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MAHAVIR SINGH

Chief Editor
OMKAR SHARMA
Managing Editor
TRINATH KAR
Associate Scientific Editor
Yudhishter Kumar
Anil Kumar Nain
Naveen Garg
Assistant Editors

EDITORIAL BOARD
M L Munjal
IISc Banglore, India
S Narayanan
IIT Chennai, India
V Rajendran
KSRCT Erode, India

JASI

Journal of Acoustical
Society of India (JASI)
A quarterly publication of the Acoustical Society of India

Volume 39, Number 1, January 2012


EDITORIAL
Choosing Concrete Blocks for Sound Transmission
Control
Mahavir Singh ...............................................................................

ARTICLES
Unified Dispersion Characteristics of Structural Acoustic
Waveguides
Abhijit Sarkar, M.V. Kunte and Venkata R. Sonti........................

Improving the Sound Insulation Performance of Doubleleaf Panels


Mahavir Singh and Dharam Pal Singh ........................................

Spectral Characteristics of Traffic Noise Attenuation by


Tree Belts in and Around Kolkata Highways
Madhumita Banerjee Lahiri, Ranjan Sengupta,
Tarit Guhathakurta, Argha Deb, Dipak Ghosh and
Ashis Majumder ............................................................................

15

Capturing the Essence of Raga from


Hindusthani Singing : an Objective Approach
A.K. Datta, R. Sengupta and N. Dey ............................................

20

Speech Rhythm in Kannada Speaking Children


S.R. Savithri...................................................................................

25

Yukio Kagawa
NU Chiba, Japan

A Statistical Analysis of Raga Bhairavi


Swarima Tewari and Soubhik Chakraborty ..................................

34

S Datta
LU Loughborough, UK

Thermo-Acoustic Properties of Binary Mixtures of


Di-(2-Ethylhexyl) Phosphoric Acid with Dioxane,
Cyclohexane and n-Pentane by Ultrasonic Method
S.K. Dash, B. Dalai, S.K. Singh, N. Swain, M.D. Swain and
B.B. Swain .....................................................................................

38

R J M Craik
HWU Edinburg, UK
Trevor R T Nightingle
NRC Ottawa, Canada
B V A Rao
VIT Vellore, India
N Tandon
IIT Delhi, India
P Narang
NMI Lindfield, Australia
E S R Rajagopal
IISc Banglore, India
A L Vyas
IIT Delhi, India
V Bhujanga Rao
NSTL Vizag, India

Sonoko Kuwano
OU Osaka, Japan
K K Pujara
IIT Delhi (Ex.), India
A R Mohanty
IIT Kharagpur, India

INFORMATION

Ashok Kumar
NPL New Delhi, India

Executive Council of Acoustical Society of India

V Mohanan
NPL New Delhi, India

Information for Authors

48
Inside back
cover

EDITORS SPACE

Choosing Concrete Blocks for Sound Transmission Control


Is it better to use lightweight or normal weight concrete blocks to control sound transmission through demising
walls between hotel rooms?
Lighter blocks reduce the weight and increase the thermal insulating properties, but they are not the best
choice for lowering sound transmission. Reduction of sound transmission is related to the density of the
wall: the higher the density of the units the better the sound transmission reduction. For this reason normal
weight units are better than lightweight blocks for reducing sound transmission.
The best way to determine the STC rating of an assembly is to perform laboratory tests and review the
results. ASTM E 90-00, Standard Test Method for Laboratory Measurement of Airborne-Sound Transmission
Loss of Building Partitions, is used to determine the STC rating of building partitions.
If test data is not available, Document 0302, "Standard Method for Determining the Sound Transmission
Class Rating for Masonry Walls", published by The Masonry Society, can be used. Data in this document is
on the conservative side and typically underestimates the actual STC rating.
The rating is determined by the equation STC = 0.47 Block Weight + 39.4 where Block Weight is equal to
the weight of the wall expressed in terms of kg. The equation is used only for uncoated fine or medium
textured concrete masonry units. Coarse texture concrete masonry units may allow airborne sound to enter
the wall system. Surface treatments may be needed to increase the STC rating when coarse textured units are
used.
The equation cannot be used if the wall system is thinner than 3 inches. The units must be laid in full
mortar joints, and all holes, voids, or cracks in the masonry must be solidly filled with mortar.
It is important to recognize that very small openings in a masonry wall significantly affect sound
transmission through it. Openings through the wall for a pipe or conduit greatly increase sound transmission
if the penetration is not properly detailed. Back-to-back receptacle boxes in walls or receptacle boxes not
coated on the backside to reduce sound transmission greatly increase the sound transmission through the
masonry walls.
Any joints in the wall and the joint along the top of the wall significantly impact the sound transmission
if not properly detailed. These joints must be covered with elastomeric sealant on the exterior face. Space
between the top of the wall and the underside of the structure above must be filled with mortar or grout if it is
not designed as a movement joint, or filled with foam or fiber material where movement must be accommodated.
Doors in demising walls are also a common cause of sound transmission problems. Using doors with
high sound transmission ratings, as well as proper detailing, are essential to prevent sound transmission
through demising walls in hotels.

Mahavir Singh

Unified
Structural
Acoustic Waveguides
Journal of Acoustical Society
ofDispersion
India : Vol.Characteristics
39, No. 1, 2012of
(pp.
3-7)

Unified Dispersion Characteristics of Structural


Acoustic Waveguides
Abhijit Sarkar 1, M.V. Kunte 2 and Venkata R. Sonti 2
1Department

of Mechanical Engineering
Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai-600 036 (tamil Nadu)
2Vibro-Acoustics Lab, Facility for Research In Technical Acoustics (FRITA)
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore-560 012 (Karnataka)
[Received: 12.11.2011; Revised: 28.12.2011; Accepted: 10.01.2012]

ABSTRACT
In this article, we show with some formalism that infinite flexible structural acoustic waveguides
have a general form for the dispersion equation. This allows us to bring out the common features in
the dispersion characteristics of structural acoustic waveguides. We take three examples to
demonstrate this fact, namely, the rectangular, the circular cylindrical and the elliptic geometries.
The individual coupled dispersion equations are cast into the generic form. It is then shown that the
coupled wavenumber solutions of all these systems can be represented on a single schematic.

1.

INTRODUCTION

Recently, several studies were presented on the dispersion characteristics of waveguides (with rectangular,
circular cylindrical and elliptic cylindrical geometries) by Sarkar and Sonti [3-6], [7, 8] and Kunte, Sarkar, and
Sonti (2010) using the asymptotic methods. Despite the geometrical differences between the systems, there
seems to be an underlying feature common to these waveguides in the manner in which the uncoupled
structural and acoustic waves form coupled waves. In this article, we intend to bring out this feature by
presenting the coupled dispersion equation for the different geometries in a generic form. And along with this
generic equation is presented a generic solution of the coupled waves in a schematic onto which all the
coupled wavenumbers for the different geometries can be superposed. The structural acoustic systems that
are considered are as follows :
1. The two-dimensional fluid-filled rectangular waveguide (Fig. 1a).
2. The fluid-filled circular cylindrical shell (Fig. 1b).
3. The fluid-filled elliptic cylindrical shell (Fig. 1c)
2.

A GENERAL FLUID-FILLED WAVEGUIDE

For a general fluid-filled waveguide of constant cross-section, the coupled dispersion relation has the following
generic form,
f 1 f 2 p + f 3 f 4 = 0,

Equation 1 : Generic form of the coupled dispersion relation


2012 Acoustical Society of India

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

Abhijit Sarkar, M.V. Kunte and Venkata R. Sonti

Fig. 1. Structural acoustic waveguide systems studied in this article : (a). Two dimensional rectangular
waveguide, (b). Fluid-filled circular cylindrical shell, (c). Fluid-filled elliptic cylindrical shell
where is the fluid-structure coupling parameter and physically represents the ratio of the mass of the fluid
to the mass of the structure per unit length of the waveguide.
The functions f1, f2, f3, f4 and p represent the uncoupled wave solutions (Fig. 2). With = 0, the following
roots are obtained: the roots of f1 = 0 that represent the in vacuo structural wavenumbers and the roots of f2 =
0 representing the cut-on wavenumbers of a rigid-acoustic duct (referred to as R = 0 in figure 2). In other
words, this latter wavenumber originates when the structure is completely rigid. The solution of p = 0 is the
acoustic plane wave. In some cases, the waveguide configuration is such that the only plane wave possible is
that of zero amplitude. With = , the roots of f3 = 0 represent the cut-on wavenumbers of the pressure-release
acoustic duct where the structural boundary is perceived as a free surface by the acoustic fluid (referred to as
PR = 0 in Fig. 2). Lastly, the roots of f4 = 0 give the structural wavenumbers corresponding to = . These
solutions turn out to be the longitudinal and torsional wavenumbers for cylindrical shell systems. These
waves, unlike the transverse flexural waves couple with the acoustic fluid through the Poisson's ratio. The
functions f1, f2, f3, f4 and p are different for different geometric configurations and will be presented later. Thus,
for intermediate values of (0<<), the coupled solutions are perturbations of these five uncoupled solutions
(Fig. 2). Each uncoupled solution acquires a slightly perturbed value and is denoted as the corresponding
coupled solution (for example, the uncoupled flexural and coupled flexural wavenumbers). As frequency
increases, this coupled solution transitions smoothly from one branch to another at frequencies where two
uncoupled wavenumbers intersect. For example, at the coincidence frequency (where the uncoupled flexural
and plane wave intersect), the coupled flexural wavenumber changes smoothly to the coupled acoustic plane
wave. Also, for small values of , the coupled solutions are perturbations to the flexural and the acoustic
plane wave or the rigid duct cut-ons, whereas for large values of , they are perturbations to the pressure
release cut-ons. For the same reason, the coupled solutions no longer intersect. This brief description of the
five solutions holds good for all the waveguide geometries discussed here and is shown in the schematic of
Fig. 2.
For a general structure, in a three-dimensional orthogonal coordinate system, the equations of motion
can be written in the matrix form as [L]{U} = {0}, where [L] is the 3 3 matrix of operators acting on {U} the 3x1
vector of displacement amplitudes (with 2 in-plane motions and 1 transverse motion, respectively). The
matrix element L33 carries the fluid-loading term which is given by the fluid pressure evaluated at the wall,
expressed as a function of the transverse wall displacement.
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Journal of Acoustical Society of India

Unified Dispersion Characteristics of Structural Acoustic Waveguides

Let this pressure be written as ptotal = Pp, where P is the pressure amplitude and p contains the functional
dependence on the spatial variables and time. Thus, using Euler's equation and velocity continuity, we
obtain the total pressure (ptotal) in terms of the transverse displacement amplitude U3 as shown below.
P

p
= f 2U 3 ,
n wall

P=

f 2U 3
p
n wall

ptotal = Pp =

f 2U 3
p
n wall

Equation 2 : Expression for total pressure in terms of displacement amplitude


Using Eq. (2) and nondimensionalizing suitably, the coupled dispersion obtained by setting the determinant
of the matrix [L] (mentioned above) to zero is as follows,
p
+ F p wall (L11 L22 L12 L21 ) = 0
(Det(L = 0 ))

N 


n wall


f4
f3
f1
f2 p

Equation 3 : General form of the coupled dispersion relation


The terms f2 and p are separated when the derivative in Eq. (3) is evaluated. It may be seen that the Eq. (3) is the
expanded form of Eq. (1). F is a constant that arises due to the nondimensionalization.
3. THE TWO-DIMENSIONAL RECTANGULAR WAVEGUIDE
The two-dimensional rectangular waveguide is shown in Fig. (1a) and is discussed in detail by Sarkar and
Sonti (2007a). The coupled dispersion relations are reproduced below; Eq. (4a) gives the governing equation
for the case with a rigid plate on the top while Eq. (4b) corresponds to the pressure-release case. The
conformance of these equations to the general form (Eq. (1)) is clear.

2
2
2
2
2
2
2 1 sin( ( )) + cos( ( )) = 0 ( a)

4

2
2
2
2

sin( ( 2 2 )) = 0 (b)

1
cos(
(
))
2




p
f2
f3


f1

Equation 4 : Coupled dispersion for a two-dimensional rectangular waveguide


4.

THE CIRCULAR CYLINDRICAL SHELL

The coupled dispersion relation has been presented for the circular cylindrical shell using the DonnellMushtari Theory (DMT) by Sarkar and Sonti (2007c, 2009a) separately for the axisymmetric and the beam
modes, respectively. Kunte, Sarkar and Sonti have used the Shallow Shell Theory (SST) to obtain a simpler
Journal of Acoustical Society of India

Abhijit Sarkar, M.V. Kunte and Venkata R. Sonti

coupled dispersion relation in which the circumferential order n is a parameter. This equation is presented
below in the interest of generality and compactness though the same general form can also be seen in the two
cases mentioned earlier [Sarkar and Sonti (2007c, 2009a)].
2

J n ( ) 6 c 4 J n ( ) = 0
( n 2 + 2 )4 + 4 2 ( n 2 + 2 )2 N

2


p f2
f3


f1

Equation 5 : Coupled dispersion relation using the Shallow Shell Theory


It is worth noting that in the case of the two-dimensional rectangular waveguide and the cylindrical shell
modeled by the SST (Eqs. (4, 5), respectively), f4 = 1. This is because the simplifications made in the development
of the beam theory and SST for shells eliminate the in-plane motions and restrict the dynamics to the transverse
motions [Soedel (2000)]. The use of a more accurate theory such as the DMT for thin shells shows that the term
f4 1, thus the longitudinal and the torsional modes are included. The term f1 will also contain these modes in
such a case.
5.

THE ELLIPTIC SHELL

Deriving the coupled dispersion relation for the elliptic shell depends on an appropriate choice of the form of
the transverse displacement [Sarkar and Sonti (2009b)] and results in an unwieldy equation. Hence, it is more
instructive to demonstrate the conformance of the coupled dispersion relation to the general form using the
governing pde as follows,
2

16 cos(2 ) 2

R 4 w
( 0 , q ) + ...
8 w 2 4 w
4 w 2 w +
Cem

2
2
2 

1
1 cos(2 ) 1
(1 cos(2 ))


f2 p
f1

16 cos(2 )
q ) w = 0.
... 6 c 4 + 2
Cem ( 0 ,

1 cos(2 ) 

f
3

Equation 6 : Governing pde for the fluid-filled elliptic shell


here, is the eccentricity parameter and Cem(0, q) is the modified Mathieu elliptic function [Gradshteyn and
Ryzhik (2000)]. Again, since the derivation for the elliptic shell is based on the shallow shell theory, the factor
f4 = 1.
When the dispersion curves obtained by solving Eqs. (4,5,6) are plotted, it is seen that all the curves can
be plotted on a single schematic figure shown in Fig. (2), modulo translation and scaling. This result gives one
a physical insight into the general behaviour of a fluid-filled waveguide of arbitrary cross-section, without
having to solve for the actual dispersion curves.
6.

CONCLUSION

In this article, we show that the coupled dispersion equation of structural acoustic waveguides have a
generic form where each of the terms (although different for each geometry) has the same physical
interpretation. This is demonstrated using the rectangular, the circular cylindrical and the elliptic geometries.
In the case of the elliptic waveguide (unlike the other cases), the coupled partial differential equation itself is
put in the generic form. This is because the dispersion equation is too unwieldy to be presented here. Also, the
coupled wavenumber solutions of all the geometries are represented on a common schematic. This presentation
brings about (despite geometrical differences) a unified understanding of how coupled waves are formed in
structural-acoustic waveguides from their uncoupled wave counterparts.
6

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

Unified Dispersion Characteristics of Structural Acoustic Waveguides

Fig. 2. Schematic of the coupled wavenumber solutions for small and large ''
7.
[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
[5]
[6]
[7]
[8]
[9]

REFERENCES
I.S. GRADSHTEYN and I.M. RYZHIK, 2000. Table of Integrals, Series and Products. Academic Press.
M.V. KUNTE, A. SARKAR AND V.R. SONTI, 2010. Generalized asymptotic expansions for the coupled
wavenumbers in infinite fluid-filled flexible cylindrical shells. Journal of Sound and Vibration, 329, 53565374.
A. SARKAR and V.R. SONTI, 2007. An asymptotic analysis for the coupled dispersion characteristics of
a structural acoustic waveguide. Journal of Sound and Vibration, 306, 657-674.
A. SARKAR and V.R. SONTI, 2007. An asymptotic analysis for the coupled dispersion characteristics of
a structural acoustic waveguide. In Internoise 2007, Istanbul, Turkey, August 28-31, 2007.
A. SARKAR and V.R. SONTI, 2007. Asymptotic analysis for the coupled wavenumbers in an infinite
fluid-filled flexible cylindrical shell : The axisymmetric mode. Computer Modeling in Engineering and
Sciences, 21, 193-207.
A. SARKAR and V.R. SONTI, 2007. Coupled wavenumbers of an infinite plate loaded with a fluid
column : An asymptotic approach. In: et al., I. V. R.(Ed): Proceedings of National Symposium on Acoustics,
Macmillan India Pvt. Ltd, 357-363.
A. SARKAR and V.R. SONTI, 2009. Asymptotic analysis for the coupled wavenumbers in an infinite
fluid-filled flexible cylindrical shell : beam mode. Journal of Sound and Vibration, 319, 646-667.
A. SARKAR and V.R. SONTI, 2009. Wave equations and solutions of in-vacuo and fluid-filled elliptic
cylindrical shells. International Journal of Acoustics and Vibration, 14, 35- 45.
W. SOEDEL, (2000): Vibration of plates and shells. Marcel-Dekker International.

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

Mahavir
Singh
and (pp.
Dharam
Journal of Acoustical Society of India : Vol.
39, No.
1, 2012
8-14)Pal Singh

Improving the Sound Insulation Performance of


Double-leaf Panels
Mahavir Singh* and Dharam Pal Singh
Acoustics, Ultasonics & Vibration (AUV) Section
Apex Level Standards & Industrial Metrology Division
CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K. S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi-110 012
*e-mail: mahavir@nplindia.org, mahavir.acoustics@gmail.com
[Received: 16.11.2011; Revised: 21.12.2011; Accepted: 07.01.2012]

ABSTRACT
The double-leaf structures cause a significant peak in radiated sound power due to the mass-airmass resonance, which leads to the deterioration of the sound transmission loss. This study attempts
to improve the sound insulation performance at low-and mid-frequencies by using micro-perforated
panel. In this study, a prediction method is introduced for sound transmission loss of double-leaf
panels with micro-perforated panel of infinite extent. And the possibility of improving the sound
insulation performance by micro-perforating the panel of the transmitted side is discussed.
Considering the practical application, the effect of double-leaf structures with acrylic micro-perforated
panel is studied and the efficiency is confirmed. In addition, in order to verify the sound transmission
theory with micro-perforated panel, the theoretical model is also presented and discussed in
comparison with the experiment.

1.

INTRODUCTION

Multilayer leaf structure has been applied in many fields. However, this type of structure has a problem of
sound insulation dip at low and mid-frequencies caused by mass-air- mass resonance. Meanwhile, microperforated panel can provide good absorption in the wide frequency range as reported in [1], and it is
recognized as the next-generation absorption materials. From this point of view, discussions are given to the
possibility of improving the sound insulation performance of double- leaf structures by using micro-perforated
panel.
Several papers reported that sound insulation performance at low and mid-frequencies of multilayered
structures can be improved by using micro-perforated panel. However, in these studies, micro-perforated
panel is set in the air layer having less effect on the improvement, and the prediction methods do not well
correspond with tile experiment [2, 3].
In this study, a prediction method is introduced for sound transmission loss of double-leaf structures
with micro-perforated panel of infinite extent. In the sound transmission loss calculation process, coupled
vibration of air and the panel, and directional distribution of incident energy in a reverberation chamber are
considered. Two types of analytical model are studied: one is single panel with micro-perforated panel and
the other one is double-panel with micro-perforated panel.
2.

THEORETICAL CONSIDERATIONS

2.1 Calculation of Sound Transmission Loss


2012 Acoustical Society of India

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

Improving the Sound Insulation Performance of Double-leaf Panels

A plane-wave of angle is considered as a source incident upon multilayer panels of infinite extent. Sound
transmission loss is calculated on the basis of wave equation and equation of panel vibration. The effects of
micro-perforations are considered at each boundary in the coupled analysis of wave motion and panel
vibration [4]. In addition, considering directional distribution of incident energy in a reverberation chamber
[5], the average sound transmission loss of multi- layer panels is calculated.
2.2 Case 1: Single Panel with Micro-perforated Panel
The analytical model of single panel with micro-perforated panel is shown in Fig. I. In this case, a double-leaf

Fig. 1. Analytical model 1


structure of infinite extent with a plane-wave of angle incidence is considered.
2.2.1 Case 2: double-panel with micro-perforated panel

Fig. 2. Analytical model 2


The analytical model of double panel with micro-perforated panel is shown in Fig. 2. In this case, a triple-leaf
structure of infinite extent with a plane-wave of angle incidence is considered
3.

NUMERICAL RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

In this section, the micro-perforation effect on sound insulation of multi-layer glass window is studied.
Journal of Acoustical Society of India

Mahavir Singh and Dharam Pal Singh

Furthermore, the possibility of improving the sound insulation performance discussed.


3.1 Case1: Single Panel with Micro-perforated Panel
The comparison of sound transmission loss calculated for double glass (hl = h2 = 3 mm ,l = 6 mm) and single
glass with micro-perforated panel (the diameter of perforation 1 mm, the perforation pitch 10 mm) are shown
in Fig. 3. By micro-perforating the glass, improvement of sound insulation performance is observed in the
low-frequency range, the effect of resonance at around 400 Hz is prevented. Although there seems some
deteriorated change at low frequencies can be seen, on the whole, expected effect is implemented.

Fig. 3. Sound transmission loss comparison between double glass and glass- micro-perforated panel (glass)
3.2 Case 2: Double-Panel with Micro-Perforated Panel
The results of sound transmission loss are shown in Fig. 4 as a comparison between a triple glass window
(hl = h2 = h3= 3 mm, l1 = 6 mm, l2 = 100 mm) and a double glass window (h1 = h2 = 3 mm, l = 6 mm). The
resonance frequency of triple glass shifts to low frequency in comparison with the double case As a result,
sound transmission loss of triple glass at mid and high- frequencies is improved.
Figure 4 also shows the comparison of sound transmission loss of triple glass and double glass with
micro-perforated panel (h1 = h2 = h3 = 3 mm, l1 = 6 mm, l2 = 100 mm), the diameter of perforation 0.3 mm, the
perforation pitch 6.2 mm) Because the dip caused by mass-air-mass at low frequencies is prevented, the
sound insulation performance at low frequencies is improved up to about 5 dB in the range 100-400 Hz. And,
at other frequencies, there seems no significant change. Therefore, changing the glass of inner side into microperforated panel can improve the sound insulation performance, and could be an effective method to remedy
the deficiency of the resonance effects.

10

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

Improving the Sound Insulation Performance of Double-leaf Panels

Fig. 4. Sound transmission loss comparison of triple glass, double glass and glass-glass- micro-perforated panel (glass)
4.

THE CASE OF USING ACRYLIC MICRO-PERFORATED PANEL

Sound insulation performance of multilayer windows with glass micro-perforated panel was studied in the
previous section. In this section, considering the practical application, the effect of multilayer windows with
acrylic micro-perforated panel is studied. It is feared that the use of acrylic panel might impair the insulation
performance because of its lightweight material.
4.1 Case 1: Single Panel with Micro-perforated Panel
The results of sound transmission loss calculated for single glass with acrylic micro-perforated panel (the
diameter of perforation 1 mm, the perforation pitch 10 mm), single glass with glass micro-perforated panel
and single glass with acrylic panel are shown in Fig. 5.
From the results, single glass with acrylic micro-perforated panel has good agreement with single glass
with glass micro-perforated panel, and comparing with single glass with acrylic panel, the dip at lowfrequencies caused by mass-air-mass resonance is prevented. In addition, in the range 400-3700 Hz sound
insulation performance is improved. In this case, even changing glass micro-perforated panel to acrylic
micro-perforated panel, this double-layer structure can obtain same sound insulation performance.
4.2 Case 2: Double Panel with Micro-perforated Panel
The results of sound transmission loss are shown in Fig. 6 as a comparison of double glass with acrylic microperforated panel (the diameter of perforation 0.3 mm, the perforation pitch 6.2 mm) and double glass with
acrylic panel. By micro-perforating the acrylic panel of the transmitted side, the dip caused by mass- air-mass
resonance of double glass with acrylic panel is prevented. The improvement of sound transmission loss is
about 3 dB at 100-400Hz.
According to the above results, by micro-perforating the acrylic panel the sound insulation dip of multilayer glass window caused by mass-air-mass resonance is prevented, and the sound insulation performance
Journal of Acoustical Society of India

11

Mahavir Singh and Dharam Pal Singh

Fig. 5. Sound transmission loss comparison of glass-panel (acrylic), glass micro-perforated panel (glass) and
glass- micro-perforated panel (acrylic)

Fig. 6. Sound transmission loss comparison of with perforation and without perforation

is improved. Thus the method of perforating the acrylic panel of the transmitted side has a possibility to be an
effective sound insulation design approach.
5.

COMPARISON BETWEEN CALCULATION AND MEASUREMENT

For verifying the introduced prediction method, the theoretical model with micro-perforated panel is presented
and discussed in comparison with the experiment.
12

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

Improving the Sound Insulation Performance of Double-leaf Panels

The sound transmission loss of single acrylic panel with acrylic micro-perforated panel is calculated by
theoretical model. In this model, it is considered that the panels are inserted in the window of reverberation
chambers with a normal incidence of plane wave.
Transmission loss measurements were performed in the suite of reverberation chambers (sound
transmission facility) at the Acoustics Section of National Physical Laboratory in New Delhi, India. Both
rooms are irregular in shape with no parallel surfaces and are equipped with stationary diffusers. The
volume of the source room is 257 m3. The test opening wall between the rooms was 0.93 x 0.63 m. The
procedures for measuring transmission loss (TL) followed the Indian standard (similar to the standards ISO
140 and ASTM E90). Sound pressure levels inside the two room is measured using two condenser microphones
Brel & Kjr (B&K) model 4165 each coupled with a microphone pre-amplifier type 1201 and fed to a
Norwegian Electronics type 830 dual channel real-time analyzer (RTA 830 Building Analyzer) for 1/3 octave
band spectrum analysis. The comparison between calculation and experiment of double acrylic panel is
shown in Fig. 7. And the comparison of single acrylic panel with acrylic micro-perforated panel is shown in
Fig. 8.

Fig. 7. Sound transmission loss comparison of calculation and experiment


In the two types of multi-layer structure, the calculated results are in fairly good agreement with the
experimental results except the frequency range below 400 Hz and above 1800 Hz.
By perforating the panel, the sound transmission dip caused by mass-air-mass resonance at around 700
Hz is prevented, and the total performance of the sound insulation is improved. The prediction theory for the
sound transmission loss of double-leaf panels with micro-perforated panel shows good agreement with the
experiment. Therefore, the introduced calculation theory is validated, and it was confirmed that the method could
be effective to predict the sound insulation performance of multilayer structures with micro-perforated panel
However, small gap between theory and experiment was appeared at all frequencies. This may be caused
by the edge condition of experiments. In addition, the discrepancy between theory and experiment at low
frequencies may be caused by the effect of truncation of the measured impulse response for the transmitted
waves.
Journal of Acoustical Society of India

13

Mahavir Singh and Dharam Pal Singh

Fig. 8. Sound transmission loss comparison of calculation and experiment (micro-perforated panel)
6.

CONCLUSION

The effect of micro-perforated panel on the performance of multilayer windows was studied. The approach
for micro-perforating the glass window of double glass and triple glass can prevent the sound insulation dip
caused by mass-air-mass resonance, and improve the sound insulation performance. Considering the practical
application, the effect of multilayer windows with acrylic micro-perforated panel was studied and the efficiency
was confirmed. Alternatively the use of acrylic micro-perforated panel has almost the same effect as the glass
micro-perforated panel. Finally, the introduced prediction method of finite extent was experimentally
investigated and the effect of micro-perforated panel was confirmed by calculation and measurement. For the
good agreement with experiment, this prediction method could be effective to predict the sound insulation
performance of multi-layer structures with micro-perforated panel. Furthermore, the approach using microperforated panel to improve the sound insulation performance at low and mid-frequencies is considered to be
an effective sound insulation design approach.
7.
[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
[5]

14

REFERENCES
D. Y. MAA, 1998. "Potential of micro-perforated panel absorber," J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 104, 2861-2866.
CHRISTIAN. THOMAS and UWE WELTIN, 2004. "Sound Reduction of Double Walls Containing Inner
Micro perforated Panel Absorbers," ICA, pp. 1403-1406.
M. YAIRI and K SAKAGAMI, 2004. "Effect of micro perforated panel inside the cavity on structure-borne
sound radiation from a double-leaf structure," ICA, pp. 1399-1402.
D. TAKAHASI, 2002. "Flexural vibration of perforated plates and porous elastic materials under acoustic
loading a)," J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 112, 1456-1464.
H. JUKANG, 2000. "Prediction of sound transmission loss through multilayered panels by using Gaussian
distribution of directional incident energy," J. Acoust Soc. Am., 107, 1413- 1420.

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

Characteristics
Traffic
Noise
Attenuation
by 15-19)
Tree Belts in and Around Kolkata Highways
Journal Spectral
of Acoustical
Society of of
India
: Vol.
39, No.
1, 2012 (pp.

Spectral Characteristics of Traffic Noise Attenuation by


Tree Belts in and Around Kolkata Highways
Madhumita Banerjee Lahiri 1, Ranjan Sengupta 1*, Tarit Guhathakurta 1,
Argha Deb 1, Dipak Ghosh 1 and Ashis Majumder 2
1Sir C V Raman Centre for Physics and Music, Jadavpur University, Kolkata-700 032 (WB)
2School of Water Resource Engineering (SWRE) Jadavpur University & Regional Centre of National

Aforestation and Ecco Development Board, Ministry of Environment & Forests


Govt. of India, Jadavpur University, Kolkata-700 032 (WB)
*e-mail: sgranjan@gmail.com
[Received: 13.11.2011; Revised: 28.11.2011; Accepted: 08.01.2012]

ABSTRACT
In the last few decades, road traffic has emerged as a major source of noise pollution. Noise barriers
are an effective way of reducing the noise exposure of human settlement living along the roadside.
Plantation of tree belts along the roadside has often been proposed as relatively inexpensive and
aesthetically pleasing noise barriers. Effectiveness of tree belts in the attenuation of road traffic noise
has drawn the attention of workers across the world, a number of times. Some studies has
comprehensively reviewed the efficacy of the tree belt barriers for traffic noise control and has
concluded that tree belts provide significant attenuation both at high and low frequencies. In the
Indian context, it is unfortunate to note that, to date, insignificant scientific efforts have been made to
investigate the role of tree belts in traffic noise attenuation. The present study investigates the role of
tree belts in traffic noise attenuation in and around the highways in Kolkata.
Traffic noise attenuation at different frequencies is measured at two highway sites in and around
Kolkata. In the study we have also separately studied the attenuation from different sources viz. bus,
heavy truck and bike respectively for two different kind of trees respectively for a particular distance.
The study indicates that attenuation varies with frequency and has very little effect with the change
of tree. A significantly higher relative attenuation of nearly 1.5 to 4 dB is observed characteristically
at 2-10 kHz. The results indicate that tree belts could be used as effective barriers for traffic noise
control along the highways.

1.

INTRODUCTION

Vehicular traffic is known to be the most prominent source of noise pollution in major cities around the world.
It has been the focus of intense research activities [1] during the past two decades. A majority of these studies
were undertaken with a view to assess the quality of the environment in urban areas. This necessitated
monitoring of noise levels in residential, commercial, industrial and heavy traffic zones. India has emerged
as a fast developing nation resulting rapid industrialization and urbanization. Increasing number of vehicles
and electronic devices have created a serious threat of noise pollution [2] Kolkata is characterized by various
industries, but due to its population density a substantial volume of traffic exists. So, the traffic represents the
most important pollution source in Kolkata.
2012 Acoustical Society of India

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

15

Madhumita Banerjee Lahiri, Ranjan Sengupta, Tarit Guhathakurta, Argha Deb, Dipak Ghosh and Ashis Majumder

A number of studies have examined the acoustic performance of vegetation in reducing noise in the
screened area [1, 3]. These have shown that noise reductions are small unless the vegetation belt is wide. For
example Huddart [1] showed that compared with grassland a densely planted belt of trees 30m thick was
required to reduce noise by 6 dB(A). However, there appears to be a widespread popular belief that tall hedges
and narrow belts of trees cause a significant reduction in traffic noise. Yano et al. [4] conducted a social
survey to examine the effects of noise barriers on community response to road traffic noise. It was shown that
people living in areas without a noise barrier were more annoyed by the same noise level than those in areas
with a barrier. Shirako et al. [5] and Misawa et al. [6] conducted experimental studies in the laboratory and in
the field. They showed that vegetation made people less annoyed. Suzuki et al. [7] reported in their laboratory
experiment that vegetation made noise more annoying in some circumstances and less annoying in the other
cases. On the other hand, Anderson [8] et al. and Mulligan et al. [9] found that loudness increased with
vegetation. Watts [10] et al. also showed that visual masking with trees increased noise annoyance. As
mentioned above, it was found that there were discrepancies in the findings among researchers.
Earlier studies on noise reduction deal with deciduous and coniferous trees. Evergreen trees of the
subtropics might have somewhat different effects. Furthermore, many earlier studies have only examined tree
belts of particular species, but failed to discuss noise reduction effect in relation to the form of the tree, or the
density, height, length and width of the tree belt.
In the present study, noise measurements were made at two different road traffic sites with vegetation
belts and two control site (with two different trees of varied width ) with three different recorded noises of bus,
heavy truck and bike respectively in Kolkata.
2.

METHODOLOGY

Bus, heavy truck and bike sound was recorded on a tape in a professional recorder. This recording was
termed the edited noise source. The spectrums of the edited noise source are shown in Fig. 1. The sound
pressure level range of the edited noise source was 65-68 dBA at a distance of 7m from the source.
We made noise measurements at two different road traffic sites with vegetation belts and two control site
(with two different trees of varied width ) with three different recorded noises of bus, heavy truck and bike
respectively in Kolkata. For making the measurements of different road traffic sites, two sound level meters
were used using the standard procedures for measurement [12, 13]. Recorded bus, heavy truck and bike
sounds were played from loudspeakers in front of the different type of trees from 2m distance. The loud
speaker was placed on a table at a height of 1.2 m above the ground level. The sound was recorded from the
other side of the tree by a good quality sound recorder placed at 2m from the tree. The recorder is also placed
at a height of 1.2 m and placed on a table. The type and the width of the trees were varied keeping other
parameters intact. Keeping the total distance from the loudspeaker and recorder intact, same sounds were
recorded without tree. The recorded bus, heavy truck and bike sounds with and without trees and also the
traffic sound signals were digitized at a sampling rate of 20480/sec (12bit per sample). These digitised signal
sets were then analysed by wavesurfer software package developed by KTH, Stockholm. Both time domain
and frequency domain spectra were analysed. Long term average spectra (LTAS) were taken for each sound
specimen and the amount of attenuation were ascertained for each sound in various type of trees of varying
belts. The analysis was done using hamming window taking 512 FFT points.
3.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

Figure 1 shows the time domain spectra and the variation of sound pressure level with frequency for bus,
heavy truck and bike sound recoded at 7m distance from the speaker (source) without tree.
Figure 2 shows noise attenuation at different frequencies at two different sites of two different highways
around Kolkata. The average attenuation at site 1and 2 are 0.725 and 1.315 respectively. In both the cases the
measurements were taken at 7m from the source. It is observed that in both the sites the maximum noise
attenuation occurs within the frequency region 2-5 kHz. Maximum relative attenuation is in the order of 3-5dB.
16

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

Spectral Characteristics of Traffic Noise Attenuation by Tree Belts in and Around Kolkata Highways

Fig. 1. Traffic noise attenuation at two different sites of two highways at Kolkata

Time domain spectra of bike sound at 7m from source

Time domain spectra of bus sound at 7m from source

Time domain spectra of heavy truck sound at 7m from source


Journal of Acoustical Society of India

17

Madhumita Banerjee Lahiri, Ranjan Sengupta, Tarit Guhathakurta, Argha Deb, Dipak Ghosh and Ashis Majumder

Time domain spectra of traffic highway sound at 7m from source


Fig. 2. The spectrums of the edited noise source and the traffic highway sound all at 7m distance from source

(a)

(b)

Fig. 3. Bus sound attenuation at different frequencies (a) with Debdaru tree (belt width -3m) and (b) with
kanthal champa tree (belt width- 2m)
Figure 3 shows the noise attenuation of bus sound with debdaru tree and kanthal champa tree of belt
widths 3 and 2m respectively. The average attenuations are respectively 0.89 and 0.61 respectively.

(a)

(b)

Fig. 4. bike sound attenuation at different frequencies (a) with Debdaru tree (belt width -3m) and (b) with
kanthal champa tree (belt width- 2m)
Figure 4 shows the noise attenuation of bike sound with debdaru tree and kanthal champa tree of belt
widths 3 and 2m respectively. The average attenuations are respectively 0.55 and 0.86 respectively.
18

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

Spectral Characteristics of Traffic Noise Attenuation by Tree Belts in and Around Kolkata Highways

Table 1. Average noise attenuation with different sounds of different trees of different belt widths at same
distance from the source, i.e 7m
Sounds at 7m

Debdaru

Kanthal Champa

(belt width-3m)

(belt width-2m)

Bike
bus
Heavy truck

0.55
0.89
0.35

0.86
0.61
0.88

Table 1 shows average noise attenuation of different noise sources, viz. bus, heavy truck and bike in two
different types of trees of varying belt widths. It can be observed that the average attenuation varies with the
types of trees as observed in the case of bike and bus.
4.

CONCLUSION

The result of the work suggests that that tree belts could be used as effective barriers for traffic noise control
along the highways. This work is a pilot study which shows that spectral analysis of the traffic noises can
determine the amount of attenuation in different frequency bands with the different type of trees. It is observed
that there is a variation of relative attenuation with the frequency. The study also shows that a significantly
higher relative attenuation of nearly 1.5 to 4 dB is observed characteristically at 2-10 kHz. It can be inferred
from the study that the amount of average attenuation may vary with the kind of tree. More rigorous study is
required with large amount of field data to have a concrete conclusion in the area, and the present study is a
precursor to that direction.
5.
[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
[5]
[6]
[7]
[8]
[9]
[10]
[11]
[12]
[13]

REFERENCES
HUDDART L., "The use of vegetation for traffic noise screening", Department of transport TRRL report
ISSN 0266-5247 1990, Transport and Road Research Laboratory, Crowthorne, USA
VINITA PATHAK, et al., 2008. "Dynamics of traffic noise in a tropical city Varanasi and its abatement
through vegetation", Environ Monit Assess. , 146, 67-75
C.F. EYRING, 1946. "Jungle acoustic", J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 18(2), 257-76.
T. YANO and K. IZUMI, 1997. "The mitigating effect of noise barriers on road traffic noise annoyance (in
Japanese)" J. Archit. Plann.Environ. Eng., 493, 1-7.
Y. Shirako, S. Tabata, 1985. "Consciousness of people, mental effects of road side planting space and
traffic noise (in Japanese)". J. Jpn. Inst. Landscape Archit., 48(5), 324-329.
A. MISAWA and Y. SAITO, 1985. A study on the psychological effect of trees against traffic noises (in
Japanese). J. Jpn. Inst. Landscape Archit., 48(5), 85-90.
H. SUZUKI, A. TAMURA and N. KAJIMA, (1989). "Effects of planting on annoyance at urban roadside
(in Japanese)." J. Acoust. Soc. Jpn., 45(5), 374-384.
L.M. ANDERSON, B.E. MULLIGAN and L.S. GOODMAN, 1984. Effects of vegetation on human response
to sound. J. Arboriculture, 10(2), 45-49.
B.E. Mulligan, S.A. Lewis, M.L. Faupel, L.S. Goodman and L.M. Anderson, 1987. Enhancement and
masking of loudness by environmental factors (vegetation and noise). Environment and Behavior, 19(4),
411-443.
G. Watts, L. Chinn and N. Godfrey, 1999. The effects of vegetation on the perception of traffic noise.
Applied Acoustics, 56, 39-56.
F.M. Wiener and D.N. Keast, 1959. "Experimental study of the propagation of sound over ground",
J Acoust Soc Am, 31(6): 724-33.
D. GHOSH, et al., 2010. "Assessment of Real Time Traffic Noise Attenuation by tree belts within Kolkata
City", J. Environmental Sc. & Engg. (accepted).
VIKRANT TYAGI, et al., 2006. "A study of the spectral characteristics of traffic noise attenuation by
vegetation belts in Delhi", Applied Acoustics, 67, 926-935.

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

19

A.K.39,
Datta,
R.2012
Sengupta
and N. Dey
Journal of Acoustical Society of India : Vol.
No. 1,
(pp. 20-24)

Capturing the Essence of Raga from


Hindusthani Singing : an Objective Approach
A.K. Datta 1, R. Sengupta 2 and N. Dey 3
1BOM Public Charitable Trust, 3/3 Girish Ghosh Street, Kolkata-700 035 (West Bengal)
2Sir CV Raman Centre of Physics and Music, Jadavpur University, Kolkata-700 032
3 ITC

Sangeet Research Academy, 1, NSC Bose Road, Tollygunge, Kolkata-700 040


e-mail: srd_itcsra@rediffmail.com
[Received: 18.11.2011; Revised: 20.12.2011; Accepted: 11.01.2012]

ABSTRACT
The definition of a raga is somewhat nebulous and verbose. Each raga has a crisply defined set of
notes that can be used. However many ragas of the same 'thaat' use the same set of notes. These are
said to be distinguished primarily by the relative abundance of different notes namely the 'Vaadi',
'Samvadi', 'Anuvadi' relations. These abundances are not quantitatively crisp. The other
distinguishing feature is the selection of phrases i.e., the 'chalans' and 'pakads'. While the last
features are of course important distinctive features of a raga they are not considered here. In this
study we investigate whether the essence of the raga may be considered to lie in the concepts of
'Vaadi', 'Samvadi', 'Anuvadi' relation i.e. in the relative abundance of the notes used. This paper
presents a pilot model of the whole process involved. The frequency distribution of the time a note is
sung is supposed to reflect the relative use of the sung notes. It can therefore be said that such a
representative frequency distribution constructed from a number of songs of the same raga represent
objectively, in some sense, the essence of the raga. The details of the processes involved in determining
the sung time for each note are also presented. A selection of 4 ragas sung by 8 senior musicians
constitutes the database. Whether these distributions truly represent the essence of raga is tested by
correlating each distribution with the other and examining the values. It is expected that the correlation
should be high between songs of same raga but low between songs of different ragas.

1. INTRODUCTION
The Indian classical music is one of the most ancient classical music in the world. It has morphed and
evolved over centuries. The northern Indian classical music is usually referred to as Hindustani music.
Hindustani music is highly structured so as to classify groups of notes based on melodies, associated emotions
and time of performance. These are based on ragas, which are again grouped under thaats. A thaat is defined
by a subset of 7 notes out of the 12 notes. A raga belonging to a thaat uses either all the notes or a subset of the
notes prescribed for the thaat. However, there is more to the raga than just the notes. A direct translation of one
of the descriptions is "That particularity of notes and melodic movements, or that distinction of melodic
sound by which one is delighted, is raga"[1]. Thus, a raga is a set of notes with a particular melodic movement
to give a characteristic emotion that touches the mind and pleases the ear. A raga is though precise in its
definition yet gives enough flexibility to the musician for improvisation and composition. While hundreds of ragas
may be constructed for each thaat only some which have emotion associated with them are musically tenable.
2012 Acoustical Society of India

20

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

Capturing the Essence of Raga from Hindusthani Singing : an Objective Approach

Raga is the central melodic concept in Indian art music. Roughly, it is a melodic structure that is somewhere
between a scale, an abstract class that specifies what notes are used and in which notes and durations are
fixed through composed melodies. A raga is most easily defined as a collection of basic phrases and a set of
transformations that operate on these phrases. Basic phrases are sequences of notes that may contain ornaments
and articulation information. Transformations are operations, which are used to construct the musical surface
from the basic phrases. For example, a larger phrase can be constructed by the operation of concatenating two
basic phrases. In this case, concatenation is the operation. Stretching and compression, in which the total
duration of the phrase is increased or decreased, are examples of other transformations. Raga music is
essentially monophonic, with percussive accompaniment in certain sections and the constant presence of a
drone that gives a rich texture emphasizing the ground note and the fifth or fourth above it.
Very little work has taken place in the area of applying techniques from computational musicology and
artificial intelligence to the realm of Indian classical music. Of special interest to us is the work done by
Sahasrabuddhe et al. [2] and [3]. In their work, ragas have been modeled as finite automata which were
constructed using information codified in standard texts on classical music. This approach was used to
generate new samples of the raga, which were technically correct and were indistinguishable from
compositions made by humans.
Hidden Markov Models [4] are now widely used to model signals whose functions are not known. A raga
too can be considered to be a class of signals and can be modeled by HMM. The advantage of this approach
is the similarity it has with the finite automata formalism suggested above. A pakad is a catch-phrase of the
raga, with each raga having a different pakad. Most people claim that they identify the raga by identifying the
pakad of the raga. However, it is not necessary for a pakad be sung without any adverse effect in a raga
performance. Since the pakad is a very liberal part of the performance in itself, standard string matching
algorithms are not guaranteed to work. Approximate string matching algorithms designed specifically for
computer musicology, such as the one by Iliopoulos and Kurokawa[5] for musical melodic recognition with
scope for gaps between independent pieces of music, seems more relevant. Other relevant works which
deserve mention here are the ones on Query By Humming [7] and Music Genre Classification [6,8].
In this context the present paper attempts to build an objective construct of one subjective aspect of raga,
the form of raga using the scientific parameters. A raga is characterised by several attributes, like its vaadisamvaadi, aarohana-avrohana and pakad, besides the sequence of notes, which denotes it. It is important to note
here that no two classical performances of the same raga, even two performances by the same artist, will be
identical in the sense that same sequences of notes with same duration are used. However it is often said that
a musician can always identify it simply from the image it creates. They do not need to do it from the catch
phrases. The present study explores the relative abundance of different notes, which loosely relates to vadi,
samvadi and anuvadi relations to construct such a form.
2.

EXPERIMENTAL DETAILS

Altogether four ragas namely, Bhairav, Darbari-Kannada, Mian-ki-Malhar and Todi were selected. The ragas
were sung by 8 maestros. The rendered ragas were digitized at 22050samples/sec, 16 bits per sample. For our
analysis the aalap part of each singer was selected from each raga. Pieces of aalap for each singer for a raga
were taken out from the complete aalap deleting the bandish part. These constituted the aalap signal files for
a singer for each raga. For each raga a singer had one aalap signal of ~3 to 5 minutes. Pre-processing of the
signal consists of standard noise cleaning and amplitude normalization. The pitch profile is extracted using
state-phase approach [9], which gives pitch values (in Hz.) for each pitch period and were stored as 32 'cep
files'.
The smoothing operation [10] was done on the above pitch pattern files. The resulting pitch profiles were
put into 32 'pit files'. A skilled musician listened to the signal files one after another to perceptually detect the
position of tonic ( Sa ) in the file. By FFT analysis, using a standard software package, at the detected region,
Sa for the respective signal file was calculated.
Journal of Acoustical Society of India

21

A.K. Datta, R. Sengupta and N. Dey

All pitch values in each pitch profile is divided by the Sa of the song and is folded back to middle octave (1 to
less than 2), if necessary. The inverse of pitch period converted in millisecond and is used as durational
values. The whole octave is divided into 1200 bins of width 1 cent. Frequency distribution of these ratios in
a raga uses the total time corresponding to the pitch values in each bin. Figure 1 shows one example of such
distribution from raga Bhairav.

Fig. 1. Example of frequency distribution from raga Bhairav


3.

