fluids is expressed in terms of

## the potential energy contained in an equivalent

height or head of a column of the fluid.
Bernoullis theorem breaks down the total energy at
a point in terms of
1.

2.

3.

## The head due to its elevation above datum of zero potential

energy
A pressure head due to the potential energy contained in the
pressure in the fluid at that point
A velocity head due to the kinetic energy contained in the
fluid

## Basic Principles Bernoullis Theorem

Assume :
1.
No energy added to the fluid by pump or compressor
2.
Fluid is not performing work
2

V1
P2 V22
Z1 144 Z 2 144 H L
1 2 g
2 2 g
P1

## Basic Principles Darcy-Weisbach Equation

States that friction head loss between two points in a

## completely filled, circular cross section is

proportional to velocity head and the length of pipe
and inversely proportional to the pipe diameter

fLV 2
HL
D2 g

## Basic Principles Darcy-Weisbach Equation

The Darcy-Weisbach equation forms the basis for

## numerous other equations to determine pressure

loss in specific applications
The friction factor fudge factor already takes
into account the viscosity, density and internal
pipe roughness
How to find friction factor?

Moody Diagram
Fanning friction factor

## Basic Principles Moody Friction Factor

Determined from Moody resistance diagram

64
f
Re

## Basic Principles Fanning Friction factor

Laminar Flow (Re<2000)
Friction factor, f has a direct relationship to the Reynolds number
Pipe roughness has no effect on the friction factor
f=16/Re

Pf 0.000668

LV
d2

## Turbulent Flow (Re>4000)

Friction factor, f depends on Reynolds number and the relative
roughness of the pipe, /D
f=0.042/Re0.194 (large pipe >8)
f=0.042/Re0.172 (small pipe 8)

2 fLV 2
Pf
x
gc d

## Fluid Flow Equations

Few flow problems can be solved with an acceptable degree

## of accuracy when using equations designed to fit idealized

application.
Flow regimes and associated pressure drop discontinuities
are complex phenomena and require complex equations to
predict their relationships.
For engineering design purposes, several empirical
formulae have been developed to fit particular
circumstances in predicting flow capacity and pressure
drop

## Fluid Flow Equations

For liquid flow:
Darcy-Weisbach

Equation
General Equation
Hazen Williams Equation
For gas flow:
General Equation
Weymouth Equation
Panhandle Equation
Spitzglass Equation
For two-phase flow

## Fluid Flow Equations - Liquid Flow

Darcy-Weisbach Equation
General Equation

fLV 2
P 0.0013
d

fLQl2 ( S .G.)
P (11.5 10 )
d5

Hazen-Williams formula

Q11.85L
H L 0.015 4.87 1.85
d C

## Fluid Flow Equations - Gas Flow

General Equation

d P P 2
Qg 0.199

ZT1 fLS
5

Panhandle A Equation

2
1

2
2

P P
Qg 0.020 E
ZT1 Lm S

2
1

2
2
0.853

0.058

2.62
d

Panhandle B Equation

P P
Qg 0.028E
ZT1Lm S

2
1

2
2
0.961

0.51

2.53
d

## Fluid Flow Equations - Gas Flow

Weymouth Equation

2
2
2

P
2
Qg 1.11d 2.67 1

ZT1 LS

Spitzglass Equation
1

hw d 5
Qg 0.09

3.6

LS
1
0.03d

## Fluid Flow Equations - Gas Flow

Recommended guidelines for the usage of

## gas flow equations

GAS FLOW EQUATION

USAGE

GENERAL EQUATION

## Most general usage

WEYMOUTH EQUATION

## For small diameter, shot-run pipes

Within production facilities where
Reynolds Number are expected to be
high

PANHANDLE EQUATION

## For large diameter, long-run pipes

SPITZGLASS EQUATION

diameter

5 minutes Q & A