RESULTS

There are in all 32 pitch profiles corresponding to 8 singers and 4 ragas. As already mentioned these profiles
are normalized with respect to the Sa of each file and folded back on to the middle octave to get the final pitch
profiles for the present study. One way to test the similarities and the dissimilarities is to test the correlation
between the frequency distributions. As the concept of raga portrayed by the notes alone, not other elements
like embellishments etc., is the primary object of the present study it must be noted that the frequency distribution
should ideally have been taken for the sung note positions only. There is some adulteration in the frequency
distributions as the raw pitch profiles contain pitch values pertaining to transition between notes also. This
adulteration requires that normal value of 0.75 recommended for goodness of correlation and that of 0.25 for
bad correlation need to be changed. Considering this the threshold value of 0.5 has been taken for the present
study.
The total number of correlation between the pitch profiles are 496 of which 112 pertains to those between
same ragas sung by different singers. It is interesting to note that 102 out 112 exhibited correlation ? 0.5 which
means that in 91% cases these ragas shows similarity between themselves.
On the other hand out of the total number of 384 cross correlations i.e., correlations between pitch profiles
of different ragas, 253 showed poor correlation (< 0.5). This comes to about 66%. This being not encouraging
requires a further investigation. Table 1 below shows pair-wise distribution of the unexpected similarities.
The number of cross correlation between the songs of two ragas in a pair is 64. The erroneous similarity
occurs when one song of a raga shows a correlation ? 0.5 with a song of another raga. The number such errors
divided by 64 expressed in percentage is given in column 3 of the table. Ideally this should be zero for a pair.
Table 1. Pair-wise percentage of erroneous similarities
Raga pair
Bhairav
Darbari-Kannada
Bhairav
Darbari-Kannada
Bhairav
Mian-ki-Malhar
22

Error in %
Todi
Mian-ki-Malhar
Darbari-Kannada
Todi
Mian-ki-Malhar
Todi

67.20
42.18
34.39
28.09
17.15
15.66
Journal of Acoustical Society of India

Capturing the Essence of Raga from Hindusthani Singing : an Objective Approach

The erroneous similarity reflected by correlation is highest between Todi and Bhairav. It is second highest
between Darbari-Kannada and Mian-ki-Malhar. The same is, however less than 20% between Mian-ki-Malhar
on one hand and Bhairav and Todi on the other hand.
Figures 1-4 present the distributions of time a note is sung in the selected pieces of songs for each of the 4
different ragas. An average of all the songs is also included to facilitate comparison. The prominences may be
visualised from the peaks in the curves. The symbols used for the pure notes begin with a capital letter and the
altered notes with small letters. For example, most prominent note in Bhairav generally appears to be 'Pa' and
the next position is occupied by 'Ma' and 're'. The notable exception is for singer 2 who used 're' most
prominently. For Mian-ki-Malhar the most prominent note is 'Ni' and the second position is occupied by 'Pa'
and 'Re'. The notable exception is for singer 3, the prominence being shifted to 'Pa'.
For Darbari-Kannada however the most prominent note is 'Re' followed by 'Pa'. Here too the exceptions
are for singer 3 and 4 where the prominence is again shifted to 'Pa'. In the case of Todi the most prominent note
seems to be 're' followed by 'Pa'. It appears that 'Pa' always occupies some position of prominence. Only when
an examination of all major ragas is made one can decide the efficacy of 'Pa' as a note for discrimination.

Figure 1-4 : Time distributions of notes sung for each of the 4 ragas
Journal of Acoustical Society of India

23

A.K. Datta, R. Sengupta and N. Dey

Figure 5 attempts to present raga roop (the form of a raga) objectively, albeit for the set of very distinctive 4
ragas. Bhairav presents the very distinctive hill covering 'Ga' and 'Ma' whereas Todi hill covers 'ma - dha'.
While Darbari-Kannada and Mian-ki-Malhar have hills in same positions the only distinctive feature seem to
be the valley at 'Dha' for the former and 'dha' for the latter. Do all these make a meaning in the subjective

Fig. 5. Raga-Roop (the form of raga) of four ragas


sense? Does it mean that Todi and Bhairav can not be confused between themselves or with the other two
ragas by listeners having no musical knowledge of ragas? Is it true that for such listeners Darbari-Kannada
and Mian-ki-Malhar get confused? Only suitably designed listening experiment can answer these questions.
4.

REFERENCES

[1]

The Raga Guide: A Survey of 74 Hindustani Ragas, Produced by Nimbus Records with the Rotterdam
Conservatory of Music, Joep Bor, Editor.
[2] H.V. SAHASRABUDDHE, 1994. "Searching for a Common Language of Ragas" Proc. Indian Music and
Computers: Can 'Mindware' and Software Meet?: August.
[3] R. UPADHYE and H. V. SAHASRABUDDHE, 1992. "On the Computational Model of Raag Music of
India": Workshop on AI and Music: 10th European Conference on AI, Vienna.
[4] L.R. RABINER, 1989. "A Tutorial on Hidden Markov Models and Selected Applications, in Speech
Recognition": Proc. IEEE, 77, 257-286.
[5] C.S. ILIOPOULOS and M. KUROKAWA, 2002. "String Matching with Gaps for Musical Melodic
Recognition": Proc. Prague Stringology Conference, 55-64.
[6] G. TZANETAKIS, G. ESSL and P. COOK, 2001. "Automatic Musical Genre Classification of Audio
Signals": Proc. International Symposium of Music Information Retrieval, 205-210.
[7] A. GHIAS, J. LOGAN, D. CHAMBERLIN and B. C. SMITH, 1995. "Query by Humming - Musical
Information Retrieval in an Audio Database" Proc. ACM Multimedia, 231-236.
[8] H. DESHPANDE, U. NAM and R. SINGH, 2001. "MUGEC: Automatic Music Genre Classification":
Technical Report, Stanford University.
[9] A.K. DATTA, 1996. "Generation of Musical Notations from Song using State-Phase for Pitch Detection
Algorithm", J. Acoust. Soc. India, XXIV.
[10] A.K. DATTA et al., 2003. "Study of srutis in Indian musical scales and relevance of schools in recent times
using Signal Processing techniques", Proc. Frontiers of Research on Speech and Music (FRSM- 2003).

24

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

Speech
Children
Journal of Acoustical Society of India
: Vol.Rhythm
39, No.in
1, Kannada
2012 (pp. Speaking
25-33)

Speech Rhythm in Kannada Speaking Children


S.R. Savithri
All India Institute of Speech and Hearing, Manasagangothri, Mysore - 6 (Karnataka)
e-mail: spscsavithri@aiishmysore.in
[Received: 15.11.2011; Revised: 24.12.2011; Accepted: 11.01.2012]

ABSTRACT
Rhythm is a systematic temporal and accentual patterning of sound. Speech rhythm refers to the way
languages are organized in time. The present study investigated the differences in the type of speech
rhythm, in typically developing, Kannada speaking children in the age groups of 3-4 years, 4-5 years,
8-9 years, 10-11 years, and 11-12 years. One hundred children (10 girls and 10 boys in each age
group) participated in the study. A five-minute speech sample was elicited using simple pictures/
cartoons developed by Nagapoornima (1991), and Indu (1991) in 3-5 year old children and pictures
depicting simple Panchatantra stories developed by Rajendra Swamy (1991) for children in the other
age groups. These speech samples were analyzed using PRAAT 5.1.14 software. Vocalic (V) and
Intervocalic (IV) durations were measured. The durational difference between successive vocalic and
intervocalic segments were calculated and averaged to get the raw Pairwise Variability Index (rPVI)
and normalized Pairwise Variability Index (nPVI). Comparison of PVIs of the above age groups with
Kannada speaking adults indicated that 3-4 year old children had more of syllable-timed rhythm
pattern; 8-9 year and 11-12 year old children rhythm remained unclassified but the values
approximated adults i.e., towards mora-timed rhythm. rPVI reduced from younger to older age group
whereas nPVI showed no such trend. Results obtained are discussed with reference to the rhythm
types in each age group and establishing a continuum in development.

1.

INTRODUCTION

Rhythm is the systematic patterning of timing, accent and grouping in sequences of events. The study of
speech rhythm has become a key challenge in speech technology since most of automatic speech processing
systems have to cope with the variability of speech rate and rhythm and their consequences both on the
segmental units and suprasegmental organization of speech. Languages differ in characteristic rhythm (Pike,
1945; Abercrombie, 1967) though no consensus has emerged on how the undoubted differences in rhythmic
structures should be captured (Cutler, 1991). The Rhythm Class Hypothesis states that each language belongs
to one of the prototypical rhythm classes known as stress-timed, syllable-timed or mora-timed.
When a language has simple syllabic structure, for e.g. VC or CCV, the durational difference between the
simplest and most complicated syllable is not wide. This durational difference may be less than 330 ms.
Under these circumstances, the rhythm of the language is said to be a fast syllable-timed rhythm. If the
syllabic structure is still simpler, for e.g. VC or CV, then the durational difference between syllables is negligible
and it is called a mora-timed language. When a language has complex syllabic structure, for e.g. V and
CCCVCC, the durational difference between syllables can be very wide. In such a condition one has to use a
slow stress-timed rhythm.
The development of concept on rhythm measurement initiated with the concept of isochrony i.e. successive
syllables are said to be of near-equal length or interval between stresses are said to be equal in length. The first
2012 Acoustical Society of India

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

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S.R. Savithri

attempt to test Rhythm Class Hypothesis was made by Abercrombie (1967) by using the average syllable
duration, but was not found to be effective in classifying rhythm types. Roach (1982) used a different measure
- inter-stress interval (ISI). However, ISI also does not seem to classify languages on the basis of rhythm.
Ramus, Nespor and Mehler (1999) found that a combination of vocalic durations (% V) and Standard Deviation
of consonant intervals (C) provided the best acoustic correlate of rhythm classes.
The Pair-wise Variability Index (PVI) is a quantitative measure of acoustic correlates of speech rhythm
which calculates the patterning of successive vocalic and intervocalic (or consonantal) intervals, showing
how one linguistic unit differs from its neighbour (Low, 1998). The PVI can be calculated "raw" (rPVI), where
the differences between successive pairs of units are averaged. The raw Pairwise Variability Index (rPVI) is
used for rhythmic analysis of intervocalic durations. Low, Grabe and Nolan (2000) developed normalized
Pairwise Variability Index (nPVI) for rhythmic analysis of vocalic durations. Normalisation involves expressing
each difference as a proportion of the average of the two units involved. Table 1 summarizes the basic
characteristics of each language class regarding relative values of vocalic nPVI and intervocalic rPVI.
Table 1. Summary of basic characteristics of rhythm class based on vocalic nPVI and intervocalic rPVI
Intervocalic interval (IV)

Vocalic interval (V)

Stress-timed

High

High

Syllable-timed

High

Low

Mora-timed

Low

Low

In the Indian context, the data collected so far is mostly on adults and data on speech rhythm in children
are limited. Savithri, Jayaram, Kedarnath and Goswami (2006) found Kannada1 to be a mora-timed language
(low rPVI and nPVI) in adults. They report rPVI values between 35.90 and 52.10 with a mean of 46.18 and
nPVI values between 41.80 and 54.36, with a mean of 46.95 in reading samples.
Savithri, Johnsirani and Ruchi (2008) studied speech rhythm in normal and hearing-impaired children
in the age range of 5-10 years. The mean rPVI and nPVI values for normal children were 15.70 and 62.49,
whereas for the hearing-impaired children, they were 20.54 and 67.14, respectively. The results indicated
high nPVI and low rPVI values in both the groups. Therefore, the rhythm pattern remained unclassified and
could not be placed in any of the rhythmic classes (stress-timed, syllable-timed, or mora-timed). The results
also showed that syllabic structure used by the children was simpler in the acquisition stage of rhythm
patterns. Hence there is a need to develop normative data for understanding the development of rhythm
pattern in children.
Savithri, Sreedevi, Deepa and Aparna (2011) investigated the rhythm in 3-4 year old typically developing
children. The results showed that mean nPVI was 61.27 and mean rPVI was 77.82. In this group, rhythm is
classified as syllable timed as the mean rPVI is more than mean nPVI. On similar lines the same authors
investigated rhythm in 11-12 year old Kannada speaking girls and found high nPVI (60.75) and the low rPVI
(53.72). However, the difference was not significant and the rhythm remains unclassified.
The present paper is a part of a project (Department of Science and Technology) which investigated the
differences in the type of speech rhythm, if any, between typically developing 3-5 year, 8-9 year, and 10-12
year old Kannada speaking boys and girls.
Kannada is one of the major Dravidian languages of India, spoken predominantly in the state of Karnataka.
Native speakers are called Kannadigas, number roughly 50 million, making it the 27th most spoken language
in the world. It is one of the scheduled languages of India and the official & administrative language of the
state of Karnataka. Kannada (n.d) In Wikipedia Online. Retrieved from http://www.wikipedia.com.
1

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Journal of Acoustical Society of India

Speech Rhythm in Kannada Speaking Children

2.

METHOD

2.1 Subjects
One hundred native Kannada speaking, typically developing children in the age range of 3-5 years, 8-9 years,
and 10-12 years (10 girls and 10 boys in each age group) participated in the study. All subjects were screened
to rule out structural and/or functional deficits in speech, language, and hearing.
2.2 Test Material
A five-minute speech sample was elicited from each subject using simple pictures/cartoons developed by
Nagapoornima (1991) and Indu (1991) in 3-5 year old children; Pictures depicting simple Panchatantra
stories developed by Rajendra Swamy (1991) were used in other children.
2.3 Procedure
Speech samples were collected from one subject at a time and they were instructed to see the pictures carefully
and describe them. Prompting was used at times when the child did not respond. Speech samples were
audio-recorded using a digital voice recorder (Olympus-WS-100) at a sampling frequency of 16 kHz.
2.4 Acoustic Analyses
The speech sample data were transferred onto the computer and analyzed using PRAAT 5.1.14 software
(Boersma & Weenik, 2009). The pauses were eliminated by using the same software. This was done in order
to get an appropriate measure of the vocalic and non-vocalic segments. The Vocalic (V) and Intervocalic (IV)
segments were highlighted using a cursor and durations were measured. Vocalic measure refers to the
duration of a vowel/semivowel/diphthong which was measured as the time difference between the onset of
voicing to the offset of voicing for that vowel/semivowel/diphthong. Intervocalic measure refers to the time

Fig. 1. Illustration of measurement of vocalic (V) and intervocalic (IV) intervals in the sentence
[ondu:ralli ondu ka:ge ittu]
Journal of Acoustical Society of India

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S.R. Savithri

difference between two vocalic segments. It was measured as the time difference between the offset of the first
vocalic segment to the onset of the second vocalic segment. Figure 1 illustrates vocalic and intervocalic
measures in the Kannada sentence [ondu:ralli ondu ka:ge ittu].
The duration difference between successive vocalic and intervocalic segments were calculated and
averaged to get the nPVI and rPVI, respectively. Pairwise Variability Index developed by Grabe and Low
(2002) was used as a measure of rhythm. The rPVI and nPVI were calculated using the following formulae:

m 1 dk dk + 1

n PVI = 100
/(m 1 ) ,
k =1 ( dk + dk + 1 ) / 2

m1

r PVI = dk dk +1 /(m 1 )
k =1

where, m is the number of intervals and dk is the duration of the kth interval. nPVI and rPVI were calculated
using the above formulae in the Microsoft office excel program.
2.5 Statistical Analysis
Statistical analysis was carried out using commercially available SPSS (version 16) software. Mixed ANOVA
was used to find the overall interaction between age, gender and the PVIs. T-test was used to find the
significant difference between PVIs in each age group for boys and girls. Multivariate analysis was used to
obtain the significant difference within the gender for rPVI and nPVI across age groups.
3.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

3.1 3-4 Year Old Children


The vocalic nPVI for girls ranged between 39.09 to 76.68 with a mean of 59.38 and the intervocalic rPVI
ranged from 74.05 to 91.49 with a mean of 85.22. The vocalic nPVI in boys ranged between 46.28 to 96.17 with
a mean of 63.16 and the intervocalic rPVI ranged from 61.54 to 81.63 with a mean of 70.43. The intervocalic
rPVI was significantly higher [t (19) = 3.995; p < 0.01] than the vocalic nPVI in both the genders. The mean
nPVI was 61.27 and the mean rPVI was 77.82. Hence the rhythm can be classified as syllable timed in this age
group. Figure 2 shows vocalic nPVI and intervocalic rPVI in both girls and boys.

Fig. 2. rPVI and nPVI values in 3-4 year old girls and boys
3.2 4-5 Year Old Children
nPVI values in girls ranged between 66.79 to 105.35 with a mean of 85.31 and rPVI values ranged from 50.62
to 71.17 with a mean of 59.72. nPVI values in boys ranged from 46.70 to 60.94 with a mean of 50.87 and rPVI
values ranged from 46.12 to118.64 with a mean of 77.42. Figure 3 shows rPVI and nPVI values in 8-9 year old
girls and boys.
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Journal of Acoustical Society of India

Speech Rhythm in Kannada Speaking Children

Fig. 3. rPVI and nPVI values in 4-5 year old girls and boys
3.3 8-9 Year Old Children
nPVI values in girls ranged between 47.49 to 90.55 with a mean of 57.07 and rPVI values ranged from 41.37
to 79.45 with a mean of 54.54. nPVI values in boys ranged from 49.45 to 63.37 with a mean of 58.78 and rPVI
values ranged from 41.22 to 69.10 with a mean of 54.33. Though mean nPVI was higher than rPVI the
difference was not significant [t (19) = 0.295, p > 0.05]. Figure 4 shows rPVI and nPVI values in 8-9 year old
girls and boys.

Fig. 4. rPVI and nPVI values in 8-9 year old girls and boys
3.4 10-11 Year Old Children
nPVI values in girls ranged between 37.00 to 84.09 with a mean of 59.28 and rPVI values ranged from 40.76
to 80.01 with a mean of 53.41. nPVI values in boys ranged from 44.02 to 74.06 with a mean 59.62 and rPVI
values ranged from 31.22 to 59.99 with a mean of 44.84. Figure 5 shows rPVI and nPVI values in 10-11 year
old girls and boys.

Fig. 5. rPVI and nPVI values in 10-11 year old girls and boys
Journal of Acoustical Society of India

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S.R. Savithri

3.5 11-12 Year Old Children


The nPVI values for girls ranged from 37.0 to 84.09 with a mean of 60.75 and the rPVI values ranged from 38.3
to 84.01 with a mean of 53.72. The nPVI values in boys ranged between 44.62 to 69.51 with a mean of 59.73
and the rPVI values ranged from 38.3 to 84.01 with a mean of 43.12. The results indicated higher nPVI
compared to rPVI in both the genders. However, the difference was not significant (t (29) = 1.808; p > 0.05).
Figure 6 shows nPVI and rPVI values in 11-12 year old girls and boys.

Fig. 6. rPVI and nPVI values in 11-12 year old girls and boys
Results of mixed ANOVA indicated significant difference between age groups [F (2) = 40.05; p < 0 .05],
and gender [F (1) = 5.123; p < 0.05]. Results of Bonferroni multiple comparison, showed that 3-4 years had
significantly (p < 0.001) higher PVI values than the older age groups. Mean PVI values of 8-9 years was higher
than 11-12 years but the difference was not significant (p > 0.05).
Results of multivariate analysis indicated a significant difference for rPVI for both the genders across age
groups [F (2) = 0.993; p < 0.001] and no significant difference in nPVI for both the genders, across age groups
[F (2) = 0.958; p > 0.05]. rPVI in 3-4 year old boys were significantly higher than that in 8-9 and 11-12 year old
boys; 8-9 year old boys significantly higher than that in 11-12 year old boys. In girls, rPVI was significantly
higher in 3-4 years compared to older age groups. The mean rPVI value was higher in 8-9 year old girls
compared to 11-12 year old girls but the difference was not significant (p > 0.05). However, rPVI decreased
from 3-4 years to 11-12 years in both the genders. Table 2 shows nPVI and rPVI in all the age groups.
Figure 7 shows the nPVI and rPVI in all the age groups.
In the present study the nPVI and rPVI in 11-12 year old children approximated adult values reported by
Savithri et al. (2006). However, the materials used in both the population were different. Speech samples were
used in the present study and reading samples were used in the study by Savitri et al. (2006). A comparison of
nPVI and rPVI in children obtained in the present study and adult values obtained by Savithri et al. (2006)
revealed that rPVI decreased from 3-4 year to 11-12 year old children to adults.
Table 2. nPVI and rPVI in all age groups of children and adults
Age in years

Children

Adults (Savithri et al., 2006)

3-4

4-5

8-9

10-11

11-12

nPVI

61.28

68.09

57.93

59.45

60.24

46.95

rPVI

77.83

66.57

54.44

49.13

48.42

46.18

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Journal of Acoustical Society of India

Speech Rhythm in Kannada Speaking Children

Fig. 7. rPVI and nPVI values in children and adults


Figure 7 shows the nPVI and rPVI in all three groups of children in the present study with that of adults
(Savithri et al., 2006). A developmental trend was observed in speech rhythm. The pattern changed from
syllable timed in the younger age group to unclassified in the older group of children which closely
approximated the adult rhythm pattern.

Fig. 8. Vocalic nPVI and intervocalic rPVI in children and adults speaking Kannada
The results also indicated that the nPVI was higher than rPVI in all age groups. The higher nPVI may be
attributed to lengthening of word-final and phrase-final vowels, during narration of stories. A comparison of
nPVI and rPVI values in the present study with previous findings of other languages indicated that rhythm
in 3-4 year old Kannada speaking children could be classified as stress-timed as it was closer to English; 8-9
and 11-12 year old children in the present study fall along with German which is classified as a stress-timed
language; those of Kannada speaking adults is with Rumanian, which is unclassified. The basis for
classification for stress timed language is high rPVI and nPVI, which is not evident in German. There is no
support, however, for a strict categorical distinction between languages with high vocalic and intervocalic
values and languages with low vocalic and intervocalic PVI values. Rather it appears that languages can be
Journal of Acoustical Society of India

31

S.R. Savithri

Fig. 9. Vocalic nPVI and intervocalic rPVI in Kannada and other languages
more or less 'stress-timed' or 'syllable-timed'. Therefore the investigation of speech rhythm in children from 312 years is likely to provide greater details on developmental pattern of rhythm. Figure 9 shows the vocalic
nPVI and intervocalic rPVI in Kannada and other languages of the world.
4.

CONCLUSION

The present study investigated speech rhythm in typically developing Kannada speaking children by
measuring the vocalic and intervocalic intervals. It was found that 3-4 year old children had more of syllabletimed rhythm pattern. Rhythm type in 8-9 year and 11-12 year old children remained unclassified. Comparison
of results with other languages of the world shows that PVIs of higher age groups are approximating stress
timed languages and younger age group falls between stressed and syllable timed languages. The findings of
the present study indicate that there is a need to develop data on rhythm to understand the developmental
pattern and design treatment strategies for prosodic errors.
5.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The author wishes to thank the Department of Science and Technology, Ministry of Science and Technology,
Government of India, for providing grants towards the project. They also thank Ms. M. S. Vasanthalakshmi,
Lecturers in Biostatistics, Department of Speech-Language Pathology, for the help in statistical analysis.
Sincere thanks to all the participants of the study.
6.
[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]

32

REFERENCES
D. ABERCROMBIE, 1967. Elements of General Phonetics. Chicago: Aldine Pub. Co.
BOERSMA and WEENIK, 2009. PRAAT 5.1.14 software. Retrieved from http://www.goofull.com/au/
programa/14235/speedyitunes.html.
E. GRABE and E.L. LOW, 2002. Durational variability in speech and the rhythm class hypothesis. In: C.
Gussenhoven and N. Warner, 2006. Eds, Laboratory Phonology, Berlin:Mouton de Gruyter, 7, 515-546.
S. INDU, 1991. Some aspects of Fluency in children: 4-5 years. Unpublished master's dissertation
submitted in part-fulfillment for the master's degree in Speech and Hearing. University of Mysore, Mysore.
Journal of Acoustical Society of India

Speech Rhythm in Kannada Speaking Children

[5]
[6]
[7]
[8]
[9]
[10]
[11]
[12]
[13]
[14]
[15]

E.L. LOW, 1998. Prosodic Prominence in Singapore English. Unpublished Ph.D. Thesis, University of
Cambridge.
E.L. LOW, E. GRABE and F. NOLAN, 2000. Quantitative Characterizations of Speech Rhythm- 'Syllable
timing' in Singapore English. Language and Speech, 43, 377- 401.
M. NAGAPOORNIMA, 1991. Some aspects of Fluency in children: 3-4 years. Unpublished master's
dissertation submitted in part-fulfillment for the master's degree in Speech and Hearing. University of
Mysore, Mysore.
K.L. PIKE, 1945. The intonation of American English. Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press.
RAJENDRA SWAMY, 1991. Some aspects of fluency in children: 6-7 years. Unpublished master's
dissertation submitted in part-fulfillment for the master's degree in Speech and Hearing. University of
Mysore, Mysore.
F. RAMUS, M. NESPOR and J. MEHLER, 1999. Correlates of Linguistic Rhythm in the Speech Signal.
Cognition, 72, 1 -28.
P. ROACH, 1982. On the distinction between 'Stress-timed' and 'Syllable-timed' languages. In: D. Crystal
(1986) Eds., Linguistic Controversies, London: Arnold, 73-79.
S.R. SAVITHRI, M. JAYARAM, D. KEDARNATH and S. GOSWAMI, 2006. Speech rhythm in Indo Aryan
and Dravidian languages. Proceedings of the International Symposium on Frontiers of Research on speech and
music, 31-35.
S.R. SAVITHRI, R. JOHNSIRANI and A. RUCHI, 2008. Speech Rhythm in Hearing-Impaired Children.
AIISH Research Fund Project.
S.R. SAVITHRI, N. SREEDEVI, V.S. APARNA and DEEPA ANAND, 2011. Speech rhythm in 11-12 year
old Kannada speaking children. Proceedings of International Symposium on Frontiers of Research in
Speech and Music & Computer Music Modeling and Retrieval, FRSM/CMMR-2011, 56-59.
S.R. SAVITHRI, N. SREEDEVI, DEEPA ANAND and V.S. APARNA, 2011. Effect of gender on speech
rhythm in 3-4 year old Kannada speaking children. Proceedings of International Symposium on Frontiers
of Research in Speech and Music & Computer Music Modeling and Retrieval, FRSM/CMMR,31-35.

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

33

Chakraborty
Journal of Acoustical Society of IndiaSwarima
: Vol. 39,Tewari
No. 1, and
2012Soubhik
(pp. 34-37)

A Statistical Analysis of Raga Bhairavi


Swarima Tewari and Soubhik Chakraborty*
Department of Applied Mathematics, Birla Institute of Technology
Mesra, Ranchi-835 215 (Jharkhand)
*e-mail: soubhikc@yahoo.co.in
[Received: 13.11.2011; Revised: 29.11.2011; Accepted: 17.01.2012]

ABSTRACT
It is held that the emotions of the raga, in Indian classical music, depend not only on the note
combinations, as are typical of the raga, but also on other features like the pitch movements taking
place between two successive notes, the note duration, the pause between the notes etc. The present
paper makes a statistical study of the same in raga Bhairavi.
Keywords: Raga, pitch, rhythm, note duration, statistics.

1. INTRODUCTION
A raga, which is the nucleus of Indian Classical music, may be defined as a melodic structure with fixed notes
and a set of rules characterizing a certain mood conveyed by performance. It is held that the emotions of the
raga depend not only on the note combinations, as are typical of the raga, but also on other features like the
pitch movements taking place between two successive notes, the note duration, the pause between the notes
etc. The present paper makes a statistical study of the same in raga Bhairavi based on a two minute harmonium
recording of the raga played by the second author. Musical data was retrieved from the audio file by Solo
Explorer 1.0 software (a wav to midi converter and an automatic music transcriber). The next section gives the
statistical analysis which is followed by a discussion.
2.

STATISTICAL ANALYSIS

Statistical analysis of IOI


1st min
mean = 1.2409
standard deviation = 1.8386
2nd min
mean = 0.8200
standard deviation = 1.4338
Statistical Analysis of Note Duration
1st min
mean = 0.8796
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A Statistical Analysis of Raga Bhairavi

standard deviation = 1.2651


2nd min
mean = 0.7352
standard deviation = 1.4106
3.

DISCUSSION

A count for distinct transitory and similar looking non-transitory pitch movements (but possibly embedding
distinct emotions!) between the musical notes is taken. There is a concept of alankar in Indian music meaning
ornament (of course in a musical sense!). The shastras have categorized alankars into Varnalankar and Shabdalankar.
The varnas include sthayi (stay on a note), arohi (ascent or upward movement), awarohi (descent or downward
movement) and sanchari (mixture of upward and downward movement). This classification of alankars relate
not only to the structural aspect of the raga but also the raga performance in that " all the extempore variations
that a performer created during a performance within the raga and tala limits could be termed as alankar,
because these variations embellished and enhanced the beauty of the raga, the tala and the composition."
(http://www.itcsra.org/alankar/alankar.html) We also get other types of pitch movements like hats and
valleys. A hat is interpreted as a rise or ascent followed by immediate fall or descent and a valley would be
similarly interpreted as a fall followed by immediate rise. Our analysis is summarized in Tables 1 and 2.

Table 1. Raga analysis for 1st minute


1st minute
Rising Transition

Falling Transition

12
Convex
6

Mixed
No
Transition Transition

Concave

Linear

Convex

Concave

Linear

11

25

Hats

Valley

11

Table 2. Raga analysis for 2nd minute


1st minute
Rising Transition

Falling Transition

Convex

Concave

Linear

Convex

Concave

Linear

Mixed
No
Transition Transition
13

11

Hats

Valley

IOI (inter onset interval) graphs for detecting rhythm

The duration of the note is important as it is directly related to the conception of pitch stability proposed by
Carol Krumhansl, a Professor of Psychology in Cornell university, USA who is well known for her contributions
to music (Krumhansl, 2001). This concept of pitch stability is psychological in nature reflecting a stay on the
note. There is also a notion of statistical pitch stability which is related to the probability of occurrence of a note
being stable over the instances of realization of the note. If a note is statistically stable and also has a high
Journal of Acoustical Society of India

35

Swarima Tewari and Soubhik Chakraborty

Fig. 1. IOI graph for first minute

Fig. 2. IOI graph for the second minute

Fig. 3. Duration graph for the first minute

Fig. 4. Note duration graph for the second minute

probability of coming it is an important note in a statistical sense (Chakraborty et al., 2009). Similarly, a note is
important in a psychological sense if its average duration is high with low standard deviation. From fig. 3 and
4 and the statistical analysis, it is clear that the note duration is more in the first minute implying greater
psychological stability in the first half of the recording. Readers interested in the basic musical features of the
raga are referred to appendix.
The notes are said to be in rhythm if the inter onset times between successive notes is equal. This has been
detected in our paper using an Inter Onset Interval (IOI) graph where the term onset refers to the point of arrival
time of a note (the idea also applies to beats in a percussion instrument). Figures 1 and 2 give the IOI graphs for
the first and the second minute of the recording respectively. The mean IOI is less in the second minute
implying that notes have come more rapidly in the second half of the recording. The standard deviation is also
less implying there is comparatively more rhythm in the notes in the second minute. This is also intuitively
clear from the IOI graphs.
4.

CONCLUDING REMARKS

By actually hearing the Bhairavi recording and then by studying the analysis of the acoustical features, one
finds some truths in the exploration of what kind of acoustical features led to what kind of emotional changes
in the brain. Although this strictly speaking is the subject matter of psychophysics (Roederer, 2008), which is
a branch of psychology, we have shown the important role statistics plays. Here we have used statistics to
analyze only the acoustical data. It is equally challenging, if not more, to statistically analyze data for the
brain-response part for which sophisticated instruments like PET (positron emission tomography) or fMRI
(functional magnetic resonance imaging) may be required.

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Journal of Acoustical Society of India

A Statistical Analysis of Raga Bhairavi

5.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

This research is a part of a UGC Major Research Project. The authors thank the University Grants Commission
(UGC) for the sponsorship (Sanction Letter No.F.N.5-412/2010 (HRP); draft no.392889 dated 28.02.2011).
Appendix
Musical Features of raga Bhairavi (Dutta, 2006)
Thaat (raga group according to scale): Bhairavi
Arohan (ascent): S r g M P d n S
Awarohan (descent): S n d P M g r S
Jati: Sampoorna-Sampoorna (seven distinct notes allowed in both ascent and descent)
Vadi swar (most important note): M (some say d)
Samvadi swar (second most important note): S (some say r)
Anga: Uttaranga Pradhan (second half more important)
Pakad (catch): M g S r S d n S
Nyas swar (stay notes): g, M, P
Suitable time of rendition: 6AM to 9AM
Notations used
C Db D Eb E F F# G Ab A Bb B
S r

G M m P d D n N (lower octave)

S r R

G M m P d D n N (middle octave)

S r R g
6.
[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]

M m P d D n N (higher octave)

REFERENCES
S. CHAKRABORTY, R. RANGANAYAKULU, S. CHAUHAN, S. S. SOLANKI and K. MAHTO, 2009. A
Statistical Analysis of Raga Ahir Bhairav, Journal of Music and Meaning, 8(4); http://
www.musicandmeaning.net/issues/showArticle.php?artID=8.4.
C.L. KRUMHANSL, 2001. Cognitive Foundations of Musical Pitch, Oxford University Press.
J. ROEDERER, 2008. The physics and psychophysics of music (4th ed.): an introduction, Springer Pub.
Co. Inc.
D. DUTTA and SANGEET TATTWA (PRATHAM KHANDA), 2006. Brati Prakashani, 5th ed, (Bengali).

Abbreviations: The letters S, R, G, M, P, D and N stand for Sa, Sudh Re, Sudh Ga, Sudh Ma, Pa, Sudh Dha and
Sudh Ni respectively. The letters r, g, m, d, n represent Komal Re, Komal Ga, Tibra Ma, Komal Dha and Komal Ni
respectively. Normal type indicates the note belongs to middle octave; italics implies that the note belongs to
the octave just lower than the middle octave while a bold type indicates it belongs to the octave just higher than
the middle octave. Sa, the tonic in Indian music, is taken at C. Corresponding Western notation is also provided.
The terms "Sudh", "Komal" and "Tibra" imply, respectively, natural, flat and sharp.
Journal of Acoustical Society of India

37

S.K. Dash,
B. Dalai,
Singh,
N. Swain,
M.D. Swain and B.B. Swain
Journal of Acoustical Society
of India
: Vol. S.K.
39, No.
1, 2012
(pp. 38-47)

Thermo-Acoustic Properties of Binary Mixtures of


Di-(2-Ethylhexyl) Phosphoric Acid with Dioxane,
Cyclohexane and n-Pentane by Ultrasonic Method
S.K. Dash 1*, B. Dalai 2, S.K. Singh 3, N. Swain 4, M.D. Swain 5 and B.B. Swain 6
1Dept.

of Physics, Regional Institute of Education (NCERT), Bhubaneswar, Odisha- 751 022


of Physics, Eastern Academy of Science and Technology, Khurda, Odisha - 754 001
3Institute of Minerals and Materials Technology (CSIR), Bhubaneswar, Odisha - 751 013
4College of Basic Science and Humanities, O.U.A.T, Bhubaneswar, Odisha - 751 003
5Dept. of Physics, Odisha Engineering College,Bhubaneswar,Odisha - 751 007
6Vivekananda Institute of Technology, Bhubaneswar, Odisha -752 054
*e-mail: skdash59@yahoo.com

2Dept.

[Received: 10.12.2011; Revised: 13.12.2011; Accepted: 05.01.2012]

ABSTRACT
Ultrasonic velocities, U, densities, and viscosities, of di-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (D2EHPA)
+ dioxane, + cyclohexane, + n-pentane were measured at 313.16 K over the entire range of composition
under atmospheric pressure. The measured data were used to compute intermolecular free length, Lf ,
isentropic compressibility, s, acoustic impedance, Z, free volume, Vf, internal pressure, i, viscous
relaxation time, and some deviation properties were evaluated for all systems. The behaviour of
these properties have been discussed in terms of molecular interactions between liquid components
and correlated with the Redlich-Kister type polynomial equation.

1. INTRODUCTION
The study of the thermo-acoustic properties of binary mixtures is useful to obtain information on the nature
and extent of molecular aggregation that exist in liquid mixtures owing to molecular interaction [1, 2]. In recent
years, solvent extraction technology is extensively employed in pharmaceutical and petrochemical industries,
bimolecular processes, organic synthesis, atomic energy industries etc. Di-(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid
(D2EHPA) is one of the most widely used and characterized effective extractant [3] used commercially to
recover uranium, vanadium, yttrium, scandium, neodymium, cobalt, Indium, gallium and zinc. In view of
wide range applications of D2EHPA, the results obtained for ultrasonic velocities, densities and viscosities
have been utilised to assess the related thermo-acoustic properties for the binary mixtures of D2EHPA with npentane, dioxane and cyclohexane at 313.16 K.
2.

EXPERIMENTAL DETAILS

All chemicals are of AR grade (E. Merck, India) and the purity of the sample was checked by comparing the
experimental data of density and viscosity at 313.16K with the values available in the literature [4-6]. Binary
mixtures were prepared by mass in air tight bottles. The mass measurements were performed on a digital top
loading balance (Shimadzu corporation, Kyoto, Japan, model No: BL 220H) with a precision of 0.001g. Density
of pure liquids and their mixtures were determined with a pyknometer of 25 ml capacity calibrated at 313.16K.
2012 Acoustical Society of India

38

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

Thermo-Acoustic Properties of Binary Mixtures .......Cyclohexane and n-Pentane by Ultrasonic Method

The maximum error in the density measurement was found to be 0.01 kg m-3. Ostwald viscometer having a
capacity of about 25ml has been preferred to measure the flow time of pure liquids and liquid mixtures and it
was calibrated with benzene and doubly distilled water at 313.16 K. The uncertainty of viscosity was 3 x 10-6
N m-2 s. The ultrasonic velocity was determined by using a single crystal variable path ultrasonic interferometer
(F-81, Mittal Enterprises, New Delhi) working at 2 MHz with an accuracy of 0.05%. The working principle
used in the measurement of speed of sound through the sample was based on the accurate determination of the
wavelengths of ultrasonic waves of known frequency produced by quartz crystal in the measuring cell. The
temperature of the sample was controlled by circulating water at a desired temperature through a steel jacket
of double walled cell. The temperature of the sample was maintained to a precision of 0.1 K in an electronically
controlled thermostatic water bath for measurement of all the physical properties.
3.

POWER BALANCE EQUATIONS

The experimental values of U, and were taken to calculate the various thermo-acoustic parameters, viz.
intermolecular freelength, Lf, isentropic compressibility, s, acoustic impedance, Z, free volume, Vf , internal
pressure, and viscous relaxation time, using following relations [7-10] and are presented in Table 1.

(1)

Lf = k1/2s
where k [=(93.875 0.375T) 10-8] is the Jacobson temperature dependent constant.
1
s =
U 2
Z = U

(2)
(3)

3/2

MU
(4)
Vi =

where ka (= 4.28 109) is a constant independent of temperature and the nature of the liquids, M is the molar
mass of the liquid.
1/2

2 /3

k
(5)
i = bRT a
M 7 /6
U
where b is the space packing factor, R (= 8.31 J mol-1 K-1) is the universal gas constant and T is the temperature
Kelvin.
4
=
3 U 2

(6)

The excess function (YE) such as , Z, s , Lf , Vf and i have been computed using the following
expression.
YE = Yexp - Yideal = Ym - (x1 Y1 + x2 Y2)

(7)

where Ym represents the parameters , Z, s Lf, Vf and i of binary mixtures, x is the molefraction, and subscripts
1 and 2 refers to solute and solvent respectively.
The deviation in enthalpy of mixing, H [11] is given by

H = xii1Vf1+x2i2Vf2-(i)mVfm

(8)

where (i)m, i1, i2 are internal pressure of binary mixture and pure components respectively. Vfm , Vf1 and Vf2
denote the free volume of the binary mixture and respective pure components.
Journal of Acoustical Society of India

39

S.K. Dash, B. Dalai, S.K. Singh, N. Swain, M.D. Swain and B.B. Swain

The excess functions, YE of the binary mixtures were fitted with Redlich-Kister polynomial type Eq. [12]
4

a (2x 1)

Y E = xi (1 xi )

(9)

f =0

where aj and j are the equation coefficients and the degree of polynomial expansion respectively.
In each case, the optimum number of coefficients j was determined from an examination of the variation of
standard deviation,

(Y E ) = [

(Y

E
exp

E 2
Ycal
) /( n m)]1/2

(10)

where n represents the number of experimental data points and m is the number of coefficients j considered.
E
E
Yexp
and Ycal
are deviations in the experimental and calculated properties respectively. The coefficients along

with the standard deviations are presented in Table 2


4.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

A perusal of Table 1 reveals that ultrasonic velocity, density and viscosity increase nonlinearly with increasing
molefraction of D2EHPA in all the binary mixtures except in dioxane. This behaviour which is different from
that of ideal mixture behaviour can be attributed to the molecular interaction in the systems. According to
Kannappan et al. [13], the non-linear variation in density, viscosity and ultrasonic velocity with solute
concentration is due to association between solute and solvent molecules.
Furthermore, the isentropic compressibility,s and intermolecular freelength, Lf show an opposite trend to
that of ultrasonic velocity. On the basis of a model for sound propagation proposed by Eyring and Kincaid [14],
the ultrasonic velocity decreases if the intermolecular free-length increases and vice-versa. The values of
acoustic impedance, Z increases in cyclohexane and n-pentane system with molar concentration of D2EHPA
except in dioxane. The nonlinear increase/decrease in the value of Z with composition for all the mixtures
lends support to the interaction between the component molecules. In all the binary mixtures, the values of
relaxation time, increase non-linearly with increase in the molefraction of D2EHPA, which is in accordance
with that reported by Krishna Rao et al. [15]. The free volume, Vf and internal pressure,i are measure of
cohesive forces between the constituent molecules in liquids [16]. The values of free volume, Vf decreases while
that of internal pressure,i increases in all the systems except in dioxane system which shows opposite trend.

O - H +

O-

(RO)2 P

P (OR)2
O -

H+- O

where R is ethylhexyl

Fig. 1. Dimeric form of D2EHPA


40

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

Thermo-Acoustic Properties of Binary Mixtures .......Cyclohexane and n-Pentane by Ultrasonic Method

Table 1. Experimental ultrasonic velocities, U, densities , viscosities and calculated values


of acoustical and thermodynmical parameters at 313.16K
x1

U
(ms-1)

(kgm-3)

103
Z10-6
(Nm-2s) (Kgm-2s-1)

0.00
0.07
0.12
0.20
0.28
0.34
0.42
0.46
0.48
0.56
0.68
0.71
0.79
0.84
0.92
1.00

1000
1040
1065
1102
1140
1163
1188
1200
1209
1227
1254
1260
1273
1280
1290
1293

619
683
716
765
803
828
857
867
873
894
918
924
936
942
953
961

0.2
0.3
0.4
0.6
1.1
1.5
2.4
2.7
3.0
3.9
6.0
6.7
9.0
11.0
15.0
19.3

0.00
0.06
0.12
0.23
0.31
0.39
0.46
0.51
0.57
0.61
0.69
0.78
0.85
0.93
1.00

1345
1321
1311
1305
1303
1301
1300
1299
1298
1297
1296
1295
1294
1293
1293

1021
1008
998
988
982
978
972
973
971
970
967
965
963
962
961

0.9
1.1
1.6
2.6
3.5
3.9
5.7
6.5
7.6
8.3
9.8
13.4
15.6
16.8
19.3

0.00
0.07
0.14
0.21
0.29
0.37
0.42
0.51
0.59
0.69
0.74
0.81
0.87
0.93
1.00

1252
1254
1256
1258
1260
1263
1234
1267
1270
1275
1277
1281
1284
1288
1293

768
802
829
849
870
886
891
909
921
934
939
946
952
957
961

0.5
0.9
1.0
1.3
1.8
2.5
3.1
4.4
5.9
8.1
9.3
11.1
13.1
15.5
19.3

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

210 10
(m2N-1)

D2EHPA + n-pentane
0.619
16.140
0.711
13.519
0.762
12.322
0.843
10.767
0.916
9.579
0.963
8.929
1.018
8.268
1.040
8.010
1.055
7.841
1.096
7.434
1.151
6.927
1.164
6.817
1.192
6.593
1.206
6.479
1.229
6.306
1.243
6.225
D2EHPA + dioxane
1.373
5.414
1.331
5.685
1.301
5.861
1.289
5.948
1.279
6.007
1.271
6.050
1.265
6.089
1.262
6.105
1.259
6.128
1.257
6.139
1.253
6.164
1.249
6.187
1.247
6.196
1.245
6.214
1.243
6.225
D2EHPA + cyclohexane
0.962
8.307
1.006
7.929
1.041
7.649
1.068
7.443
1.096
7.240
1.118
7.084
1.131
6.998
1.152
6.850
1.170
6.730
1.191
6.588
1.195
6.534
1.212
6.441
1.223
6.369
1.232
6.300
1.243
6.225

Lf 1011
(m)

i 10-5
(Pa)

Vf 103
1012
(m3mol -1) (s)

8.336
7.629
7.284
6.804
6.422
6.200
5.966
5.873
5.810
5.640
5.461
5.418
5.326
5.282
5.211
5.177

0.755
0.695
0.688
0.737
0.869
0.918
0.995
0.996
1.020
1.049
1.121
1.146
1.224
1.285
1.387
1.470

21.849
22.057
19.267
12.477
6.199
4.584
3.025
2.773
2.476
1.957
1.300
1.161
0.837
0.669
0.479
0.357

0.464
0.500
0.581
0.840
1.434
1.843
2.593
2.841
3.103
3.856
5.506
6.052
7.944
9.538
12.578
16.051

4.828
4.947
5.023
5.061
5.085
5.104
5.120
5.127
5.137
5.141
5.152
5.161
5.165
5.172
5.177

1.448
1.373
1.402
1.421
1.428
1.316
1.435
1.433
1.432
1.428
1.413
1.502
1.512
1.492
1.470

5.649
4.775
3.375
2.155
1.637
1.663
1.070
0.955
0.832
0.772
0.679
0.478
0.416
0.408
0.357

0.630
0.843
1.237
2.057
2.820
3.133
4.615
5.284
6.201
6.804
8.039
11.047
12.877
13.914
16.051

5.980
5.843
5.739
5.661
5.583
5.523
5.489
5.431
5.383
5.326
5.304
5.266
5.237
5.208
5.177

0.995
1.088
0.981
0.965
0.979
1.022
1.059
1.120
1.176
1.237
1.255
1.275
1.312
1.354
1.470

10.796
9.129
6.470
5.391
4.102
2.938
2.344
1.633
1.205
0.866
0.762
0.650
0.545
0.458
0.357

0.270
0.450
0.889
1.519
2.078
2.659
3.163
3.499
4.108
5.390
6.356
9.003
11.872
13.825
16.051

41

S.K. Dash, B. Dalai, S.K. Singh, N. Swain, M.D. Swain and B.B. Swain

The deviation parameters play a major role in understanding the nature of molecular interactions in liquid
mixtures. The various types of solute-solvent interactions that are operating between the unlike molecules are
dispersive forces, which make a positive contribution to deviation parameters and then H-bonding, dipoledipole interactions, and dipole-induced dipole interactions are expected to make a negative contribution. The
interstitial accommodation which regulates the voids in the liquid structure might be a regulating factor in the
magnitudes of deviation parameters. The deviations in intermolecular free length, Lf (Fig. 2) and isentropic
compressibility, s (Fig. 3) are negative throughout the whole range of composition of D2EHPA in n-pentane
and cyclohexane, whereas, for dioxane system it is positive throughout. On the otherhand, the deviations in
acoustic impedance, Z (Fig. 4) shows the inverse trend as that of and Lf . Negative values of s, Lf and
positive values of Z in the case of cyclohexane and n-pentane indicate the presence of stronger molecular
interactions [17] forming H-bonds through dipole-induced dipole interaction as well as interstitial
accommodation of molecules making closer packing of unlike molecules leads structure compact. Positive
deviations in s and Lf from rectilinear dependence on composition for dioxane are indicative of weak
interaction between the components of molecules in the mixture.
0.4
0.2

L f x 1011 m

0.0
-0.2
-0.4
-0.6
-0.8
-1.0

n-pentane
dioxane
cyclohexane

-1.2
-1.4
0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

X1

Fig. 2. Variation of Lf with molefraction of D2EHPA

1.0
0.5
0.0

-2.0

S x 10 m N

2 -1

-1.0

10

-0.5
-1.5
-2.5
-3.0
-3.5

n-pentane
dioxane
cyclohexane

-4.0
-4.5
-5.0

0 .0

0.2

0. 4

X1

0.6

0. 8

1. 0

Fig. 3. Variation of s with molefraction of D2EHPA


42

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

Z x 10-5 kg m-2 s -1

Thermo-Acoustic Properties of Binary Mixtures .......Cyclohexane and n-Pentane by Ultrasonic Method


2.0
1.8
1.6
1.4
1.2
1.0
0.8
0.6
0.4
0.2
0.0
-0.2
-0.4
-0.6
-0.8
-1.0

n-pentane
dioxane
cyclohexane

0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

X1

Fig. 4. Variation of Z with molefraction of D2EHPA


The dipole-induced dipole interaction between D2EHPA and n-pentane is more likely between O- of the
active P=O group of D2EHPA and H+ of n-pentane. However, in case of cyclohexane, there is possibility of
interaction between H+ of C-H cyclic group of cyclohexane with O- of P=O group of D2EHPA.

H +

O-

H+

O-

P (OR)2
C 5 H11

P (OR)2
CH

HO

HO

CH2

CH2

CH 2

CH2
CH2

Fig. 5. Molecular interaction of D2EHPA with (a) n-Pentane and (b) Cyclohexane
In dioxane system, there may be dispersive forces present between the unlike molecules as the situation is
entirely opposite to that of the other two apolar liquids.
The deviation in viscosity, (Fig. 6) with the whole range of composition shows that is negative for
all the mixtures and the minima is observed between 0.6 to 0.7 molefraction of D2EHPA. The negative deviations
in may occur where dispersive forces are dominant due to different molecular size and provides additional
evidence for existence of interactions of weak magnitude like dipole- induced dipole type between components
of the binary mixtures [17, 18]. The variation in viscosity in the mixtures lends support to the variation of Z,
s and Lf in these systems. The excess free volume, Vf (Fig. 7) is negative for dioxane and cyclohexane
systems in entire range of concentration of D2EHPA except in n-pentane with a slight positive deviation at
very low concentration region of D2EHPA. The negative values of Vf in these systems suggest that in addition
to dipole-induced dipole interactions, dispersive forces [19] are also operative in them.
Journal of Acoustical Society of India

43

S.K. Dash, B. Dalai, S.K. Singh, N. Swain, M.D. Swain and B.B. Swain

0.1
0.0

n-pentane
dioxane
cyclohexane

x 102 N s m-2

-0.1
-0.2
-0.3
-0.4
-0.5
-0.6
-0.7
-0.8

0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

X1

Fig. 6. Variation of with molefraction of D2EHPA

3
3
-1
Vf x 10 m mol

0
-2
-4
-6

n-pentane
dioxane
cyclohexane

-8
-10
0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

X1
Fig. 7. Variation of Vf with mole fraction of D2EHPA
The addition of non-polar solvents in D2EHPA leads to depolymerization of D2EHPA by breaking of
intramolecular hydrogen bonds. The depolymerization of D2EHPA in the binary mixture increases the enthalpy
of the system and positive value of H (Fig. 8) signifies that the physical interaction is endothermic [20, 21].
The standard deviations estimated using Redlich-Kister polynomial equation are found to be small
enough which supports the accuracy of our experimental data, presented in Table 2.

44

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

Thermo-Acoustic Properties of Binary Mixtures .......Cyclohexane and n-Pentane by Ultrasonic Method

Table 2. Coefficients aj and standard deviations (YE) of binary mixtures at 313.16 K


YE

a0

a1

a2

a3

a4

(YE)

D2EHPA + n-pentane
s1010(m2N-1)

-13.8021

8.0156

-4.1614

3.8136

-4.1087

0.0045

Lf1012(m)

-3.9423

1.9639

-0.8468

0.6008

-0.9319

0.0013

Z 10-5(Kgm-2s-1) 5.3959

-1.2949

0.0236

0.1672

0.9279

0.0022

103(Nsm-2)

-1.5814

-1.4213

0.5969

1.4261

0.0001

Vf103 (m3mol-1) -34.8501

37.7810

-22.7196

-87.7499

106.3309

0.0303

i10-3 (Pa)

-0.3629

-0.4481

-0.9459

1.8916

-0.0637

0.0011

H10-3 (J mol-1)

24.6848

15.1683

18.2345

-28.0950

-11.1776

0.0070

-2.6472

D2EHPA + dioxane
s1010(m2N-1)

1.1318

-0.6876

0.5477

-1.5719

1.4751

0.0010

Lf1012(m)

0.4938

-0.3063

0.2336

-0.6831

0.6678

0.0004

Z 10-5(Kgm-2s-1) -1.8059

1.0860

-0.8315

2.4719

-2.3571

0.0026

103(Nsm-2)

-0.3756

0.1465

0.4841

-0.3074

0.0014

Vf103 (m3mol-1) -7.9385

6.6143

-7.6683

-1.8396

8.2884

0.0159

i10-3 (Pa)

-0.0955

-0.2908

-0.3369

0.8395

-0.4891

0.0009

H10-3 (J mol-1)

2.5355

5.7701

13.4587

-6.7167

-10.8190

0.0064

-1.5251

D2EHPA + cyclohexane
s1010(m2N-1)

-1.6052

1.0409

-0.7493

0.5466

-0.2974

0.0001

Lf1012(m)

-0.5661

0.3641

-0.3131

0.1888

-0.0197

0.0001

Z 10-5(Kgm-2s-1) 1.9129

-1.0574

0.7739

-0.4549

0.2425

0.0001

103(Nsm-2)

-0.4069

-0.2458

-1.3109

-0.4903

0.0005

Vf103 (m3mol-1) -15.6464

5.2564

5.5083

7.4842

-15.1838

0.0010

i10-3 (Pa)

-0.3072

0.8504

-1.4357

-1.8875

2.5395

0.0021

H10-3 (J mol-1)

17.3556

-12.1417

16.3152

35.2933

-24.6806

0.0232

-2.2618

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

45

S.K. Dash, B. Dalai, S.K. Singh, N. Swain, M.D. Swain and B.B. Swain

n-pentane
dioxane
cyclohexane

6
5

H kJ mol-1

4
3
2
1
0
-1

0.0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.0

X1
Fig. 8. Variation of H with molefraction of D2EHPA
5. CONCLUSION
In the present paper, the investigated liquid mixtures were chosen in order to study the nature of relative
strength of molecular interaction between binary mixture of D2EHPA with cyclohexane, n-pentane and dioxane
which may be utilized for qualitative assessment of extraction efficacy of the lanthanides and actinides. The
addition of apolar solvent molecules to self associated H-bonded D2EHPA may include breaking of multimers
thereby releasing several dipoles which facilitate dipole-induced dipole type interaction. The sign and magnitude
of excess functions suggest weak dipolar interaction and dispersive forces are operative between D2EHPA
and dioxane molecules. On the other hand, the results indicate that the average strength of molecular interaction
becomes stronger in n-pentane. Therefore, n-pentane may be employed as a suitable diluent with D2EHPA in
extraction process.
6.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Authors are grateful to the Director, Institute of minerals & materials Technology (IMMT), BBSR, Odisha,
India for providing the research facilities and thankful to Prof (Dr) R.K. Mishra, Ex-Professor, Vanderbilt
University College of Medicine, USA for constant encouragement during the progress of this work.
7.

REFERENCES

[1] S.C. BHATIA, R. RANI and R. BHATIA, 2011. J. Mol. Liq., 159, p.132.
[2] P. M. REDDY, K.S. KUMAR and P. VENKATESU, 2011. Fluid Phase Equilib., 310, p. 74.
[3] M.S. LEE, J.G. AHN and E.C. LEE, 2002. Hydrometallurgy, 63, p. 269.
[4] J.A. RIDDICK, W.B. BUNGER and T. SAKANO, 1986. Organic Solvents: Physical Properties and Methods
of Purification, 4th edn, Wiley-Interscience, New York.
[5] J.A. PATRIDGE and R. C. JENSEN, 1969. J. Inorg. Nucl. Chem., 31, p. 2587.
[6] D.R. LIDE, 2002-2003. CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 83rd edn, CRC Press, New York.
[7] T. SUMATHI, S. PRIYATHARSHINI and S. PUNITHASRI, 2011. Ind. J. Pure Appl. Phys., 49, p. 328.
46

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

Thermo-Acoustic Properties of Binary Mixtures .......Cyclohexane and n-Pentane by Ultrasonic Method

[8] A. ALI, A.K. NAIR, V.K. SHARMA and S. AHMAD, 2004. J. Solution Chem., 42, p. 375.
[9] K. RAJAGOPAL and S. CHENTHILNATH, 2010. Ind. J. Pure Appl. Phys., 48, p. 326.
[10] S.R. KANHEKAR, P. PAWAR and G. K. BICHILE, 2010. Ind. J Pure and Appl. Physics, 48, p. 95.
[11] R. MEHRA and M. PANCHOLI, 2007. Ind. J. Pure Appl. Phys., 45, p. 580.
[12] O. REDLICH and A.T KISTER, 1948. Ing. Eng. Chem., 40, p. 345.
[13] V. KANNAPPAN, S. CHIDAMBARA and VINAYAGAM, 2007. Ind. J. Pure Appl. Phys., 45, p. 143.
[14] J.F. KINCAID and H. EYRING, 1938. J. Chem. Phys., 6, p. 620.
[15] D. SRAVANA KUMAR and D KRISHNA RAO, 2007. Ind. J. of Pure Appl. Phys., 45 , p. 580.
[16] V. KANNAPPAN, S. ASKAR ALI and P.A. ABDUL MAHABOOB, 2009. Ind. J. Pure Appl. Phys., 47 , p. 97.
[17] A. ALI, S. HYDER and A.K. NAIN, 1999. J. Mol. Liq., 79, p. 89.
[18] R.T FORT and W.R. MOORE, 1966. Trans Faraday Soc., 62, p. 1112.
[19] R. THIYAGARAJAN and L. PALANIAPPAN, 2008. Ind. J. of Pure Appl. Phys., 46, p. 852.
[20] S. K. DASH, J. K. DASH, V. CHAKRAVORTY and B. B. SWAIN, 1995. Phy. Chem. Liq., 29, p. 229.
[21] F. AGUILAR, F.E. M. ALAOUI, J. SEGOVIA, M.A. VILLAMANN and E.A. MONTERO, 2010. Fluid Phase
Equilib., 290, p. 15.

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

47

Acoustical Society of India


(Regn. No. 65-1971)
Executive Council (2010 - 2014)
President

Dr V Rajendran
[KSRCT, Tiruchengode; veerajendran@gmail.com; +91-99 94 13 03 03]

Vice President

NS Naidu
[NSTL, Vizag; nsnaidu04@yahoo.com; +91-94 90 75 05 82]

General Secretary

PVS Ganesh Kumar


[NSTL, Vizag; gkpakki@rediffmail.com; +91-98 66 40 08 94]

Jt. Secretary

Dr K Trinadh
[NSTL, Vizag; hello_trinath@yahoo.co.in; +91-97 04 71 95 00]

Treasurer

Prof AV Sharma
[AU, Vizag; sarmavakella@yahoo.co.in; +91-94 90 43 17 26]

Chief Editor

Dr Mahavir Singh
[NPL, New Delhi; mahavir@nplindia.org; +91-98 71 69 33 46]

Council Members

Dr SV Ranga Nayakulu
[VITAE, Hyderabad; nayakulu@rediffmail.com; +91-98 66 53 26 13]

Dr I Johnson
[SJ College, Trichy; jnaadarsh@hotmail.com; +91-94 42 90 48 20]

Dr Rajiv K Upadhayay
[Govt PG College, Rishikesh; rku8@rediffmail.com; +91-94 12 97 28 90]

Dr S Shekhar
[Oxford College, Trichy; acousticssekar@yahoo.co.in; +91-99 94 92 00 30]

Dr V Bhujanga Rao
[Past President; NSTL, Vizag; vepcrew1@rediffmail.com; +91-98 66 44 10 74]

Co-opted Members

Rajshekhar Uchil
[Josts, Bangalore; ruchil@josts.in; +91-98 80 17 08 95]

Dr NK Narayanan
[CIT, Kozhikode; csirc@rediffmail.com; +91-94 46 95 58 30]

MAHAVIR SINGH
Chief Editor
OMKAR SHARMA
Managing Editor
TRINATH KAR
Associate Scientific Editor
Yudhishter Kumar
Anil Kumar Nain
Naveen Garg
Assistant Editors

EDITORIAL BOARD
M L Munjal
IISc Banglore, India
S Narayanan
IIT Chennai, India
V Rajendran
KSRCT Erode, India

JASI

Journal of Acoustical
Society of India (JASI)
A quarterly publication of the Acoustical Society of India

Volume 39, Number 2, April 2012


EDITORIAL
Construction Methods and Materials for Noise Control
Mahavir Singh ...............................................................................

50

ARTICLES
Vibro-Acoustic FE model Updating of Structural-Acoustic
Cavities for Accurate Interior Noise Prediction
S. Dhandole and S.V. Modak .........................................................

51

Noise and Vibration Study along Metro Railway


Corridor, at Tapan Sinha Memorial Hospital,
Chanditala, Kolkata, India
Nasim Akhtar, Kafeel Ahmad and S. Gangopadhyay ..............

63

Occupational Exposure in Stone Crusher Industry with


Special Reference to Noise: A Pragmatic Appraisal
Shreerup Goswami and Bijay Kumar............................................

70

Approach to Integrate Urban Road Traffic Noise in LCA:


a Study for an Indian City
Dibyendu Banerjee ........................................................................

82

An Analysis of Starting Fields used in Parabolic Equation


Methods
R.P. Raju and P. Balasubramanian................................................

91

Yukio Kagawa
NU Chiba, Japan

Acoustic Sensor technology for Torpedo Applications


K. Trinath.......................................................................................

96

S Datta
LU Loughborough, UK

Thermodynamic Study on Binary Mixture of DMSO +


Benzaldehyde
A.J. Clement Lourduraj and I. Johnson......................................... 103

R J M Craik
HWU Edinburg, UK
Trevor R T Nightingle
NRC Ottawa, Canada
B V A Rao
VIT Vellore, India
N Tandon
IIT Delhi, India
P Narang
NMI Lindfield, Australia
E S R Rajagopal
IISc Banglore, India
A L Vyas
IIT Delhi, India
V Bhujanga Rao
NSTL Vizag, India

Sonoko Kuwano
OU Osaka, Japan
K K Pujara
IIT Delhi (Ex.), India
A R Mohanty
IIT Kharagpur, India
Ashok Kumar
NPL New Delhi, India
V Mohanan
NPL New Delhi, India

INFORMATION
Executive Council of Acoustical Society of India
Information for Authors

108
Inside back
cover

EDITORS SPACE

Construction Methods and Materials for Noise Control


In any heavily populated area, there is enough activity going on at once during the day to generate all kinds
of sounds across the audible spectrum of human hearing. Planes take off and land; traffic moves along
roadways, construction crews repair roads, dogs bark, music blares, sirens sound, and lawns are mowed, etc.
Even within a building, mechanical noise from heating or air conditioning can be audible, phones ring, and
voices, radios and TVs are heard through walls, and so on. We rely on construction practices and materials
to provide a sufficient barrier from the loud goings-on that surround us every day. Inspectors may be
interested to learn how building materials and techniques influence the transmission of sound.
There are several categories of sound control for interiors: sound absorption, airborne sound
transmission, and impact-sound transmission.
Sound absorption is the capability of a surface, or building material, to absorb sound instead of reflecting
it. Sound waves will continue to bounce around a room for a time after they are created if the majority of
surfaces in a room are reflective. Surfaces that absorb sound better will not allow for reflections to bounce
around as much, and will deaden the sound wave more quickly. Many common building materials, such as
gypsum board, wood, concrete, brick and tile, are fairly reflective and do not absorb much sound. Softer
materials, such as carpet, foam padding, and fiberglass insulation, are far better at absorbing sound.
The use of absorptive materials can be helpful in controlling sound. Fiberglass insulation is very
absorptive and can be used where sound control is a concern. Thick carpet with padding is also very
absorptive and acoustical ceiling tiles are designed to absorb rather than reflect sound. Even in cases where
these options are not viable, absorptive materials can be added to finished rooms in other ways: furniture
with thick cushioning is extremely absorptive, as are thick and heavy curtains and drapes. Items such as
these can be added or arranged in ways that will allow for greater sound absorption. Acoustical baffles with
absorptive materials can be purchased for use in areas where sound is a major concern, and most are designed
to be unobtrusive and visually nondescript so as to allow for installation without drastically altering the
aesthetics of a room.
Airborne sound transmission in interiors deals with how well sound is controlled from room to room,
and from the outdoors to indoors (or vice versa) through walls and ceilings. Sound transmission loss is the
decrease in sound energy when it passes through a building element. Different materials provide different
levels of transmission loss and, thus, different levels of diffusion of sound.
After an impact noise is transmitted through a floor or ceiling assembly, the airborne sound that has
made it through is the impact-sound transmission. The sound of someone stomping around on the floor
above you is an impact sound transmitted through the ceiling to the room you are in. As with airborne sound
transmission and sound absorption, the media of building materials used in construction come into play.
Lightweight concrete flooring is generally good at reducing airborne sound transmission, but it does not do
as well blocking impact sound.
There are a number of specialty materials available for sound control. These are designed to provide
strategic advantages over traditional materials, and are designed for use in situations where controlling
sound or noise levels is of great concern. Many of these materials can be used during an initial build or
installed at a later date, if the situation necessitates it.
Optimal control of noise in buildings can be achieved by understanding the basics of how sound moves
through solid objects and air. Building materials will have the most impact on controlling sound in interiors,
but strategic placement of absorptive materials in finished areas can also be very effective.

Mahavir Singh

Vibro-Acoustic
modelofUpdating
of 39,
Structural-Acoustic
Cavities for Accurate Interior Noise Prediction
Journal
of AcousticalFE
Society
India : Vol.
No. 2, 2012 (pp. 51-62)

Vibro-Acoustic FE model Updating of StructuralAcoustic Cavities for Accurate Interior Noise Prediction
S. Dhandole and S.V. Modak*
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi
Hauz Khas, New Delhi - 110 016
*e-mail: svmodak@mech.iitd.ac.in
[Received: 21.01.2012; Revised: 02.04.2012; Accepted: 10.05.2012]

ABSTRACT
In the design of acoustic cavities, of vehicles, aircrafts and other transportation equipment, the coupled
vibro-acoustic model is the key to evaluate their structural-acoustic design. It can also be used as a
diagnostic tool to identify the noise sources and to assess the effectiveness of the potential design
modifications. In view of this, identifying or building an accurate vibro-acoustic model of an acoustic
cavity is important. This need, however, is faced with the difficulty that quite often vibro-acoustic FE
models don't predict accurately the interior noise in the cavities due to uncertainties associated with
the modeling of boundary conditions, joints, damping and due to simplifications made in the vibroacoustic model. This work presents an experimental study for updating of vibro-acoustic FE models
of acoustic cavities to enable accurate prediction of interior noise. Thus, the numerical model and
experimental data are integrated to obtain a more accurate model. The study further addresses the
question whether these improved vibro-acoustic models are suitable for vibro-acoustic design. This
is evaluated by analyzing the accuracy with which the updated vibro-acoustic FE model predicts the
effects of the structural modifications.

1. INTRODUCTION
Vibration and noise in acoustic cavities, of vehicles, aircrafts and other transportation equipment, have become
important factors due to more stringent customer demands and regulations on the generated noise. Interior
noise produced, for example inside a car, due to the excitation of its body structure is called structure borne
noise. The excitation of the structural modes causes excitation of the cavity acoustic modes depending upon
the coupling between the structural and the acoustic modes. Both uncoupled1 and coupled2 finite element
based procedures have been proposed and used for predicting the resulting interior noise in the low frequency
range.
In the design of the vehicle cavities, the coupled vibro-acoustic model is the key to evaluate its structuralacoustic design, to identify the potential noise sources and to assess the effectiveness of the design modifications.
However, in spite of the large effort that goes into building these models and the computational time and the
cost spent, there are some inherent difficulties that are faced in obtaining accurate predictions using these
vibro-acoustic models. A comparison of the experimental measurement and the predictions made in the
structural dynamic applications indicate that at times the deviations between the FE model predictions and
the measurements could be significantly large, calling for improvement of the structural numerical models3.
2012 Acoustical Society of India

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

51

S. Dhandole and S.V. Modak

The structure of the car and the other passenger vehicles is quite complex due to several spot-welds, joints,
damping and the sheer difficulty in the modeling of the complex geometry involving sheet metal and the
stiffeners4. These difficulties in the modeling of the structural domain make the coupled model less reliable for
interior noise prediction.
Updating of the structural dynamic finite element models has been an active area of research for the last
two decades and several approaches have been proposed3. Model updating refers to the adjustment or correction
of the structural dynamic matrices so as to obtain an improved correlation between the modal test data and the
structural model predictions. Thus, the numerical model and experimental data are integrated to obtain a
more accurate model. Direct methods and the iterative methods are the two important class of updating
methods. Direct methods5 perform a numerical adjustment of the entries in the mass and stiffness matrix of the
structure to improve the correlation between the experimentally identified modal data and the numerical
predictions. A vibro-acoustic FE model updating methodology based on this method has been used in the
present study. The iterative method is quite popular due to the freedom it allows in the choice of the updating
parameters and the applicability of the method even with an incomplete data6. Iterative methods have generally
been based on either modal data or frequency response function (FRF) data7. Joints are known to be a major
source of possible modeling error in the FE models as the parameters and the structure of the joint model are not
accurately known4. Identifying test-structure variability is one of the important issues that is being currently
addressed in FE model updating8. A review of the finite element and other numerical procedures for analysis
of coupled vibro-acoustic problem in the low frequency noise is given in [9].
It is seen from the literature that there has been a lot of work carried out on the FE model updating.
Recently, computational optimization and model updating has been used to model structural damping and
acoustic absorption in a vibro-acoustic passenger car cavity10. Apart from this, however, most of the efforts
were directed towards purely structural dynamic systems while updating of vibro-acoustic systems has not
been much addressed. This paper presents an experimental study of updating of vibro-acoustic FE models of
acoustic cavities, by extending the direct method of structural model updating, to enable accurate prediction of
interior noise. The study further addresses the question whether these improved vibro-acoustic models are
suitable for vibro-acoustic design. An experimental example of a 3D rectangular cavity with a flexible plate is
considered.
2.

VIBRO-ACOUSTIC FE MODEL UPDATING METHOD

The structural-acoustic cavities can be classified as either strongly coupled or weakly coupled11. The cavities
in which the acoustic response has a strong influence on the structural dynamic characteristics are called
strongly coupled cavities. Vibro-acoustic model of a strongly coupled cavity represented by the following
coupled matrix equation consists of the structural and acoustic FE matrices, and the coupling matrices that
describe the coupling or interaction between the structural and the acoustic domains.
M A
0

C AS P D A
+
M S 0
x

0 P K A
+
D S C SA
x

0 P 0
=
K S x fS

(1)

where MA, KA and DA are the acoustic mass, stiffness and damping matrices, MS, KS and DS are the structural
mass, stiffness and damping matrices, fS is the structural excitation vector and CAS (and CSA) are the acousticstructural coupling matrices. P and x are the vectors of acoustic pressure and structural displacement
respectively. The details of how individual FE matrices in the above equation can be built can be found in [12].
The cavities in which structural excitation causes acoustic response but the resulting acoustic response
does not have significant influence on the structural dynamic behavior are called weakly coupled cavities. The
cavities encountered in transportation equipment, like that of a car, are examples of cavities with weak acoustic
coupling, as air is the medium and the walls of the cavity are relatively stiffer. For such weakly coupled

52

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

Vibro-Acoustic FE model Updating of Structural-Acoustic Cavities for Accurate Interior Noise Prediction

cavities, the model updating methodology for improving vibro-acoustic FE model is shown in Fig. 1 through a
flowchart. This methodology was recently proposed and evaluated through a numerical study13. For cavities
with weak acoustic coupling, the structural modal data obtained through a structural modal test on the in-situ
cavity (i.e. cavity with acoustic medium) is a close approximation of the in-vacuo cavity dynamic characteristics.
In view of this approximation, as shown in Fig. 1., the in-vacuo structural FE model is updated to obtain

In-situ cavity
Structural
Modal Test
Experimental coupled structural modal
characteristics ( experimental in-vacuo
structural modal characteristics for cavity
with weak acoustic coupling)

Experimental invacuo structural mode


shapes

Experimental invacuo
structural
natural frequencies

Expand experimental
in-vacuo
structural
mode shapes

In-vacuo
structural
model

cavity
FE

Update in-vacuo cavity


structural FE model
using the direct method

Structuralacoustic
coupling matrix of
the cavity
Rigid-wall acoustic
FE model

Updated
in-vacuo
cavity structural FE
model

Updated
Vibro-acoustic FE
model

Fig. 1. Vibro-acoustic FE model updating of cavities with weak acoustic coupling using the direct method
Journal of Acoustical Society of India

53

S. Dhandole and S.V. Modak

updated in-vacuo structural FE model. This updated model is then combined with rigid-wall acoustic FE
model through the coupling matrix to obtain updated vibro-acoustic FE model of the cavity. The rigid-wall
acoustic FE model of the cavity is assumed to be accurately known. In the present work, the structural FE model
is updated through a direct method of structural updating5. A brief summary of the steps involved in this
method is given below.
In this method, in the first step, the analytical mass matrix is updated such that the updated mass matrix
satisfies the orthogonality conditions with respect to the experimental identified mode shapes. The corrections
to the mass matrix [MS] are made such that the updated mass matrix [MU] is as close as possible, in some
sense, to the matrix [MS]. The problem is stated as that of finding [MU] that minimizes objective function J given
by,

J=

1
[M S ]1 /2 ([MU ] [ M S ]) [ MS ]1 / 2
2

(2)

such that the measured eigenvector matrix [ m] and [MU] satisfy the orthogonality constraint,
(3)

[ m ] [ M U ] [ m ] = [ I ]
T

The minimization results in the solution for the updated mass matrix as,

[M U ] = [M S ]+ [M S ][m ][M S ] ([I ] [M S ])[M S ] [m ]T [M S ]


1

(4)

where,
(5)

[ M S ] = [ m ] [ M S ] [ m ]
T

In the second step, the structural stiffness matrix [KS] is updated. Again, the corrections to the stiffness
matrix [KS] are made such that the updated stiffness matrix [KU] is as close as possible, in some sense, to [KS].
The problem is stated as that of finding [KU] that minimizes,
J=

1
[M U ]1/2 ([K U ] [K S ])[M U ]1/2
2

(6)

subject to the constraints that the updated stiffness matrix satisfies the equation of motion of the structure and
that it be symmetric.

[ K U ][m ] = [ MU ][m ][ m ]

(7)

and,
(8)

[K U ] = [K U ]T

where [ m] is a diagonal matrix of the measured eigenvalues. Solution results in the updated stiffness matrix
given by,

[ K U ] = [K S ] [K S ][m ][m ]T [ M U ] [M U ][ m ][ m ]T [K S ] +

(9)

[ M U ] [m ][m ] [ K S ] [ m ][ m ] [ M U ] + [ M U ] [ m ][ m ][ m ] [ M U ]
T

54

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

Vibro-Acoustic FE model Updating of Structural-Acoustic Cavities for Accurate Interior Noise Prediction

Since the experimentally identified mode shape data is incomplete, i.e. not available all the degrees of
freedom of the FE model, the experimental mode shapes are expanded using the method of system equivalent
reduction expansion process14.
The updated vibro-acoustic model is then obtained, by combining the updated structural FE model with
the rigid wall cavity acoustic FE model through coupling matrix, as given by following matrix equation in
which MU and KU are the updated structural mass and the stiffness matrix respectively,
M A
0

3.

C AS P D A
+
M U 0
x

0 P K A
+
D S C SA
x

0 P 0
=
K U x fS

(10)

EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF VIBRO-ACOUSTIC FE MODEL UPDATING

A rectangular-box cavity of size 0.686m0.300m0.261m is considered, which is fabricated from thick acrylic
sheets with a flexible steel plate 0.300m0.261m of 1.0 mm thickness at one end with its four edges clamped to
the cavity (Fig. 2). An FE model for the flexible plate is built using four-nodded thin plate bending elements
with three degrees of freedom (one out of plane displacement and two rotations) at each node. The FE model of
the plate has 120 elements and 143 nodes. Two types of boundary conditions with four sides of the plate fixed
(FE model A) and simply supported (FE model B) are considered.
A modal test is conducted on the flexible plate of the cavity with the objective of obtaining its dynamic
characteristics for use in updating. This is carried out with plate in place fixed to the cavity (as shown in Fig. 2).
A roving hammer modal test is carried out with an accelerometer mounted at one of the test points to measure
the response. Frequency response functions (FRFs) in the frequency range of 25-525 Hz are recorded over a test
mesh of 119 points. The dynamic characteristics of the plate are identified from these FRFs.
Table 1 gives a comparison of the natural frequencies of the correlated mode pairs of experimentally
identified and FE model A/B modes. The modal assurance criterion (MAC) values, which quantify correlation
between two modes, are also shown. It is seen that the average error in the natural frequencies of FE model A
(fixed-fixed model) is 34.9 % and the maximum error is 67.53 %. The corresponding values for the model B

Fig. 2. Experimental rectangular-box cavity with flexible plate


Journal of Acoustical Society of India

55

S. Dhandole and S.V. Modak

Fig. 3. Acoustic and structural FE mesh


(simply supported model) are 4.13 % and -8.31 %. Thus, the boundary conditions at the four sides of the plate
are closer to simply supported boundary conditions than the fixed-fixed boundary conditions. The MAC
values are seen not much different for the two models.
Both the structural FE models are updated using the direct method with nine experimental natural
frequencies and the corresponding mode shapes. Table 2 gives a comparison of the natural frequencies of the
structural FE model A and B with experimental estimates after updating. It is noted that both the updated
models exactly reproduce the experimental natural frequencies and the mode shapes.
A comparison of the frequency response characteristics of the updated FE structural model is also done.
The points 101 and 114 are the response and the force excitation nodes as shown in Fig. 3 for which FRF
comparison is made. Fig. 4 shows a comparison of the inertance-FRF H101,114 before and after updating with
the measured FRF for FE model A. It is seen that even though the FE model A has a large error before updating,
there is an excellent fit between the measured FRF and the updated model FRF. Fig. 5 gives a comparison of
inertance-FRF H101,114 for FE model B, and is also seen to be very good.
The updated in-vacuo cavity structural FE models obtained above are now combined with the rigid-wall
acoustic FE model of the cavity through the structural-acoustic coupling matrix to obtain updated vibroacoustic FE models. For this purpose, a rigid-wall acoustic model of the cavity is built with 3D eight-nodded
acoustic solid elements. This model has 1680 finite elements and 2145 nodes, the mesh for which is shown in
Fig. 3.
An eigenvalue analysis of the cavity using initial as well as updated vibro-acoustic FE models is carried
out. The computed coupled natural frequencies are compared with the natural frequencies identified from the
measured vibro-acoustic FRFs. This comparison for FE model A and B is given in Tables 3 and 4 respectively.
The modes marked as A1 and A2 are the modes dominated by the acoustic resonances of the cavity, while the
remaining modes are dominated by the structural resonances of the plate. It is seen from the tables that the %
error after updating in the coupled natural frequencies dominated by the structural resonances is lesser than
that before updating. The second acoustic resonance along the length of the cavity, at 503.1 Hz, is predicted

56

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

Vibro-Acoustic FE model Updating of Structural-Acoustic Cavities for Accurate Interior Noise Prediction

Fig. 4. Comparison of the overlay of the inertance-FRF H101,114 before and after updating
for FE model A (fixed-fixed model)

Before Updating

After Updating

Fig. 5. Comparison of the overlay of the inertance-FRF H101,114 before and after updating for FE model B
(simply supported model)
well by the original as well as by the improved models; however, the % prediction error for the first acoustic
mode, at 253 Hz, has slightly increased. For vibro-acoustic model A the average % and the maximum prediction
error in the coupled natural frequencies dominated by the structural resonances is 33.6% and 65% respectively
before updating, which after updating has reduced to 0.72% and 2.1% respectively. Similarly, for vibro-acoustic
model B, the % average and the maximum prediction error in the coupled natural frequencies dominated by the
structural resonances is 4.1% and 8.3% respectively before updating, which after updating, has reduced to
0.65 % and 2.07% respectively.
A comparison of the measured and the predicted vibro-acoustic FRFs is now made to assess the accuracy
with which the interior acoustic response is predicted. The vibro-acoustic FRFs are measured by measuring
acoustic response inside the cavity at node 1669 with impact force applied on the plate at node 107 (Fig. 3). The
vibro-acoustic FRF is also predicted at the corresponding points through the updated vibro-acoustic FE model.
FRF corresponding to updated vibro-acoustic FE model is calculated by including damping in the FE model
Journal of Acoustical Society of India

57

S. Dhandole and S.V. Modak

Fig. 6. Comparison of the overlays of the vibro-acoustic FRF H1669,107 for the vibro-acoustic model A (fixedfixed model) before and after improvement with the measured FRF

Fig. 7. Comparison of the overlays of the vibro-acoustic FRF H1669,107 at a rear point for the vibro-acoustic
model B (simply supported model) before and after improvement with the measured FRF
using modal damping factors identified from the measured vibro-acoustic FRFs. Fig. 6 shows a comparison of
the overlays of the vibro-acoustic FRF H1669, 107 for the vibro-acoustic model A before and after updating
with the measured FRF. It is seen that the FRF before updating has a significant deviation with respect to the
measured FRF, which has a much closer fit after updating. Fig. 7 shows the comparison of overlays for Model
B. The comparison of the predicted FRF using updated vibro-acoustic model with measured FRF is seen to be
quite similar to that for model A.
A comparison of the natural frequencies and the FRFs of Model A and B after updating shows that the level
of the error in the modal data before updating has not affected much the predictive capability of these updated
models obtained through the direct method of updating. It is seen that the updated model FRFs match measured
FRFs reasonably well though there are some discrepancies near antiresonances.
The improved vibro-acoustic models are obtained in section 3 with the objective of improving the correlation
58

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

Vibro-Acoustic FE model Updating of Structural-Acoustic Cavities for Accurate Interior Noise Prediction

Table 1. Comparison of FE model A (fixed-fixed model) and FE model B (simply supported model)
natural frequencies with the experimental natural frequencies of the flexible plate
Exp. Mode Exp. Nat.
No.
Freq. in Hz.

FE-model A (fixed-fixed model)


predictions
Freq. in Hz.

% Error

FE-model B (simply supported model)


predictions

MAC-Value Freq. in Hz.

% Error

MAC-Value

67.27

112.7

67.53

0.9680

61.68

-8.31

0.9587

137.08

208.21

51.88

0.9531

140.1

2.19

0.9328

179.5

247.72

38.0

0.9061

166.48

-7.25

0.9574

258.05

329.32

27.61

0.6298

241.31

-6.48

0.6817

276.0

360.98

30.79

0.8483

271.06

-1.78

0.8450

358.95

456.94

27.3

0.8507

342.54

-4.56

09544

383.75

467.77

21.89

0.6730

367.68

-4.18

0.7624

426.0

531.86

24.84

0.4835

415.83

-2.38

0.5362

456.41

568.25

24.5

0.5488

456.05

-0.07

0.5279

Table 2. Comparison of updated FE model A (fixed-fixed model) and updated FE model B (simply
supported model) modes with the experimental natural frequencies of the flexible plate
Exp. Mode Exp. Nat.
No.
Freq. in Hz.

FE-model A (fixed-fixed model)


predictions
Nat. Freq.
in Hz.

% Error

FE-model B (simply supported model)


predictions

MAC-Value Nat. Freq. in


Hz.

% Error

MAC-Value

67.27

67.27

0.0

1.0

67.27

0.0

1.0

137.08

137.08

0.0

1.0

137.08

0.0

1.0

179.5

179.5

0.0

1.0

179.5

0.0

1.0

258.05

258.05

0.0

1.0

258.05

0.0

1.0

276.0

276.0

0.0

1.0

276.0

0.0

1.0

358.95

358.95

0.0

1.0

358.95

0.0

1.0

383.75

383.75

0.0

1.0

383.75

0.0

1.0

426.0

426.0

0.0

1.0

426.0

0.0

1.0

456.41

456.41

0.0

1.0

456.41

0.0

1.0

of the corresponding structural model natural frequencies with the experimental estimates. However, whether
the improved vibro-acoustic models are capable of predicting the effects of the design modifications needs to be
investigated. This capability is important for vibro-acoustic design, to modify the cavity to obtain desired
vibro-acoustic characteristics. Design modification in the present study is done via the lumped masses. Some
sample results are given here.
A mass of 0.03 Kg is introduced at node 94 on the plate, a point on the vertical line of symmetry. A
comparison of the measured coupled natural frequencies of the cavity before and after modification for mass
modification at node 94 is given in Table 5. Modes 3, 5 and 8, among the modes dominated by the structural
resonances, are seen to be least disturbed by the lumped mass modification. This seems to be due to the fact that
the location of the mass modification is on a vertical nodal line of these modes. The unmodified and the

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

59

S. Dhandole and S.V. Modak

Table 3. Comparison of the % error in the coupled natural frequencies before updating and that
predicted by improved vibro-acoustic model A
Mode No. Coupled Nat. Freq.
(Hz)

Vibro-acoustic FE model before


updating

Improved vibro-acoustic model A

Nat. Freq. in Hz

% Error

Nat. Freq. in Hz

% Error

68.1

112.49

65.18

69.02

1.35

136.8

206.0

50.58

136.46

-0.25

180.0

245.41

36.34

178.85

-0.64

253.0 (A1)

252.46

-0.21

248.97

-1.59

256.1

325.46

27.08

258.27

0.85

276.2

360.95

30.68

277.68

0.54

358.1

454.56

26.94

358.73

0.18

386.9

468.72

21.15

382.86

-1.04

433.7

529.18

22.02

424.92

-2.02

10

459.3

569.38

23.97

455.57

-0.81

11

503.1 (A2)

507.02

0.78

506.69

0.71

Table 4. Comparison of the % error in the coupled natural frequencies before updating and that
predicted by improved vibro-acoustic model B
Mode No.

Coupled Nat. Freq.


(Hz)

Vibro-acoustic FE model before


updating

Improved vibro-acoustic model A

Nat. Freq. in Hz

% Error

Nat. Freq. in Hz

% Error

68.1

64.2

-5.7

69.1

1.46

136.8

138.9

1.5

136.4

-0.2

180.0

165.0

-8.3

178.8

-0.06

253.0 (A1)

251.5

-0.6

248.4

-1.8

256.1

239.7

-6.4

258.3

0.09

276.2

272.9

-1.2

278.0

0.07

358.1

341.5

-4.6

358.7

0.02

386.9

369.2

-4.57

382.7

-1.08

433.7

414.2

-4.5

424.7

-2.07

10

459.3

458.0

-0.2

455.4

-0.8

11

503.1 (A2)

506.6

-0.6

506.6

0.7

modified natural frequencies predicted by the vibro-acoustic model before and after updating are also given in
Table 5. It is seen that the % prediction error in all the natural frequencies, except mode 2 and 4, is lesser for the
updated model. It is noted that the % average error in the coupled natural frequencies dominated by the
structural resonances has reduced from 4.3% before updating to 2.1% after updating. For model A, this error
has reduced from 32.4% before updating to 2.01% after updating. Mass modification at other nodes show
similar results as above.
60

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

Vibro-Acoustic FE model Updating of Structural-Acoustic Cavities for Accurate Interior Noise Prediction

Table 5. Comparison of the % error in the modified coupled natural frequencies before updating and
that predicted by improved vibro-acoustic model B (simply supported model) for the Mass modification
at node 94
Mode No.

Measured modified
coupled Nat. Freq.
(Hz)

Vibro-acoustic FE model before


updating with mass modification

Improved vibro-acoustic model B


(simply supported model) with
mass modification

Nat. Freq. in Hz.

% Error

Nat. Freq. in Hz.

% Error

63.1

59.8

-5.2

65.0

3.0

129.3

130.9

1.2

120.2

-7.0

178.7

164.9

-7.7

177.7

0.5

253.0

250.9

-0.8

246.2

-2.6

256.1

239.6

6.4

255.2

0.3

275.6

272.9

-0.9

275.6

0.0

333.1

312.4

-6.2

345.6

3.7

386.2

369.2

4.4

377

2.3

407.5

389.8

4.3

402.4

-1.2

10

456.8

444.0

2.8

455.1

-0.3

11

503.1

506.5

-0.6

506.5

-0.6

It is thus seen that the updated vibro-acoustic model obtained has a much improved correlation with the
measured vibro-acoustic natural frequencies and the FRFs and therefore vibro-acoustic FE model updating is
an effective strategy for improving the accuracy of prediction of interior noise inside a cavity.
4.

CONCLUDING REMARKS

This paper deals with the updating of vibro-acoustic FE models of weakly coupled cavities so as to improve the
accuracy of prediction of interior noise inside the structural-acoustic cavities. A methodology for vibro-acoustic
FE model updating using a direct method of structural model updating is presented and used to experimentally
demonstrate on 3D rectangular box cavity the effectiveness of the methodology. A comparison of the measured
coupled natural frequencies and the structural-acoustic FRFs with those predicted by the updated vibroacoustic models indicate that model updating results into a substantial improvement in the predictive capability
of these models. It is observed that the improvement via updating can yield a much-improved model even if the
initial model is far away from 'the correct model'. Results on design modification involving lumped mass
modification show that the improved vibro-acoustic FE model predicts the modified acoustic response with
much improved accuracy as compared to the original vibro-acoustic model. It is concluded that the experimental
methodology presented can be used effectively to obtain updated vibro-acoustic models for analysis and
design of the weakly coupled cavities.
5.
[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]

REFERENCES
M. PETYT, G.H. KOOPMANN and R.J. PINNINGTON, 1977. The acoustic modes of a rectangular cavity
containing a rigid, incomplete partition. J. Sound Vib. (56), 61-69.
D.J. NEFSKE, J.A. WOLF JR. and L.J. HOWELL, 1982. Structural-acoustic finite element analysis of the
automobile passenger compartment: a review of current practice. J. Sound Vib. 80, 247-266.
J.E. MOTTERSHEAD and M.I. FRISWELL, 1993. Model updating in structural dynamics: a survey. J.
Sound Vib. (167), 347-375.
M. PALMONELLA, M.I. FRISWELL, J.E. MOTTERSHEAD and A.W. LEES, 2005. Finite element models
of spot welds in structural dynamics: review and updating, Computers and Structures 83 (8-9) 648-661.

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

61

S. Dhandole and S.V. Modak

[5]
[6]
[7]
[8]
[9]
[10]

[11]
[12]
[13]
[14]

62

A. BERMAN and E.J. NAGY,1983. Improvement of a large analytical model using test data. AIAA J. (21),
927-928.
J.D. COLLINS, G.C. HART, T.K. HASSELMAN and B. KENNEDY, 1974. Statistical identification of structures,
AIAAJ. (12), 185-190.
R.M. LIN and D.J. EWINS, 1990. Model updating using FRF data. Proceedings of the 15th International
Seminar on Modal Analysis, Belgium, 141-162.
H.H. KHODAPARAST, J.E. MOTTERSHEAD and M.I. FRISWELL, 2008. Perturbation methods for the
estimation of parameter variability in stochastic model updating. Mech. Syst. Signal Process. 22, 177-1751.
S. DHANDOLE and S.V. MODAK, 2007. Review of vibro-acoustics analysis procedures for prediction of
low frequency noise inside a cavity. International Modal Analysis conference (IMAC-XXV), Florida, USA.
C. SCHEDLINSKI, F. WAGNER, K. BOHNERT, M. K?SEL, D. CLASEN, C. STEIN, C. GLANDIER, M.
KAUFMANN and E. TIJS, 2008, Computational Model Updating of Structural Damping and Acoustic
Absorption for Coupled Fluid-Structure-Analyses of Passenger Cars, in the Proceedings of International
conference on Noise and vibration Engineering, ISMA 2008, Leuven, Belgium.
M.C. JUNGER and D. FEIT, 1986. Sound, structures and their interaction, MIT press, Cambridge.
F. FAHY and P. GARDONIO, 2007. Sound and Structural Vibration: Radiation, transmission and response
(Second edition), Academic press.
S. DHANDOLE and S.V. MODAK, 2010. A comparative study of methodologies for vibro-acoustic FE
model updating of cavities using simulated data, International Journal of Mechanics and Materials in
Design, 6(1), 27-43.
J.C. O'CALLAHAN, P. AVITABILE and R. RIEMER, 1989. System equivalent reduction expansion process.
Proceedings of the 7th international modal analysis conference, Las Vegas, 29-37.

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

and Vibration
..................at
Tapan
Sinha
Memorial
Journal Noise
of Acoustical
Society Study
of India
: Vol. 39, No.
2, 2012
(pp.
63-69) Hospital, Chanditala, Kolkata, India

Noise and Vibration Study along Metro Railway


Corridor, at Tapan Sinha Memorial Hospital,
Chanditala, Kolkata, India
Nasim Akhtar 1*, Kafeel Ahmad 2 and S. Gangopadhyay 1
1Central

2Jamia

Road Research Institute, New Delhi-110 025


Millia Islamia Central University, New Delhi-110 025
*e-mail: nasim.crri@gmail.com

[Received: 16-11-2011; Revised: 24.01.2012; Accepted: 27.02.2012]

ABSTRACT
Nine stories high, Tapan Sinha Hospital, at Chanditala, Tolly Gang-Gharia elevated Metro Rail
Kolkata corridor is under construction. Noise & vibration both are very high (i.e. 97.8 dBA and
128.6VdB respectively) due to elevated track, track is turning at this location, old technology train
and poor quality of maintenance. It was a great challenge for CRRI team to reduce the noise level to 60
dB(A) and Vibration to 70 dB due to the hospital. To reduce noise level a complete tube of polycarbonate
sheet (reflective) and 2 m high absorptive noise barrier were installed on both sides of rail track and
to reduce vibration 60mm rail pad on track (150 m in length and 10.5 m width) and 30mm rubber pad
in foundation were suggested. At hospital 6x8mm double glass window has also been recommended.

1. INTRODUCTION
Noise and vibration assessments are key elements of the environmental impact assessment process for mass
transit projects. Experience has shown that noise and vibration are among the major concerns with regard to
the effects of a transit project on the surrounding community. A transit system is of necessity placed near
population centers and often causes significant noise and vibration at nearby residences and other sensitive
types of land use. Ground-borne vibrations due to railway traffic have become important environmental
issues, which are particularly critical when new rail infrastructure is introduce in an existing urban environment.
Ground-borne vibrations can be controlled at different levels along the transmission path between the source
and the receiver. A number of different issues are associated with the generation and propagation of vibration
from trains. Low frequency vibration from heavy axle freight trains is perceived as whole body vibration;
'ground-borne noise' is a major environmental concern for metropolitan railways running in tunnels and high
speed trains raise concerns over high levels of vibration being generated as they approach and exceed wave
speeds in the ground.
Vibration is an oscillatory motion that can be described in terms of displacement, velocity, or acceleration.
Because the motion is oscillatory, no net movement of the vibration element occurs, and the average of any of
the motion descriptors is zero. For vibration, velocity represents the instantaneous speed of the motion and
acceleration is the speed's rate of change. The human body responds to the vibration velocity's average
amplitude. A vibration decibel notation is commonly used to describe vibration. The vibration velocity level is
2012 Acoustical Society of India

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

63

Nasim Akhtar, Kafeel Ahmad and S. Gangopadhyay

reported in decibels relative to a level of 1x10-6 inches per second and is denoted as VdB. In contrast to airborne
noise, ground-borne vibration is not a phenomenon that most people experience every day. The background
vibration velocity level in residential areas is usually 50 VdB or lower, well below the threshold of human
perception (around 65 VdB). Most perceptible indoor vibration is caused by sources within buildings such as
the operation of mechanical equipment, movement of people, or slamming of doors. Although the perceptibility
threshold is about 65 VdB, human response to vibration is not usually significant unless the vibration exceeds
70 VdB. This is a typical level 25 feet from a truck or bus lane, unless there are bumps in the road. Minor damage
to fragile historic buildings can occur at vibration levels over 100 VdB.
1.1 Literature Review
In the case of a floating slab track, the slab rests on a resilient mat. The presence of the resilient mat results in
a slab resonance frequency, which should be as low as possible for an effective reduction of the free field
vibrations. The slab mat resilience is limited, however, by the maximum allowable static rail deflection. Nelson
[3] reports a resonance frequency of 16 Hz for the resonance frequency of the coupled vehicle-track system in
the case of the continuous floating slab in use at the Washington Metropolitan Area Transit System and
resonance frequencies between 8 and 16 Hz for discontinuous slabs in several other rail transportation systems
in the USA and Canada. Cui and Chew [5] discuss the design of the floating slab track of the Singapore Mass
Rapid Transit system with a resonance frequency of 10 Hz. Schillemans [1] presents a study of the noise and
vibration impact of the North-South high speed train connection through the city of Antwerp where a floating
slab at 11 Hz is proposed for a tunnel in close proximity of building foundations.
Transit noise is generated by transit vehicles in motion. Vehicle propulsion units generate: (i) whine from
electric control systems and traction motors that propel rapid transit cars; (ii) diesel-engine exhaust noise,
from both diesel-electric locomotives and transit buses; (iii) air-turbulence noise generated by cooling fans;
and (iv) gear noise. Additional noise of motion is generated by the interaction of wheels/tires with their
running surfaces. Tire noise from rubber-tired vehicles is significant at normal operating speeds. The interaction
of steel wheels and rails generates three types of noise: (i) rolling noise due to continuous rolling contact, (ii)
impact noise when a wheel encounters a discontinuity in the running surface, such as a rail joint, turnout or
crossover, and (iii) squeal generated by friction on tight curves.
The working principle of the floating slab track [2] or under ballast mats [6] is usually demonstrated by
considering the transmissibility of a single degree of freedom system. The design is based on more elaborate
models, that typically involve a continuous track model, where the rails and the concrete slab are modeled as
beams with an infinite length and the rail pads and slab mats are represented by locally reacting vertical
springs. Jones [7, 8] uses such a two-dimensional track model, coupled to a three-dimensional layered halfspace model for the soil, to study the effectiveness of anti-vibration systems. At the track-soil interface, a
uniform distribution of the soil tractions is assumed. Nelson [3] and Nelson et al. [9] study the performance of
ballast mats and floating slabs by means of a similar two-dimensional track model, which is coupled to a soil
model that is based on a lumped parameter model of a foundation on a half space.
1.2 Objective
The key objectives of the study are:
z
z
z
z

64

To monitor the various noise parameters (L1, L10, L50, L90, SEL, Leq, Lmax, Lmin etc.) at all mentioned
location
Collect the all information related to site, for analysis and modeling
Validation / prediction of models
Vibration monitoring along corridor ( Displacement, Velocity, Acceleration and X,Y,& Z directional
vibration)
Suggest the best/economical remedial measures

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

Noise and Vibration Study ..................at Tapan Sinha Memorial Hospital, Chanditala, Kolkata, India

Reconnaissance Survey

Primary Data Noise


Vibration Traffic

Secondary data by Metro Rail


Kolkata
Drawing of Hospital
Speed/Frequency of Metro Rail Kol

Analysis of Data

Recommendations

Future Prediction

Fig. 1. Flow diagram of Methodology


2.

STUDY METHODOLOGY

The broad methodology flow chart is presented in Fig. 1, it has initial component of reconnaissance survey,
followed by the collection of primary data and secondary data. The next stage is to analyze data for noise
prediction model. The last stage of this study is to recommend the noise abatement measures.
2.1 Selection of Study Locations
All data have been taken at the 1.5m distance from edge of the road from both sides in the same time and the
height of sound level meter taken at 1.5m using Larson Davis, USA modular precision sound level meter

Photo: Location Map; Proposed Tapan Sinha Memorial Hospital, Kolkata


Journal of Acoustical Society of India

65

Nasim Akhtar, Kafeel Ahmad and S. Gangopadhyay

(Model L&D-831), Type-1 instrument, Calibrated the microphone of sound level meter before starting monitoring.
While on other side of the road SOUNDBOOK, multi channel instrument by Sinus Company, Germany Type-1
instrument for noise & vibration has been used. In this instrument, there is automatic calibration process by
samurai software. Besides that we have also measured metrological parameter using REINHARDT MWS 5
MV, Germany for all locations.
2.2 Road Traffic Data
Vehicles have been counted from morning 8 am to evening 8 pm. It has been found that percentage of cars and
2 wheelers are more dominated. Noise pollution due to vehicle is (74-76) dB (A). If vehicles at this intersection
will increase than road noise will be increase.
Classified traffic volume survey was conducted for 12 hours from 8 AM to 8 PM in tandem with noise
monitoring survey. A total of 29,936 vehicles were observed to be plying in both the directions. 16089 vehicles
from Chanditala to Tollygunge and 13, 847 vehicles from Tollygunge to Chanditala were observed. The morning
peak from Chanditala to Tollygunge direction was between 10.00 AM to 11.00 AM with 2163 vehicles, while
evening peak was from 5.00PM to 6.00 PM with 1246 vehicles. The morning peak from Tollygunge to Chanditala
direction ware observed between 11.00 AM to 12.00 AM with 1943 vehicles and the evening peak was from
6.00 PM to 7.00 PM with 975 vehicles.
2.3 Composition of Vehicles
From Chanditala to Tollygunge direction cars had a major share of 37.3% followed by three wheelers and two
wheelers with a share of 27.6% and 23% respectively. The goods traffic had a very small share of 1.4% only.
From Tollygunge to Chanditala the two wheelers had a major share of 29.8% followed by three wheelers and
cars with a share of 26.6% and 21.6% respectively. In both the directions about 80 to 85% of the total vehicle
composition is shared by cars, two wheelers and three wheelers. The non-motorised transport vehicles also
have a significant share as they constitute about 16 to 17 % of the total vehicles.

66

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

Noise and Vibration Study ..................at Tapan Sinha Memorial Hospital, Chanditala, Kolkata, India

Table1. Noise and Vibration Data


Location

Noise Level Leq(A)

Vibration V(dB)
X Direction

Y Direction

Z Direction

Inside Metro Rail

87.9

147.5

136.4

158.0

At Platform

84.1

112.4

109.2

111.3

Site office (ground floor)

75.3

110.8

109.8

108.9

Pier of hospital

76.2

115.1

108.7

109.6

At Pier

75.5

122.8

105.9

115.2

Below the track

74.7

97.2

92.6

91.1

4th floor (Panwa Nand


Vidya Peeth School)

90.1

125

128.9

125.4

3rd floor (Panwa Nand


Vidya Peeth School)

79.3

98.2

73.6

98.7

2nd floor (Panwa Nand


Vidya Peeth School)

90.6

102.6

115.2

108.4

Outside Hospital (on Road)

74-76

2.4 Total Exposure Time in 18 Hours of Metro Train Kolkata


In 3.5 minutes 1 train will be passed; In 1 hour 17 trains will be passed
Hence in 18 hour 306 trains will be passed;
Exposure time of 1 train is 24 seconds; hence, 306 x 24= 7344 sec exposure time
Hence, hourly exposure time =7344/3600= 2.04 hour
2.5 Calculation for Exposure Points
1.4x3.9 = 5.46

1.4x3.2 = 4.48

Critical at metro railway pier location = 5.46


Critical at hospital location = 4.48
CRRI has monitored the vibration on various places. The acceleration at Metro Railway Pier is 3.9 m/s2
and at the pier of hospital are 3.2 m/s2. This is very high in compare to the EU norms.
3.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

CRRI has given the remedial measures to achieve the CPCB (Central Pollution Control Board) norms i.e. 35-40
dB (A) or less in case of hospital. Noise pollution at school very similar to hospital is more than 90.6 dB (A), Its
mean loudness at this location is 32 times more in compare to CPCB norms i.e. 40 dB (A).
US norms follow the VdB, after calculation the VdB, it is also very high at the pier of hospital as well as pier
of metro structure. The value is 125 VdB in Z direction While 128 VdB in Y direction, It crosses the threshold
limit i.e. 65 vdB. In case of hospital it is serious health hazards. Continuous Exposure time from metro is 2.04
hours within 18 hours.
4.

CONCLUSION

There is no Indian guideline for vibration; hence CRRI has used the European Union/USA Guideline. EU
Journal of Acoustical Society of India

67

Nasim Akhtar, Kafeel Ahmad and S. Gangopadhyay

guideline is focused of impact of vibration of human in building i.e x,y & z directional vibration, hence monitor
the acceleration( m/s2 ), while FTA guideline by USA says that it will be in VdB. CRRI has used the both
method to calculate the vibration for this project.
z
z
z
z

In case of noise, CPCB (Central Pollution Control Board, India) standard has been follow i.e. less than 40
dB(A) for hospital.
There is a sever vibration/noise problem at 4m distance of hospital site from metro railway.
Noise and vibration problem at this location may be reduced after implementing remedial measures.
This location will be in no honking zone.

4.1 Recommendation
There are the following recommendations:
Recommendation at Source:
z
z
z
z

Till 150m length complete loop of polycarbonate sheet of 8mm is require at parapet wall for stopping the
15 dBA noise & 15 VdB Vibration. Hence, structural designer may be consulted for steel designer.
Near track a lot of opening is there, hence rail pad may be use to cover-up to prevent the vibration at
hospital for prevents the 15 VdB.
Till 2m height at parapet wall there may be used absorptive noise barrier also along polycarbonate sheet,
in the length of 150m both side.
At Pillor in basement, CementCem technology may be used to avoid the Vibration, in this method 5 VdB
vibration may be stop.

42. Recommendation at Receiver end


Noise pollution / Ground born vibration as well as air born and secondary air born vibration is very high,
hence following treatments are required,
z
z
z
z
z

At ground level to the 1m below of depth of structure, Rubber pad insulator is required along the structure
(3 side vibrations) for prevention of 10 vdB, No need in back side.
From ground floor to the 1m below of depth of structure, filling of river sand by 1m length and till depth,
will be used, no earth filling allow. In this way prevention of 12 VdB vibrations is possible.
At the window, or any opening of structure in front and in 2 sides it will be except door will be fixed, or air
conditioned
At window, both side 6mm perforated glass sheet at 300mm gap is recommended for 10-12 VdB Air born
vibration & 15 dBA noise reduction .
It might be possible that elevation of hospital may be slightly changed, architect may be consulted.

4.3 Costing
Rail Pad 60mm thickness
Area = Length 150mx width 10.5m = 1575 says it 1600m2
1600m2 x Rs.8500/m2 =Rs. 1,36,00000/- (one crore thirty sixlakhs)
[Cost of Rubber Approx.100 euro/m +freight charge 6.25 euro/pad+ Custom duty 10.3%+ CVD (Counter
Veiling Duty) 10.3%+ surcharge 4%+ Clearance & handling 3%+State tax 12.5%+Local Transportation]
Rubber Pad 30mm thichness
Cost will be Rs. 4500/m2
Total Area 600m2x Rs.4250 =Rs. 2550000/- (twenty five lakh & fifty thousand)
[Area OPD building {31m=L, 11m=s1, 15m=s2} 57m2 +Area IPD building {44m=L,18m=s1, 10=s2} 72m2 +
68

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

Noise and Vibration Study ..................at Tapan Sinha Memorial Hospital, Chanditala, Kolkata, India

Depth of Basement 4.6m =600m2]


Polycarbonate Sheet 8mm
Total Quantity of Sheet = 2750m2
Rate Rs.4000/m
Hence, 2750x4000= Rs.1,10,00000/- (one crore ten lakhs)
Steel Structure
125MT x 100000= 1,25,00000/- (Approx. one crore twenty five thousand)
Absorptive Noise Barrier
Area =150x2x2 =600m2
Approx.25000x600 = Rs. 1500000/- (Approx. fifteen Lakhs)
CementCem
Approx. 9,00000/- (Approx. Nine Lakhs)
Total costing Rs. = Approx 4,20,50000/- (Approx. Rs. four crore and twenty lakhs fifty thousand)
5.
[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
[5]
[6]
[7]
[8]
[9]

REFERENCES
L. SCHILLEMANS, 2003. Impact of sound and vibration of the north-south high-speed railway connection
through the city of Antwerp, Belgium, Journal of Sound and Vibration, 267, 637-649.
G.P. WILSON, H.J. SAURENMAN and J.T. NELSON, 1983. Control of ground-borne noise and vibration,
Journal of Sound and Vibration, 87 (2), 339-350.
J.T. NELSON, 1996. Recent developments in ground-borne noise and vibration control, Journal of Sound
and Vibration, 193 (1), 367-376.
B. HEMSWORTH, 2000. Reducing groundborne vibrations: state of the art study, Journal of Sound and
Vibration, 231(3), 703-709.
F. CUI and C.H. CHEW, 2000. The effectiveness of floating slab track system-Part I, receptance methods,
Applied Acoustics, 61, 441-453.
R. WETTSCHURECK and U.J. KURZE, 1985. Einfgungsdmmass von Unterschottermatten, Acustica ,
58, 177-182.
C.J.C. JONES, 1994. Use of numerical-models to determine the effectiveness of anti-vibration systems for
railways, Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers-Transport, 105 (1), 43-51.
C.J.C. JONES, 1996. Ground-borne noise from new railway tunnels, Proceedings of InterNoise, 96, 421-426.
J.T. NELSON and G.P. WILSON, 1996. Ground-borne noise and vibration control: a state-of-the-art
perspective, Proceedings of InterNoise, 96, 1287-1292.

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

69

and(pp.
Bijay
Kumar Swain
Journal of Acoustical Society of IndiaShreerup
: Vol. 39,Goswami
No. 2, 2012
70-81)

Occupational Exposure in Stone Crusher Industry with


Special Reference to Noise: A Pragmatic Appraisal
Shreerup Goswami 1* and Bijay Kumar Swain
1Department of Geology, Ravenshaw University, Cuttack-753 003 (Orissa)
Department of Environmental Science, Utkal University
Vani Vihar, Bhubaneswar-751 004 (Orissa)
*e-mail: goswamishreerup@gmail.com
[Received: 15.12.2011; Revised: 21.03.2012; Accepted: 12.04.2012]

ABSTRACT
The stone crushers induced noise of Balasore District, Orissa, India in terms of standard noise
indices and community health effects are worked out in the present study. The noise levels are
measured following standard procedure using calibrated sound level (dB) meter in the months of
December, 2010 and January 2011 in and around 13 stone crusher industries during four specified
times (Day: 10 AM-1 PM, 2 PM-5 PM, Evening: 7 PM-10 PM, Night: 4AM-7AM) located along the
roads in the outskirts of Seragarh, Nilgiri, Remuna and Mitrapur, rural townships of Balasore District.
It is categorically observed that noise levels are more during 10-1PM compared to other studied
times. It is inferred that the mean noise levels, Leq and Lden are more than the permissible limit (i.e.
75 dB during day time, 70 dB during night time for Industrial place) in all the 13 investigated
locations. It is observed that none of the worker was using any personal protective equipment (PPE).
The present study depicts that the workers of investigated stone crushers expose to dust and noise.
The workers are prone to noise induced hearing loss (NIHL) at higher frequencies. It is recommended
that there is a strong need to implement dust and noise control measures in these investigated stone
crusher units. Thus, a range of strategies are discussed to abate such pollution.

1. INTRODUCTION
As it is evident that the noise levels are showing an alarming rise and in fact, the levels exceed the prescribed
levels in most part of the India in general and in Orissa in particular. The ambient noise standards being
followed in India for different types of areas are given in Table 1 [1 ].
In India, few studies on urban noise level have been carried out at different cities of India [2-16]. The
average noise levels in residential areas of the studied cities are more than the recommended value i.e. 55dB
(A). However, studies around rural areas have not been carried out especially around small scale industries.
Therefore, an attempt has been made to assess the extent of noise pollution around 13 stone crusher industries
located at the outskirts of Mitrapur, Remuna, Nilgiri and Seragarh of Balasore District, Orissa, India (Table 2).
Balasore District (a north-eastern coastal district of Orissa, India) is located between 21003' and 21059' North
Latitude and 86020' and 870 East Longitude (Fig.1). The geographical area of Balasore city including its suburb
is around 40 sq. km.
Many of the developing countries like India are far behind in implementing occupational hygiene and pollution
control measures at work sites. Occupational health and safety have not been at the top of small and medium
2012 Acoustical Society of India

70

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

Occupational Exposure in Stone Crusher Industry with Special Reference to Noise: A Pragmatic Appraisal

Fig.1. Map of India showing the location of study area


scale manufacturing industry agenda in these countries. In India, labour available is cheap and illiterate;
proper occupational hygiene practices are generally ignored at workplaces. Personal protective equipments
(PPE) for workers are treated as luxuries rather than necessities and not sufficiently provided [17]. Workers of
investigated stone crusher units are poor tribal people and they accept the working conditions as part of the job
and do not demand better hygiene and PPE. This study was undertaken to assess the noise exposure and
occupational safety and hygiene practices in these stone crusher units of Balasore District.
2.

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE

The present noise monitoring was conducted with the help of sound level meter (Model LUTREN, SL-4010).
The noise levels were measured following standard procedure using calibrated sound level (dB) meter in the
months of December, 2010 and January 2011 in and around 13 stone crusher industries (Table 2) located along
the road in the outskirts of Mitrapur, Remuna, Nilgiri and Seragarh [5-10,18,19].
Noise levels are monitored at the four selected places of all the 13 aforesaid investigated stone crusher
industries (along the road, at the entrance, near the crusher unit and during the loading of stone chips in the
dumpers or trucks) during four specified times (Day: 10 AM-1 PM, 2 PM-5 PM, Evening: 7 PM-10 PM, Night:
4AM-7AM).
Journal of Acoustical Society of India

71

Shreerup Goswami and Bijay Kumar Swain

The noise levels of different zones in different time intervals were predicted along with their equivalent
noise levels (Leq). The value of Leq in dB (A) unit is calculated by using the formula given by Robinson [20], i.e.,
Leq = L50 + (L10-L90)2 / 56
For the present study the different percentile noise levels used are
L10 : The level that were exceeded during 10% of the measuring time in dB(A).
L50 : The level that were exceeded during 50% of the measuring time in dB(A).
L90 : The level that were exceeded during 90% of the measuring time in dB(A).
Lden, an indicator that is a composite of long term Leq values for day, evening and night (termed Lday,
Levening and Lnight). L stands for "level", d for "day", e for "evening", and n for "night".
Lden noise value (day, evening and night) is calculated by using the following formula and compared
with actual results.

L den = 10 10 log

12 10

Lday
10

+ 4 10

L evening + 5
10

+ 8 10

L night + 10
10

24

Lden defines its time periods as follows:


day: from 7:00 am to 7:00 pm
evening: from 7:00 pm to 11:00 pm
night: from 11:00 pm to 7:00 am
Moreover, the analysis of the measured noise levels generally depicts that there are existence of variations
of noise with variables as the time of day and different crusher units. In order to determine the existence and
statistical significance of these variations and trends, a cross classification analysis along with F-test were
assessed on the data.
3.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

It is clearly observed that the main contributors of noise in the investigated areas are crushing of stones at stone
crusher units and transportation. Every day, hundreds of trucks and dumpers are used to transport stone
chips/products along the Remuna-Mitrapur Road, Seragarh-Nilgiri Road. Three developed districts of Orisaa
such as Mayurbhanj, Balasore and Bhadrak fully depend up on these areas for construction materials, which
are hub for stone products. Noise pollution was assessed and analyzed in 13 different investigated stone
crusher industries during four specified times (Day: 10 AM-1 PM, 2 PM-5 PM, Evening: 7 PM-10 PM, Night:
4AM-7AM). Noise is monitored at the four selected places of all the 13 investigated stone crusher industries
(along the road, at the entrance, near the crusher unit and during the loading of stone chips in the dumpers or
trucks). Intensity of noise levels is comparatively higher near the crusher units and during the loading of the
stone products in the trucks or dumpers in all the 13 investigated crusher industries. Different noise descriptors
(Min, Max., Mean, L10, L50, L90, Leq) for the investigated crusher units at different sites during 10AM-1PM, 2PM5PM, 7 PM-10 PM and 4AM-7AM are presented in the Table 3, 4, 5 and 6 respectively. Moreover from respective
Leq values, Lden values are also calculated and presented in Table 2.
Noise levels range from 66.5 dB (Neeraj Cement Structure (P) Ltd.) to 119.7 dB (Ganesh Stone Product)

72

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

Occupational Exposure in Stone Crusher Industry with Special Reference to Noise: A Pragmatic Appraisal

during 10 AM-1 PM; from 70.1 dB (Neeraj Cement Structure (P) Ltd.) to 108.9 dB (Konark Stone Crusher) during
2 PM-5 PM; from 69.1 dB (Chakradhara Stone Product) to 102.5 dB (Radhakishore Stone Product) during 7 PM10PM and from 58.2 dB (Konark Stone Crusher) to 103.3 dB (Sree Jagannath Stone Product) during 4 AM-7 AM
at the crusher units and are the most unpleasant sound among four selected sites of each crusher industry. The
noise levels of all the fifty two investigated sites of 13 stone crusher industries range from 57.3 dB to 119.7 dB
during 10 AM-1 PM; from 56.3 dB to 108.9 dB during 2 PM-5 PM; from 55.2 dB to 102.5 dB during 7 PM-10PM
and from 58.1 dB to 103.3 dB during 4 AM-7 AM. The mean noise levels range from 77.1 dB (Neeraj Cement
Structure (P) Ltd.) to 96.5 dB (Radhakishore Stone Product); from 73.6 dB (Sree Jagannath Stone Product) to 91.4
dB (Radhakishore Stone Product); from 71.4 dB (Sree Jagannath Stone Product) to 90.7 dB (Radhakishore Stone
Product) and from 74 dB (Sree Jagannath Stone Product) to 87.8 dB (Radhakishore Stone Product) during 10
AM -1 PM, 2 PM -5 PM, 7 PM-10PM and 4 AM-7 AM respectively (Tables 3-6). Leq ranges from 84.5 dB (Ganesh
Stone Product) to 107.8 dB (Radhakishore Stone Product); from 77.8 dB (Sree Jagannatha Stone Product) to 99.3
dB (Panchlingeswar Stone Crushing Unit); from 78.3 (Sree Jagannatha Stone Product) to 95.4 dB (Panchlingeswar
Stone Crushing Unit) and from 78.1 dB (Narendranath Panda & Co Stone Crusher) to 97.3 dB (Narendranath
Panda & Co Stone Crusher) during 10 AM -1 PM, 2 PM -5 PM 7 PM-10PM and 4 AM-7 respectively (Tables 36). Lden ranges from 89.3 dB (Radhakishore Stone Product) to 96.4 dB (Niraj Cement Structure (P) Ltd.) (Table
2). In most of the cases, mean noise levels, L10, L50, L90, and Leq values are more than the permissible limit in all
the 13 investigated crusher units (i.e. 75 dB and 70 dB for Industrial place during day and night time respectively
[1]). Even the minimum Lden value (Radhakishore Stone Product:89.3dB) is more than the permissible limit of
day time for Industrial place (75 dB).
Analysis of variance is computed (Table 7) at its peak hour i.e. 10-1PM. The observed value of F is 0.9. This
observed value is less than the tabulated value at 5% and 1% level. So it explicitly demonstrates that there is no
significant difference between these locations at its peak hour. However, the study also reveals that all the
investigated sites are highly polluted.
It is pertinent to mention here that none of the worker was using any personal protective equipment (PPE)
in all the investigated crusher units. As far as the use of occupational protective equipments is concerned, most
of workers were not aware of the benefits of using the personal protective equipments. It was also observed that
the PPEs are not provided to the workers, which increases the chances of injury. However, it is categorically
observed that workers are not generally annoyed by stone crusher induced noise. It is due to two reasons. First,
workers have accepted the noise as a part of their job. Second, the workers have adapted to the increasing
exposure to high noise levels [17]. Workers are working 8 hours /day. Such long working hours may increase
the risk for respiratory and hearing impairments along with musculoskeletal disorders and injuries [17, 2229]. The work-rest schedule of the workers must be changed and rescheduled. It is evident that workers might
have suffered from different musculoskeletal disorders (neck/shoulder stiffness, low back pain, wrist stiffness
and forearms pain/ stiffness, leg muscle, knee/ankle stiffness) and various respiratory problems (coughing,
frequent phlegm, wheezing, breathlessness, asthma). The reason behind musculoskeletal disorders may be
that the workers work for long hours without any appropriate work-rest schedule. Moreover, the heavy workload
and the awkward work postures may cause such disorders. The reasons for respiratory problems may be due
to dusty environment of these crusher industries.
Thus, using a theory-based health communication and health promotion approach, a hearing loss
prevention training program can be developed that will significantly affect trainees' attitudes, beliefs, and
behavioural intentions to protect their hearing and to wear hearing protection appropriately. Balasore Regional
office of State Pollution Control Board should attempt to conduct such training programme.

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

73

Shreerup Goswami and Bijay Kumar Swain

Table 1. Ambient noise standards being followed in India for different types of areas [1]
Area

Leq dB (A)
Day Time

Night Time

(6 AM- 10PM)

(10 PM- 6 AM)

Industrial area

75

70

Commercial area

65

55

Residential area

55

45

Silence zone

50

40

Table 2. List of investigated stone crushers and their Lden values


Sl. No

Name of the Stone Crusher

Location

Lden

1.

Radhakishore Stone Product

Rasalpur, Mitrapur, Dist- Balasore

89.3

2.

Orissa Stone Industries

Karaniua, Mitrapur, Dist- Balasore

96

3.

Uma Stone Product

Mitrapur, Dist- Balasore

90

4.

Ganesh Stone Product

Nuapadhi, Mitrapur, Dist- Balasore

96

5.

Binayak Stone Product

Kathagochhi, Mitrapur, Dist- Balasore

96.1

6.

Mohapatra Stone Product

Nuapadhi, Mitrapur, Dist- Balasore

96.3

7.

Chakradhara Stone Product

Ganbharia, Udambar, Remuna, Dist- Balasore

90.2

8.

Panchalingeswar Stone Crushing Unit

Champo, Angula, Sona, Dist-Balasore

90.4

9.

Konark Stone Crusher

Biruan, Sergarh, Dist- Balasore

90.2

10.

Narendranath Panda and Co.

RaiNiligiri, Dist- Balasore

96.1

11.

Niraj Cement Structure (P) Ltd.

Nirigiri, Balasore

96.4

12.

Sree Jagannath Stone Product

Samakuna, Kuruda, Dist- Balasore

96

13.

Biraja Stone Product

Morigoan, Bidubajana, Dist- Balasore

90.1

74

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

75

116

106.1 89.4
+8.5

100.9 63.4 106.7 88.4


+9.1

68

79

100.8 68.4 108.1

88.1
+8.5

Sree
Jagannath
Stone
Product

12

78

102.5 67.7 104.6 85.7


+8.4

90.3 103.1
+8.6

89

97.6 68.1 107.5

79.9 98.6 66.5 95.8

86
+7.8

85.4
+6.1

88.9 101.3 88.6 73.6 102.3 70.3 103.1 87.4


+9.3
+8.1

91.6 102.5 91.8


+8.5

13 Biraja Stone 68.1 110.1 88.5 101.3 88.5 78.7


Product
+7.6

74.6 114.6

66.5 108.6

Niraj
Cement
Structure
(P) Ltd.

11

111.1

81.7 115.4 92.9- 107.5 92.3 84.5 101.7 72.6 100.1 86.5
+8.4
+5.9

68

Konark
Stone
Crusher

87.2
+9.3

86.8
+8.5

89.8
+7.8

103 90.7 79.9 100.2 60.1 109.5 87.7


+8.7

84

92.2 105.6 90.5 79.9 102.2


+9.1

117.3 91.2+9.1

10 Narendranath Panda
and Co.
Stone
Crusher

69

110

94.6 68.3 106.6

107.8 70.1 107.5

93 105.7 90.1 81.9 100.2 67.7 106.8 89.1


+9.0
+9.1

Panchaling- 76.5 116.8 91 101.7 91.6


+8.3
eswar Stone
Crushing
Unit

Binayak
Stone
Product

72.1 119.7

79

86

Leq Min Max Mean


+ SD

Entrance

90.3 102.6 90.1 78.7 100.3 68.7


+9.0

Ganesh
Stone
Product

70.1 118.3

Chakradhara Stone
Product

Uma Stone
Product

96.5 112.7 95.1


+9.5

70.5 115.6 87.7 100.9 86.1


+7.8

117.7

Orissa
Stone
Industries

75

L50 L90

Mohapatra 69.7 117.1 93.1- 101.8 94.3


Stone
+7.9
Product

Radhakishore Stone
Product

Min Max Mean L10


+SD

At the crusher unit

Location

Sl.
No

88

85

94.3 64.7 101.3

77.7 97.9 71.5 101.5

77.5 94.2 67.6 106.7

78

101.3

Max

87

79

95.8

58

103.7

86.7 78.6 90.9 67.5

78

94

64.8

100

86.7 75.7 91.4 60.1 103.6

85

98.6

98.3

95.1 85.6 71.3 95.7 63.6 101.3

92

100.5

101.3 83.5 77.8 93.3 64.1

94

101.4 88.1 77.6 98.2 64.3 104.1

101.3

101.3 86.5 78.5 95.7 60.5 100.7

101.4 89.5 78.8 98.6 63.7 100.1

101.3

100.3

101.1 84.8

69

L50 L90 Leq Min

100.9 89.5 78.6 98.3

L10

Along road

81.1
+8.2

84
+8.3

83
+8.4

82.4
+6.3

85
+6.1

86.3
+9.2

86.7
+6.9

84.1
+7.0

84.3
+6.6

84.9
+6.5

86.4
+8.6

84.4
+8.3

86.3
+7.8
83

76

75

98

93.1 61.8 95.3

98.1 64.5

78

90.1 60.1 93.7

84

77

95

94

86

75.3 92.2

82

77.5 84.5

82.3
+6.7

83

77

86.6

90.9 81.4 75.7 85.5

82.1 90.5 81.3 75.1 85.5


+6.9

80.7 89.5
+6.1

83.3 91.6 81.9 74.5 87.1


+7.3

58.7 96.7 82.7- 91.3


+6.6

77.7 88.2 58.6

94

80.1 91.3 80.5 67.3 90.7


+7.1

84.9
+6.9

93

82.6 71.8 90.6

82

91.8 80.1

98.3

95

58.1 92.6 77.1- 90.7 77.5 68.5 86.3


+7.7

73

86.4 58.5 94.1 79.7- 90.1 79.6 71.2 85.3


+7.0

76.4 90.5 57.3 95.6 79.8- 92.3 80.1 67.4 91.1


+8.1

95.6 82.3 68.9

91.5 82.6 74.8 87.5 57.7 93.6 79.4- 90.5 79.9 68.3 88.7
+8.3

91.5 85.7 76.3 89.8 61.5 94.5 82.5+7.1

97.4 88.7 71.5 100.- 58.5 93.5 80.7- 91.5 79.6 71.3 86.8
6
+7.6

101 84.8

93.1

91.6 84.8 77.8 88.2 59.3 94.7

95.6 84.6

98.5 88.6 71.3 101.- 60.5 98.1


8

99.8

99.5 87.4

Mean L10 L50 L90 Leq Min Max Mean L10 L50 L90 Leq
+ SD
+ SD

Loading / unloading

Table 3. Noise level (dB) variations of different investigated crusher units at different sites at 10AM-1PM (Day time)
Occupational Exposure in Stone Crusher Industry with Special Reference to Noise: A Pragmatic Appraisal

75

76

Chakradha- 71.3 108.1 84.8


+8.7
ra Stone
Product

Panchaling- 78.9 105.1 91.1 102.6 90.1 79.9 99.3 70.8 101.3 84
+6.6
+7.7
eswar Stone
Crushing
Unit

Sree
Jagannath
Stone
Product

12

99

106

98.3

72.5 102.3

70.1

13 Biraja Stone 74.6


Product

Niraj
Cement
Structure
(P) Ltd.

11

100

97

99

77.6 108.9

78

75

10 Narendran- 78.9
ath Panda
and Co.
Stone
Crusher

Konark
Stone
Crusher

Mohapatra
Stone
Product

Binayak
Stone
Product

78.9

84.9
+5.7

85.2
+7.5

84.1
+6.9

88.3
+5.8

88.6
+7.3

86.7
+6.3

86.6
+5.7

88
+5.5
91

91
68.1

76
96

101
84.6
+7.7

85.3
+5.1

84.6
+7.1

79

94.5

71

81.3
+5.9

95.6 84.6 79.6 89.1

68.9 97.3

95.6 85.3 74.6 93.1 68.1 104

83.8
+5.6

79.2
+6.6

95.3 84.3 76.6 90.5 66.8 102.1 80.4


+7.6

83.2
+6.3

104.5 82.7
+7.9

67.3 95.6

95.6 88.6 79.5 93.2 74.6 96.5

98.7 87.6

90

85.8 78.9 92.3 71.6 102.5 82.9


+6.5

79

96.4 81.6 74.6

98

93.1 87.5

95.6 87.2 80.9

98.1 90.3 77.2 98.1 71.6 97.7

85.1
+4.8

Ganesh
Stone
Product

89.3
+6.8

78.5 95.3

72.3 101.7

97.2 89.9 84.6 92.7

87.2
+6.0

Uma Stone
Product

91.0
+4.4

78.9 98.8

Min Max Mean


+SD

99.8

94

Leq

82.3

L90

Orissa
Stone
Industries

L50

98.3 91.2 85.6

L10

Entrance

Min Max Mean


+SD

At the crusher unit

Radhakish- 82.6 106.2 91.4


ore Stone
+5.0
Product

Location

Sl.
No
L50

L90

Leq Min

84.6 74.1 91.6 72.9

66

93

66

71

78.6 72.3

79.9

85

65.4

86.4 61.8

92.3 83.6 78.3 87.1 58.5

91.3

90.1

94.1 81.8 75.8 87.7 68.1

94.5 81.6 73.1 89.7 67.1

91.6 85.7 71.3

91.6 80.1 76.2 84.3 58.2

90.1 82.1 73.2 87.2

94.3 87.1 70.6 97.1 71.3

90.8 86.4 78.2 89.2 71.2

94

92.6 84.1 78.6 87.6 70.9

97.3 84.7 80.2 89.9 72.3

L10

94.6

95.3

97

92.1

96.4

96.8

87

89.6

93.8

94.6

95.3

93.2

98.3

Max

79.5
+8.7

76.3
+7.1

78.8
+7.8

79.3
+7.5

79.6
+6.9

76.6
+6.5

76.8
+6.8

78.2
+6.4

82.1
+6.1

81.2
+6.3

81.8
+6.0

82.2
+5.9

86.5
+5.7

Mean
+SD

L50

L90

Leq

65

96.7

79

68

82.3

93.1

86.7

92.3 79.4 65.3 92.4 56.3 89.3

90.7 75.1 67.8 84.4 64.6 87.6

95.3 78.1 68.5 90.9 67.1 98.3

89.1 78.4 69.2 85.4 66.4 88.1

91.3 78.6 71.3 85.7 68.2 95.6

64

62

68.7 85.3 61.5 87.3

84.3 76.5 67.3 81.6

86.3 76.4

87.6

90.5 82.5 72.5 88.2 68.9 94.8

92.3 79.9 72.6 86.8

94.6 80.1 74.6 87.1 66.4 98.7

91.4 82.3 72.6 88.6 62.1 89.1

98

L90

Leq

66 87.8
92.6 75.2 70.6 83.8

87.6 79.5

90.8 85.1 78.9 87.6

L50

92.5 78.6 69.8 87.8

89

87

67

83.1

66 80.7

74.9 68.7 82.2

76

76

81

77.3 87.6 78.9 67.5 86.1


+7.2

73.6 85.1 71.4 66.1 77.8


+6.0

78.7 85.7 78.4 73.5


+5.6

74.3 85.6 72.3 67.8 77.9


+6.1

77
+7.4

76
+6.6

75 82.3
+5.9

74.3 84.3 74.5 65.8 80.6


+6.6

78.9
+7.0

77.5 85.6 78.2 68.6 83.3


+6.9

77.4
+7.6

78.8
+6.7

84.9
+4.2

Min Max Mean L10


+SD

Along road

96.8 87.2 78.6 93.1 78.3

L10

Loading / unloading

Table 4. Noise level (dB) variations of different investigated crusher units at different sites at 2PM-5 PM (Day time)

Shreerup Goswami and Bijay Kumar Swain

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

Ganesh
Stone
Product

Binayak
Stone
Product

Journal of Acoustical Society of India


98.3

95.2

70.5

13 Biraja Stone 71.4


Product

Sree
Jagannath
Stone
Product

12

96.7

72.7

Niraj
Cement
Structure
(P) Ltd.

98.1

10 Narendran- 74.3
ath Panda
and Co.
Stone
Crusher

11

95.7

Konark
Stone
Crusher

74.5

81.1
+6.7

83.7
+6.9

82.4
+6.1

85.6
+4.2

84.8
+5.3

91.8 82.7 75.8 87.2

90.2 81.6 74.6 85.9

93.0 79.5 74.1 85.8

99

67.1 94.7

69.3

67.5 96.1

71.8 93.8

83.8
+6.8

79.2
+6.7

80.4
+7.1

83.2
+8.1

87.4

90.4

89.2

88.2

92.7

87.2

93.7 84.5 76.3 89.9 68.7 101.8 82.7


+9.3
91.7 83.0 76.5 87.1

L90

Leq Min

80.6 71.3

80.6 74.5
85

84
68.3

69

79.3 72.8 85.2 70.4

80.4 75.7 83.4 68.6

81.1 77.3 85.1 70.2

L50

91

62.7

69

83

63.
78

85.5 62.7

78.3 69.7 83.8 59.2

76.6 71.4

78.3

78.5 73.4 82.4 64.2

83.1 71.6

81.8 70.7 88.7 61.7

78.5 72.1 82.5 57.3

90.7

91.3

94

90.4

91.5

92.4

88.5

87.4

89.3

92.5

93.7

89.9

97.1

Max

L50

L90

79

76.6
+7.3

77.1
+5.9

72.8 92.6

77.5 71.1 82.6 62.6 92.2

74

62

56.4

88
82.4 55.2 84.8

83

76.1 64.5 85.9 64.3 92.2

83

61.1

84

65.5 92.7

88.4 76.6 62.7 88.3 59.2 88.7

87.7 74.8 66.2

89

87.6 76.6 67.3 83.9 63.3 86.6

88

81.2 75.5 64.6 80.4 62.6 90.1

83.7

82.8 77.3 64.9

86.2 79.3 70.1 83.9 63.4 92.8

88

L50

L90

Leq

89

74

62.8 80.7

76.4 68.1 84.2

81

74

64.3 79.7

67 80.7

72.8 84.4
+6.2

77

63.7 84.6

71.4 83.2 72.2 64.6 78.3


+6.5

75.5 86.6 76.9 67.5 83.4


+7.1

72.2 82.2
+6.8

75.1 87.7 73.1


+5.1

72.8 86.5 74.9 64.1 83.8


+4.8

71.6 80.1 74.6 63.7 79.4


+7.3

72.4 82.2
+4.6

74.3
+5.1

75.8 83.8 76.2 67.3


+7.9

74.6 90.4 76.6 68.8 84.9


+6.3

76.6 85.3 78.2 64.7 85.7


+8.8

81.5 86.2 79.4 74.3 81.9


+7.5

Min Max Mean L10


+SD

70.6 84.2 60.7 87.8

88

Leq

Along road

89.1 79.8 73.4 84.2 64.3 94.7

87.7

91.4 82.5 73.8

L10

75.9+ 90.1 77.3 64.4


6.3

77.8
+6.2

78.2
+5.9

77.3
+4.5

74.8
+8.8

76.5
+5.4

79.6
+5.8

79.2
+7.7

80.1
+6.7

80.7
+7.2

84.2
+6.7

Mean
+SD

Loading / unloading

89.6 80.4 74.8 84.3 62.5

87.1

88.4

91

88.7

92.4

90.4

81.3
+6.4

82.9
+7.6

84.6
+7.9

85.3
+8.2

84.6
+8.3

85.1
+6.2

87.2
+5.7

L10

84
+6.1

69.5 97.4

96.6 88.4 76.8 95.4

Panchaling- 72.5 101.7


eswar Stone
Crushing
Unit

88.8
+9.3

68.5 92.1

92

92.1 81.7 76.9 85.8 70.7 95.6

69.5

Chakradha- 69.1 100.8 84.6 89.1 78.8 73.5 83.1


ra Stone
+ 7.6
Product

85.5
+5.7

90.4 80.7 74.3 85.3

71.1 98.7

70.6 96.8

96.6

82.8
+7.3

85.4 92.7 81.3 77.9 85.2


+ 4.2

86.1 93.7 84.2 74.6 90.7


+ 3.8

Mohapatra 73.7
Stone
Product

98.3

94.6

98.3

72.4 96.7

Min Max Mean


+SD

91.2 73.8 92.1

91

Leq

Entrance

70.5

75.4

70.1

Uma Stone
Product

88.3
+4.7

94.2 85.1 75.7

97.1

73.7

L90

Orissa
Stone
Industries

L50

L10
95.7 86.3 79.4

Min Max Mean


+SD

At the crusher unit

Radhakish- 76.2 102.5 90.7


ore Stone
+5.8
Product

Location

Sl.
No

Table 5. Noise level (dB) variations of different investigated crusher units at different sites at 7 PM- 10 PM (Evening)
Occupational Exposure in Stone Crusher Industry with Special Reference to Noise: A Pragmatic Appraisal

77

78

Binayak
Stone
Product

Mohapatra
Stone
Product

Chakradha- 74.4
ra Stone
Product

Panchaling- 74.4
eswar Stone
Crushing
Unit

Sree
Jagannath
Stone
Product

12

97.3

82.7
+5.7

96.1

81.7
+6.4

71.6 103.3 84.7


+6.3

65.7

13 Biraja Stone 74.8


Product

Niraj
Cement
Structure
(P) Ltd.

11

85.6
+7.9

10 Narendran- 61.4 101.7


ath Panda
and Co.
Stone
Crusher

82
+5.4

81.3
+6.4

82.4
+6.1

85.3
+6.2

85.2
+8.1

85.4
+5.6

84.8
+6.8

97

74.8

58.2

98.9

71.3

68.8 100.6

74.6 99.4

84.3
+6.6

95.3

Konark
Stone
Crusher

94.7

Ganesh
Stone
Product

96.7

Uma Stone
Product

96.1

75.8

Orissa
Stone
Industries

87.8
+7.3

Min Max Mean


+SD

At the crusher unit

Radhakish- 77.3 102.4


ore Stone
Product

Location

Sl.
No
L50

L90

Leq

75

82.8 72.6 89.5

67.3 98.4

93.1 81.5 76.2 86.6

65.2 96.7

93.7 82.8 73.3 90.2 69.2 99.5

92

94.3 86.7 69.9 97.3 69.2 94.3

83.4
+5.2

80.2
+5.3

80.3
+4.6

82.4
+6.2

70.5 101.4 80.7


+6.1

93.6 80.4 76.6 85.2

83.1
+5.4

80.3
+5.7

68.4 98.7

65.6 94.3

81.7
+5.5

84.1
+5.3

82.3
+4.1

82.3
+6.1

83.1
+5.1

90.7 82.5 77.3 85.7

92.1 80.3 76.1 84.8

68.3 99.4

90.2 66.4 95.7

94.1 83.3 76.6 88.7

92.6 84.7

70.3 95.8

74.3 96.4

91.3 72.6 98.3

86.2 77.4 91.7

93.1 84.6 73.7

95

93.2 83.7 77.5 88.1

84.8
+5.0

Min Max Mean


+SD

96.4 87.3 79.1 92.6 76.1 96.6

L10

Entrance
L50

L90

Leq Min

79

81

86

87.4

88.3

89.1

94.1

91.1

69

72

83.9 63.4

81.3 76.1 83.5 60.5

79.2

79.3 73.2 83.8 61.2

78.6 74.4 85.5 65.3

79.6 71.4 86.5 64.1

67

75.2 83.1 61.2

71.1 86.8

72.6 92.2 70.2

80.1 77.3 82.5 72.1

82.3 76.3 86.1 69.9

90.3 81.2 70.3 88.3

90.4

89.2

91.3

89

91

91.3 81.2 78.1 84.3 70.1

95.2 83.4 78.2 88.5 70.1

L10

95.5

94.2

96.5

92.6

94.7

95.4

89.4

89

93

93.5

96.1

92.1

96.2

Max

77.5
+7.6

75.2
+5.1

77.8
+6.8

77.2
+6.5

78.2
+5.8

75.4
+5.5

74.4
+5.5

77.2
+5.4

81.1
+5.1

80.5
+6.1

80.7
+5.8

80.1
+4.8

83.5
+4.5

Mean
+SD

L50

L90

Leq

66

95.1

91

75

79

67

95.8

63

61

94

90

89.2

83.5 65.9 89.2

86.1 67.1

79.7

79.6

76

66.6 85.7 63.3 88.4

76.9 67.4 87.7 66.1 96.4

69

70

68

68

68.7 86.4 63.4 90.1

87

90.1 77.4 64.3 89.2 58.1 89.2

90

92

87.3 77.6

90.6 78.6

83.1 75.7

84.2

89.1

90.5 80.3 71.1

91.6 78.7 71.4 85.9 64.1 95.5

93.5 78.1 73.5 85.2

90.5 80.3 71.4 86.8 64.1

96

L50

79
90.1 74.2

86.2

88

86

81

84

90.6

85

84

77 86.4
+6.2

74
+6.1

76.8
+5.4

75.1 84.6
+5.1

75
+6.4

75
+6.2

74.1
+5.1

75.2
+6.1

77.3
+6.0

Leq

82.8
68.7 85.5

67

70 81.4

67.1 85.5

79 86.3

L90

68 81.1

66.1 78.1

77

66.5 84

72.2 65.2 79.2

77.4 72.1 79.9

72

73.8 69.1 80.1

75.4

75.7 66.6 79.4

73.6 64.6 80.3

77

78.5 84.5 77.4


+5.9

76.5
+5.6

77.6
+5.7

83.4 89.7 84.3


+5.2

Min Max Mean L10


+SD

Along road

94.6 84.1 77.4 89.3 77.2

L10

Loading / unloading

Table 6. Noise level (dB) variations of different investigated crusher units at different sites at 4 AM-7 AM (Night)

Shreerup Goswami and Bijay Kumar Swain

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

Occupational Exposure in Stone Crusher Industry with Special Reference to Noise: A Pragmatic Appraisal

Table 7. Analysis of variance in different investigated crusher units at 10AM-1PM (Peak time)
Sources of variation

At the crusher
unit

4.

Sum of
squares (SS)

Degree of
Mean squares
freedom (DF)

Between Samples

848.77

12

70.7

Within Samples
(Error)

49952.68

654

76.3

Total

50801.45

666

F values
Observed

Tabulated

F= 0.9

F0.01 = 2.18

F0.05 = 1.75

CONCLUSION

Recently many authors have studied auditory as well as non-auditory effects of work place noise like
psychological and cardiovascular effects. Chronic exposure to noise levels typical of many workplaces was
associated with excess risk for acute myocardial infarction death [17, 23]. A long exposure to noise over 85 dB
(A) might be a risk factor for high blood pressure (BP), and it possibly induces major increases of BP among
sensitive individuals [17,24,25]. The revision of occupational Indian noise standard is recommended at par
with International/European standards. An exposure to high intensity noise of 88-107 dB (A) six to eight hrs/
day for long duration (10-15 years) brings about biochemical changes, which make him prone to cardiovascular
pathology [17, 26]. Hearing protection must be provided at no cost to workers and must be worn by all the
workers exposed to a time weighted average (TWA) of 90 dB (A) and above. Hearing protection is also mandatory
for those exposed to 85 dB (A) and above if they have not yet had a baseline audiogram. It is pertinent to
mention here that Lden values assessed in these studied areas are more than 89 dB (A). Thus, it was also
suggested to conduct noise assessment, awareness among stone crusher workers and audiometry in a regular
interval [17, 27]. The Indian Factory Act-1948 lay down a limit of 90 dB(A) for eight hrs/ day but the Indian
working hours are 48 hrs/week which leads to high noise exposure. Most of the workers are illiterate and
tribal and not aware of the exposure norms and health hazardous effects of noise [28, 29]. It is evident that long
working hours increases the risk for hypertension and cardiovascular disease, musculoskeletal injuries,
diabetes, and chronic infections.
In rapidly urbanizing and industrializing Balasore, Mayurbhanj and Bhadrak districts, the need for
construction materials has led to establishments of such stone crusher industries. The present study explicitly
reveals that the noise levels are more than the permissible limit in all the investigated sites.
The following range of strategies should be applied in and around the investigated areas.

There is a strong need to implement the working hour's standard and dust and noise control measures.

Workers of stone crusher industries should be provided with appropriate ear protection (PPE as ear muffs
or plugs). They should be motivated to use PPE hazards of noise exposure.

Hearing conservation program should be implemented by the help of some NGOs.


Technical and engineering control measures may be made to abate the noise from such crusher units.
Plantation of trees with dense foliage should be encouraged as they are found to be highly effective in

absorbing the acoustic noise and act as very good screens in bringing down the noise levels. The enhanced
noise can be reduced in thickly vegetated area.

Hence increasing general awareness, adopting better technologies, strictly promulgating laws, noise
pollution can be abated. The laws should be implemented properly to reduce the noise pollution. Therefore,
Balasore District Administration and Balasore Regional Office of State Pollution Control Board should take
some imperative steps and regulatory measures to abate such noise pollution.
Journal of Acoustical Society of India

79

Shreerup Goswami and Bijay Kumar Swain

6.
[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
[5]
[6]
[7]
[8]
[9]
[10]
[11]
[12]
[13]
[14]
[15]
[16]
[17]
[18]
[19]
[20]
[21]
[22]
[23]
[24]

80

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Occupational Exposure in Stone Crusher Industry with Special Reference to Noise: A Pragmatic Appraisal

[25] L. THIERRY, F. CHRISTIANE, C. MARIE and J. SALORD, 1992. Length of occupational noise exposure
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Noise and Health, 13,122-131.

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

81

Dibyendu
Banerjee
Journal of Acoustical Society of India : Vol. 39, No.
2, 2012 (pp.
82-90)

Approach to Integrate Urban Road Traffic Noise in LCA:


a Study for an Indian City
Dibyendu Banerjee
Department of Environmental Science, Banwarilal Bhalotia College
Asansol, Dist-Burdwan (West Bengal)
e-mail: profdibyendu@rediffmail.com
[Received: 05.05.2012; Revised: 25.05.2012; Accepted: 29.05.2012]

ABSTRACT
Vehicular noise is a very complex phenomenon in its physical, psychological and medical dimensions
and is essential to measure, predict, model or interpret it for proper assessment of its impact
potentialities. In recent years, Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) has been applied as a system for evaluating
environmental load in order to realize the sustainable development. The objective of the present
research was to apply LCA method for assessment of impact of road traffic noise on the exposed
community in an urban setting. The paper discusses the methodologies and approaches, observations,
results and their interpretation based on the study. The establishment of the cause-effect chain from
vehicle noise to health impact was desired in the study. It is observed that increase in one unit of a
medium (car) or heavy (truck) vehicle to the present vehicular load although had a insignificant
consequence on busy roads, but was considerable for less busy roadways. It can be concluded that
one unit vehicle increase of any form to the present traffic stream will be more conceivable to community
of less dense areas.

1. INTRODUCTION
The progress of transport systems has shaped the socio-economic benefits to the human society, but at the
same time it has also polluted the environment we live in. Road transportation is next only to industries in
causing irreversible damage to our environment, the extent of which has attained global proportions. Therefore
the quality of life of those exposed to the benefits of transportation (both the user and the non-user) may well be
worsened rather than improved. Congestion and delay, air pollution and noise along with vibrations, nuisance
and physical hindrance caused by traffic are increasing environmental concerns of urban transportation.
Traffic volume, driving patterns and vehicle types have great contribution to traffic noise [9]. It has been
suggested that long-term exposure to noise levels above 65 dB(A) can lead to health problems, varying between
sleeplessness and cardiovascular disease [2, 3, 7].
One way to compare the environmental effects of measures, sets of measures or even total buildings in a
quantitative way is to use LCA (Life Cycle Assessment) [12]. A LCA is a systematic study of environmental
impacts that arise throughout a product's life - from the winning and processing of raw materials, through
component production and product manufacture, to use and ultimate disposal. LCA considers environmental
impacts in a number of categories, such as resource use, climate change effect, water pollution, waste production,
etc. LCA is a relatively young science that is under continuous development. The objective of the study was to
apply use LCA framework for predicting community response due to road traffic noise exposure in an urban,
India city.
The study area, Asansol, an urban-industrial city situated in West Bengal state of eastern India, with an
2012 Acoustical Society of India

82

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

Approach to Integrate Urban Road Traffic Noise in LCA: a Study for an Indian City

area of 127 km2 and a population density of 3737 km2 has witnessed a sharp growth in vehicular population
in the last five years, ensuing a significant, unrestrained noise pollution across the area as reported in previous
works [3, 4, 5, 6]. The impact identification and quantification due to such exposure to road traffic noise has
been done in such preceding works and it has been observed that such noise levels in the area are much above
the prescribed limits. The situation demands through investigation, identification and assessment of the
cause-effect chain due to traffic generated noise exposure.
2.

LINKING TRAFFIC NOISE AND LCA: METHODOLOGY

2.1 Noise Exposure Assessment


For assessment of road traffic noise due to vehicular movement the sampling, analysis and interpretation tools
were selected to give most realistic results. The sampling locations comprised of industrial, commercial,
residential and sensitive areas. A Digital Sound Level Meter, Type 2 with Frequency Weighting Network as per
IEC651 specifications, frequency range of 31.5Hz to 8,000Hz and measuring range between 0 - 150 dB was
used for the study. A 'B & K' (Bruel & Kjaer) multi-function acoustic calibrator (Model: 4226) was used for
calibration at 94.0dB (A) before and after sampling. All reading was taken on the 'A-Weighting' frequency
network, at a height of about 1.5 meters from ground level and on the 'Fast' range Time Weighting. The 'A'
weighting characteristic and 'Fast' range is simulated as 'Human Ear Listening' response. All measurements
were carried out during working days and under suitable climatic conditions.
2.2 LCA Integration
Road transport noise, although an important environmental problem with significant health effects, is not
included under LCA (Life Cycle Assessment), due to lack of proper assessment methodology. For the present
analysis the method proposed by Muller-Wenk, 2004 was adopted here with modifications to study objective
[15]. Although for the usual LCA appraisal, the fate analysis, exposure analysis, effect analysis and damage
analysis are conducted, for the present study, only the exposure and effects analysis has been used. Since noise
is a complex phenomenon and cannot be treated as par with other environmental pollutants, due to lack of
residual effect, hence the methodology to relate the LCA with prevalent traffic noise emission was approached,
using the following criterion:
z

The emission (pollutant concentration) was replaced by the time-averaged level of noise (Leq), which
represents the time averaged physical noise over a certain period.

The assessment of noise effects due to an additional journey of a vehicle was estimated by addition to
present traffic count by one unit.

This increase due to the additional vehicles will result in an incremental shift of the population towards
higher noise level due to the additional vehicle. The shift will concern only those that live in close proximity
to the vehicle route.

2.3 Fate Analysis


In the present study the average noise level (Leq) of a particular road location was estimated as per procedure
proposed by Muller-Wenk [15]. The model is explained below:
Mean Noise Level at a point (> 1 meter from centerline of the road section,
Leq = 10log (100.1LE1 + 100.1LE2)
And

LE1 = E1 + 10log (N1)

LE2 = E2 + 10log (N2)

(1)

E1 = max [{12.8 + 19.5log(v)}, {45 + 0.8(0.5i - 2)}]

(2)
(3)

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

83

Dibyendu Banerjee

E2 = max [{34 + 13.3log (v)}, {56 + 0.6(0.5i - 1.5)}]


N1 = Average number of type 1 vehicles (cars, vans, two wheelers, jeeps, autos) per hour

(4)
(5)

N2 = Average number of type 2 vehicles (trucks, buses, trailers)


v = Average vehicular speed in km/h (average of type 1 & type 2)
i = road gradient in %
The model was used to calculate the incremental noise level 'Delta Leq' due to additional 1 unit increase of
average hourly vehicles on a particular road location. This was estimated by first calculating Leq with N1
vehicles and then with N+1. The difference between them yields the value of Delta Leq i.e. incremental noise
increase.
2.4 Exposure Analysis
This step estimates the number of individuals who are exposed to a certain increase in the noise level due to
increase in traffic volume in the area. For the present study exposure analysis was conducted for population
within a radius of 300 meters from the centerline of road location, where sampling was done. The exposure
analysis for the complete road network and entire population of the town was beyond the scope of the study
due to various constraints. Keeping the objectives of the investigation in mind, a procedure was adopted that
best suited the purpose and provided desirable exposure assessment results. For estimation of the exposure
pattern and consequent assessment, the method of Nielsen et al (2003) was adopted13. Here the 'Noise Nuisance'
(NNd) Index was calculated, which was quantified in terms of 'person hours' i.e. number of persons annoyed
by the noise in a certain time. The index is expressed as:

NNd = Pd Tproc NNFLp

(6)

where, Pd is the number of persons in the distance 'd ' from the source, Tproc is the duration of the noisy process
(hour) and NNFLp is a noise nuisance factor specific for the actual noise level Lp, relative to background noise
level and

NNFLp = 0.01 4.22

0.1 L p K

(7)

where, Lp is the noise level and 'K' is the background noise level in dB(A) relative to 20Pa.
The number of people in the distance 'd' from the noise source can be determined by counting or by average
estimation. The source field along a road, where many vehicles pass, can be assumed to be in the shape of a
cylinder8. Thus, the influence area from line source is a rectangular region covering both the sides of the
roadway. To assess the exposure extent of the local community, it was assumed that the noise spreads in a
circular wave mode and takes the form of noise isobars. Although the isobars in actual conditions take the
shape of the local topography, but as a simplified condition, the isobars are assumed to be circular. The level
of noise at various locations within 0 to 100 meter from the noise source were estimated using formula8

r
SoundLevel 1 SoundLevel 2 = 10 log 10 2
r1

(8)

where r2 and r1 are the distances from the sources to the receiver locations (the radius of the impact noise
isobars) and Sound Level1 & Sound Level2 are the noise levels at the r1 & r2 locations respectably. Disturbance
due to noise emission depends on people density in the neighborhood of the emission source [9]. The distribution
of the exposed population due to a point source i.e. number of individuals inside the 'n' th, 10 m noise isobar
for each noise level, can be estimated by taking the general population into account and using the formula [13].
Pn = pop (d2n - d2n-1)
84

(9)
Journal of Acoustical Society of India

Approach to Integrate Urban Road Traffic Noise in LCA: a Study for an Indian City

where, Pn is the number of people in 'n'th noise isobar, pop is the population density of the area (individuals/
km2) and 'd' the distance from road center to the nth zone. This formula is for a point source i.e. a single vehicle
and the estimate is known as the 'Area of Influence'. But since the sound due to vehicle movement is a 'Line
Source' and will take the shape of a cylinder, thus the Area of Influence in this case is a rectangular area
covering both sides of the road, i.e. 2 d multiplied with the transport distance [13]. For a 1km road in a
population area, the number of people influenced is
P (area type) = popi 2(dn+1- dn) 1km

(10)

2.5 Effect Analysis


Noise has been proved to be responsible for a variety of health damages, throughout the world. They can be
auditory and/or non-auditory type, physiological or psychological. Physiological damages can be long term
in the form of cardiovascular diseases, nervous and brain damage, etc as evidence from literature [1,10,14].
Psychological effects include irritation, annoyance, loss of concentration, short temperament, etc, to name a
few. But the noise dose and its response are such that the effected individuals, like those with noise induced
physiological damages, cannot notice the connection between noise and its effects [15]. Assuming this, two
effects that are known by the population to be directly caused by road traffic noise was taken for the assessment.
They were 'Sleep Disturbance' (associated with night time noise) and 'Communication Disturbance' (associated
with day time noise). They effect analysis was conducted taking these two inputs into consideration. The
percentage of 'Highly Annoyed' (%HA) individuals due to road traffic noise during day & night was estimated
by conducting a questionnaire based survey at the sampling locations. The percent of the interviewed
individuals expressing annoyance in relation to sound levels were plotted against noise levels separately for
day & night time.
3.

RESULTS

The results of the various estimations have been reported in this section, the calculation steps and results for
the 'Delta Leq' are shown in Table1 and Table 2. The small increment in noise level due to the additional
vehicles per hour is very marginal, but gives significant results when compared amongst them. The noise
increase for an additional Type I Vehicle is small for the most busy (G.T. Road in this case), whereas it is higher
for the less busy road (Burnpur Road in this case). For Type I vehicles the highest increase in noise level is 2.4
times higher than the lowest value for day time, where as for night time maximum increment is higher by 2.3
times from the lowest increment. For Type-II vehicles, the highest increase in noise level is 2.3 times higher than
the lowest value for day time, where as for night time higher increment is higher by 2.2 times the lowest
increment. Thus an inverse relation is observed between the congestion factor of a road and Delta Leq, i.e. for
less busy road locations where background noise level is low, the Delta Leq is high. Here a single unit addition
of vehicle produces a higher increment in noise level in comparison to busy roads, where the noise levels are
comparably higher and hence one unit addition of vehicle does not produce any significant impact. It can also
be said that the average vehicle speed also has marked effect on the Delta Leq, but this part is beyond the scope
of the present research paper.
4.

DISCUSSION

The response on the effected population living within the impact zone of these two types of noise environment
(vehicle flow wise) will also differ considerably. Individuals living in the low traffic noise zones are more
sensitive and hence will tend to feel any increase in noise level, where as those living near congested and busy
roads will not observe the increase in the noise level unless it is significantly high since they are already
exposed to a high noise levels. It is also observed that the heavy vehicle factor plays a significant part in traffic
noise generation and influences the Delta Leq value. In terms of the temporal variation, slight increase road
Journal of Acoustical Society of India

85

Dibyendu Banerjee

noise level during night time is more detectable, as this is the resting period and any undesirable sound is
unwelcome. This is more emphasized for residential areas near less busy streets. During the day time it is most
often annoyance due to communication disturbance, while it is sleep disturbance during night. As observed
from Fig.1, showing population exposed to different noise levels at the individual sites, it is observed that the
relation can be best fitted using exponential curve. In Fig. 2 it is observed that the relation is exponential and
positive. The areas with more heavy vehicles shows higher noise nuisance factor. The Fig. 3 shows the noise
bands and population exposure pattern. It is observed that more people are exposed in the 62 - 66 dB(A) range,
which is higher than the prescribed limit of 55 dB(A).

Fig. 1. Graphical representation of relation beyween road traffic noise level and population exposed

86

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

Approach to Integrate Urban Road Traffic Noise in LCA: a Study for an Indian City

Fig. 2. Graphical representation of relation beyween road traffic noise nuisance factor

Fig. 3. Noise exposure pattern due to road traffic at Assnol


Journal of Acoustical Society of India

87

Dibyendu Banerjee

Table 1. Calculation of increase in Leq for additional traffic during day hours at Asansol
GENERAL

Jublee More

Bhagat Singh

Court more

Ismile more

Kalyanpur

NH2

G.T.ROAD

BURNPUR
ROAD

S.B.GORAI
ROAD

SENRELEIGH ROAD

Period

DAY

DAY

DAY

DAY

DAY

Road length (Km) within Asansol


town

14.0

11.0

3.5

5.5

3.0

N1 (vehicles/h)

898

2688

1043

1653

1226

N2 (vehicles/h)

188

110

55

35

72

V (mean speed, km/h)

75

50

55

45

60

i (road gradient, %)

A (road surface type)

K1 (correction factor)

E'1

49.3636946

45.9299151

46.7370724

45.0376440

47.4739494

E"1

43.4000000

43.4000000

43.4000000

43.4000000

43.4000000

E1

49.3636946

45.9299151

46.7370724

45.0376440

47.4739494

E'2

58.9383148

56.5963011

57.1468238

55.9877264

57.6494116

E"2

55.1000000

55.1000000

55.1000000

55.1000000

55.1000000

E2

58.9383148

56.5963011

57.1468238

55.9877264

57.6494116

LE1

78.8964580

80.2242077

76.9199155

77.2203726

78.3588541

LE2

81.6798933

77.0102279

74.5504507

71.4284069

76.2227366

83.5177517

81.9182828

78.9051121

78.2361726

80.4311260

LE1 if N1+ 1 of Type 1 vehicles

78.9012916

80.2258231

76.9240774

77.2229991

78.3623950

LE2 if N2+ 1 of Type 2 vehicles

81.7029328

77.0495308

74.6287040

71.5507514

76.2826402

Leq if N1+ 1 of Type1 vehicles

83.5194201

81.9193765

78.9077475

78.2382515

80.4333237

Leq if N2+ 1 of Type 2 vehicles

83.5345181

81.9321068

78.9366043

78.2640409

80.4561403

DeltaLeq if N1+ 1

0.00167

0.00109

0.00264

0.00208

0.00220

DeltaLeq if N2+ 1

0.01677

0.01382

0.03149

0.02787

0.02501

DeltaLeq if N1+ 1(% increase)

0.00200

0.00134

0.00334

0.00266

0.00273

DeltaLeq if N2+ 1 (% increase)

0.02008

0.01688

0.03991

0.03562

0.03110

Place
Road
INPUT-DATA

INTERMEDIATE RESULTS

RESULTS in dB(A)
Leq
If additional traffic increase by 1 unit

88

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

Approach to Integrate Urban Road Traffic Noise in LCA: a Study for an Indian City

Table 2. Calculation of increase in Leq for additional traffic during night hours at Asansol
GENERAL

Jublee More

Bhagat Singh

Court more

Ismile more

Kalyanpur

NH2

G.T.ROAD

BURNPUR
ROAD

S.B.GORAI
ROAD

SENRELEIGH ROAD

Period

NIGHT

NIGHT

NIGHT

NIGHT

NIGHT

Road length (Km) within Asansol


town

14

11

3.5

5.5

3.0

N1 (vehicles/h)

729

1942

839

1087

810

N2 (vehicles/h)

139

64

29

20

87

V (mean speed, km/h)

85

50

55

50

55

i (road gradient, %)

A (road surface type)

K1 (correction factor)

E'1

50.42366905

45.92991508

46.7370724

45.9299151

46.7370724

E"1

43.4

43.4

43.4000000

43.4000000

43.4000000

E1

50.42366905

45.92991508

46.7370724

45.9299151

46.7370724

E'2

59.66127171

56.59630106

57.1468238

56.5963011

57.1468238

Place
Road
INPUT-DATA

INTERMEDIATE RESULTS

E"2

55.1

55.1

55.1000000

55.1000000

55.1000000

E2

59.66127171

56.59630106

57.1468238

56.5963011

57.1468238

LE1

79.05094433

78.81240734

75.9746921

76.2922105

75.8219226

LE2

81.09141971

74.6581008

71.7708037

69.6066010

76.5420163

83.20023202

80.22442906

77.3730082

77.1362065

79.2071770

RESULTS in dB(A)
Leq

If additional traffic increase by 1 unit


LE1 if N1+ 1 of Type 1 vehicles

79.05689765

78.81464309

75.9798653

76.2962040

75.8272810

LE2 if N2+ 1 of Type 2 vehicles

81.12255207

74.72543462

71.9180363

69.8184940

76.5916505

Leq if N1+ 1 of Type1 vehicles

83.20252295

80.22604435

77.3767579

77.1394949

79.2096354

Leq if N2+ 1 of Type 2 vehicles

83.2216964

80.24483191

77.4177538

77.1776503

79.2365604

DeltaLeq if N1+ 1

0.00229

0.00162

0.00375

0.00329

0.00246

DeltaLeq if N2+ 1

0.02146

0.02040

0.04475

0.04144

0.02938

DeltaLeq if N1+ 1(% increase)

0.00275

0.00201

0.00485

0.00426

0.00310

DeltaLeq if N2+ 1 (% increase)

0.02580

0.02543

0.05783

0.05373

0.03710

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

89

Dibyendu Banerjee

CONCLUSION

It can be inferred that noise nuisance factor is more in the moderate vehicle density areas. This may be because
in the high vehicle population areas the population are more immune to the noise exposure that their lesser
counterparts. The results of the study reflects on the fact that immediate long term noise control measures are
required to safeguard the local population from the ever growing road traffic noise dose.
6

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The authors express sincere thanks to the Teacher-in-charge, B.B. College, Asansol his kind consent to publish
the findings in the form of this research article.
7.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.
10.
11.
12.
13.
14.
15.

90

REFERENCES
S.M. ABEL, 1990. The extra-auditory effects of noise and annoyance: an overview of research, The Journal
of Otolaryngology, 199(1), 1-13.
W. BABISCH, 2006. Transportation noise and cardiovascular risk: updated review and synthesis of
epidemiological studies indicate that the evidence has increased, Noise Health, 8(30), 1-29.
D.BANERJEE, S.K.CHAKRABORTY, S.BHATTACHARYYA and A.GANGOPADHYAY, 2009.
Attitudinal response towards road traffic noise in the industrial town of Asansol, India, Environmental
Monitoring & Assessment, 151(1), 37- 44.
D.BANERJEE, S.K.CHAKRABORTY, S.BHATTACHARYYA and A.GANGOPADHYAY, 2009. Modeling
of road traffic noise in the industrial town of Asansol, India, Transport. Res. Part D, 13(8), 539-541.
D.BANERJEE, S.K.CHAKRABORTY, S.BHATTACHARYYA and A.GANGOPADHYAY, 2009. Appraisal
and mapping the spatial-temporal distribution of urban road traffic noise, International Journal of
Environment Science & Technology, 6(2), 325-335.
D.BANERJEE, S.K.CHAKRABORTY, S.BHATTACHARYYA and A.GANGOPADHYAY, 2008,
Evaluation and Analysis of Road Traffic Noise in Asansol: An Industrial town of Eastern India, Int. J.
Environ. Res. Public Health, 5(3), 165-171.
T.BODIN, M.ALBIN, J.ARDO, E.STROH, P.O.OSTERGREN, and J.BJORK, 2009. Road traffic noise and
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L.W.CANTER, 1996. Environmental Impact Assessment, Mc-Graw-Hill, New York.
V.LAFLECHE and F.SACCHETTO, 1997. Noise Assessment in LCA - A methodology attempt: A case
study with various means of transportation on a set trip, International Journal of Life Cycle Analysis, 2(2),
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S.T.LEONG and P.LAORTANAKUL, 2003. Monitoring and assessment of daily exposure of roadside
workers to traffic noise levels in an Asian city: a case study of Bangkok streets, Environ Monit Assess,
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L.MA, 1999. Integrated environmental impact modelling for urban freight transport, OTB Research Institute
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H. OTTEN, W. SCHULTE, and A.W. VON EIFF, 1990. Traffic noise, blood pressure and other risk factors:
The Bonn traffic noise study. In B.Berglund and T. Lindvall (Eds.), Noise as a Public Health Problem,
New Advances in Noise Research Part I. Stockholm: Swedish Council for Building Research, 4, 327-335.
R.M. Wenk, 2004. A Method to include in LCA road traffic noise and its health effects, International
Journal of Life Cycle Analysis, 9(2), 76-85.

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

An Analysis
Starting
Fields
used
in Parabolic
Equation Methods
Journal of Acoustical Society
of India of
: Vol.
39, No.
2, 2012
(pp.
91-95)

An Analysis of Starting Fields used in Parabolic


Equation Methods
R.P. Raju and P. Balasubramanian
Naval Physical & Oceanographic Laboratory, Kochi-682 021 (Kerala)

[Received: 15.12.2011; Revised: 19.01.2012; Accepted: 22.02.2012]

ABSTRACT
Parabolic Equation (PE) method is a robust method to solve range dependent sound propagation
problems in the ocean. PE sound propagation model requires the initial starting field (SF). SF is
usually obtained either by modeling the complex pressure field due to a point source or by measuring
the complex field due to a source along the depth at very short range. The SF due to a source at a very
short range can be modeled either analytically or numerically. Analytical starters can be calculated
for homogeneous medium and can be generated with minimal computational effort. Gaussian staring
field is used mostly in all the PE models of underwater sound propagation available in the literature.
Numerical self starter (split step pade approximation-self starter) is calculated for inhomogeneous
environment and is used in split step pade approximation of PE. A proper choice of the starting field
depends on the ocean environment and angular limitations of the PE method. In this paper, an
analysis is carried out on the above starting field employing them in PE sound propagation models,
PE-IFD (Implicit Finite Difference) and RAM (Range dependent Acoustic Model).

1.

INTRODUCTION

Parabolic equation (PE) method [1] is used extensively among ocean acoustics community to find an
approximate solution to elliptic Helmholtz equation. PE method is a wave theory based method for solving
range dependent problems in sound propagation. Parabolic equation is usually a one-way equation (outgoing
wave equation) which can be solved by range-marching techniques. The initial data for the PE method is
obtained by modeling the complex pressure field due to a point source or by measuring the complex field due
to a source along the depth at very short range. PE requires a specification of initial and boundary conditions.
The initial data for solving PE is the complex pressure value over the depth, (0,z) at the initial range point
r=0. This initial condition is, in principle, measured complex pressure field values over the depth due to a
source at very low ranges. The complex field values along the depth due a point source can be modeled by
using various numerical as well as analytical techniques. The initial complex field is also termed as 'Starting
Field'. In this paper we will analyze the various staring fields by using them to solve the PE by Implicit finite
difference (IFD) method [2] and split step Pade approximation (RAM( [3].
2.

STARTING FIELD

The starting fields that are used in the various PE models can be calculated by using various analytical
expressions and numerical techniques. We will be dealing with three analytical starters namely Gaussian
Greene's source and one numerical starter namely self starter (using split step pade approximation). The two
different PE models used are based on IFD and split-step Pade approximation. A very brief description of
each starting field is given below.
2012 Acoustical Society of India

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

91

R.P. Raju and P. Balasubramanian

2.1 Analytical Starters


The analytical starters are designed to closely match the far field solutions of the Helmholtz equation in the
homogeneous medium. Also the starting fields must account for the angular limitations of the source aperture
in different PE methods. The analytical expressions for the two starters used are given below.
2.1.1 Gaussian Starting Field
One of the most common starting fields used is the Gaussian starting field. The Gaussian source function has
the form

(0, z) = k0 e
where, ko =

koz ( z zs )z
z

2 f
co

(1)

and co is the reference sound speed , f is the frequency of the source. is also termed as the

reference wave number. Gaussian starter is used extensively in the ocean acoustics community due to minimal
computational effort involved.
2.1.2 Greene's Starter
Greene's source is a starting field with good wide-angle properties. Greene's starter is given by

(0, z) = ko [1.4467

0.4201ko2 ( z zs )2 ]e

k02 ( z zs )2
3.0512

(2)

2.2 Numerical Starter


In principle ray method or normal modes or wave number integration method can be used to generate the
acoustic field over depth at the initial range point. The field calculation using normal modes itself may be
expensive computationally when complex Eigen values or continuous field is involved. Several PE starters
have been developed to avoid the cumbersome calculations to solve the Eigen value problem using normal
mode theory. Self-starter is one such starting field developed by M.D. Collins [4]. It is called as self starter
because it is obtained by solving the boundary value problem (BVP) with Parabolic Equation (PE) method.
The boundary problem that is solved using PE is similar to the type solved for calculating normal mode
solutions. It involves solving the differential equation directly rather than searching for Eigen values. Selfstarting field is an efficient starting field for solving the PE using Pade approximation [5].
3.

ANALYSIS OF STARTING FIELDS

The PE-IFD model has an angular limitation of 35 degree, beyond which it fails. The model is run for three
different ocean environments. The cases (1) to (3) involve a source of 25 Hz placed at a depth of 500 m. the
depth of the ocean with different sound speed profiles as described in Table 1 is 1500 m. the receiver is also at
1500 m. and the density and compressive sound speed of bottom is same as that of water at 1500 m. Also, the
bottom is lossless.
Table 1. Three cases of Sound speed profile

92

Depth

Case(1)

Case(2)

Case(3)

0-1500
1000
1500

1500
1520
1563

1500
1520
1744

1520
1971
Journal of Acoustical Society of India

An Analysis of Starting Fields used in Parabolic Equation Methods

Fig.1. Starting fields for case (1)-(3)

Fig. 2. Case 1

Fig. 3. Case 2
RAM is a PE model based on Pade approximation. The angular limitations in this model depend upon the
number of pade terms that are considered. The angular limitation may reach up to 80 degree for 6 pade terms.
RAM basically is initialized by a self-starter. We have run this model with three different starters namely
Gaussian, Greene and self-starter (Fig. 5). The ocean environment that is considered as case (4) has large
variations in sound speed profile. The ocean depth is considered as 400 m and the sound speed increases
linearly from 1500 m/s at surface to 1600 m/s at the bottom. In the sediment, compressional velocity is 1700
ms-1, density is 1.5 g cm-3 and Compressional attenuation is 0.5 dB/. The source of 50 Hz is placed at 50 m
and receiver is at 390 m.
A comparison of the starting fields (Figs. 1 and 5) shows clearly that all the analytical starters are
independent of the bottom properties and interface conditions. Whereas self starter being the solution of the
actual boundary problem itself is a function of depth, bottom properties and interface conditions.
Journal of Acoustical Society of India

93

R.P. Raju and P. Balasubramanian

Fig. 4. Case 3

Fig. 5. Starting fields for case (4)


In cases (1-3) as the speed of the sound in the sediment increases, the variation in the TL graph becomes
prominent (Figs. 2-4). Gaussian starter tends to overestimate the loss because the beam that is considered is
much narrower in comparison to Greene. And self-starter gives a more accurate TL prediction as it considers
the ocean environment in the initial conditions itself.

94

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

An Analysis of Starting Fields used in Parabolic Equation Methods

Fig. 6. Case 4
In Fig. 6. the variation in the sound profile is leading to contrasting results in the TL plot due to different
starters.
4.

CONCLUSION

The choice of a proper starting field becomes important as the complexity of the ocean environment increases,
because the wide-angle properties of the starting fields would affect the final TL calculation. On comparison
of these results with results in the literature [5-6], it becomes clear that Gaussian and Greene's starters differ
from self starter at shorter ranges, higher sediment sound speeds and higher gradient of sound speed. It is
always wise to use self-starter in any PE model to model the sound propagation in ocean.
5.
[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
[5]
[6]

REFERENCES
F.D. TAPPERT, "The Parabolic Approximation Method," in wave propagation and underwater acoustics,
edited by J.B. Keller and J.S. Pappadakis (Springer, New York, 1977), 70, Lecture Notes in Physics.
G. BOTSEAS, D. LEE and K.E. GILBERT, 1983. "IFD: Wide-angle capability," NUSC Tech. Rep. 6905.
M.D. COLLINS, 1993. "A split-step Pade solution for the parabolic equation method", JASA, 93(4).
M.D. COLLINS, 1992. "A self-starter for the parabolic equation method", JASA, 92(4).
D.J. THOMSON and N.R.CHAPMAN, "A wide-angle split-step algorithm for the parabolic equation",
JASA, 74(6), Dec 1983.
M.D. COLLINS, 1989. "Applications and time-domain solution of higher-order parabolic equations in
underwater acoustics", JASA, 86(3).

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

95

Trinath
Journal of Acoustical Society of India : Vol. 39, No. 2,K.
2012
(pp. 96-102)

Acoustic Sensor technology for Torpedo Applications


K. Trinath
Naval Science & Technological Laboratory, DRDO, Visakhapatnam (Andhra Pradesh)
[Received: 21.02.2012; Revised: 25.03.2012; Accepted: 27.04.2012]

1. INTRODUCTION
Certain limitations like high attenuation in water medium precluded the use of electromagnetic waves
for underwater applications, thus leaving this domain to sound waves which have advantages over
electromagnetic waves regarding range in underwater environment. Underwater weapons such as torpedoes
require electro-acoustic transducers which are capable of conversion of electrical energy to acoustic and viceversa for detection and attack of enemy submarines and defend own ships and submarines from enemy
attack.
Development of an electro-acoustic transducer involves many disciplines of science and engineering like
physics, material science, naval architecture, oceanography, mechanical engineering, signal processing etc.
and is a complex web encompassing different aspects such as nature of application, design of transducer,
development of good transduction material, modeling and simulation, development of testing facilities and
above all meeting the tough military standards. Naval Science & Technological Laboratory (NSTL), a premier
defense laboratory over a period of time developed expertise and facilities for design, development and
testing of various underwater transducers of superior properties for torpedo applications in order to achieve
self reliance in this area. The design principles and performance of such transducers are explained in
subsequent sections.
2.

DEVELOPMENT OF ELECTRO-ACOUSTIC TRANSDUCERS FOR TORPEDO

Torpedo is cigar -shaped body, propelled at a given depth by its own engine, carrying a blasting charge in the
Nose, Which upon hitting the target is detonated by means of a special device. The homing system of the
torpedo which is at the front portion of the torpedo consists of arrays of electro-acoustic transducers for
detection, identification, tracking and hitting of enemy ship and submarines. As mentioned earlier electroacoustic transducers are capable of conversion of electrical energy to acoustic and vice-versa. Accordingly
there are two types of transducers. First one is projector which is underwater analogue of loudspeaker which
converts electrical energy to acoustic and radiates to water medium. The other type is hydrophone which is
underwater analogue of microphone which converts incoming sound to electrical energy. Designing of this
kind of acoustic transducers poses enormous challenges to the designer as it involves meeting of many user
specifications such as resonant frequency, power handling capacity, high electro-acoustic efficiency, acoustic
output responses like range and sensitivity, pressure and shock withstandability, wide bandwidth,
compactness, compatibility with external electronic circuitry, meeting stringent military and environmental
standards etc. These parameters in turn depend upon design of transducer, passive and active materials
used in transducer and nature of application. Table 1 shows the different frequency ranges required for
different underwater applications and the transducers and materials required for those particular applications.
Considering all the above factors Tonpilz design of transducers has been widely used for underwater
applications due to their low cost, simplicity in fabrication and good acoustic performance like radiation of
high power ultrasonic waves apart from their high sensitivities.

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Acoustic Sensor technology for Torpedo Applications

Table 1
Underwater Applications

Frequency ranges

Transducers Used

Ocean Acoustics

10 Hz-1 kHz

Flextensional low frequency resonator

Weapon Sonar

1 kHz-100kHz

Tonpilz ceramic stacks

Mine Hunting Imaging Sonar

100kHz-1MHz

1-3 ceramic composite plates

Ultrasonic Imaging

1MHz-100MHz

Diced ceramic plate by thick film deposition

Typically a Tonpilz (German for "singing mushroom") transducer design consists of an acoustically
active thickness polarized piezoceramic stack, sandwiched between a head and tail piece resembling like
spring-mass configuration. The head diameter is generally less than half of the wavelength in water at
resonance and thickness of head will be 1/5th of diameter. The piezoceramics having high Curie temperature,
high piezo coefficients, low dissipation factors, high coupling coefficient etc. are used as active material. The
piezoceramic stacks are divided into number of discs or rings and connected mechanically in series and
electrically in parallel configuration to minimize impedance. Applying an electrical voltage to the drive
section induces an extensional displacement along the poling direction, which is able to provide a high
acoustic power. As ceramics are strong in compression but weak under expansion, when high voltages are
used, there is a possibility for the ceramic to shatter. Hence the whole structure is placed under compressive
prestress by placing a bolt through the center of the ceramic stack. The prestress imparted by this bolt allows
the ceramic to withstand these high voltages as well as ensuring intimate mechanical contact between the
components. The tail mass is heavier than the head mass to ensure the acoustic energy radiation from the
head mass which will be in contact with external fluid medium. For higher transfer of energy between the
transducer and external fluid medium, in the conventional tonpilz transducer used for underwater
applications, area of radiating face is significantly larger than that of the piezoelectric ceramic material for
better impedance matching with external fluid domain.
This leads to the design of a tapered head mass. The radiating head is shaped like a frustum of cone to
provide a gradual transition of energy from high impedance piezoceramics to the low impedance of water via
the radiating head. A typical tonpilz transducer is shown in Fig. 1 and its simple mechanical representation
is shown in Fig. 2. This configuration is incorporated for detection arrays of torpedoes operating from
20 - 50KHz.

Tail

Fig.1. A tonpilz transducer


Journal of Acoustical Society of India

Fig. 2. Mechanical representation of tonpliz


transducer. F1is the force developed by
application of electrical voltage to piezoceramic
stack. r1 is mechanical resistance and c1 is
mechanical compliance of ceramic stock
97

K. Trinath

Apart from main detection array which use tonpilz transducers, other acoustic transducers are also
present in a torpedo. The function of these transducers are given in Table 2. The transducers for Acoustic
proximity fuse, sonar for object identification, and Depth sounder are designed with thickness polarized PZT
ceramic blocks operating over the required band of frequencies. These blocks are assembled as planar array
depending on the requirement and available size. The arrays are air backed and electrically insulated from
sea water. PZT polymer composites are also incorporated for improving the performances.
Table 2
Transducer

Function

Main detection array

Generate & receive acoustic energy


for detection and tracking the target

3.

Acoustic proximity fuse

Initiate blast sequence once the torpedo reaches target

Depth sounder

Determines the depth of medium

Sonar for object


Identification

Imaging of target and determination of hitting point

BROADBAND TRANSDUCERS

High bandwidth and high sensitivity are the most desired figure of merit of the electro-acoustic transducers.
High sensitivity ensures increased signal strength and better penetration of transmitting and receiving signals
and hence better response of the transducer. Increased bandwidth results faster rise times and fall times of the
acoustic pulse and hence better resolution and higher data processing rate. But in transducer both sensitivity
and bandwidth don't go hand in hand as both are inversely related to each other. Hence different designs of
transducer are realized using different concepts such as multiresonant tonpilz, multimode tonpilz, tonpilz
with a cavity in head etc. to obtain high bandwidth without significant reduction of their sensitivities and are
explained in subsequent sections.
4.

MULTIPLE RESONANT TONPILZ TRANSDUCERS

The tonpilz transducers in simpler term are considered to be a spring-mass system where the spring
(piezoceramic stacks) are connected in between two masses (head mass and tail mass). The transducer is
normally operated in the vicinity of the fundamental frequency also called resonance frequency for maximum
output. But operation at this frequency limits the bandwidth of the transducer as at this frequency sensitivity
of transducer is very high and the sensitivity and bandwidth are inversely related to each other. Wideband
performance can be obtained above resonance but the band is often limited by the next overtone resonance.
One of the methods to increase the operational bandwidth is to extend this single spring-mass system to
multiple spring-mass systems thereby creating multiple resonances which are not far separated. Hence by
coupling these resonances properly the operational bandwidth of the transducer can be enhanced significantly.
So an attempt is made to design double and triple resonant tonpilz transducers using the above principle to
increase the operational bandwidth.
5.

DOUBLE RESONANT TRANSDUCER

This design is an extension of the simple spring mass system of a conventional tonpilz transducer where an
additional mass called central mass is introduced between the head mass and tail mass thereby creating two
spring mass systems in series (mass-spring-mass-spring-mass system). Here addition of center mass results
double resonance. Same voltage is applied across both the stacks. The short piezoceramic stack controls
upper resonance and the long piezoceramic stack controls lower resonance. By adjusting the dimensions of
the piezoceramic stacks and the central masses, two resonances can be created at appropriate frequency
range. The head mass is designed for frequency higher than the desired frequency of operation. As a result the
dimension and weight of head mass is reduced so that large number of transducers can be accommodated in
large arrays. Then a prototype of the optimized transducer is fabricated and is shown in Fig. 3.
98

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

Acoustic Sensor technology for Torpedo Applications

Fig. 3. Double resonant tonpilz


6.

Fig. 4. Triple resonant tonpilz

TRIPLE RESONANT TRANSDUCER

This design is an extension of earlier double resonance design with the addition of another centre mass
and two passive compliant materials. The prototype of a designed triple resonant tonpilz is shown in figure
4. The passive compliances section controls the upper resonances and the piezoceramic stack controls lower
resonance. The lowest frequency results by the single spring-mass system in which ceramic stack resonating
with all the passive components such as the tail mass (m1) and two center masses (m 2 & m 3), two passive
compliances (C1 & C2) and head mass (m 4), all acting together as a single lumped mass. The middle
resonance frequency is generated by the lower center mass (m 2) and G-10 compliance (C 2) resonating with
upper center mass (m 3), G-10 compliance (C 3), and head mass (m4), all functioning together as one lumped
mass. The highest resonance frequency is generated by the upper center mass (m 3) and G-10 compliance (C3)
resonating with head mass (m 4). Hence by adjusting the dimensions of the piezoceramic stacks and the
central masses, three resonances can be created at appropriate frequency range.
This type of design increases the operational frequency band of the transducer in both transmitting and
receiving mode as compared to the conventional tonpilz transducer designed for same center frequency. Also
this design having small element size able to generate low frequency compared to the conventional tonpilz of
the same size and weight. Again due to the introduction of high frequency head in the design, the dimension
of head mass and the overall weight of the transducer decreases significantly which is an additional advantage
in large array applications. All these advantages are obtained without using exotic expensive transduction
material, thus making the cost reasonable.
7.

MULTIMODE TONPILZ TRANSDUCER

A reasonable design aim is to make the tonpilz transducer to vibrate in fundamental longitudinal mode and
to keep the flexural resonance frequency at least 1.5 times the highest operating frequency as it will corrupt
the output response of the transducer by interfering with the fundamental mode of vibration hence reducing
bandwidth. But this "flapping" mode can be exploited to enhance the bandwidth of a tonpilz transducer. The
following design is based on this concept. Figure 5 shows the truncated head mass of a tonpilz transducer.
For h1+h2 < 0.5a,
the flexural (flapping) resonance frequency is given by,
f f 3.6

G (h 1 + h2 )
sin
a2

and G =

1
2

Ep
12 ( 1 2 )

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

(1)
(2)
99

K. Trinath

where Ep, and are the Young modulus, density and poisson ratio of the head mass material.
Acoustic radiation

Stress rod

a
Tail mass

h2
PZT-4 rings

h1

Head mass

Fig.6. Prototype broadband transducer using


multimode optimisation

Fig. 5. Truncated head mass

Fig. 6. Prototype broadband transducer using


multimode optimisation

Hence from above equations, the flapping resonance frequency not only depends upon the material
constants of the head mass but also shape of head mass. Hence for a given material, the flapping frequency
can be modified by changing the dimensional parameters such as a, h 1, h2 and . As changing a and h
(=h1+h2) affects output response of the transducer, the parameter can be exploited to modify the ff to the
desired level to enhance bandwidth. The prototype designed is shown in Fig. 6.
8.

TONPILZ TRANSDUCER WITH A CAVITY IN HEAD MASS

The bandwidth of the transducer at resonance frequency is decided by mechanical quality factor (Q m) of
transducer which is inversely related to bandwidth. For broadband applications, low mechanical quality
factor (Qm) is required. Hence the radiating head of transducer must have a low mass and a large radiating
area. As the dimension of head mass is designed with respect to the frequency of application to get maximum
acoustic output response, desired beamwidth, increasing the area of the head mass to get high bandwidth
will affect the above parameters of transducer and also require more space for applications where large
number of arrays are required. Hence the latter option is preferred. Again reducing the thickness of head mass
to decrease the weight of head mass results in lowering of flapping frequency of head mass which may affect
output performance of transducer significantly. Making a cavity inside the head mass is one of the options to
get lower head mass without effecting the radiation resistance and flexural resonance frequency. Also tonpilz
transducers are operated at resonance frequency to get maximum power output. Hence a tonpilz transducer
with a cavity inside the head is designed to get maximum bandwidth at the desired resonance frequency
without significantly reducing the sensitivities of transducer. The axi-symmetric model is shown in Fig. 7.

Fig. 7. Axi-symmetric model of a tonpilz transducer showing a cavity in head


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Journal of Acoustical Society of India

Acoustic Sensor technology for Torpedo Applications

9.

PIEZOCOMPOSITE TRANSDUCER

As mentioned earlier, pizoceramics are used as active material in electro-acoustic transducers. But they have
certain drawbacks like brittleness, high density () and high acoustic impedance (Z), difficulty in large area
coverage etc. Piezocomposite, a combination of piezoceramic and polymer emerged as a potential material to
overcome these material bottlenecks posed by single phase ceramics and polymers as they have lower and
adjustable acoustic impedance, high electromechanical coupling coefficient, high piezoelectric charge
coefficients, flexibility to conform to curved surfaces etc. Piezocomposite draws its strength from the
electromechanical activity of piezoceramics and low acoustic impedance of polymer and hence desired
response depends upon the proper choices of component phases and their arrangement or connectivity
within the composite. As it is a two phase material, based on connectivity ten possible configurations like
0-0, 0-1, 0-2, 0-3, 1-1, 2-1, 2-2, 2-3, 1-3 and 3-3 are possible. Out of these 1-3 type of piezocomposites consisting
of aligned, unidirectional piezoceramic rods within a three dimensional polymer matrix have attracted
considerable attention with reference to underwater applications due to their best piezoactivity, flexibility to
conform to curved surfaces, ease of fabrication, lower and adjustable acoustic impedance, minimum lateral
mode response etc. Hence an attempt is made to design and fabricate a tonpilz transducer using 1-3
piezocomposite rings. Figures 8 and 9 show the 1-3 piezocomposite rings and tonpilz transducers using
these rings.

Fig. 8. 1-3 piezocomposite rings

Fig. 9. 1-3 piezocomposite tonpilz transducer

10. TONPILZ USING SINGLE CRYSTAL


PZN-PT, PMN-PT in the form of single crystals such as can be cut to exploit to crystallographic directions
with best properties. High coupling and insensitivity to compressive stress make such crystals attractive
candidate for broadband ultrasonic and sonar transducers. These materials develop 5 to 10 times more strain
of normal PZT ceramics and 1 octave bandwidth can be obtained as compared to 1/3rd octave in case of PZT.
High Sensitivity of the order of 20 dB higher than PZT can be obtained. The tonpilz made of single crystals
can be of half of the size of tonpilz designed for same frequency of operation. The benefits of single crystal
Tonpilz arrays are improved shallow water performance, long range detection in deep water, multi frequency
capability on both transmitting and receiving mode, small size of array hence improving packing density.
11. CONCLUSION
The acoustic sensors are essentially electromechanical systems. Even though science of transduction is
simple, straight forward and well understood, the engineering and technology part of these devices is still
elusive. The most promising prospects and potential problems of Sonar systems are limited by the sensors/
transducers. This fact, coupled with their multi disciplinary nature have led to the scenario of Sonar transducer
technologies as the much guarded subject area for decades, the world over. For this obvious reason, hardly
very limited development agencies/vendors are available and accessible for any one in their own development
activity. The amount of effort at NSTL in this technological area is much significant. The scope is enormous
Journal of Acoustical Society of India

101

K. Trinath

covering the areas of materials, modeling, methods of manufacture and measurements. In this presentation
an attempt has been made to cover the salient features of the transducers and broad overview of the prominent
areas. The presentation is supplemented with the present trends and efforts made to keep abreast to remain
in the field as well.
12. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
The author is thankful to Heads of Technology Directorates Dr. K.Sudhakar and Shri N.V.Raghava Rao for
constant encouragement and fruitful discussions and the necessary inputs to improve the designs to meet the
overall system requirements. The author is also thankful to the dedicated team of scientists and other members
of Sensors group for the whole hearted cooperation for realizing the designs and for system implementation.
The help rendered by Rubber Technology, Mechanical Systems, Signal Processing divisions and workshop is
acknowledged. The author is thankful to Director, NSTL for giving permission to submit the paper for
consideration for presentation during National Symposium on Acoustics.
13. REFERENCES
[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
[5]
[6]
[7]
[8]
[9]
[10]
[11]
[12]
[13]
[14]
[15]
[16]

102

D. STANSFIELD, 2003. Underwater Electroacoustic Transducers, Peninsula Publishing.


OSCAR BRYAN WILSON, 1988. Introduction to Theory and Design of Sonar Transducers, Peninsula
Publishing.
CHARLES H. SHERMAN and JOHN L. BUTLER, 2007. Transducers and Arrays for Underwater Sound,
Springer Science + Business Media, LLC.
R.J. BOBBER, 1970. Underwater Electroacoustic Measurements, Naval Research Laboratory, Washington,
USA.
R.F.W. COATES, 1991. The design of transducers and arrays for underwater data communication, IEEE
J. Ocean. Eng., 16, 123-135.
A. SAFARI, 1994. Development of piezoelectric composites for transducers, J. Phys. III France, 4, 11291149.
W.A. SMITH and B.A. AULD, 1990. Modelling 1-3 composite piezoelectrics: thickness-mode oscillations,
IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelec. Freq. Control, 38, 40-47.
R.W. TIMME, A.M. YOUNG and J.E. BLUE, 1991. Transducer Needs for Low Frequency Sonar, Power
Transducers for Sonics and Ultrasonics, edited by B. F. Hamonic, O. B. Wilson, and J. N. Decarpigney,
Springer Publication, 3-13.
Q. YAO and L. BJORNO, 1997. Broadband Tonpilz Underwater Acoustic Transducers Based on
Multimode Optimization, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control, 44, 1060-1065.
D.W. HAWKINS and P.T. GOUGH, 1996. Multiresonance design of tonpilz transducer using finite
element method, IEEE Trans. Ultrason. Ferroelectr. Freq. Control, 43, 782-790.
G. KOSSOFF, 1966. The effects of backing and matching on the performances of piezoelectric transducers,
IEEE Trans. Sonics Ultrason., SU-13, 20-30.
S.C. BUTLER, 2002. Development of a high power broadband doubly resonant transducer (DRT), UDT
2001, Undersea Defense Technology Conference Proceedings, Session P II.5, Waikiki, HI.
JOHN L. BUTLER AND ALEXANDER L. BUTLER, 2003. Ultra Wideband Multiple Resonant Transducer,
Proceedings of Oceans, 4, 2381-2387.
STEPHEN C. BUTLER, 2002. Triply resonant broadband transducers, OCEANS' 02 MTS/IEEE, 4 , 23342341.
HE XIPING and HU JING, 2009. Study on the broadband tonpilz transducer with a single hole, Ultrasonics,
49, 419-423.
SAOSOMETH CHHITH and YONGRAE ROH, 2009. Wideband Tonpilz Transducer with a void Head
Mass, Proceedings of Symposium on Ultrasonic Electronics, 30, 361-362

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

Thermodynamic
Study
on Binary
of DMSO + Benzaldehyde
Journal of Acoustical Society
of India : Vol.
39, No.
2, 2012Mixture
(pp. 103-107)

Thermodynamic Study on Binary Mixture of


DMSO + Benzaldehyde
A.J. Clement Lourduraj* and I. Johnson
Centre for Nano Science and Applied Thermodynamics
Department of Physics, St. Joseph's College (Autonomous), Trichy-620 002 (TamilNadu)
*e-mail: ajeevaclement @ yahoo.co.in
[Received: 16.01.2012; Revised: 17.03.2012; Accepted: 26.04.2012]

ABSTRACT
Knowledge of thermodynamic properties is of great significance in studying physico-chemical
behaviour and various interactions of liquid mixtures. Experimental densities, viscosities and sound
velocities of the binary mixture have been measured at 303.15K, 306.15K, 308.15K, 311.15K and
314.15K for the entire range of mole fraction. Experimental and computed results are used to study
the type and nature of inter and intra molecular interactions between the mixing components.

1.

INTRODUCTION

The present work is a continuation of our earlier studies of thermodynamic and physico-chemical properties
of non-aqueous binary and ternary liquid mixtures. The present investigation is concerned with the study of
the binary system DMSO + Benzaldehyde for their entire composition range. Knowledge of mixing properties
of such multicomponent liquid system is essential in many industrial applications, such as design calculation,
mass transfer, fluid flow etc. The present work reports densities, viscosities and speeds of sound for the
system measured at 303.15 K, 306.15 K, 308.15 K, 311.15 K and 314.15 K
2.

EXPERIMENTAL MATERIALS

High - purity spectroscopic and HPLC grade chemicals of DMSO and Benzaldehyde were obtained from
Merck Co. Their purities were 99.5% or better and no further purification was done. The chemicals were
stored over molecular sieves. The verification of the purity of the chemicals was realized by ascertaining the
consistency of the values of density, viscosity and ultrasonic velocity at 298.15K which was reasonably in
accordance with the values found in the literature.
3.

MEASUREMENTS

Densities of liquids and their mixtures were measured at 303.15 K, 306.15 K, 308.15 K, 311.15 K and
314.15 K with specific gravity bottle method. The results of density are accurate to 0.0002 gcm-3. An electronic
digital balance is used to measure the mass of the liquids within an accuracy of 0.001 g. The viscosities of the
pure liquids and their mixtures were measured using an Ostwald's viscometer. The flow times are measured
within an accuracy of 0.01 sec. The speed of sound in the mixture has been measured by an ultrasonic
interferometer of frequency 2 MHz. The speed of sound values is accurate to 2 m.s-1. The measurements
have been carried out in a constant temperature bath at 303.15K and 308.15K within an accuracy of 0.01K.
2012 Acoustical Society of India

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

103

A.J. Clement Lourduraj and I. Johnson

4.

THEORY

The experimental density (), speed of sound (u) and viscosity () were measured at 303.15 K, 306.15 K, 308.15
K, 311.15 K and 314.15 K. The observed density values have been used to calculate the excess molar volumes
(VE) of the mixtures, at the each investigated temperature by using the following relation
n

V E = Vm xiVi0
i =1

(1)

where Vm is the molar volume of the mixture, xi represents the mole fraction of the ith component of the mixture
and Vi0 is the molar volume of the i-th pure liquid.
The deviations in speed of sound (u) and viscosity () were calculated using the equation
n

X = Xm xi Xi0
i =1

(2)

where X refers to u and of the mixtures, Xm is the respective mixture property viz., speed of sound (u)
and viscosity () of the mixtures and Xi is the respective property of the pure component i in the mixture.
The adiabatic compressibility (a) can be estimated from the density and speed of sound using

a = 1

(3)

u2

To calculate the deviations in adiabatic compressibility (a) volume fraction i were used in equation (2)
instead of mole fractions. These two are related to one another as
0

i = xiVi

(4)

xiVi0

Wada's constant was calculated using the formula W =

Internal pressure is given as

Pi =

M eff

Deviations in internal pressure is given as Pi E = ( Pi )mix xi ( Pi )


4.

(5)

(6)

(7)

RESULTS AND DISCUSION

From the experimental values of density, speed of sound and viscosity of the binary system DMSO +
Benzaldehyde measured at 303.15 K, 306.15 K, 308.15 K, 311.15 K and 314.15 K. Viscosity, deviations in
viscosity is given in Tables 1 and 2, respectively. The thermodynamical parameters like deviations in adiabatic
compressibility, Wada's constant, internal pressure and deviations in internal pressure are presented in
Tables 3-5. The viscosity values are decreases when the temperature is increases.
The Deviations in Viscosity values is negative for this mixture. The negative values of Deviations in
Viscosity are due to the unequal molecular size of the participating liquids. With decrease in temperature
Deviations in Viscosity values are becoming more negative for the entire mixtures, which show the more
interstitial accommodation of one type of molecules into other, thereby leading to a compact and smooth
packing of molecules.
The Adiabatic Compressibility values this combinations having positive. Similar observations are
prevalent at higher temperatures. With increase in temperature, the adiabatic compressibility values are
104

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

Thermodynamic Study on Binary Mixture of DMSO + Benzaldehyde

Table 1. Mole fraction and Viscosity for the binary system DMSO + Benzaldehyde at 303.15K, 306.15 K,
308.15 K, 311.15 K and 314.15 K
Mole Fraction

Viscosity (10-3 N.s/m2)

(DMSO+Benzaldehyde)

303.15 K

306.15 K

308.15 K

311.15 K

314.15 K

1+0
0.9+0.1
0.8+0.2
0.7+0.3
0.6+0.4
0.5+0.5
0.4+0.6
0.3+0.7
0.2+0.8
0.1+0.9
0+1

1.961
1.888
1.815
1.742
1.669
1.596
1.523
1.450
1.377
1.304
1.298

1.8855
1.8121
1.7387
1.6653
1.5919
1.5185
1.4451
1.3717
1.2983
1.2249
1.2223

1.810
1.737
1.664
1.591
1.518
1.445
1.372
1.299
1.226
1.153
1.147

1.7345
1.6610
1.5875
1.5140
1.4405
1.3670
1.2935
1.2200
1.1465
1.0730
1.0713

1.6590
1.5855
1.5120
1.4385
1.3650
1.2915
1.2180
1.1445
1.0710
0.9975
0.9958

Table 2. Mole fraction and Deviation in Viscosity for the binary system DMSO + Benzaldehyde at 303.15 K,
306.15 K, 308.15 K, 311.15 K and 314.15 K
Deviation inViscosity (x103 N.s/m2)

Mole Fraction
(DMSO+Benzaldehyde)

303.15 K

306.15 K

308.15 K

311.15 K

314.15K

1+0
0.9+0.1
0.8+0.2
0.7+0.3
0.6+0.4
0.5+0.5
0.4+0.6
0.3+0.7
0.2+0.8
0.1+0.9
0+1

0
-0.0008
-0.0026
-0.0044
-0.0062
-0.008
-0.0098
-0.0116
-0.0134
-0.0152
0

-0.0755
-0.1327
-0.1899
-0.2471
-0.3043
-0.3615
-0.4187
-0.4759
-0.5331
-0.5903
-0.5767

-0.151
-0.2078
-0.2646
-0.3214
-0.3782
-0.435
-0.4918
-0.5486
-0.6054
-0.6622
-0.6522

-0.2265
-0.2838
-0.3411
-0.3984
-0.4557
-0.513
-0.5703
-0.6276
-0.6849
-0.7422
-0.7277

-0.302
-0.3593
-0.4166
-0.4739
-0.5312
-0.5885
-0.6458
-0.7031
-0.7604
-0.8177
-0.8032

Table 3. Mole fraction and Deviation in Adiabatic compressibility for the binary system DMSO +
Benzaldehyde at 303.15 K, 306.15 K, 308.15 K, 311.15K and 314.15 K
Deviation in Adiabatic compressibility a (1010 m2N-1)

Mole Fraction
(DMSO+Benzaldehyde)

303.15 K

306.15 K

308.15 K

311.15 K

314.15 K

1+0
0.9+0.1
0.8+0.2
0.7+0.3
0.6+0.4
0.5+0.5
0.4+0.6
0.3+0.7
0.2+0.8
0.1+0.9
0+1

4.1457
4.385
4.6457
4.9303
5.2418
5.5837
5.9602
6.3761
6.837
7.3498
7.4564

4.5874
4.842
5.1185
5.4192
5.7473
6.106
6.4993
6.9319
7.4091
7.9372
8.3208

5.1032
5.4053
5.735
6.0958
6.4917
6.9274
7.4084
7.9413
8.5337
9.195
3.0605

5.5348
5.8719
6.2395
6.6411
7.0812
7.5648
8.0976
8.6865
9.3395
10.0662
10.5727

6.4845
6.8594
7.2676
7.7132
8.201
8.7364
9.3259
9.9769
10.6983
11.5007
12.0705

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

105

A.J. Clement Lourduraj and I. Johnson

Table 4. Mole fraction and Wada's Constant for the binary system DMSO + Benzaldehyde at 303.15 K,
306.15 K, 308.15 K, 311.15 K and 314.15 K
Mole Fraction

Wads's Constant(W)

(DMSO+Benzaldehyde)

303.15 K

306.15 K

308.15 K

311.15 K

314.15 K

1+0
0.9+0.1
0.8+0.2
0.7+0.3
0.6+0.4
0.5+0.5
0.4+0.6
0.3+0.7
0.2+0.8
0.1+0.9
0+1

2170
2230
2289
2345
2400
2453
2505
2554
2601
2647
2713

2310
2374
2437
2499
2558
2616
2672
2725
2777
2827
2884

2472
2540
2606
2670
2732
2792
2850
2905
2958
3009
3616

2585
2665
2744
2822
2898
2972
3045
3116
3185
3251
3317

2891
2971
3050
3126
3199
3271
3340
3406
3470
3531
3597

Table 5. Mole fraction and internal pressure for the binary system DMSO + Benzaldehyde at 303.15 K,
306.15 K, 308.15 K, 311.15 K and 314.15 K
Mole Fraction

Internal Pressure (Pi)x 106 Pa

(DMSO+Benzaldehyde)

303.15 K

306.15 K

308.15 K

311.15 K

314.15 K

1+0
0.9+0.1
0.8+0.2
0.7+0.3
0.6+0.4
0.5+0.5
0.4+0.6
0.3+0.7
0.2+0.8
0.1+0.9
0+1

7.9632
7.7165
7.4887
7.2798
7.0884
6.9129
6.7523
6.6053
6.4712
6.3493
6.1748

7.4639
7.1176
6.7939
6.4901
6.204
5.9337
5.6773
5.4332
5.1999
4.976
4.8752

6.9587
6.6368
6.3357
6.053
5.7867
5.5348
5.2958
5.0679
4.8499
4.6403
3.4072

6.6027
6.2714
5.9615
5.6706
5.3964
5.137
4.8906
4.6557
4.4307
4.2143
4.1307

5.9391
5.65
5.3788
5.1234
4.882
4.6527
4.4341
4.2246
4.0229
3.8277
3.7561

Table 6. Mole fraction and Deviation in internal pressure for the binary system DMSO + Benzaldehyde at
303.15 K, 306.15 K, 308.15 K, 311.15 K and 314.15 K
Pi) x 106 Pa
Deviation in Internal Pressure (

Mole Fraction
(DMSO+Benzaldehyde)

303.15 K

306.15 K

308.15 K

311.15 K

314.15 K

1+0
0.9+0.1
0.8+0.2
0.7+0.3
0.6+0.4
0.5+0.5
0.4+0.6
0.3+0.7
0.2+0.8
0.1+0.9
0+1

0
-0.0679
-0.1168
-0.1468
-0.1594
-0.1561
-0.1379
-0.106
-0.0613
-0.0044
0

-0.4993
-0.6667
-0.8116
-0.9366
-1.0438
-1.1353
-1.2129
-1.2782
-1.3326
-1.3777
-1.2996

-1.0045
-1.1476
-1.2698
-1.3737
-1.4612
-1.5342
-1.5944
-1.6434
-1.6826
-1.7134
-2.7677

-1.3605
-1.5129
-1.644
-1.7561
-1.8514
-1.932
-1.9995
-2.0556
-2.1018
-2.1394
-2.0441

-2.024
-2.1344
-2.2267
-2.3032
-2.3658
-2.4163
-2.4561
-2.4867
-2.5096
-2.526
-2.4187

106

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

Thermodynamic Study on Binary Mixture of DMSO + Benzaldehyde

becoming more positive which shows a slight increase in the dipole-dipole interactions.
The Wada's constant variation is linear for the entire binary systems. The temperature increase has very
little effect on the Wada's constant. With increase in the mole fraction, the Wada's constant begins to increase.
The internal pressure decreases with the mole fraction. The internal pressure decreases with increase in
temperature. The deviations in internal pressure becomes less negative with increase in temperature. The
deviations in internal pressure are negative which shows the presence of cluster formation. This supports the
findings with respect to deviation in internal pressure suggesting that the physical interaction is generally
exothermic.
5.

REFERENCES

Periodicals:
[1]

A.J.CLEMENT LOURDURAJ and I. JOHNSON, 2008. - Ultrasonic and spectroscopic studies of binary
mixtures of cyclohexanone with hexane and heptane - Journal of Pure and Applied Ultrasonics - 30 (2), 6973.
[2]
I. JOHNSON, M. KALIDOSS and R. SRINIVASAMOORTHY, 2001, Acoustical investigation of some
binary and ternary liquid mixtures, Proceedings of the 17th International congress on Acoustics (ROME),
Physical Acoustics - Part B, I, 12-13.
[3]
J.D. PANDEY and ASHOK KUMAR, 1994. Ultrasonic velocity in pure liquids, Journal of Pure and Applied
Ultrasonics, 16(63-68).
[4] S. VISWANATHAN and M. ANAND RAO, 2000, Journal of Chem. Eng. Data, 45, 764 - 770.
[5] A. MUKHERJEE and S. KAMILA et al, 1999, Acoustics Letters (U.K.), 23, 17 - 24.
[6] M. KALIDOSS, I. JOHNSON and R. SRINIVASAMOORTHY, 1999, J. Acoust. Soc. Ind., 27( 319).
[7] M. KALIDOSS and R. SRINIVASAMOORTHY, 1997, J. Pure Appl. Ultrason. 19(9).
[8] C.V. SURYANARAYANA and S. KUPPUSAMY, 1979, J. Acous. Soc. Ind., 7, p.131.
[9] R.J. FORT and W.R. MOORE, 1965, Trans. Faraday Society, 61, 2102-2107.
[10] E. ZOREBSKI and A. ZAK -Z., 1999, Physikalische chemie.Bd. 210, S.(223 - 233).
Books:
[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]

J.A. RIDDICK, W.B. BUNGER and T.K. SANAKO, 1986. Organic solvents. Physical properties and methods
of purification (Techniques of Chemistry) 4thed, Wiley-Interscience, New York.
WEISSBERGER, 1955, Technique of Organic Chemistry, Organic solvents. Physical properties and
methods of purification, 2nded, Inter-science publisher, New York, VII.
WILLIAM KEMP, 1991, Organic Spectroscopy 3rd ed, Palgrave, New York.
ROBERT M. SILVERSTEIN and FRANCIS X. WEBSTER, 1998, Spectrometric identification of organic
compounds, John Wiley & Sons, Singapore.

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

107

Acoustical Society of India


(Regn. No. 65-1971)
Executive Council (2010 - 2014)
President

Dr V Rajendran
[KSRCT, Tiruchengode; veerajendran@gmail.com; +91-99 94 13 03 03]

Vice President

NS Naidu
[NSTL, Vizag; nsnaidu04@yahoo.com; +91-94 90 75 05 82]

General Secretary

PVS Ganesh Kumar


[NSTL, Vizag; gkpakki@rediffmail.com; +91-98 66 40 08 94]

Jt. Secretary

Dr K Trinadh
[NSTL, Vizag; hello_trinath@yahoo.co.in; +91-97 04 71 95 00]

Treasurer

Prof AV Sharma
[AU, Vizag; sarmavakella@yahoo.co.in; +91-94 90 43 17 26]

Chief Editor

Dr Mahavir Singh
[NPL, New Delhi; mahavir@nplindia.org; +91-98 71 69 33 46]

Council Members

Dr SV Ranga Nayakulu
[VITAE, Hyderabad; nayakulu@rediffmail.com; +91-98 66 53 26 13]

Dr I Johnson
[SJ College, Trichy; jnaadarsh@hotmail.com; +91-94 42 90 48 20]

Dr Rajiv K Upadhayay
[Govt PG College, Rishikesh; rku8@rediffmail.com; +91-94 12 97 28 90]

Dr S Shekhar
[Oxford College, Trichy; acousticssekar@yahoo.co.in; +91-99 94 92 00 30]

Dr V Bhujanga Rao
[Past President; NSTL, Vizag; vepcrew1@rediffmail.com; +91-98 66 44 10 74]

Co-opted Members

Rajshekhar Uchil
[Josts, Bangalore; ruchil@josts.in; +91-98 80 17 08 95]

Dr N K Narayanan
[CIT, Kozhikode; csirc@rediffmail.com; +91-94 46 95 58 30]

MAHAVIR SINGH
Chief Editor
OMKAR SHARMA
Managing Editor
TRINATH KAR
Associate Scientific Editor
Yudhishter Kumar
Anil Kumar Nain
Naveen Garg
Assistant Editors

EDITORIAL BOARD
M L Munjal
IISc Banglore, India
S Narayanan
IIT Chennai, India
V Rajendran
KSRCT Erode, India
R J M Craik
HWU Edinburg, UK
Trevor R T Nightingle
NRC Ottawa, Canada
B V A Rao
VIT Vellore, India
N Tandon
IIT Delhi, India
P Narang
NMI Lindfield, Australia
E S R Rajagopal
IISc Banglore, India
A L Vyas
IIT Delhi, India
V Bhujanga Rao
NSTL Vizag, India
Yukio Kagawa
NU Chiba, Japan
S Datta
LU Loughborough, UK
Sonoko Kuwano
OU Osaka, Japan
K K Pujara
IIT Delhi (Ex.), India
A R Mohanty
IIT Kharagpur, India
Ashok Kumar
NPL New Delhi, India
V Mohanan
NPL New Delhi, India

JASI

Journal of Acoustical
Society of India (JASI)
A quarterly publication of the Acoustical Society of India

Volume 39, Number 3, July 2012


EDITORIAL
Recent Advances in Acoustical Glazing
Mahavir Singh ............................................................................... 110

ARTICLES
Acoustic Source Characterization of the Exhaust and Intake
Systems of Single Cylinder I. C. Engine
Krishan Kant and M.L. Munjal .................................................... 111
Acoustic Characteristics of a Newly Developed Sandwich
Lightweight Wall Panel
Mahavir Singh and Dharam Pal Singh ......................................... 119
Measurement and Validation of Acoustic Source
Characteristics
P. Chaitanya and M.L. Munjal....................................................... 129
Flow Acoustic Analysis of Commercial Automotive
Mufflers: Matrizant Approach
Bhushan Singh and M.L. Munjal.................................................. 142
Attenuation of Ultrasonic Waves in Nano-crystalline
Yttria Stabilized Zirconia
S.K. Verma and R.R. Yadav........................................................... 152
Fabrication and Performance Evaluation of a
Polyurethane Encapsulated Sensor Module for
Underwater Applications
Rahna K. Shamsudeen, V.G. Jayakumari, S. Kusumakumari,
R. Rajeswari and T. Mukundan..................................................... 161
Generalized a Symptotic Expansions for the Wavenumbers in Infinite Flexible Circular Cylindrical Shells
in the Intermediate Frequency Ranges
Vijay Prakash S. and Venkata R. Sonti.......................................... 167

INFORMATION
Executive Council of Acoustical Society of India

172

International Conference Announcement


Information for Authors

Inside back
cover

EDITORS SPACE

Recent Advances in Acoustical Glazing


To some it might come as a surprise that on a molecular level glass is a liquid, and that glass is actually denser
than concrete. Glass is indeed an incredible material from a structural and an architectural point of view. It
can be molded into amazing shapes and colors as an artistic medium. It can be used to stop water intrusion,
wind and weather, and even bullets (in certain instances). Now it can even be transformed from transparent
to opaque at the flip of a switch. The focus of this article is on the acoustical properties of glass, specifically
the ability of glass to prevent sound transmission from one side of a window to the other.
The effectiveness of glass as a sound barrier has been known for many years. For example, increasing
the thickness of glass will reduce sound transmission through the glass. Because glass is a very dense
material, the added weight of thicker glass creates economic and structural concerns that make using thick
sheets of solid glass an unattractive choice for most applications.
As it turns out, glass is not a good thermal insulator, so in exterior applications the most common
glazing choice is dual-pane or insulated glazing. Insulated glazing is typically fabricated from two sheets of
glass that are separated by a continuous metal spacer placed around the perimeter, then sealed air-tight for
all eternity. The sealing process is especially important for exterior applications, because the window may
fog up from moisture condensation in the air space if the seal is lost or broken. In the "old days" the typical air
gap for an insulated window was about 1/4 in. The optimum air space from a thermal insulation point of
view is about 5/8 in. Research has shown that air recirculation between the two panes of glass begins to
reduce the thermal insulation value when the air space is much larger than 5/8 in. According to many
window manufacturers, maintaining a good seal between the two panes of glass becomes increasingly
difficult as the air space gets larger. As a result, spacer bars greater than 1/2 in. are uncommon, and spacer
bars greater than 3/4 in. are generally not available with a warranty from the manufacturer. More detailed
information relating to the acoustical performance of insulated glazing will be provided later.
Another technique for improving the acoustical performance of glass is to laminate two layers of glass
together with a clear, plastic material. The plastic inner layer bonds to both pieces of glass creating what
appears to the naked eye as a single pane of glass. Automobiles have laminated glass primarily for safety
reasons, to minimize the possibility of glass fragments injuring passengers during a collision. As it turns out,
the plastic inner layer (or laminate) provides a significant amount of internal structural damping to the glass.
This damping effect has a major impact on the sound transmission properties of glass at high frequencies,
especially near its critical frequency. The critical frequency is the acoustic frequency at which the wavelength
of bending waves in the glass surface equals the wavelength of sound in air. At frequencies in the vicinity of
the critical frequency, sound waves will pass through the glass much more readily than at other frequencies.
This effect (reduced sound isolation in the region of the critical frequency) is called the coincidence effect. The
critical frequency for glass depends only on the thickness of the glass. Thicker glass will have a lower critical
frequency than thinner glass. For example, 1/8 in. thick glass has a critical frequency of 4800 Hz, while in.
thick glass has a critical frequency of 2400 Hz, and 1/2 in. thick glass has a critical frequency of 1200 Hz.
Laboratory tests have shown that the reduction of sound as it passes through laminated glass in the
coincidence frequency region is much greater than with regular (non-laminated) glass. That is to say laminated
glass provides better sound control than regular glass (of the same total thickness) but the improvement
occurs only in the frequency range of the coincidence effect.

Mahavir Singh

Acoustic
Source
Characterization
theNo.
Exhaust
Intake
Systems of Single Cylinder I. C. Engine
Journal of
Acoustical
Society
of India : Vol.of39,
3, 2012and
(pp.
111-118)

Acoustic Source Characterization of the Exhaust and


Intake Systems of Single Cylinder I. C. Engine
Krishan Kant 1 and M.L. Munjal 2*

1Ashok

Leyland Technical Centre, Bangalore, 2Facility for Research in Technical Acoustics (FRITA)
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore-560 012
*e-mail: munjal@mecheng.iisc.ernet.in
[Received: 22.12.2011; Revised: 10.05.2012; Accepted: 15.05.2012]

ABSTRACT
AVL-BOOST model of single cylinder engine is used for the source characterization. It is used in
conjunction with the multi-load methods to evaluate the source characteristics at a point just
downstream of the exhaust manifold for the exhaust system and just upstream of the inlet manifold
for the intake system. These source characteristics have been extracted from the pressure time history
calculated at that point using electroacoustic analogy. Parametric studies have been conducted in
order to derive empirical expressions for the Source Strength Level (SSL) in terms of the engine speed
(RPM) and air-fuel ratio (AFR) for single cylinder internal combustion engine. The main purpose of
parameterization of the source characteristics of any kind of single cylinder engine in terms of basic
engine parameters is to assess the un-muffled as well as muffled noise before prototyping the engine.

1. INTRODUCTION
Analyzing a muffler is not a problem these days because of the availability of the transfer matrix approaches
[1]. Using the frequency domain transfer matrix approach, it is possible to analyze any complex element.
Though this frequency domain approach is sufficient to analyze a simple source like loudspeaker, yet the same
is inadequate to analyze an engine exhaust source. As per Thevenin theorem, an electrical source may be
characterized by an open circuit voltage and an internal impedance. The corresponding source characteristics
in Muffler Acoustics are ps and Zs. Finding out the load independent source characteristics ps and Zs,
corresponding to the open circuit voltage and internal impedance of an electrical source, is practically not
feasible for internal combustion engines. This is due to the fact that, unlike in an electrical source, the zero
velocity corresponding to the requirement of zero current in an open circuit cannot be obtained in the automobile
exhaust system because the exhaust/intake gases must flow. It is possible to analyze the source in the time
domain by solving gas dynamics equations using the Method of Characteristics, or the Finite Volume Method,
and thence the un-muffled noise can be predicted with good accuracy [2, 3]. On the other hand, the muffled
noise cannot be predicted because analyzing a typical commercial muffler in the time domain is an extremely
difficult task.
There is some kind of approximate expression available for the source impedance, Zs in the literature, as
suggested by Callow and Peat [4].
The present investigation deals with source characterization and parameterization of the source strength
level (SSL) in terms of the engine speed in revolutions per minute (RPM) and air-fuel ratio (AFR) for exhaust
system of single cylinder internal combustion engine. This study is extended to the intake system of single
cylinder internal combustion engine. The main idea of this investigation is to parameterize the source
2012 Acoustical Society of India

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

111

Krishan Kant and M. L. Munjal

characteristics of any kind of single cylinder engine in terms of basic engine parameters, so that a first assessment
of the un-muffled as well as the muffled noise is available before prototyping the engine and muffler.
2.

COMPUTATION OF SOURCE CHARACTERISTICS

Electrical analogous circuit of the an un-muffled system is depicted in Fig. 1. Referring to this figure for the
acoustic load ZL, one can write [2].

ps = p

Zs + ZL
ZL

and Z = ps 1 Z

L
s
p

(1, 2)

Since by definition ps and Zs should be independent of load ZL , one can use more than two loads (overdetermination), and then calculate Zs and ps by using pairs of loads for the best precision [5]. Thus ps can be
achieved by minimizing the following function corresponding to Eq. (2):
p
p

F( ps ) = s 1 ZLi s 1 ZLj
pj

i < j pi

(3)

Here, sum is taken over all possible pairs of loads satisfying i<j. Hence differentiating F(ps) with respect to
ps and then simplifying for the condition of minima, we obtain
Z
ZLj ) Li
pi

ZLi ZLj

pj
i < j pi

(Z
ps =

i< j

Li

ZLj

p j
,

(4)

Similarly, Zs can be evaluated by minimizing the following function corresponding to Eq. (1):
2

Z
Z

F(Zs ) = s + 1 pi s + 1 p j ] .


i < j ZLi

ZLj

(5)

Differentiating Eq. (5) with respect to Zs and then simplifying for the condition of minima, we obtain
Following the approach developed and used successfully by Hota and Munjal for source characterization

Fig. 1. Electrical analogous circuit for an un-muffled system


112

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

Acoustic Source Characterization of the Exhaust and Intake Systems of Single Cylinder I. C. Engine

p
( pi p j ) i
ZLi
i< j

Zs =
pi
pj

Z
Z
i < j Li
Lj

pj

ZLj
,

(6)

of multi-cylinder engines [6, 7], the following steps are adopted to calculate the source characteristics of the
exhaust system or intake system of an engine:
1.

2.
3.

Store arrays of pressure histories corresponding to different loads, predicted by means of AVL-BOOST [3]
for any combination of air fuel ratio (AFR), engine speed in RPM, and the engine capacity (displacement).
These are computed just downstream of the exhaust runners for the exhaust side or just upstream of the
intake runners for the intake side. These arrays are in the time domain.
Compute the discrete Fourier transform (DFT) of the above arrays to find pressure in the frequency domain
for different speed orders: 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2, ......., 18.5, 19, 19.5, 20.
With Z0 as the radiation impedance, calculate ZLn of each of the pipes as:

ZLn =

4.

Z0 cos( kln ) + jY0 sin( kln )


,
( j /Y0 )Z0 sin( kln ) + cos( kln )

n = 1, 2, ,j.

(7)

where, k = / c 0 is the wave number, and Y0 = 0 c0 /S is the characteristic impedance of the load pipe of
length ln and area of cross-section S.
Find out ps and Zs from Eqs. (4) and (6), respectively, for the set of j number of pipes.
The BOOST model corresponding to the Boost single cylinder gasoline engine is shown in Fig. 2.
This analysis has been carried out by taking acoustic loads as simple pipes of lengths 0.44 m, 0.58 m, 0.72

Fig. 2. BOOST model of a single cylinder spark ignition engine adopted from BOOST primer manual [3]
Journal of Acoustical Society of India

113

Krishan Kant and M. L. Munjal

m, 1.12 m, 1.26 m and 1.5 m. Source impedance Zs = Rs + jXs has been normalized with respect to the
characteristic impedance of the exhaust pipe, defined as Y0 = 0 c0 /S , where

0 , c0

and S are respectively the

medium density, sound speed and area of cross-section of the exhaust pipe. The source pressure ps has been
re-defined in terms of the Source Strength Level, SSL as:
SSL = 20 log| ps / pth |,

(8)

pth= 2.0 10-5 Pa.

If a least square fit is done on the SSL spectrum at different frequencies or speed orders, the curve goes down
exponentially. Hence the generalized formula for the SSL can be defined as:
SO

SSL = A
N cyl /2

(9)

where, constant A represents SSL at the firing frequency in decibels (dB) and B is an exponent which is a
dimensionless number to represents variation of SSL with frequency or speed order (SO). N cyl is the number
of cylinders in the four-stroke cycle engine under investigation. For single cylinder engine, Ncyl =1.
Speed order of frequency f is defined as
where, f is the firing frequency of the N-cylinder engine.
SO =

f
RPM /60

and

f =

RPM 2

Ncyl ,
60
Nst

(10, 11)

As there is one bring in two revolutions of a four-stroke cycle engine ( N st = 4), the speed order of the ?ring
frequency of a four-stroke cycle engine becomes N cyl /2 . Thus, 1/2 represents the speed order of the bring
frequency of a single cylinder four-stroke cycle engine.
3.

PARAMETRIC STUDY OF THE EXHAUST SOURCE CHARACTERISTICS

The acoustic parametric study of the exhaust source characteristics has been done for two parameters, varying
one at a time keeping the other parameter constant at its default (underlined) value:
Air-fuel ratio, AFR= 10, 14.5, 20, 24, 30, 35, 40.
Engine speed, RPM= 1500, 2400, 3000, 3800, 4600, 5200, 6000.
So the default Boost single cylinder gasoline engine is: 0.5 liter capacity (or displacement), running at 6000
rpm, with the air-fuel ratio 14.5.
With reference to Eq. (9), and making use of the multi-load method outlined above, the least square fit of
different values of A obtained from their respective SSL spectra corresponding to various values of the air-fuel
ratio (AFR) is found to follow the relation:
(12)

A AFR = 178.5 [1 0.00056(AF R)]/0.992, 10 AFR 40


Similarly, the effect of engine speed (RPM) has been found to be as follows:

114

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

Acoustic Source Characterization of the Exhaust and Intake Systems of Single Cylinder I. C. Engine

ARPM = 145.2 [1 + 8.9 10 5 (RPM) 8.4 109 (RPM)2 ], 1500 RPM 6000

(13)

Eqs (12) and (13) may combined by making use of the methodology illustrated in Refs. [6, 7]. Thus,

A = 146.32 [1 0.00056(AFR)][1 + 8.9 10 5 (RPM) 8.4 10 9 (RPM)2 ]

(14)

The corresponding relations for the value of B in Eq. (9) have been found to be as follows:

BAFR = 0.149 [1 + 3.4 103 (AFR)], 10 AFR 40

(15)

BRPM = 0.1536 [1 + 1.147 103 (RPM) 1.066 107 (RPM)2 ], 1500 RPM 6000

(16)

The overall value of B comes out as

B = 0.0366 [1 + 3.4 10 3 (AFR)][1 + 1.147 10 3 (RPM) 1.066 10 7 (RPM)2 ]

(17)

From these values of A and B, the value of source strength level (SSL) can be calculated using Eq. (9) for
different speed orders. Source pressure ps can then be calculated from these values of SSL at different speed
orders using Eq. (8).

7 2

Fig. 3. Comparison of the exhaust SPL values as a function of speed order for the Boost gasoline
The exhaust source impedance is approximated as [4]

Zs ( exhaust ) Y0 ( 0.707 j0.707 )

(18)

The aero-acoustic source characteristics so obtained are then applied as an active boundary condition to
the linear acoustic model of the exhaust line. The value of the radiation end volume velocity 0 can be found out
by solving the matrix equation taking into account the mean flow effect [1]:

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

115

Krishan Kant and M. L. Munjal

Fig. 4. Effect of the exhaust source impedance Zs on the SPL predicted for the Boost gasoline engine

ps 1 Zs T11 T12 Z0 v0
=

v 0 1 T21 T22 v0

(19)

where, [T] represents the transfer matrix of the entire exhaust system downstream of the runner. Now,0 can be
used to calculate SPL at any point outside in the free field [1]. Figure 3 shows a comparison of the exhaust SPL
values so predicted with those obtained by means of the BOOST software for the gasoline engine adopted from
Ref. [3].
Figure 4 shows that use of Eq. (8) for the exhaust source impedance is a good approximation and a
welcome simplification. Thus, the present investigation for source characterization simplifies to evaluation of
ps or SSL only.

Fig. 5. Comparison of the intake SPL values as a function of speed order for the Boost gasoline engine
116

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

Acoustic Source Characterization of the Exhaust and Intake Systems of Single Cylinder I. C. Engine

4.

PARAMETRIC STUDY OF THE INTAKE SOURCE CHARACTERISTICS

We have adopted the same procedure (steps 1 to 4 of section 2) for source characterization and parameterization
of the intake side of the engine. The resultant expressions for A and B of SSL in Eq. (9) are as follows.

A = 143.08 [1 4.18 10 5 (AFR)][1 + 4.3 10 5 (RPM) 4.05 10 9 (RPM)2 ]

(20)

B = 0.0914 [1 2.77 10 4 (AFR)] [1 + 3.48 10 4 (RPM) 3.3 10 8 (RPM)2 ]

(21)

Figures 5 and 6 are the intake system counterparts of Figs. 3 and 4 above. Clearly, the intake source
impedance can be approximated as [7]

Z s ( i n t a k e ) Y 0 ( 0 .1 j 0 .1 )

(22)

Fig. 6. Effect of the intake source impedance Zs on the SPL predicted for a Boost gasoline engine.
5.

CONCLUDING REMARKS

Exhaust source characteristics of a gasoline engine have been found out as functions of the engine's basic
parameters using a multi-load method. If we compare the SPL levels of Boost gasoline engine (see Fig. 4) for the
computed value of with that of Ref [4], i.e., Zs (exhaust) = Y0 (0.707 j0.707) one can see that the SPL spectra
are more or less similar. This suggests that radiated values of SPL and insertion loss are weak functions of the
source impedance, and therefore, Eq. (18) is good enough for estimation of the radiated exhaust SPL. For the
intake side the source impedance expression (Eq. 22) developed in Ref. [7] is adequate for prediction of the
intake noise spectrum shown in Fig. 6. Logarithmic addition implies that the total SPL value depends more
upon the value of A of SSL; it does not depend strongly on the value of B. Hence, the accuracy of B is not as
important as that of A as far as the total SPL is concerned.
The empirical expressions presented here for the source characteristics of the exhaust and intake system of
a single-cylinder four-stroke engine incorporate the effect of engine speed and air-fuel ratio. However, these
would not apply to diesel engines or two-stroke cycle engines. Nevertheless, the procedure described here can
be used to develop source characteristics for single-cylinder engine of all types, as has indeed been demonstrated
for multi-cylinder engines in Refs [6-7].
Journal of Acoustical Society of India

117

Krishan Kant and M. L. Munjal

Though this approach does not predict the actual noise spectra precisely, yet it serves a useful purpose for
a muffler designer who has always depended on the electro-acoustic analogies [1]. The potential user can now
make use of these empirical expressions coupled with the frequency-domain transfer matrix approach
throughout.
6.
[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
[5]
[6]
[7]

118

REFERENCES
M. L. MUNJAL, 1987. Acoustics of Duct and Mufflers, John Wiley & Sons, New York.
H. BODEN, M. TONSE and R. FAIRBROTHER, 2004. On extraction of IC-engine acoustic source data
from non-linear simulations, Proceedings of the Eleventh International Congress on Sound and Vibration,
(ICSV-11), St. Petersburg, Russia.
BOOST Version 5.0.2, AVL LIST GmbH, Graz, Austria, 2007. BOOST Examples manual Version 4.1.
G.D. CALLOW and K.S. PEAT, 1988. Insertion Loss of engine inflow and exhaust silencers, I Mech. E
C19/88:39-46.
L. DEMONS, 1995. Determination of the acoustical source characteristics of an internal combustion
engine by using several calibrated loads, Journal of Sound and Vibration, 179(5), 869-78.
R.N. Hota and M.L. Munjal, 2008. Approximate empirical expressions for the aeroacoustic source strength
level of the exhaust system of compression ignition engines, International Journal of Aeroacoustics, 7 (3 & 4),
349 -372.
R.N. HOTA and M.L. MUNJAL, 2008. Intake source characterization of a compression ignition engine:
empirical expressions, Noise Control Engineering Journal, 56(2), 92-106.

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

Acoustic
Characteristics
of 39,
a Newly
Sandwich Lightweight Wall Panel
Journal of Acoustical
Society
of India : Vol.
No. 3, Developed
2012 (pp. 119-128)

Acoustic Characteristics of a Newly Developed


Sandwich Lightweight Wall Panel
Mahavir Singh* and Dharam Pal Singh
Acoustics, Ultasonics & Vibration (AUV) Section
Apex Level Standards & Industrial Metrology Division
CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, Dr. K.S. Krishnan Road, New Delhi-110 012
*e-mail: mahavir@nplindia.org
[Received: 16.04.2012; Revised: 29.05.2012; Accepted: 08.06.2012]

ABSTRACT
The building construction developed in India has been changed by the very slow but gradual move
to a general use of residential wall panels made with increasingly light materials from the traditional
heavy interior walls. The main goal of this paper is to present a study of the sound transmission loss
of lightweight wall panels, especially those usually called sandwich-type and its experimental
application to a new and very specific kind of wall panel made of gypsum board and cork, a traditional
material in India. This newly developed sandwich lightweight wall panel is presented an acoustically
characterized to present an indigenous material made with gypsum and cork in a construction
technology innovation. A new and simple mathematical model is presented to evaluate the sound
isolation of this kind of wall panel. The results obtained in reverberant chamber tests are presented
as well as the comparisons with the predicted values using the new model proposed. Different single
and double wall types were tested giving STC values up to 45.

1.

INTRODUCTION

India is the producer of cork. Nevertheless cork has never been widely used in India in the building construction
industry as a sound isolation material. Its main use in this field has been as a thermal insulator or as an
acoustic absorptive material.
Cork is a natural product that constitutes the outer bark of a tree named the cork-oak (Quercus suber L)
that is disseminated all over India (mainly in the southern area). The product is formed by the grouping of
cells, in successive layers, each layer being the result of one year's growth. The first cork stripping is carried
out only at the end of 20/25 years of life of the tree. The cork stripping is made every nine or ten years. The
lifetime average of a cork-oak is about 170 years.
Cork is a unique material, thanks to its low specific weight, great elasticity, flexibility and durability, its
impermeability to liquid and gases, its resistance to wear and fire, its high mechanical resistance and
dimensional stability and resistance to reactive agents, microorganisms, etc.
The main goal of this paper is to present the acoustical characterics of a newly designed lightweight
partition made of gypsum board and cork.
2.

RESEARCH JUSTIFICATION

The main use sought for the type of partitions described in this paper is as interior walls in dwellings or office
2012 Acoustical Society of India

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

119

Mahavir Singh and Dharam Pal Singh

buildings. The traditional interior wall type in the Indian building construction industry has been and still is
the heavy 7 cm width brick wall with 3 cm plaster. This type of solution is not cheaper, regarding total cost
(materials used and labor costs), than the proposed lightweight partition. However the changing from the
traditional heavy walls has been slowly due to the very low labor costs in the Indian building construction
industry (Table 1).
Table 1. Skilled and unskilled labor costs [4-5] (for the normal standards prevailing in that country)
Country

Skilled labour costs


(/hour)
1991

Australia
Austria
Bahrain
Belgium
Canada
Cyprus
Czechoslovakia
Denmark
Egypt
Finland
France
Germany
Greece
Holland
Hong Kong
India
Ireland
Italy
Japan
Kenya
Luxembourg
Malaysia
Malta
New Zealand
Nigeria
Norway
Poland
Portugal
Saudi Arabia
Singapore
South Africa
Spain
Sweden
Switzerland
Turkey
UK
USA
Zambia
Zimbabwe
120

unskilled labour costs


(/hour)

2011

1991

2011

NC

US $

US $

NC

NC

US $

US $

NC

21
0.62
795
22.5
3.25
37.2
29.5
10.8
5
19
1.5
8
8.67
8.25
51.5
2.34
2.88

14.0
1.6
20.4
16.7
4.6
17.7
3.8
0.7
1.9
10.2
0.4
2.1
4.0
1.8
33.2
0.2
1.8

25.4
10.4
1.5
28.0
30.6
18.6
15.1
15.0
0.71
12.2
25.3
22.2
6.4
31.4
0.9
4.8
19.1
33.6
0.4
11.4
37.2
-

270
4.48
40.3
163
112
95.9
22.8
2391
32.2
6.93
28800
692
1.92
186
8186
645
1821
190
1352
5.89
37.2
-

20
0.45
645
19.5
0.98
19
6.85
2.5
17
1.46
5
6
2.22
34.7
1.97
1.08

13.3
1.2
16.5
14.4
1.4
2.4
0.4
1.0
9.1
0.4
1.3
2.8
0.5
22.4
0.1
0.7

20.7
8.4
1.1
28.0
21.0
13.8
10.8
0.40
10.2
22.8
17.3
5.3
27.0
3.8
15.0
32.8
0.3
9.0
26.5
-

220
3.64
30.3
163
76.7
71.0
1733
18.2
5.79
26k
540
1.58
160
515
1428
185
825
4.63
26.5
-

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

Acoustic Characteristics of a Newly Developed Sandwich Lightweight Wall Panel

The building construction development in India has not followed other western European countries and
has been changed by the very slow and gradual move to the general use of partitions made with light
materials. The use of lightweight partitions in the building construction is the standard rule in many western
and industrialized countries. This is due mainly to the importance that the labor costs have in the final cost
of the building. In India the labor costs and estimating costs per square meter for housing are still very low as
seen Table 2.
Table 2. Estimating costs per square meter for housing [4-5] (for the normal standards prevailing in that
country)
Country

Single family housing


(cost/m2)
1991
2011

1991

Apartments/flats
(cost/m2)

2011

NC

US $

US $

NC

NC

US $

US $

NC

Australia
Austria
Bahrain
Belgium
Canada
Cyprus
Czechoslovakia
Denmark
Egypt
Finland
France
Germany
Greece
Holland
Hong Kong
India
Ireland

375
420
1200
-

250
311
571
-

1058
394
1030
989
819
1001
264
529

33k
170
6k
5090
1240
160k
12k
300

710
410
275
1100
2250
-

473
304
393
524
288
-

1240
1026
348
1717
1412
779
1254
826
286
846

13200
32k
150
10k
5150
4010
1900
132k
13k
480

Italy
Japan
Kenya
Luxembourg
Malaysia
Malta
New Zealand
Nigeria
Norway
Poland
Portugal
Saudi Arabia
Singapore
South Africa
Spain
Sweden
Switzerland
Turkey
UK
USA
Zambia
Zimbabwe

3600
340
790
1500
600
475
1705
240

225
131
425
429
279
106
122
150

1055
1122
845
444
504
578
1496
1081
110
686
450
-

1200k
35k
5k
4250
68k
55k
8450
1375
344k
355
450
-

4k
315
1075
2375
775
525
1550
670

250
121
578
679
360
117
111
419

1055
2612
1603
1183
268
630
683
1169
1416
265
821
595
-

1200k
350k
50k
7k
2567k
85k
65k
6600
1800
828k
425
595
-

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

121

Mahavir Singh and Dharam Pal Singh

In Table 1 is seen that the skilled and unskilled labor costs in India are less than other countries in the
world. We can note than, for instance, India had in 2011 labor costs 84 to 114 times less than those in the USA.
These values cannot be directly compared due to the difference of levels of life but they can give a clear picture
for future developments in this field.
Another aspect to justify the idea that lightweight partitions will be increasingly popular in India is the
present costs per square meter for housing. Although the way of life and salaries in India are quite better to
many other countries, the housing costs per square meter are so different that those from these countries. In
Table 2 we can also see that the costs per square meter for single family housing and apartments or flats are
still very low. However the highest values are now just only around 2 times less than USA in India.
Building construction in India is as optimized and rationalized than in other countries in Europe or
North America. Very low labor costs imply correspondent low final costs per square meter for housing. The
use of composite cork and gypsum board in partitions, with high labor rentability, can then present a lower
final cost than the traditional brick wall. This lowering of costs will naturally push down the square meter
housing cost in India. As we see in Table 2, the square meter costs in the USA are even higher than in India
when labor costs are 84 to 114 times higher.
Therefore these socioeconomic parameters indicate the interest on having a less expensive and highly
effective lightweight partition.

3.

DESCRIPTION OF PARTITIONS TESTED

Five different sandwich partitions were tested in this study - 4 single and 1 double shown in Fig. 1:

Fig. 1. Partitions tested


122

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

Acoustic Characteristics of a Newly Developed Sandwich Lightweight Wall Panel

Partition constructions in tabular form


Single partitions
Partition D1
Partition D2
Partition D3
Partition D4

Face layers
Core
Total thickness and weigh
Face layers
Core
Total thickness and weigh
Face layers
Core
Total thickness and weigh
Face layers
Core
Total thickness and weigh

10 mm gypsum board (each face)


6 mm agglomerated composition cork
26 mm - 16 kg/m2
10 mm gypsum board (each face)
6 mm rubber cork
26 mm - 20 kg/m2
10 mm gypsum board (each face)
40 mm agglomerated composition cork
60 mm - 20 kg/m2
10 mm gypsum board (each face)
ISO500 (2 layers of 25 mm agglomerated composition
cork with a 3 mm thick rubber cork sheet in between)
73 mm - 24 kg/m2

Double partitions
Partition DD1/2

Partition D1 (26 mm) + airspace (100 mm) + Partition D2 (26 mm)


Total thickness and weigh 152 mm - 36 kg/m2
(since there was no symmetry in this partition it was tested regarding the sound transmission
through both ways of emission named 1 and 2 (DD1/2-1 and DD1/2-2, see Figure 1)

The materials used were:


Gypsum board: The gypsum board used was a 10 mm thickness composite panel, fabricated with a volume
density of about 800 kg/m3 and a surface density of about 7.5 kg/m2. Each panel was 0.93 x 0.63 m.
Cork: Three types of cork materials were used:

Agglomerated composition cork (or white agglomerated cork): Made of cork granules (1 to 3 mm) bound
together under heat and pressure. It has a specific weight of about 125 kg/m3 and a modulus of elasticity
of about 16 kg/cm2;

Rubber cork: A cork derived material done with different sizes of granulated cork and synthetic rubber
(binder: nitrile, neoprene or cloroprene - NBR or SBR). The one used in this study had a specific weight of
about 900 kg/m3 and a modulus of elasticity of about 110 kg/cm2;

ISO500: Two layers of 25 mm agglomerate composition cork glued with a 3 mm thick rubbercork sheet in
between.

The building of the partitions for this work was done by the cork company in our facilities. It consisted in
the gluing of the layers to form the panel (contact neoprenic glue was used in the entire surface to be pasted).
4.

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURES

Transmission loss measurements were performed in the suite of reverberation chambers (sound transmission
facility) at the Acoustics Section of National Physical Laboratory in New Delhi, India. Both rooms are irregular
in shape with no parallel surfaces and are equipped with stationary diffusers. The volume of the source room
is 257 m3. The test opening wall between the rooms was 0.93 x 0.63 m. The procedures for measuring
transmission loss (TL) followed the Indian standard (similar to the standards ISO 140 and ASTM E90).
Sound pressure levels inside the two room is measured using two condenser microphones Brel & Kjr
(B&K) model 4165 each coupled with a microphone pre-amplifier type 1201 and fed to a Norwegian Electronics
type 830 dual channel real-time analyzer (RTA 830 Building Analyzer) for 1/3 octave band spectrum analysis.
The sound transmission loss is calculated as:
Journal of Acoustical Society of India

123

Mahavir Singh and Dharam Pal Singh

TL = L1 - L2 + 10 log10 (S/A) dB
where L1 and L2 are the average sound pressure levels (dB) in source and receiving rooms, S is area of panel
(m2) and A is total absorption of the receiving room (Sabine).
5.

RESULTS

The sound transmission loss (TL) values obtained for each partition tested are presented in Table 3 and Fig. 1.
The sound transmission class (STC), a single-number rating, was calculated according to ISO 717 and ASTM
E413. Table 3 presents the summary of results.

Fig. 2. Spectra of TL for the 6 partitions tested


Table 3. Transmission Loss (TL) values
Frequency

Transmission Loss - TL (dB)

(Hz)
125
160
200
250
315
400
500
630
800
1000
1250
1600
2000
2500
3150
4000
STC

124

Single Partition

Double Partition

D1

D2

D3

D4

DD1/2-1

DD1/2-2

18
17
20
20
22
24
25
26
27
28
28
30
31
31
30
30
28

24
21
26
27
26
29
29
30
31
33
34
36
36
37
39
39
34

23
21
25
28
28
28
29
28
27
24
31
38
41
45
45
44
32

18
16
21
21
27
30
30
33
36
35
38
40
41
41
41
44
34

28
26
29
34
36
38
44
45
48
49
51
55
56
57
58
56
45

27
26
29
34
36
39
43
45
46
48
49
54
55
56
57
56
45

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

Acoustic Characteristics of a Newly Developed Sandwich Lightweight Wall Panel

All the partitions show a small drop (critical frequency) near the 160 Hz frequency band. The partition
D3 also presents another drop in the TL values for the 1000 Hz frequency band.
6.

COMPLIANCE WITH THE BUILDING CODE OF INDIA

The Building Code of India (BCI) in use since January 2005, states that partitions between rooms in the same
dwelling should have a STC greater or equal to 45 dB. Therefore (Table 3) the double partition DD1/2
complies with this law. The traditional brick wall with STC of 37 does not conform to the minimum legal STC
value.
Table 4. Comparison of Sound Transmission Class (STC) and Transmission Loss (TL) among the partitions
tested and traditional single brick wall
Partition
Single D1
D1
D1
D1
Double DD1/2-1
DD1/2-2
Traditional brick 7 cm + plaster

STC

Transmission loss TL (dB)


minimum

maximum

17
21
21
16
28
27
27

31
39
45
44
58
57
51

28
34
32
34
45
45
37

DD1/2 -1 or 2 = D1 + D2 (double) with both ways of emission of sound

7.

MATHEMATICAL MODEL

7.1 Model
A mathematical model was searched for the estimation of the Transmission Loss (TL) for this type of lightweight
non homogeneous sandwich partition.
Since the effect of the critical frequency is small in this type of partition and because it will be present in
the low end of the frequency range of interest, the developed model will show just one expression for the entire
range of frequencies from125 Hz to 4000 Hz.
The general appearance for the model will be [1-3]:
TL = 10 log (A.B.C) + D dB
where, A, B, C and D are terms representing: mass effect, internal damping, partition stiffness and a constant.
Using the work of Cremer and Fahy [6,7] as the basis for the mathematical elaboration, and after some
computations [1-3] the model searched is:
TL = 10 log | [(m / 700)1.5 * f 2.5 * B 0.5] - (m2 * f 1.5)| - 37.7 dB
where the sandwich partition is transformed in one equivalent homogeneous partition. The values for m and
B are then not referred to any of the layers of the sandwich panel but they represent the values for an
equivalent homogeneous composite panel.
The partition equivalent mass will be found using the following expression:
m = 2 1 h1 + 2 h2
where, 1 - index for face sheet; 2 - index for core; - volume density (kg/m3); h - thickness (m)
Journal of Acoustical Society of India

125

Mahavir Singh and Dharam Pal Singh

The partition equivalent bending stiffness will be found using the expression [6]:
B 2 B1 [1 + (3g) / (1 + g)]
where: B1 = E1 h13 /12
g = 2 G2 / E1 h1 h2 k2
and correspondingly:
1 - index for face sheet
2 - index for core
G2 - core transversal elasticity modulus, G2 = E2 / 2(1+ Pn)
k - wave number, k = w/c = 2f/c
E - modulus of elasticity (Young's mod.) (kg/m2)
Pn - Poisson number

Fig. 3. Four comparison cases for spectra TL measured versus TL model


126

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

Acoustic Characteristics of a Newly Developed Sandwich Lightweight Wall Panel

Using the value of 0.3 for the Poisson number (reasonable value for the usual building construction
materials) and after some mathematical calculation we get:
B = (E1 h13 / 6) + [c2 E1 E2 h13 / (10.4 2 E1 h1 h2 f 2 + 2 c2 E2)]
where:

1 - index for face sheet


2 - index for core
B - equivalent bending stiffness
c - speed of sound in air (m/s)
E - modulus of elasticity (Young's mod.) (kg/m2)
f - frequency (Hz)
h - thickness (m)

To simplify the use of these expressions Table 5 presents the values for E and for some building construction
materials.
7.2 Model Agreement
Table 6 presents the results for the STC values using the described model to this sample of partitions and the
differences found to the calculated STC values using the measured TLs. As seen in this table, the average
difference of +1 dB represents a very reasonable conformity given by the model. The Pearson correlation
coefficient (R) between predicted and measured STCs is 0.87. Figure 3 displays four spectra's comparisons
between predicted and measured TLs where a good agreement can be seen.
Table 5. Characteristics of some building construction materials
Specific weight (kg/m3)

Material
Aluminium
Asphalt
Brick (heavy)
Concrete
Cork

Glass
Gypsum board
Iron
Lead
Polystyrene
Wood

Modulus elasticity E x 108 (kg/m2)

heavy
porous

2700
1800-2300
1800-2100
2000-2400
600-1300

71-73
8-21
3.1-16.3
27-29
2-3.9

agglomerated
with rubber

100-250
800-900

0.0016-0.26
0.011

expanded
extruded
ash
beech
chestnut
fir
oac
pine
poplar
plywood
walnut

2500-2700
800
7780
11300
15-30
25-35
650-880
660-800
550-700
400-700
700-1000
500-700
400-580
350-550
600-750

61-70
7.14
210
17-20
0.0027
0.1-0.3
15
16
11
1-5
2-10
1-10
7.5
5.5
14

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

127

Mahavir Singh and Dharam Pal Singh

Table 6. Comparison between STC measured and STC model


Partition

STC
Measured

D1
D2
D3
D4

28
34
32
34

Difference (dB)
Model
31
33
33
35
Average

+3
-1
+1
+1
+1

8. CONCLUSION
A socioeconomic analysis about the Indian situation concerned with the lodging policies and its building
construction industry and development, justified the study of a newly designed lightweight partition done
with cork, a traditional material not widely used in this industry.
This newly developed sandwich lightweight partition, made with cork in the core and gypsum board as
face layers, was presented and acoustically characterized. A new and simple mathematical model was
presented to evaluate the TL of this kind of partition. The results obtained in laboratory were presented as
well as the comparisons with the predicted TL values using the new model proposed. Five partition types
were tested giving STC values up to 45 dB. The compliance with the 45 dB minimum STC value for partitions
between rooms in the same dwelling stated in the Building Code of India was displayed for the double
partition tested.
9.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT

Part of this work was supported by the M/s. BPB India Gypsum Limited and M/s. Bharat Corrub Industries.
The authors are grateful for this support.
10. REFERENCES
[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
[5]
[6]
[7]

128

MAHAVIR SINGH, K.K. PUJARA and V. MOHANAN, 2001. "New Partition Panel Construction
Arrangements for Better Sound Transmission Loss," Proc. of 17th International Congress on Acoustics
(17th ICA-2001), Rome, 42-45.
MAHAVIR SINGH, K.K. PUJARA and V. MOHANAN, 2003. "Predicting the Sound Transmission through
Cavity Stud Wall Panels," Journal of the Acoustical Society of India, 31(1-2), 201-208.
MAHAVIR SINGH, OMKAR SHARMA and V. MOHANAN, 2004. "Predicting the Sound Reduction of
Building Elements from Material Data," Journal of the Acoustical Society of India, 32(2), 201-205.
DAVIS, 1988. Belfield and Everest, Spon's International Construction Costs Handbook, E&FN Spon,
London.
DAVIS LANGDON and EVEREST, 1992. Spon's European Construction Costs Handbook, E&FN Spon,
London.
CREMER and LOTHAR, 1942. Theorie der Schalldmmung Dunner Wande bei Scragen Einfall,
Akustische Zeitschrift, 81 (7).
FAHY and FRANK, 1985. Sound and Structural Vibration, Radiation, Transmission and Response,
Academic Press.

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

Measurement
and39,
Validation
of Acoustic
Source Characteristics
Journal of Acoustical Society
of India : Vol.
No. 3, 2012
(pp. 129-141)

Measurement and Validation of Acoustic Source


Characteristics
P. Chaitanya 1 and M.L. Munjal 2*

1GE

JFW Tech Centre, Bangalore, 2Facility for Research in Technical Acoustics (FRITA)
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore -560 012
*e-mail: munjal@mecheng.iisc.ernet.in
[Received: 26.12.2011; Revised: 10.05.2012; Accepted: 15.05.2012]

ABSTRACT
To evaluate insertion loss of a muffler, one needs prior knowledge of the source impedance. The
internal impedance of a sound source can be measured using direct or indirect methods. The fourload SPL measurement method is one such indirect method wherein there are three nonlinear
equations in terms of two unknowns. Elimination of the nonlinear terms leads to erroneous results.
To overcome this inherent weakness, two alternative multi-load methods have been offered in the
literature; namely, the Least Squares method and the Direct Least Squares method, to analyze the
measured data used for four (or more) different loads. These two methods succeed where the fourload SPL measurement method failed. These measurement methods have been tested on a loudspeaker
to measure its source impedance and the results are validated with a known additional acoustic
load. An extensive literature review has been done and presented in this paper.

1. INTRODUCTION
To design noise control measures like a muffler or silencer, acoustic source characterization is a pre-requisite.
The acoustic source is characterized by its source strength and complex source impedance. Experimental
measurement methods are classified broadly into direct and indirect methods. Direct measurement methods
depend upon the usage of an external source [1]. In these methods source is generally assumed as linear and
time-invariant. Direct methods include standing wave ratio method, two-microphone method and the multiple
microphone method [2-5]. In all these methods, measurements are taken inside the duct and require a secondary
acoustic source with a higher intensity than the primary source. The advantage of direct methods is that only
one measurement is required and is generally very accurate. The pressure measurement is done in a duct
which contains gases at high temperatures and a high-level source, more powerful than the IC engine source.
This makes these methods complex, laborious and time consuming. An error analysis of the two-microphone
method was presented by Boden and Abom [6].
The indirect methods are used to calculate source strength and source impedance as they have many
advantages over the direct methods. Indirect methods make use of measurements related to two or more
varying loads on the same source. In the two-load technique for measuring source parameters, more than two
complex sound pressure spectra are measured and a reference signal is required to indicate the phase of the
measured pressure [7, 8]. The error analysis of the two-load method for measurement of source characteristics
was given by Boden [9]. The three-load method was used by Alves to measure the source impedance of a
loudspeaker [10]. The advantage of this method over the direct and two-load method is that only three
autospectra, which are real quantities, need to be measured corresponding to the three different loads. The
only limitation of the three-load method is that the source impedance cannot be obtained at all frequencies. The
four-load method was proposed by Prasad [11] as an alternative indirect measurement technique. The
Journal of Acoustical Society of India
2012 Acoustical Society of India

129

P. Chaitanya and M.L. Munjal

advantageous features of this method are that it does not require a secondary source or a reference signal, and
only a single sound pressure measurement outside the duct is required. This makes the four-load method
preferable to the direct method. But this method is very sensitive to measurement errors, as shown by Sridhara
and Crocker [12] in their error analysis.
In order to improve upon the conventional four-load method, a least squares method was proposed by
Desmons and Hardy [13], and a direct least squares multi-load method which is less sensitive to error was
proposed by Boden [14]. A new formulation for the multi-load method has been presented by Jang and Ih to
overcome the instability problem of the conventional four-load method which is far more sensitive to input
errors compared to other methods [15, 16]. All these indirect methods [11, 13, 14] yield negative source resistance,
whereas in the direct methods, it is positive. Ih and Peat [17] discussed the reason behind the negative source
resistance and concluded that it may be due to the time-varying nature of the source. Peat and Ih [18] pointed
out that the time-varying nature of the source is the major cause of a negative resistance, in which a very
simplified and idealized source-load system is employed. Jang and Ih [19, 20] showed clearly that the timevarying nature of fluid machines is the most probable origin of the aforementioned apparently un-physical
phenomenon, and presented a numerical scheme to calculate the source characteristics.
Sources like IC engines and compressors have a time-variant geometry and generate very high sound
levels, and therefore can be classified as nonlinear. Boden [21] presented two different coefficients for determining
whether an acoustic one-port source under test is linear. For nonlinear source characterization, Rammal and
Boden [22] presented a modified multi-load method. In this work, initially the four load method was used to
determine the acoustic impedance of the speaker. In this method, the sound pressure level measurements are
made at a reference point outside the pipes having four different lengths, constituting different acoustic loads.
By using the four measured sound pressure (level) spectra and the known acoustic load impedances of the four
straight ducts, the resistive and reactive parts of the source impedance are evaluated. A more detailed
explanation and treatment of the four load method can be found in references [11, 12]. However, this method
has a few drawbacks. As pointed out in Ref. [12], it is observed that for open ended ducts of different lengths
(which act as different loads), the difference in the real part of the acoustic impedance of the loads is small. This
will make the problem highly ill-conditioned and will cause large errors in the results. By changing the
formulation of the problem to a system of linear equations, a condition number can be devised which will
provide a warning if the problem is ill-conditioned. Alternative methods, [13-15] for analyzing the same
experimental data used for the four load method, are used here to determine the source parameters. These
methods are based on a direct numerical fit of the data to the non-linear model by using the least square
method.
These three methods are briefly outlined in the following paragraphs. It is shown that the direct least
square method is less sensitive to errors than the least square method. These two methods nevertheless produce
better results than the four-load SPL measurement method. These measurement methods have been tested on
a loudspeaker to measure its source impedance and the results are validated with a known additional acoustic
load.
2.

FOUR-LOAD SPL MEASUREMENT METHOD

For load ZL,i impedance attached to the source to be characterized, the source pressure ps is given by
ps = ( Zs + ZL , i ) i , i = 1, 2, 3, 4

(1)

where v is the mass velocity at a point next to the source where the acoustic load faced by the source is ZL, as
shown in Fig. 1, ps and Zs are the source strength and internal acoustic impedance corresponding to the opencircuit voltage and internal electrical impedance of an analogous electrical source as per Thevenin theorem.
The difficulties encountered in the direct measurement method tempt one to resort to the indirect methods
making use of two, three, four or more different loads, depending on the resources on hand. In this method [11],
the sound pressure level measurements are made at a reference point outside for four different length pipes,
130

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

Measurement and Validation of Acoustic Source Characteristics

Fig. 1. Electro-acoustic representation of the source and the load

Fig. 2. A four-load system. S, Source; ZL, source impedance [11]


constituting different acoustic loads, as shown in Fig. 2. Then, by using their SPL spectra and the known
acoustic load impedances of the four straight ducts, the resistive and reactive parts of the source impedance are
evaluated as follows.

From the four equations for four different loads, three ratios can be defined such that

m =

pL ,m ZL , m + 1
Zs + ZL , m+ 1
L ,m
,
=
=
L ,m + 1
pL ,m + 1 ZL , m
Zs + ZL ,m

m = 1, 2, 3

(2)

The values of 1, 2 and 3 in Eq. (2) can be calculated by using the measured pressure |pL| and the known
load impedance |ZL| for the four different length ducts. Using the four- pole matrix approach for the four
different ducts, one gets [11]
where Zr is the radiation impedance, and A, B, C and D are the four-pole parameters of the particular duct [1].
For a pipe (see Fig. 2), for stationary medium [1],
Journal of Acoustical Society of India

131

P. Chaitanya and M.L. Munjal

pm
m =
pm + 1
AL
C
L

C L , m Zr + DL , m
,

C L ,m + 1 Zr + DL ,m + 1

cos kL
BL
= j sin kL
DL
Zr

m = 1, 2, 3

(3)

jZ0 sin kL

cos kL

(4)

In Eq. (3) above, the sound pressures |p| are the measurements made outside the duct at a reference point
at a distance r from the duct exit. Thus we get 3 nonlinear equations. By subtracting one from another nonlinear
terms are eliminated and the following generalized expressions for the resistive and reactive parts of the
source impedance are obtained [11]:

(a c a c )(a d a d ) (a3 c 2 a2 c 3 )(a2 d1 a1 d2 )


Rs = 2 1 1 2 3 2 2 3

(a2 b1 a1 b2 )(a3 d2 a2 d3 ) (a3 b2 a2 b3 )(a2 d1 a1 d2 )

(5)

(a c a c )(a b a b ) (a3 c 2 a2 c 3 )(a2 b1 a1 b2 )


Xs = 2 1 1 2 3 2 2 3

(a2 d1 a1 d2 )(a3 b2 a2 b3 ) (a3 d2 a2 d3 )(a2 b1 a1 b2 )

(6)

2
2
2
2
2
2
2
where am = (1 m ), bm = 2 (RLm + 1 m Rm ), c m = m (RL ,m + XL ,m ) (RL ,m + 1 + XL ,m + 1 ) ,

dm = 2 (XL , m + 1 m2 XL , m )

3.

MULTI-LOAD LEAST SQUARES METHOD

As for the four load method, different loads are connected one by one to the sound source under investigation.
The sound pressure is measured both in modulus and phase at the same position relative to the open end.
Same Eq. (1) holds in this case as well but it depends upon the number of loads which can be rearranged as
shown in Fig. 2. Once the transfer matrices (as shown in Eq. (4)) are known for each load, the pressure p and
mass velocity v for each load can be deduced from measurements of the sound pressure at the output, as
follows.

pi = K ( Ai Zr + Bi ) , i = K (C i Zr +Di )

(7)

where K is a multiplicative constant. As geometry and the measurement positions are the same for all the loads,
multiplicative constant K is independent of the loads, and the function

F = i < j ( pi + i Z ) pi + j Z

= i < j pi p j

) (

j Z

(8)

is positive, has one minimum and is zero for Z = Zs [13]. The experimentally measured values pi are obtained
with limited precision. This minimum is not quite equal to zero, but it seems reasonable to take for Zs the value
of Z which minimizes the function F. The impedance Z can be separated into real and imaginary parts,

Z = X + jY , to express the condition which ensures that F takes on its minimum for Z = Zs , and that this
minimum is unique.

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Measurement and Validation of Acoustic Source Characteristics

F is minimum for

F ( xs y s ) F ( xs y s )
=
=0
x
y

(9)

Thus, the source impedance can be expressed as [13]

2 pi + p j
i < j i j

i j
Zs =
2
i < j i j

(10)

The advantage of this method is that it does not suffer from the problem of instability.
4.

MULTI-LOAD DIRECT LEAST SQUARES METHOD

Another method, called the direct least squares method, for analyzing the input data used for the four-load
method has been proposed by Boden [14]. It produces better results than the four-load method, and is less
sensitive to errors than the afore-mentioned least squares method.
A loudspeaker can be completely described by source strength and source impedance as follows.

Z
ps = Zs + Z
p

(11)

where p is the acoustic pressure across the load Z.


Taking the squared magnitude of Eq. (11) and rearranging the terms one gets [14]
Z 2
i
Gp , i

Gp ,s 2 Re (Zi )Re (Zs ) 2 Im (Zi )Im (Zs ) Zs

= Zi , i = 1, 2, 3 and 4

(12)

where Gp ,s = ps . From Eq. (12), for four loads, one obtains a system of equations that can be written in
vectorized form as:

Z2

G 2 Re (Z ) Re (Zs ) 2 Im (Z ) Im (Zs ) I Zs
Gp p , s

= Z

(13)

where bold letters indicate the vector representation of the different loads considered.
This can be rewritten as [14]

Z2
f Gps , Zs cos (s ) , Zs sin (s ) =
+ Gp ,s + 2 Re (Z ) Zs cos (s )
Gp

2
2
+2 Im (Z ) Zs sin (s ) + I Zs + Z = 0

(14)

where use has been made of the fact that Re ( Zs ) = Zs cos (s ) and Im ( Zs ) = Zs sin (s ) . Eq. (11) is then
Journal of Acoustical Society of India

133

P. Chaitanya and M.L. Munjal

T
multiplied by transpose of f i.e. f f . This function F Gps , Zs , s

) should be minimized with respect to

After simplification, Eq. (14) reduces to a cubic equation in |Zs| . This equation is solved for resistance and
reactance of the source in an iterative manner by assuming initial values of S such that function F is minimum.
Reference [14] would be a good source for a comprehensive explanation and implementation of the direct least
square method. The non-linear equation (14) can also be solved using Gauss-Newton method.
5.

EXPERIMENTAL SETUP

Experiments are conducted using the experimental setup shown in Fig. 3. We have a loudspeaker at one end
which is driven by signal generator module (B & K Type 3107). It produces pseudo random signal. The loads
consist of four open ended ducts with lengths 0.63 m, 0.57 m, 0.43 m and 0.28 m, all of diameter 0.101 m. The
measurements are made in a semi anechoic chamber, in the far-field. To measure the pressure, a half inch
microphone (B & K Type 4133) is used. This is connected to the Nexus conditioning amplifier (B & K Type 2692
C), which in turn is connected to a multichannel signal analyzer (B & K Pulse system Type 2885). The signal
analyzer has a data acquisition system (B & K Type 3022). The pressure at the microphone position and also
the complex transfer function between the input reference and the microphone can be calculated precisely
using PULSE software for different loads. Here, the input reference is nothing but the signal from the signal
generator which is connected to power amplifier in order to excite the speaker, as shown in Fig.3. Making use
of each of the three methods mentioned above, the resistance and reactance of the loudspeaker source are
calculated as functions of frequency (see Figs. 4 and 5). The source pressure is also calculated using the direct
least squares method.
To verify the calculated values of resistance and reactance, the speaker was tested using an additional

Fig. 3. Experimental setup


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Measurement and Validation of Acoustic Source Characteristics

Fig. 4. Normalized resistance of the loudspeaker calculated by means of the four-load SPL measurement method

Fig. 5. Normalized reactance of the loudspeaker calculated by means of the four-load SPL measurement method

load, a tube of length 0.20 m. The pressure level values due to the additional load were evaluated using the
resistive and reactive values of the source impedance calculated by means of each of the above mentioned
methods. The experimental results for the additional load are compared with the calculated values in Fig. 6.

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

135

P. Chaitanya and M.L. Munjal

Fig. 6. Comparison of analytical and experimental values of SPL due to additional (5th) load calculated by
means of the four-load SPL measurement method
6.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

All the three methods, i.e. the four-load SPL measurement method, the least square method, and the direct least
square method are used to calculate the source impedance and source strength of the test loudspeaker. Figs. 4
and 5 show the measured values of the normalized resistance and reactance of loudspeaker against frequency
using the four-load method. With these values of source impedance, pressure due to additional load is estimated
and compared with experimental data in Fig. 6. It may be noted that values of normalized resistance and
reactance are unrealistic, and do not fluctuate with frequency. In fact, whatever may be the input data the

Fig. 7. Normalized resistance of the loudspeaker calculated by means of the least squares method
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Measurement and Validation of Acoustic Source Characteristics

Fig. 8. Normalized reactance of the loudspeaker calculated by means of the least squares method
computed values of source impedance remain unchanged! This confirms that the way in which the non-linear
equations are solved in this scheme is not appropriate. It may however be noted that the comparison of SPL in
Fig. 6 is not bad. This confirms that the radiated SPL is a very weak function of source impedance.
Figures 7 and 8 show the normalized resistance and reactance calculated by means of the Least Squares

Fig. 9. Comparison of the analytical and experimental values of SPL with an additional (5th) load
calculated by means of the multi-load least squares method
Journal of Acoustical Society of India

137

P. Chaitanya and M.L. Munjal

Fig. 10. Normalized resistance of the loudspeaker calculated by means of the multi-load direct least squares
method

Fig. 11. Normalized reactance of the loudspeaker calculated by means of the multi-load direct least squares
method
138

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

Measurement and Validation of Acoustic Source Characteristics

Fig. 12. Source pressure of the loudspeaker calculated by means of the multi-load direct least squares
method

Fig. 13. Comparison of analytical and experimental values of pressure with an additional (5th) load
calculated by means of the multi-load direct least squares method
Journal of Acoustical Society of India

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P. Chaitanya and M.L. Munjal

method, and the source pressure level calculated making use of the source impedance for an additional load is
compared with the measured values in Fig. 9. The agreement is not very satisfactory although the trends are
similar. The source characteristics of the loudspeaker by means of the Direct Least Squares method are shown
in Figs. 10-12. With the help of the source impedance calculated, pressure due to the additional load is
obtained and compared with the experimental results in Fig. 13. This shows a good agreement, which indicates
that the direct least square method is comparatively more accurate. As reported in the literature, resistance of
the source is observed to be negative in all the indirect methods. This is also observed in Fig. 4, 7 and 10.
7.

CONCLUSION

Acoustic characterization of a loudspeaker has been attempted by three different methods available in the
literature; namely the four-load SPL measurement method, the Multi-Load Least-Squares method, and the
Multi-Load Direct Least-Squares method. The resultant source characteristics from each of these methods have
been used to predict source pressure level for a new acoustic load. These predictions are compared with
experimental measurements.
The following observations have been made:
1.
2.
3.
4.

All indirect measurement methods predict negative source resistance.


Measured values of the radiated SPL have a very weak dependence on the internal impedance of the
source.
The four-load SPL measurement method leads to obviously erroneous values of source impedance, but the
source SPL values are not too bad.
Of the other two, Boden's Direct Least-Squares method [14] yields comparatively better results than
Desmons and Hardy's least-square method [13].
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

This work has been supported by Department of Science and Technology (DST) of the Government of India,
through the Facility for Research in Technical Acoustics (FRITA).
9.

REFERENCES

[1]
[2]

M.L. MUNJAL, 1987. Acoustics of Ducts and Mufflers, New York: Wiley-Interscience.
D.F. ROSS and M.J. CROCKER, 1983. Measurement of the acoustical internal impedance of an internal
combustion engine, Journal of Acoustical Society of America, 74, 18-27.
[3] A.F. SEYBERT and D.F. ROSS, 1977. Experimental determination of acoustic properties using a twomicrophone random-excitation technique, Journal of Acoustical Society of America, 61, 1362-1370.
[4] M.L. MUNJAL and A.G. DOIGE, 1990. The two-microphone method incorporating the effects of mean
flow and acoustic damping, Journal of Sound and Vibration, 137, 135-138.
[5] S.H. JANG and J.G. IH, 1998. On the multiple microphone method for measuring in duct acoustic
properties in the presence of mean flow, Journal of Acoustical Society of America, 103, 1520-1526.
[6] H. BODEN and M. ABOM, 1988. Influence of errors on the two-microphone method for measuring
acoustic properties of duct, Journal of Acoustical Society of America, 79(2), 541-549.
[7] H. BODEN, 1985. Department of Technical Acoustics Report, Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm
TRITA-TAK-8501. Measurement of the source impedance of time invariant sources by the two-microphone
method and the two-load method.
[8] M.L. KATHURIYA and M. L. MUNJAL, 1979. Experimental evaluation of the aeroacoustic characteristics
of a source of pulsating gas flow, Journal of Acoustical Society of America, 65, 240-278.
[9] H. BODEN, 1988. Error analysis for the two-load method used to measure the source characteristics of
fluid machines, Journal of Sound and Vibration, 126(1), 173-177.
[10] H.S. ALVES, 1986. Characterization of Noise Sources in Duct, M S thesis, The University of Calgary.
[11] M.G. PRASAD, 1987. A four load method for evaluation of acoustical source impedance in a duct, Journal
of Sound and Vibration, 114, 347-356.
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Measurement and Validation of Acoustic Source Characteristics

[12] B.S. SRIDHARA and M.J. CROCKER, 1992. Error analysis for the four-load method used to measure the
source impedance in ducts, Journal of Acoustical Society of America, 92, 2924-2931.
[13] L. DESMONS and J. HARDY, 1994. A least squares method for evaluation of characteristics of acoustical
sources, Journal of Sound and Vibration, 175, 365-376.
[14] H. BODEN, 1995. On multi-load methods for determination of the source data of acoustic one-port
sources, Journal of Sound and Vibration, 180, 725-743.
[15] S.H. JANG and J.G. IH, 2000. Refined multi-load method for measuring acoustical source characteristics
of an intake or exhaust system, Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 107, 3217-3225.
[16] S.H. JANG and J.G. Ih, 2002. On the selection of loads in the multiload method for measuring the
acoustic source parameters of duct systems, Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 111(3), 1171-1176.
[17] J.G. IH and K.S. PEAT, 2002. On the causes of negative impedance in the measurement of intake and
exhaust noise sources, Applied Acoustics, 63, 153-171.
[18] K.S. PEAT and J.G. IH, 2001. An analytical investigation of the indirect measurement method of estimating
the acoustic impedance of a time-varying source, Journal of Sound and Vibration, 244, 821-835.
[19] S.H. JANG and J.G. IH, 2003. Numerical investigation and electro-acoustic modeling of measurement
methods for the in-duct acoustical source parameters, Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 113, 726734.
[20] S.H. JANG and J.G. IH, 2005. A note on the acoustic character of time-variant one-port sources, Journal of
Sound and Vibration, 283, 1157-1162.
[21] H. BODEN and F. ALBERTSON, 2000. Linearity tests for in-duct acoustic one-port sources, Journal of
Sound and Vibration, 237(1), 45-65.
[22] H. RAMMAL AND H. BODEN, 2007. Modified multi-load method for nonlinear source characterization,
Journal of Sound and Vibration, 299, 1094-1113.

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

141

Munjal
Journal of Acoustical Society of India : Vol.Bhushan
39, No. Singh
3, 2012and
(pp.M.L.
142-151)

Flow Acoustic Analysis of Commercial Automotive


Mufflers: Matrizant Approach
Bhushan Singh 1 and M.L. Munjal 2*

1Ashok

Leyland Technical Centre, Chennai. 2Facility for Research in Technical Acoustics (FRITA)
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore -560 012
*e-mail: munjal@mecheng.iisc.ernet.in
[Received: 26.12.2012; Revised: 10.05.2012; Accepted: 15.05.2012]

ABSTRACT
Experimental evaluation of performance of all mufflers is not feasible or economical at the design
stage. Nor is a theory based on closed form solutions available for all configurations. Though there
are analytical methods available in the literature for analysis of various muffler configurations, these
are tedious, involve complex mathematical modeling, and are prone to oversights and human error.
Hence, a semi-analytical method employing Matrizant approach is presented, and an algebraic
scheme has been worked out to incorporate the boundary conditions systematically, which reduces
the probability of any oversights and human error. The resultant transmission loss of a 3-pass
perforated tube muffler is compared with the analytical transfer matrix based muffler program in
order to validate the matrizant approach presented here.

1. INTRODUCTION
In the present work the Matrizant approach is employed for performance evaluation of perforated elements,
which are of great interest in typical automotive mufflers [1]. A Matrizant approach is semi-analytical in
nature. It is very convenient for solving a set of linear first order differential equations with variable coefficients
[2]. One has to simply put the governing flow-acoustic differential equations in the canonical differential
matrix form which can be easily integrated by means of a computer program [3]. In the present paper, a simple
method is proposed to incorporate the boundary conditions very easily and systematically [4], in order to
reduce the probability of any human error and eliminate numerical instabilities which were present in classical
methods for some perforated element muffler configurations. This is demonstrated for a three-pass, perforatedelement muffler. The acoustical performance so predicted is shown to compare very well with that calculated
my means of Munjal's classical transfer matrix based muffler program (TMMP) for stationary medium [5,6].
2.

METHODOLOGY OF THE MATRIZANT APPROACH

Generally speaking, the solution of a linear differential equation is exponential. This concept is extended to the
system of linear differential equations, whose solution is also exponential, subject to the complication that
matrix multiplication is non-commutative, but can be solved easily using a MATLAB library function.
Consider a linear equation of the form

dy
= a( z ) y
dz

(1)

2012 Acoustical Society of India

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Journal of Acoustical Society of India

Flow Acoustic Analysis of Commercial Automotive Mufflers: Matrizant Approach

On integrating, we get
zl

ln( y) zl = a ( z) dz
z

z0

or

zl

y( z0 ) = y( zl ) e z0

a ( z ) dz

(2)

This gives a direct relation between the values of the dependent variable y at z = z0 in terms of that at

This concept, when extended to vector form, yields the following counterpart of Eq. (1):
(3)

{V } = [H ](z ) {V }
'

{}

When applied to muffler acoustics, V in Eq. (4) denotes a state vector, representing acoustic pressure and
normalized mass velocity in all interacting ducts separated by perforates. Prime ( ) denotes d/dz , and the
coefficient matrix [H] is in general a function of the axial coordinate z, but nondimensional.
Eq. (3) is integrated between z = o and z = l to obtain
Vl

V0

(4)

dV = [ H (z )] dz
o

whence

{V }= e
0

zl

[H ( z )]dz

z0

{V }

(5)

In case matrix [H] is independent of z, we would get

{V } =
0

Hl

{V }
l

where l = zl - zo

(6)

Using theory of linear algebra, we can calculate matrix exponential as,

e Hl = e l 1

or

e Hl = 1 e l

where,

is the modal matrix of [H] ,


l
l
l
e-l is diagonal matrix containing elements e 1 , e 2 ,....., e 2 n , and

1, 2, 3,,2n are eigen values of the coefficient matrix [H] for n interacting ducts.
The eigen-values and eigen-vectors of matrix [H] can be computed by using a suitable algorithm. If [H] is a
matrix consisting of elements independent of variable z, then the eigen value calculation and matrix inversion
can be done easily on a digital computer.
This is the basis of Matrizant approach, where just by arranging the linear differential equations in the
canonical differential matrix form, one can get the transfer matrix (TM) relation between the vectors at the two
ends of a muffler element of length l. Thus, the matrix equations (5)-(7) yield
Journal of Acoustical Society of India

143

Bhushan Singh and M.L. Munjal


l

[TM ] = e

[ H (z )] dz
o

= [ ]

(8)

e l [ ]

where [H(z)] is defined by Eq. (3) above.


3.

GENERALIZED TRANSFER MATRIX FOR AN n-DUCT PERFORATED ELEMENT

An n-duct perforated element is characterized by (n-1) perforated ducts within a bigger duct or shell as shown
in Fig. 1.
Here we get 2n equations, n for continuity and n for momentum balance [1].

p j , u j , v j are respectively acoustic pressure, particle velocity a nd mass velocity in the j th duct.

j , d j are perforate impedance and diameter of the jth duct, respectively.


As shown in Fig. 1, j = 1 represents the enclosing chamber, hence d1 is chamber diameter and there is no
porosity.
Continuity Equations:
For the j th perforated duct (j = 2,..,n):

u j
z

+U j

j
z

p1 p j
j
4
0
=
0 a0 j
dj
t

(9)

For the 1st duct (outer duct):


0

j =n
u1

+ U1 1 +
z
z j =2

4d j
n

d d
2
1

j =2

2
j

( p1 p j )
0 a0 j

= 1
t

(10)

Fig. 1. A perforated element with n interacting ducts


144

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

Flow Acoustic Analysis of Commercial Automotive Mufflers: Matrizant Approach

Momentum equations:
For the j th duct (j = 1,..,n)

p j
z

= o

u j
t

oU j

u j

(11)

In Eqs. (9) - (11), o is ambient density, a0 is sound speed and Uj is the mean flow velocity in the jth duct.
Assuming harmonic time dependence and isentropicity, we get
Continuity equations:
For the jth duct (j = 2,..,n):

Mj

p j
z

+ 0 a0

u j
z

4
4
p1 jk0 +

d j j
d j j

p j

(12)

For the 1st duct:

j =n
j =n
4d j
4d j p j
p
u
p +
M1 1 + 0 a0 1 = jk0 +

1
j =n
j =n

z
z
j=2
j=2
j ( d12 d 2j )
j ( d12 d 2j )

j=2
j=2

Momentum equations:

p j
z

+ M j 0 a0

u j
z

(13)

(14)

= jk0 o a0 u j , j = 1, 2,...n

In Eqs. (12) - (14) M j = U j a0 is the mean flow Mach number in the jth duct.
Eqs. (9) to (14) may be rearranged in canonical differential matrix form as
p1
z

0 a0

u1
z

p2
z

0 a0

u2
z

pn
z

0 a0

un
=
z 2 n1

[ A]2 n2 n [ p1 0 a0 u1 p2 0 a0 u2

{}

(15)

pn 0 a0 un ]2 n1
T

{}

'
This is in the form, V = [H ] V with [ H ] [ A] . Thus, making use of Eqs. (5) and (8) we can get the transfer

matrix relation

[ p1 (0)

v1 (0)

pn (0) vn (0) ]2 n1 =
T

p2 (0) v2 (0)

[T ]2 n2 n [ p1 (l)

v1 (l) p2 (l) v2 (l)

(16)

pn (l) vn (l)]2 n1
T

where the generalized transfer matrix [T] is given by

[T ] = e [ A ]l = [ ]1 e l [ ]

(17)

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

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Bhushan Singh and M.L. Munjal

Note that vi = 0 a0 ui is a normalized velocity with units of pressure, so that matrices [A] and [T] are
nondimensional.
Now, making use of the boundary conditions we will reduce it to the required 2x2 matrix for the given
perforated element muffler, as illustrated below.
4.

AN ILLUSTRATION

Three pass mufflers have the advantage of good acoustic performance coupled with low back pressure. The
inlet and outlet tubes are offset and have perforations that allow sound pulses to scatter out in numerous
directions inside the chamber resulting in destructive interference. Matrizant approach is adopted and boundary
conditions are incorporated systematically for getting transfer matrix relation between the state variables at
the upstream point 'u' and the downstream point 'd' shown in Fig. 2.

Fig. 2. Extended-tube Three-pass Perforated Element Chamber


Figure 2 shows that there are three interacting perforated ducts within the outer annular elliptical crosssection chamber. Thus, it represents a 4-duct element, or an element with 4 interacting ducts.
Using generalized transfer matrix approach for an n-duct perforated element (n = 4) discussed in section
3, we get a transfer matrix relation of the form

[p1 (0)

v1 (0) p2 (0) v2 (0) p3 (0) v3 (0) p4 (0) v4 (0)]81 =


T

[ A]88 [ p1 (l)

(18)

v1 (l ) p2 (l) v2 (l) p3 (l) v3 (l) p4 (l) v4 (l)]81


T

Boundary conditions, at the end cavities of the outer duct in the middle chamber are given by [1]
v1 (0) =

j tan( k0 l4 a )
p1 (0)
Y1

(19)

v1 (l ) =

j tan( k0 l4 b )
p1 ( l )
Y1

(20)

Using boundary condition (19) and (20), v1(0) and v1(l) are eliminated from Eq. (18) and we get

[ B]87 [ p1 (0)

p2 (0) v2 (0) p3 (0) v3 (0) p4 (0) v4 (0)]7 1 =


T

[C ]87 [p1 (l) p2 (l) v2 (l) p3 (l) v3 (l) p4 (l) v4 (l)]71


T

146

(21)

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

Flow Acoustic Analysis of Commercial Automotive Mufflers: Matrizant Approach

In Eq. (21),

[B]87

1
X Y
1a 1
0

0
=
0

0
0

0 0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0 0

1 0 0 0 0 0

0 1 0 0 0 0
0 0 1 0 0 0

0 0 0 1 0 0
0 0 0 0 1 0

0 0 0 0 0 1

(22)

and

[C ]87

1
X Y
2a 1
0

0
=
0

0
0

0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
1
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
1
0

0
0

0
0

0
0

(23)

We can rewrite Eq. (21) in the form

[D]88 [p1 (0) p2 (0) v2 (0) p3 (0) v3 (0) p4 (0) v4 (0) p1 (l)]81 =
T

[E]86 [p2 (l) v2 (l) p3 (l) v3 (l) p4 (l) v4 (l)]61


T

(24)

where, making use of the MATLAB terminology,

[D]88

1
X Y
1a 1
0

0
=
0

0
0

0
0
1
0

0
0
0
1

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

1
0
0
0

0
1
0
0

0
0
1
0

0
1
0 X 2 a Y1

0
0

0
0
= B C (:, 1 )


0
0

0
0

0
0

1
0

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

(25a)

147

Bhushan Singh and M.L. Munjal

[E]86

0
0

0
=
0

0
0

0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0

1 0 0 0 0
= C (:, 2 : 7 )
0 1 0 0 0

0 0 1 0 0
0 0 0 1 0

0 0 0 0 1

(25b)

The matrix equation (24) may be re-written as

[ p1 (0)

p2 (0) v2 (0) p3 (0) v3 (0) p4 (0) v4 (0) p1 (l)]81 =


T

(26a)

[F ]86 [p2 (l) v2 (l) p3 (l) v3 (l) p4 (l) v4 (l)]61 ,


T

where
(26b)

[ F ]86 = [D]818 [ E]8 6

We can extract the required transfer matrix from Eq. (26a) by dropping the equations for p 1(0) and p1(l) . Thus,

[ p2 (0)

v2 (0) p3 (0) v3 (0) p4 (0) v4 (0)]61 =


T

[G ]66 [p2 (l) v2 (l) p3 (l) v3 (l) p4 (l) v4 (l)]61


T

(27)

where
(28)

[G ]66 = [F(2 : 7,:)]


Also, we have the relations [5,3]

[ p2 (l)

v2 (l )]21 = [ H ]22 [ p3 (l ) v3 (l)]21

(29)

[ p3 (0)

v3 (0)]21 = [ J ]22 [ p4 (0) v4 (0)]21

(30)

where [H] and [J] are transfer matrices of the right end chamber and left end chamber, respectively, derived by
Munjal [5] for axially long chambers and Mimani and Munjal [3] for short chambers.
Using relations (29) and (30), state variables p2(l), v2(l), p3(0) and v3(0) are eliminated from Eq. (27) and we get
T
T
[ K ]64 [ p2 (0) v2 (0) p4 (0) v4 (0)]41 = [ L ]64 [ p3 (l) v3 (l) p4 (l) v4 (l)]41

(31)

where
148

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

Flow Acoustic Analysis of Commercial Automotive Mufflers: Matrizant Approach

[K ]64

1
0

0
=
0
0

0
1

0
0
0 J 11
0 J 21
0 1
0 0

0
0

J 12

J 22
0

(32)

and

[L ]64

H 11
H
21
1
= [G ]66
0
0

H 12
H 22
0
1
0
0

0 0
0 0

0 0

0 0
1 0

0 1

(33)

To retain only the downstream variables on the right hand side, we can write Eq. (31) as

[M ]66 [p2 (0) v2 (0) p4 (0) v4 (0) p3 (l) v3 (l)]61 = [N ]6 2 [p4 (l) v4 (l)]2 1
T

(34)

where

[M ]66

K 11
K
21
K 31
=
K 41
K 51

K 61

K 12
K 22

K 13
K 23

K 14
K 24

K 32
K 42
K 52
K 62

K 33
K 43
K 53
K 63

K 34
K 44
K 54
K 64

L11
L21
L31
L41
L51
L61

L12
L22

L32
= K L (:, 1 : 2 )
L42
L52

L62

(35)

and

[N ]62

L13
L
23
L33
=
L43
L53

L63

L14
L24

L34
= [L :, 3 : 4 ]
L44
L54

L64

(36)

Eq. (34) may be rewritten in the form

[ p2 (0)

v2 (0) p4 (0) v4 (0) p3 (l) v3 ( l)]61 = [ P ]62 [ p4 ( l) v4 ( l)]21

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

(37)
149

Bhushan Singh and M.L. Munjal

where
(38)

[ P ]6 2 = [ M ]616 [ N ]6 2

Finally, from Eq. (34), we can get the required transfer matrix relation between the upstream point (u) and
downstream point (d) as

p2 (0)
p4 ( l )
v (0) = [T ]2 2 v (l )
2
4

(39)

where

(40)

[T ]22 = 11 12 = P (1 : 2, :)
P21 P22
5.

RESULTS AND CONCLUSION

A general program has been written i n MATLAB for flow-acoustic analysis of three-pass perforated element
mufflers making use of the following steps:
(i) Write the equations of mass continuity and momentum balance for all interacting ducts. For harmonic

( )

j t
2
and making use of isentropicity dp = ao dp , reduce them to the coupled ordinary
time dependence e

differential equations, and arrange them in the canonical differential matrix form of a set of first-order
ordinary differential equations (ODEs) as illustrated in Section 3 above. Alternatively, the same may be
adopted from Ref. [7].
(ii) Integrate the resultant set of first-order ODEs by means of MATLAB function EXPM. Alternatively, one
can make use of eigenvalue analysis and Eq.(17) of Section 3. This will yield a general transfer matrix
relation for the perforated section between all interacting ducts.
(iii) Make use of the boundary conditions as well transfer matrices of the reversal chamber from the literature
[3-6], as illustrated in Section 4 to derive the overall transfer matrix.
(iv) Calculate transmission loss TL from the elements of the resultant overall transfer matrix [1] and plot the
same.
Figure 3 shows the TL spectra obtained by means of the Matrizant approach presented here and Munjal's
classical TMMP [5,6].
The following data have been used for plotting the curves in Fig. 3.

0 = 1.225 kg m 3 , a0 = 340 m s
Dimensions of the muffler (see Fig. 2) are:
la = 0.043 m, lp = 0.225 m, lb = 0.046 m, l4a = l4b = 0.0055 m, ta = tb = 0.0127 m, r1 = r2 = r3 = 0.0246 m and r4 = 0.0825
m
TL spectrum obtained by means of Matrizant approach shows a good match with that obtained by Munjal's
classical transfer matrix based muffler program (TMMP) [5,6], thereby providing the necessary validation of
the Matrizant analysis described in Section 4 above. Minor differences between the two curves are due to the
use of different end corrections for sudden area changes used in the two models. Results shown in Fig. 3 are for
stationary medium although Eqs. (9)-(14) incorporate the convective effect of mean flow.
150

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

[T ]2

Bhushan Singh and M.L. Munjal

[E]86

0
0

0
=
0

0
0

0 0 0 0 0
0 0 0 0 0

0 0 0 0 0

1 0 0 0 0
= C (:, 2 : 7 )
0 1 0 0 0

0 0 1 0 0
0 0 0 1 0

0 0 0 0 1

(25b)

The matrix equation (24) may be re-written as

[ p1 (0)

p2 (0)

v2 (0)

p3 (0)

v3 (0)

v4 (0) p1 ( l)]81 =
T

p4 (0)

(26a)

[F ]86 [p2 (l) v2 (l) p3 (l) v3 (l) p4 (l) v4 (l)]61 ,


T

where
(26b)

[ F ]86 = [D ]818 [E ]86

We can extract the required transfer matrix from Eq. (26a) by dropping the equations for p 1(0) and p1(l) . Thus,

[ p2 (0)

v2 (0) p3 (0)

v3 (0)

p4 (0)

v4 (0)]61 =
T

[G ]66 [p2 (l) v2 (l) p3 (l) v3 (l) p4 (l) v4 (l)]61


T

(27)

where
(28)

[G ]66 = [F(2 : 7,:)]


Also, we have the relations [5,3]

[ p2 ( l)

v2 ( l )]21 = [ H ]22 [p 3 (l ) v 3 (l )]21

(29)

[ p3 (0)

v3 (0)]21 = [ J]22 [ p4 (0)

(30)

v4 (0)]21
T

where [H] and [J] are transfer matrices of the right end chamber and left end chamber, respectively, derived by
Munjal [5] for axially long chambers and Mimani and Munjal [3] for short chambers.
Using relations (29) and (30), state variables p2(l), v 2(l), p 3(0) and v3(0) are eliminated from Eq. (27) and we get
T
T
[ K ]64 [p 2 (0) v 2 (0) p4 (0) v 4 (0)]41 = [L ]64 [p 3 (l ) v 3 (l ) p 4 (l ) v 4 (l )]41

(31)

where
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Journal of Acoustical Society of India

Flow Acoustic Analysis of Commercial Automotive Mufflers: Matrizant Approach

[K ]64

1
0

0
=
0
0

0
1

0
0
0 J 11
0 J 21
0 1
0 0

0
0

J 12

J 22
0

(32)

and

[L ]64

H 11
H
21
1
= [G ]66
0
0

H 12
H 22
0
1
0
0

0 0
0 0

0 0

0 0
1 0

0 1

(33)

To retain only the downstream variables on the right hand side, we can write Eq. (31) as

[M ]66 [p2 (0) v2 (0) p4 (0) v4 (0) p3 (l) v3 (l)]61 = [N ]62 [p4 (l) v4 (l)]21
T

(34)

where

[M ]66

K 11
K
21
K 31
=
K 41
K 51

K 61

K 12
K 22

K 13
K 23

K 14
K 24

K 32
K 42
K 52
K 62

K 33
K 43
K 53
K 63

K 34
K 44
K 54
K 64

L11
L21
L31
L41
L51
L61

L12
L22

L32
= K L (:, 1 : 2 )
L42
L52

L62

(35)

and

[N ]62

L13
L
23
L33
=
L43
L53

L63

L14
L24

L34
= [L :, 3 : 4 ]
L44
L54

L64

(36)

Eq. (34) may be rewritten in the form

[ p2 (0)

v2 (0) p4 (0) v4 (0) p3 (l) v3 ( l)]61 = [ P ]62 [ p4 ( l) v4 ( l)]21

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

(37)
149

Bhushan Singh and M.L. Munjal

where
(38)

[ P ]6 2 = [M ]61 6 [N ]6 2

Finally, from Eq. (34), we can get the required transfer matrix relation between the upstream point (u) and
downstream point (d) as

p2 (0)
p4 ( l )
v (0) = [T ]2 2 v (l )
2
4

(39)

where

(40)

[T ]22 = 11 12 = P (1 : 2, :)
P21 P22
5.

RESULTS AND CONCLUSION

A general program has been written i n MATLAB for flow-acoustic analysis of three-pass perforated element
mufflers making use of the following steps:
(i) Write the equations of mass continuity and momentum balance for all interacting ducts. For harmonic

( )

j t
2
and making use of isentropicity dp = ao dp , reduce them to the coupled ordinary
time dependence e

differential equations, and arrange them in the canonical differential matrix form of a set of first-order
ordinary differential equations (ODEs) as illustrated in Section 3 above. Alternatively, the same may be
adopted from Ref. [7].
(ii) Integrate the resultant set of first-order ODEs by means of MATLAB function EXPM. Alternatively, one
can make use of eigenvalue analysis and Eq.(17) of Section 3. This will yield a general transfer matrix
relation for the perforated section between all interacting ducts.
(iii) Make use of the boundary conditions as well transfer matrices of the reversal chamber from the literature
[3-6], as illustrated in Section 4 to derive the overall transfer matrix.
(iv) Calculate transmission loss TL from the elements of the resultant overall transfer matrix [1] and plot the
same.
Figure 3 shows the TL spectra obtained by means of the Matrizant approach presented here and Munjal's
classical TMMP [5,6].
The following data have been used for plotting the curves in Fig. 3.

0 = 1.225 kg m3 , a0 = 340 m s
Dimensions of the muffler (see Fig. 2) are:
l a = 0.043 m, l p = 0.225 m, l b = 0.046 m, l 4a = l 4b = 0.0055 m, ta = tb = 0.0127 m, r 1 = r 2 = r 3 = 0.0246 m and r 4 = 0.0825
m
TL spectrum obtained by means of Matrizant approach shows a good match with that obtained by Munjal's
classical transfer matrix based muffler program (TMMP) [5,6], thereby providing the necessary validation of
the Matrizant analysis described in Section 4 above. Minor differences between the two curves are due to the
use of different end corrections for sudden area changes used in the two models. Results shown in Fig. 3 are for
stationary medium although Eqs. (9)-(14) incorporate the convective effect of mean flow.
150

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

[T ]2

Flow Acoustic Analysis of Commercial Automotive Mufflers: Matrizant Approach

Fig. 3. Transmission Loss Spectra for the Three Pass Perforated Element Muffler of Fig. 2
Thus, the Matrizant approach gives a more elegant alternative for analyzing performance of the mufflers,
specially for the perforated muffler configurations with several interacting ducts, that are very tedious to
analyze using the classical approach as one has to go through a long decoupling process and other complex
algebraic manipulations.
6.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The work reported here was made possible by the DST funds through the Facility for Research in Technical
Acoustics (FRITA).
7.
[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
[5]
[6]
[7]

REFERENCES
M. L. MUNJAL, 1987. Acoustics of Duct and Mufflers, John Wiley & Sons, New York.
E. DOKUMACI, 1996. Matrizant approach to acoustic analysis of perforated multiple pipe mufflers
carrying mean flow, Journal of Sound and Vibration, 191(4), 505-518.
A. MIMANI and M.L. MUNJAL, 2010. Transverse plane-wave analysis of short elliptical end-chamber
and expansion-chamber mufflers, International Journal of Acoustics and Vibration, 15(1), 24-38.
BHUSHAN SINGH GAUTAM, 2011, Flow acoustic analysis of commercial automotive mufflers - matrizant
approach, ME Thesis, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore.
M.L. MUNJAL, 1997. Analysis of a flush-tube three-pass perforated element muffler by means of transfer
matrices, International Journal of Acoustics and Vibration, 2(2), 63-68.
M.L. MUNJAL, 1997. Analysis of an extended-tube three-pass perforated element muffler by means of
transfer matrices, Invited paper at the Fifth International Congress On Sound and Vibration, ICSV-5, Adelaide,
Australia.
T. KAR and M.L. MUNJAL, 2005. Generalized analysis of a muffler with any number of interacting
ducts, Journal of Sound and Vibration, 285, 585-596.

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

151

S.K.
Verma
and
R.R.
Yadav
Journal of Acoustical Society of India : Vol. 39,
No.
3, 2012
(pp.
152-160)

Attenuation of Ultrasonic Waves in Nano-crystalline


Yttria Stabilized Zirconia
S.K. Verma* and R.R. Yadav
Department of Physics, University of Allahabad, Allahabad-211 002 (UP)
*e-mail: skverma10july86@rediffmail.com
[Received: 10.04.2012; Revised: 26.05.2012; Accepted: 21.06.2012]

ABSTRACT
In the present work temperature dependent ultrasonic attenuation and velocities in nano-crystalline
10mol% yttria stabilized zirconia (n-YSZ) have been calculated in the temperature range 200K-650K.
For this evaluation, we have done temperature dependent calculation of second and third order
elastic constants (SOECs and TOECs) which is based on the Born Mayer potential. Some characteristic
features connected to ultrasonic parameters are also discussed. From the analysis it is found that
ultrasonic attenuation in n-YSZ is mainly affected by the thermal conductivity of the material.

1. INTRODUCTION
Pure zirconia experiences phase transitions that induce shrinkage and the detrimental cracks during thermal
cycling, but thermal stable phase structures are obtained by doping zirconia with rare earth cations such as
yttria [1]. Therefore yttria stabilized zirconia (YSZ) is one of the most studied high performance ceramic
materials. Various types of chemical methods have been developed to synthesize nano-crystalline YSZ
(n-YSZ), including low temperature processes, such as sol-gel from alkoxyde precursors [2, 3] or metallic salts
[4, 5] and precipitation [6, 7]. These methods typically involve the formation of an amorphous precipitate
followed by calcinations above 400C in order to obtain crystalline precursors. Hydrothermal synthesis is
advantageous, as nanoparticles are generated at a lower temperature, typically below 200C [8, 9], as the
solvation properties of water are thereby greatly affected and nucleation and growth of metastable crystals are
favoured. YSZ is the widely accepted industrial standard material for high temperature thermal barrier coatings
(TBCs) technology due to its very low thermal conductivity, good chemical stability, and excellent thermal and
mechanical properties [10]. TBCs are thick films of a refractory ceramic material that protect the metal from the
high gas temperature. YSZ is also widely used as the high-temperature corrosion-resistive coating in spacecraft
and jet turbine engines. YSZ is well known as an oxygen ion conductor at elevated temperatures and is
practically used in solid oxide fuel cells [11] and oxygen sensors. YSZ is used as catalysts and ceramics
because of the high mobility of oxygen ions which the material supports [12-13]. The high melting point makes
YSZ desirable for electromechanical applications [14]. In our calculation, we have used a single crystal of
10mol% YSZ having cubic Fm3 m structure with lattice constant a = 0.5144nm [15]. In the present investigation
second order elastic constants play an important role for the evaluations of the ultrasonic attenuation and
velocity. The knowledge of elastic constants is essential for many practical applications related to mechanical
properties of a solid. The calculations are done to determine the second and third order elastic constants of
10mol% YSZ investigating the applicability of the Born Mayer potential energy function for the description of
microstructural characteristic features well connected to ultrasonic parameters. Although laser ultrasonic
method for measurement for ultrasonic velocity and ultrasonic measurement of elastic modulus have been
2012 Acoustical Society of India

152

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

Attenuation of Ultrasonic Waves in Nano-crystalline Yttria Stabilized Zirconia

done[16, 17] but by the knowledge of authors no study have been done theoretically in n-YSZ using second
order elastic constants by the Born Mayer potential energy function in this temperature regime. Therefore we
have chosen this n-YSZ for the ultrasonic study using Coulomb and Born Mayer potential energy function.
2.

THEORY

All chemicals are of AR grade (E. Merck, India) and the purity of the sample was checked by comparing the
experimental data of density and viscosity at 313.16K with the values available in the literature [4-6]. Binary
mixtures were prepared by mass in air tight bottles. The mass measurements were performed on a digital top
loading balance (Shimadzu corporation, Kyoto, Japan, model No: BL 220H) with a precision of 0.001g. Density
of pure liquids and their mixtures were determined with a pyknometer of 25 ml capacity calibrated at 313.16K.
The maximum error in the density measurement was found to be 0.01 kg m-3. Ostwald viscometer having a
capacity of about 25ml has been preferred to measure the flow time of pure liquids and liquid mixtures and it
was calibrated with benzene and doubly distilled water at 313.16 K. The uncertainty of viscosity was 3 x 10-6
N m-2 s. The ultrasonic velocity was determined by using a single crystal variable path ultrasonic interferometer
(F-81, Mittal Enterprises, New Delhi) working at 2 MHz with an accuracy of 0.05%. The working principle
used in the measurement of speed of sound through the sample was based on the accurate determination of the
wavelengths of ultrasonic waves of known frequency produced by quartz crystal in the measuring cell. The
temperature of the sample was controlled by circulating water at a desired temperature through a steel jacket
of double walled cell. The temperature of the sample was maintained to a precision of 0.1 K in an electronically
controlled thermostatic water bath for measurement of all the physical properties.
2.1 Theoretical Approach for Elastic Constants
The higher order elastic constants (SOECs and TOECs) at absolute zero have been obtained using Coulomb
and Born-Mayer potential [18] as per Brugger's definition of elastic constant [19]. According to the anharmonic
theory of lattice dynamics, the lattice energy of the single crystal changes with temperature [20, 21]. Hence an
addition of vibrational contribution to the elastic constants at absolute zero provides SOEC and TOEC at
preferred temperature. Thus, the elastic constant can be separated into two parts as:
(1)

C IJ = C IJ0 + C IJVib
Vib
C IJK = C 0IJK + C IJK

0
Vib
Vib
where C 0IJ and C IJK are strain derivatives of U and C IJ and C IJK
are strain derivatives of Fvib and represent

the static and vibrational elastic constants respectively.


The expressions for the static part of SOECs and TOECs (at absolute 0K) are given as following:

C 011 =

3e 2 (2 ) 1 1 1
2
S5 +
+ (r0 ) +
4
2r0
br0 r0 b
br0

C 012 = C 044 =
C 0111 =
C

0
112

=C

3e 2 (1,1) 1
S5 +
2r04
br0

2 1
+ ( 2r0 )

2r0 b

2 1
+ ( 2r0 )

2r0 b

15e 2 (3) 1 3
3
1
1 3 2
6 2 2
S7 2 +
+ (r0 )
+
+ 2 ( 2r0 )

2r04
b r0 br0 b 2
2b r02
br0
b
0
166

15e 2
1 3 2
6 2 2
,1)
= 4 S (2

+ 2 ( 2r0 )
2 +
7
2r0
4b r0
br0
b

C 0123 = C 0144 = C 0456 =

(2)

15e 2 (1,1,1)
S7
2r04

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

153

S.K. Verma and R.R. Yadav

where is the nearest neighbor distance and b is hardness parameter, (ro) is the Born-Mayer potential given by

(ro) = A exp. (- o) and ( 2 ro) = A exp. (- 2 o), A is the strength parameter called pre-exponential factor
given by A=b Z0 (e2/r02 )[6exp(- 0)+12
structure of the unit cell, 0=r0/b .

2 exp (-0 2 )]-1, Z0 is Madelung's constant of given geometrical

The expressions for the vibrational part of SOECs and TOECs are given as following:

= f G + f G 1,1

(2 )
= f G 1,1

(1,1,1) 3
(2 ,1)
(3)

G 1 + 3f G 2 G 1 + f G 3
=f

= f (1,1,1) G 13 + f (2 ,1) G 1 (2G 1,1 + G 2 ) + f (3) G 2 ,1

= f (1,1,1) G 13 + 3f (2 ,1) G 1 G 1,1 + f (3) G 1,1,1

(2 ,1)
(3)

= f G 1 G 1,1 + f G 1,1,1

= f (2 ,1) G 1 G 1,1 + f (3) G 2 ,1

= f (3) G 1,1,1

Vib
C 11
= f (1,1) G 12 + f (2 ) G 2

Vib
12

C Vib
44
Vib
C 111
Vib
C 112
Vib
C 123
Vib
C 144
Vib
C 166

C Vib
456

(1,1)

2
1

(2 )

(3)

where expressions for f(n) and Gn are given as below:

f (2 ) = f (3) =

1 0
coth x
2r03 4

f (1,1) = f ( 2 ,1) =

f (1,1,1) =

0
1 0

+ coth x

3
2r0 48 2kT sinh 2 x

0
1 0 ( 0 )2 coth x
+
+ coth x

2r03 192 6(kT)2 sinh 2 x 2kT sinh 2 x

G1 = 2 {(2 + 2o -02) (ro) + 2 ( 2 + 2o - 2 02) (


G2 = 2 {(-6 - 6o -02+03) (ro) + (- 3 2 - 6o -

2 ro)} H

2
3
2 0 + 20 ) ( 2 ro)}

G3 = 2 [{(30 + 30o + 902-03-04) (ro) + {(15/2) 2 + 15o + (9/2) 2 02-03 - 2 - 204 ) ( 2 ro)}] H
G1, 1 = {- 3 2 - 6o - 2 02+ 203 } ( 2 ro) H
G2, 1 = {(15/2) 2 + 15o + (9/2) 2 02- 203 - 2 04) ( 2 ro) }H
G1, 1, 1 = 0

154

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

Attenuation of Ultrasonic Waves in Nano-crystalline Yttria Stabilized Zirconia

H = {( 2 ro - 2) (ro ) + 2 ( o - ) ( 2 ro )}-1
here, x= 0/2KT, K is Boltzmann's constant, T is absolute temperature, is reduced Plank's constant, values
of lattice sum are S3(1) = - 0.58252, S5(2) = - 1.04622, S5(1,1) = 0.23185, S7(3)= - 1.36852, S7(2,1) = 0.16115, S7(1,1,1) =

1
1 1
- 0.09045, 02 =
, M1 and M2 are masses of apposite ions.
+

M
M
2 br0 H
1
By adding Eqs. (2) and (3), the second and third order elastic constants at finite temperature for crystals can be
obtained. Two parameters A and b in the Born-Mayer potential have been determined using the equilibrium
condition that total free energy (F) of a crystal should be minimum i.e. ( F/ ij) r=r0=0.
2.2 Theoretical Approach for Attenuation
The main causes of ultrasonic attenuation for a perfect crystal are due to phonon-phonon interaction, the
thermoelastic relaxation and electron-phonon interaction mechanisms. In the temperature range 200K to
650K, electron mean free path is not equal to phonon mean free path, so no coupling takes place. Thus the
ultrasonic attenuation due to electron-phonon interaction is absent. Hence the ultrasonic attenuation due to
phonon-phonon interaction and thermoelastic relaxation mechanisms are governing processes at this
temperature range. The modified Mason-Bateman Theory [22] is still widely used theory to study the ultrasonic
attenuation at higher temperature ( 300K) in solids. It is more reliable theory to study anharmonicity of the
crystals as it involves elastic constants directly through acoustic coupling constant in the evaluation of
ultrasonic attenuation. The phonon-phonon loss (Akhieser loss) is given by Eq. (4):

( /f )
2

Akh

4 2 E 0 D
6V 3 (1 + 2 2 )

(4)

where E0 is the thermal energy density, V is the ultrasonic wave velocity for the longitudinal and shear wave,
is the density of solid material, =2f is the angular frequency of the ultrasonic wave, D is the non-linearity
constant called acoustic coupling constant and is the thermal relaxation time.
The acoustic coupling constant is a function of SOECs and TOECs through Grneisen number and is given by
Eq. (5):

D = 9 < ( ij )2 > 3 < ij > 2

CV T
E0

(5)

here ij is the Grneisen numbers associated with different directions and modes, CV is specific heat per unit
j

volume and T is the absolute temperature. Grneisen numbers ( i ) calculated with the help of SOECs and
TOECs.
When an ultrasonic wave propagates through a crystalline material, the equilibrium of phonon distribution
is disturbed. The time taken for re-establishment of equilibrium of the thermal phonons is called the thermal
relaxation time and it is given is given by Eq. (6):

= S = 0.5L =

3K
C V VD2

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

(6)

155

S.K. Verma and R.R. Yadav

where L and S are the thermal relaxation time for the longitudinal and shear wave, K is the coefficient of
thermal conductivity, VD is the Debye average velocity of longitudinal and shear velocities given by the following
expression:

3
1
2
= 3+ 3
VD VL VS

(7)

here, VL and VS are ultrasonic longitudinal and shear velocities


The expression for thermoelastic attenuation is given by the Eq. (8):
( /f 2 )Th. =

4 2 < ij > 2 KT
2VL5

(8)

Total ultrasonic attenuation is given by Ew. (9):


(9)

( /f 2 )Total = ( /f 2 )Th + ( /f 2 )L + ( /f 2 )S

where (/f2)L is the ultrasonic attenuation coefficient for the longitudinal wave and (/f2)S is the ultrasonic
attenuation coefficient for the shear wave.
3.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

SOECs and TOECs of n-YSZ are calculated with help of Eqs. (2) and (3) and using two basic parameters:
nearest neighbour distance, r0 = 0.2572nm and hardness parameter, b = 0.0266 nm as shown in Table 1.
Molecular weight and density of 10 mol% n-YSZ [(Y2O3)0.1(ZrO2)0.9] are 133.48 x 10-3 Kg, 5.96 x 103K gm-3 [23]
respectively. The density of n-YSZ upto two places of decimal remains constant in this temperature range [24, 25].
The calculated values of ultrasonic velocities for different directions of propagation in n-YSZ as a function of
temperature are shown in Table 2. Thermal conductivity, specific heat per unit volume, energy density and
thermal relaxation time of n-YSZ as a function of temperature is shown in Table 3. The different values of
thermal conductivities have been taken from literature [23]. Specific heat per unit volume and energy density
are determined with help of VD and literature [26]. The calculated values of acoustic coupling constants, which
are measure of the conversion of acoustic energies into thermal energies, of n-YSZ for various directions of
propagation as a function of temperature are given in Table 4. The calculated values of average of Grneisen
number (< ij>) and average of square of Grneisen number (< ( ij)2>) as a function of temperature for various
directions of propagation are represented in Table 5. Thermal relaxation time is determined using Eq. (6) and
its values as a function of temperature for various directions of propagation are shown in Table 3. Total
Table 1. SOECs and TOECs (x1010 Nm-2) Vs temperature T (K) of n-YSZ
T

C 11

C 12

C 44

C 111

C 112

C 123

C 144

C 166

C 456

200
250
300

36.41
36.94
37.48
40.05[27]
38.04
38.60
39.17
39.74
40.31
40.89
41.46

14.27
13.83
13.39
5.79[27]
12.95
12.50
12.06
11.62
11.18
10.74
10.29

28.48
28.53
28.58
10.55[27]
28.63
28.68
28.73
28.77
28.82
28.87
28.92

-137.13
-137.71
-138.34

-7.63
-7.40
-7.17

2.14
1.78
1.43

3.62
3.64
3.65

-8.62
-8.64
-8.65

3.58
3.58
3.58

-138.99
-139.66
-140.34
-141.72
-141.72
-142.43
-143.13

-6.94
-6.71
-6.48
-6.25
-6.02
-5.79
-5.56

1.07
0.71
0.35
-0.01
-0.37
-0.73
-1.08

3.66
3.67
3.68
3.70
3.71
3.72
3.73

-8.67
-8.69
-8.70
-8.72
-8.74
-8.75
-8.77

3.58
3.58
3.58
3.58
3.58
3.58
3.58

350
400
450
500
550
600
650

156

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

Attenuation of Ultrasonic Waves in Nano-crystalline Yttria Stabilized Zirconia

Table 2. Ultrasonic velocity (x103ms-1) Vs temperature T (K) for various directions of


propagation in n-YSZ
T

VL
[100]

VS
[100]

VD
[100]

VL
[110]

V S1
[110]

V S2
[110]

VD
[110]

VL
[111]

VS
[111]

VD
[111]

200
250
300
350
400
450
500
550
600
650

7.84
7.89
7.95
8.00
8.07
8.13
8.19
8.25
8.30
8.36

6.93
6.94
6.94
6.95
6.95
6.96
6.97
6.97
6.98
6.98

7.09
7.11
7.12
7.14
7.16
7.18
7.19
7.21
7.23
7.24

9.53
9.54
9.54
9.55
9.56
9.57
9.58
9.59
9.60
9.61

6.93
6.94
6.94
6.95
6.95
6.96
6.97
6.97
6.98
6.98

4.32
4.41
4.51
4.60
4.69
4.78
4.87
4.96
5.04
5.13

5.58
5.67
5.76
5.85
5.93
6.01
6.09
6.17
6.24
6.31

10.03
10.02
10.02
10.02
10.01
10.00
10.00
10.00
10.00
10.00

5.33
5.39
5.44
5.50
5.55
5.60
5.66
5.71
5.76
5.81

5.88
5.94
5.99
6.05
6.10
6.15
6.21
6.26
6.31
6.36

Table 3. Thermal conductivity, specific heat per unit volume, energy density and
thermal relaxation time of n-YSZ Vs temperature
T
(K)

K
(Wm-1K-1)

CV
(x105JK-1m-3)

EO
(x107Jm-3)

(x10-14s)
[100]

(x10-14s)
[110]

(x10-14s)
[111]

200
250
300
350
400
450
500
550
600
650

0.9082
1.0201
1.0612
1.1068
1.1410
1.1799
1.2164
1.2597
1.2780
1.2780

5.4300
6.9970
7.9300
8.6580
9.1760
9.4970
9.8150
9.9640
10.0950
10.3560

3.867
7.194
10.797
15.051
19.604
24.048
29.135
33.447
38.054
44.815

9.98
8.66
7.91
7.52
7.28
7.24
7.19
7.30
7.27
7.06

16.09
13.58
12.09
11.21
10.60
10.31
10.02
9.98
9.76
9.31

14.50
12.41
11.19
10.49
10.03
9.84
9.65
9.68
9.54
9.15

Table 4. Acoustic coupling constants of n-YSZ Vs temperature


T
(K)

DL
[100]

DS
[100]

DL
[110:001]

DS
[110:001]

DL
[110:11]

DS
[110:11]

DL
[111]

DS
[111]

200
250
300
350
400
450
500
550
600
650

0.6806
0.6850
0.6820
0.6777
0.6716
0.6638
0.6566
0.6476
0.6392
0.6335

1.0656
1.0152
0.9703
0.9304
0.8949
0.8634
0.8352
0.8100
0.7874
0.7670

1.4663
1.4263
1.3826
1.3426
1.3047
1.2682
1.2358
1.2035
1.1746
1.1520

18.8103
25.3615
36.6115
58.2586
77.4246
98.1542
102.6840
124.9583
132.1432
139.6507

1.4663
1.4263
1.3826
1.3426
1.3047
1.2682
1.2358
1.2035
1.1746
1.1520

0.8151
0.7885
0.7641
0.7419
0.7217
0.7035
0.6870
0.6721
0.6588
0.6469

1.8982
1.8728
1.8358
1.7987
1.7603
1.7209
1.6843
1.6463
1.6109
1.5818

0.8007
0.7703
0.7428
0.7182
0.6962
0.6764
0.6587
0.6428
0.6285
0.6158

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

157

S.K. Verma and R.R. Yadav

Table 5. Grneisen number vs temperature of n-YSZ


T
(K)

<ij>L
[100]

<(ij)2>L
[100]

<(ij)2>S
[100]

<ij>L
[110]

<(ij)2>L
[110]

<(ij)2>S <(ij)2>S <ij>L


[110:001] [110:11o] [111]

<(ij)2>L
[111]

<(ij)2>L
[111:1i1]

200
250
300
350
400
450
500
550
600
650

-0.1341
-0.1331
-0.1322
-0.1313
-0.1305
-0.1297
-0.1289
-0.1281
-0.1274
-0.1267

0.0924
0.0905
0.0886
0.0869
0.0852
0.0837
0.0823
0.0809
0.0796
0.0784

0.1184
0.1128
0.1078
0.1034
0.0994
0.0959
0.0928
0.0900
0.0875
0.0852

0.1566
0.1577
0.1587
0.1596
0.1605
0.1612
0.1619
0.1625
0.1630
0.1635

0.1859
0.1786
0.1721
0.1663
0.1610
0.1563
0.1520
0.1481
0.1446
0.1414

2.0900
2.8180
4.0679
6.4732
12.0472
30.3505
38.1871
43.7732
48.0159
53.5167

0.2424
0.2349
0.2279
0.2213
0.2153
0.2096
0.2043
0.1994
0.1948
0.1904

0.0890
0.0856
0.0825
0.0798
0.0774
0.0752
0.0732
0.0714
0.0698
0.0684

0.0906
0.0876
0.0849
0.0824
0.0801
0.0782
0.0763
0.0747
0.0732
0.0719

0.1835
0.1819
0.1804
0.1789
0.1775
0.1762
0.1748
0.1736
0.1723
0.1711

Table 6. Young's modulus, Bulk modulus, Shear modulus, Poisson's ratio and Anisotropy at 300K
T(K)

Y(GPa)

B(GPa)

G(GPa)

300

304.31
385.80[17]

214.20

120.75

0.26
0.25[17]

2.37

Fig. 1. Total ultrasonic attenuation in n-YSZ


158

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

Attenuation of Ultrasonic Waves in Nano-crystalline Yttria Stabilized Zirconia

ultrasonic attenuation of n-YSZ under the condition <<1 is calculated with the help of Eqs. (4), (8) and (9)
and its variation with temperature for various directions of propagation is shown in Fig. 1. From the observation
of Fig. 1 we find that total ultrasonic attenuation of n-YSZ as a function of temperature is mainly affected by the
thermal conductivities of it at various temperatures and total ultrasonic attenuation increases with temperature.
The calculated values of Young's modulus [Y= (C11+2C12) (C11-C12)/ (C11+C12)], bulk modulus [B= (C11+2C12)/3],
Poisson's ratio [ = C12/ (C11+C12)], shear modulus [G=Y/2(1+ )] and elastic anisotropy [A=2C44/ (C11-C12)] of
n-YSZ at room temperature are given in Table 6. The comparison of calculated values of SOECs, Young's
modulus and Poisson's ratio at room temperature with literature [17, 27] leads to the validation of our theoretical
approach for the ultrasonic study of n-YSZ.
4.

CONCLUSION

On the basis of above discussion, the following conclusions can be drawn.

The theory for evaluation of temperature dependent second and third order elastic constants and ultrasonic
attenuation is validated for n-YSZ.

Temperature dependent thermal conductivity is the main contributor to for the behavior of temperature
dependent total ultrasonic attenuation in n-YSZ.

The study may be useful for the processing of nanocrystalline and the online characterization. These
results can be used for further investigations and industrial purposes

5.

AKNOWLEDGEMENT

The authors are thankful to the UGC New Delhi, India for the financial support.
6.
[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
[5]
[6]
[7]
[8]
[9]
[10]
[11]
[12]
[13]
[14]
[15]
[16]
[17]
[18]

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Soc., 25, p. 2017.
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S. SOMIYA, N. YAMAMOTO and H. YANAGIDA, 1988. Science and Technology of Zirconia III, edited by
American Ceramic Society, Columbus, OH.
Zirconium in Catalysis, Special Issue of Catal. Today, 1994. Edited by P.J. Moles ~Elsevier, Amsterdam.
U. BETZ and H. HAHN, 1999. Nanostruct. Mater., 12, p. 911.
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Ionics, 176, p. 613.
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and Compounds, 431, p. 250.
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S.K. Verma and R.R. Yadav

[19]
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[22]
[23]
[24]
[25]
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[27]

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K. KUROSAKI, D. SELVYANA and J. MALSUNAGA, 2005. Journal of Alloys and Compounds, 386, p.261.

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

Fabrication
Performance
Polyurethane
...Module for Underwater Applications
Journal of
Acousticaland
Society
of India :Evaluation
Vol. 39, No.of3,a 2012
(pp. 161-166)

Fabrication and Performance Evaluation of a


Polyurethane Encapsulated Sensor Module for
Underwater Applications
Rahna K. Shamsudeen, V.G. Jayakumari, S. Kusumakumari,
R. Rajeswari and T. Mukundan
Materials Science Division, Naval Physical & Oceanographic Laboratory
Thrikkakkara, Kochi-682 021 (Kerala)
[Received: 05.04.2012; Revised: 28.05.2012; Accepted: 19.06.2012]

ABSTRACT
Solid towed and seabed arrays are receiving great attention recently owing to its better reliability and
ruggedness compared to the conventional fluid filled arrays. In the present paper, development of a
suitable material for using in solid towed/stationary arrays and the acoustic performance evaluation
of a short length (30 cm) module of a hydrophone embedded in the material is described. The underwater
acoustic measurements, viz. the receiving sensitivity, directivity and resonance frequency of the
solid sensor module was carried out in an underwater calibration tank. The frequency band of
interest is from 20 Hz to 2 kHz. The frequency - conductance (F-G) measurement results revealed that
the resonance frequency is not adversely affected by polyurethane potting compound. The receiving
sensitivity results are comparable with that of bare hydrophone and in the acceptable range and
there is no adverse effect on sensitivity due to polyurethane (PU) encapsulation in the frequency
range of interest. It was also observed that horizontal as well as vertical directivities do not vary from
that of bare hydrophones for the required frequency range. However, directivities are introduced
around 10 kHz, due to the inherent nature of the hydrophone. These modules are very flexible and
the development may be utilized for various naval and geophysical underwater applications..

1. INTRODUCTION
Solid towed arrays are emerging as important advancements in underwater scenario for naval as well as
geophysical applications. Solid towed arrays are a preferred choice to fluid-filled since the solid arrays are
better in terms of mechanical handling, reliability and ruggedness [1-4]. Conventional fluid-filled arrays are
prone to discharge of fluid into the environment when damaged whereas solid arrays pose less environmental
risk since these are unaffected by puncture damage and eliminate pollution while maintaining the acoustic
performance of the existing technology. Also, thin line solid arrays are far easier to transport than traditional
fat hose arrays. Bulge waves, the main source of noise in a fluid filled array, and other turbulence related effects
can be reduced to a great extent and thus provides low noise acquisition by the use of a solid fill material [1].
Thus, solid array offers improved and more consistent acoustic performance and is less susceptible to the sea
state [5-8].
The material suitable for using as the matrix material for solid towed and seabed arrays should meet the
following properties,
2012 Acoustical Society of India

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

161

Rahna K. Shamsudeen, V.G. Jayakumari, S. Kusumakumari, R. Rajeswari and T. Mukundan

i)

Acoustic transparency

ii) In situ curing


iii) Room temperature curing
iv) Flexible and tough
v) Sufficient pot life
vi) Low/ medium viscosity
Polymeric systems possessing the above mentioned properties include epoxy resins, silicones,
polyurethanes, polysulfides, polyesters, etc. Among these, the best suited for the present application is
polyurethanes. A multitude of grades of polyurethanes are available commercially, but all the required physical,
mechanical and acoustic properties for the present application may not be forthcoming in any one system.
Thus, an in situ curing acoustically transparent flexible polyurethane based material is suitably developed
from a commercially available two part polyurethane system. The polyether polyol resin is modified using a
chain extender, namely 2- ethyl- 1, 3- hexanediol, and converted to a tough and flexible polymer by the use of
an isocyanate based hardener. The material is characterized for physical, mechanical, electrical and acoustic
properties. A short length module (30 cm) comprising a hydrophone with cables embedded in the developed
material was fabricated using a vacuum glove box, and the underwater acoustic measurements, viz. the
receiving sensitivity, directivity and resonance frequency of the solid sensor module were performed in an
underwater calibration tank. The frequency band of interest is from 20 Hz to 2 kHz for the present application.
2. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE
2.1 Material Development
Many of the commercial two- part polyurethanes did not have a combination of properties such as long pot life,
high tensile strength, high elongation at break (EB) %, load bearing capacity, etc. Hence, the objective was to
modify commercial polyurethane to meet the required properties. For this, a two part polyurethane system
(from Rand Polyproducts, Pune) was selected for the purpose. This polyurethane system though has a longer
pot life, the mechanical properties such as tensile strength, EB % etc were found to be low (Table 1). The resin
is a polyether polyol and this is modified by using 2- ethyl- 1, 3- hexanediol (EHD) which acts as a chain
extender and imparts better mechanical properties to the material (Table 1). The weight ratio of resin: hardener:
EHD is 100: 40: 2. Standard samples for different tests were cast and the physical, mechanical and acoustic
measurements were performed. All the mechanical properties listed in Table 1 were measured as per ASTM
standards. Water absorption under pressure was also measured. Cylindrical blocks of the material having
diameter 68 mm and length 100 mm were subjected to a pressure of 20 kg/cm2 in a pressure vessel and kept for
7 days. Water absorption due to pressure is calculated from the weight change of the blocks..
2.2 Fabrication of the 30 cm Long Solid Acoustic Module
A 30 cm long polyurethane tube containing a hydrophone centrally positioned was filled with the material
using a vacuum glove box under nitrogen atmosphere. The filling procedure is as follows. The PU housing
tube of inner diameter, 68 mm was closed at the bottom with a polyurethane endcap using an in-house
developed polyurethane adhesive. The hydrophone with the extended cable was positioned exactly at the
centre of the module. The process of casting was done in the glove box and the sequence of operations in the
glove box is as below.
Casting procedure: The assembly of polyurethane tube and the hydrophone was positioned vertically in
the glove box for convenient filling of the material. The glove box was evacuated to a pressure of 1x 10-2 millibar
with the help of a combination of rotary and diffusion pumps. The vacuum was then released by purging the
glove box with high purity nitrogen and the chamber was brought to atmospheric pressure. The pressure was
carefully adjusted so that the gloves were free for material handling. Pre-weighed quantities of resins separately
evacuated in the antechamber, were transferred to the main chamber and thoroughly mixed. The mix was
162

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

Fabrication and Performance Evaluation of a Polyurethane ...Module for Underwater Applications

Fig. 1. Solid sensor module embedding a hydrophone in PU matrix extended with the cable
again transferred to the antechamber for evacuation and after evacuation back to the main chamber and
subsequently filled inside the module. The module was taken out after 24 h when it was completely cured. The
tube was subsequently removed to get the solid acoustic module (Fig. 1).
2.3 Acoustic Measurements
The experimental set up for acoustic measurements comprises a transmitter (TR 1025 C), a standard hydrophone
(B&K Type 8104) and the test hydrophone module all placed at a depth of 3 m in the measurement tank. The
receiving sensitivity (R. S.) measurements were done by middle position method [9]. The centers of projector,
standard hydrophone and the solid sensor module were arranged in the same acoustic axis. The standard
hydrophone and the solid sensor module were separated from each other by a distance of 1.5 m. The responses
of the standard hydrophone and solid sensor module were measured using dynamic signal analyzer as
channel 1 and channel 2 outputs, respectively. In this simultaneous method of keeping standard and test
hydrophones together for measuring R. S., the possibility of perturbation of the pressure fields is avoided by
keeping the two apart at sufficiently far distance and the far field criteria is taken care of. The sensitivity of the
solid sensor module was calculated using the formula,
R.S. = 20 log (Vt ds/Vsdt) x Ms
where,
Ms

= Free field receiving sensitivity of the standard hydrophone

Vs

= open circuit voltage of the standard hydrophone

Vt

= open circuit voltage of the test hydrophone

ds and dt = distance of standard hydrophone & test hydrophone from the projector, respectively
The directivity response of the transducer was obtained when the relative sensitivity or transmitting
response for a transducer was measured as a function of direction with respect to its acoustic axis on a
specified plane at a particular frequency. The test hydrophone was fitted to a turn table and the turntable was
allowed to rotate, and response of the hydrophone for various angles was plotted in a polar plot and the
directional characteristic of the test hydrophone was thus determined. For the measurement of resonance
frequency, electrical parameters were measured and the FG plots (frequency Vs conductance) were taken for
Journal of Acoustical Society of India

163

Rahna K. Shamsudeen, V.G. Jayakumari, S. Kusumakumari, R. Rajeswari and T. Mukundan

the required range of frequency and the frequency for the peak value of the conductance is taken as the
resonance frequency of the module. The instrumentation used includes impedance analyser (HP 4192 A), a
computer system and a plotter. The transducer leads were connected to impedance analyser terminals after
switching on the instrument. FG plots as well as capacitance can be obtained.
3.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

3.1 Material Properties


The properties of a flexible polyurethane composition developed for using in the solid sensor module are given
in Table 1. Compared to commercially available unmodified polyurethane, the modified polyurethane had
high tensile strength and elongation at break (%). Load bearing capacity of modified polyurethane is > 65000
N when compared to ~ 10000 N for unmodified polyurethane, which indicates its suitability for underwater
applications capable of withstanding high hydrostatic pressures.
Table 1. Properties of modified and unmodified polyurethanes
Properties

Without EHD

With EHD*

Gel Time (Pot life)

60 min

25- 30 min

Tensile Strength (ASTM D-412)

3.2 MPa

11 MPa

EB (ASTM D-412)

90%

250%

Flexural modulus (DMA)

1.29 MPa

4.08 MPa

Hardness Shore A (ASTM D-2240)

40 5

50 5

Load Bearing Capacity (ASTM D-3574)

< 10000 N

> 65000 N

0.03 %

0.05 %

Water Absorption (at 20 kg/cm )

0.02 %

0.03 %

Volume Resistivity (ASTM D-257)

2 x 10

Water Absorption (Stabilised)


(ASTM D-471)
2

12

/cm

3 x 1011 /cm

3.2 Underwater Acoustic Measurements of the solid sensor module


The measurements were carried out in the acoustic tank. The F-G plots (Fig. 2) gave the resonance frequency.
The resonance frequency of the bare hydrophone was 49 kHz and for the potted hydrophone in air, it was 50
kHz. In water the resonance frequency was 51 kHz. The results showed that resonance frequency is not adversely
affected by polyurethane potting compound. The capacitance measurements showed a value of 3.3 nF.

Fig. 2. F-G plots for the solid sensor module (a) in air (b) in water
164

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

Fabrication and Performance Evaluation of a Polyurethane ...Module for Underwater Applications

Figure 3 shows the receiving sensitivity measurements. The bare hydrophone (without PU tube) in water
was initially measured followed by the hydrophone in PU tube filled with water and Prime 32 oil. Finally, the
receiving sensitivity of the solid sensor module is measured. It can be inferred from the figure that the results
are comparable and the receiving sensitivities are in the acceptable range and there is no adverse effect on
sensitivity due to PU encapsulation. Due to experimental limitations of the receiving sensitivity measurement
set up, the lower limit of frequency measured, is 600 Hz. By proper design of system and incorporating suitable
electronics to cater for low frequency roll-off characteristics of individual hydrophones (which happens below
200 Hz, in this case), the system is suitable for the operational frequency range, i.e., 20Hz to 2kHz.

Fig. 3. F-G plots for the solid sensor module (a) in air (b) in water
Figure 4 shows both the vertical and horizontal directivity measurements for the solid sensor module at
various frequencies. It was observed that horizontal as well as vertical directivities do not vary from that of
bare hydrophones at frequencies of our consideration (20 Hz- 2 kHz). At higher frequency (above 10 kHz) only
variation from omnidirectionality was observed. This trend also is the same as that of bare hydrophone. Thus
the omnidirectionality at low frequencies and directional behaviour at high frequencies are not affected by
solid filling and thus the behaviour of the solid array module is retained omnidirectional as expected for the
operating range of frequency.
4.

CONCLUSION

A modified polyurethane suitable as a matrix material for solid array modules was developed and characterized.
The feasibility of the process for development of a 30 cm long sensor module for underwater acoustic
measurements such as receiving sensitivity, directivity and resonance frequency measurements in an
underwater calibration facility was established. It is proved that receiving sensitivity, directivity and resonance
frequency of original hydrophones remain unaffected in the solid array configuration. The development may
be utilized for stationary sensor array applications. Also, these modules are very flexible and these results will
be highly beneficial towards development and scale up of solid towed sensor modules and thin line solid
arrays.

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

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Rahna K. Shamsudeen, V.G. Jayakumari, S. Kusumakumari, R. Rajeswari and T. Mukundan

Horizontal 2 kHz

Vertical 4 kHz

Horizontal 4 kHz

Vertical 2 kHz

Vertical 7 kHz

Vertical 10 kHz

Fig. 4. Horizontal and vertical directivity plots of solid sensor module


6.
[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
[5]
[6]
[7]
[8]
[9]

166

REFERENCES
Tech link, 2005. 5 (7).
www.hydrophones.com/TroutIV/application1.html
www.dsto.defence.gov.au
www.sercelsolidcable.htm
www.designawards.com.au/ADA/ 97- 98/engineering %20design /038/038.htm
P.J. WELTON, A.D. MEYER, J.K. ANDERSON, 2001. Solid fill acoustic array, US Patent 6262944.
HTTP://WWW.FAS.ORG/MAN/DOD-101/SYS/SHIP/WEAPS/TB-29.HTM
http://www.arl.nus.edu.sg
R.J. BOBBER, 1988. Underwater Electroacoustic Measurements, Penninsula Publishing, Los Atlas.

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

Generalized
Expansions
forNo.
the3,Wavenumbers
...in the Intermediate Frequency Ranges
Journal of
AcousticalAsymptotic
Society of India
: Vol. 39,
2012 (pp. 167-171)

Generalized a Symptotic Expansions for the


Wavenumbers in Infinite Flexible Circular Cylindrical
Shells in the Intermediate Frequency Ranges
Vijay Prakash S. and Venkata R. Sonti
Vibro-Acoustics Lab, Facility for Research In Technical Acoustics (FRITA)
Deptt. of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore-560 012 (Karnataka)
[Received: 11.12.2011; Revised: 19.06.2012; Accepted: 09.05.2012]

ABSTRACT
In this paper, we find valid complex asymptotic expansions for all the wavenumbers in infinite
flexible in vacuo circular cylindrical shells. The cylindrical shell is modeled using the DonnellMushtari thin shell theory. Using regular and singular perturbation methods, expansions for
wavenumbers are found over a wide frequency range. However, the novelty of this work lies in
extending the work available in the current literature by finding expansions in the intermediate
frequency range (around =1) where the shell dynamics is most interesting. The non-dimensional
thickness parameter of the shell is used as the asymptotic parameter and the solutions are obtained
as a function of , the non-dimensional frequency , the circumferential order n and Poisson's ratio
v. The results are compared with the numerical solutions of the dispersion relations and a good
match is obtained.

1. INTRODUCTION
The study of dispersion curves of in vacuo cylindrical shells is of interest in the field of structural acoustics. The
dispersion curves are usually obtained by numerical methods [4, 5]. However, in the numerical approach the
sensitivity of the wavenumbers to parametric variations cannot be easily understood. In contrast, asymptotic
methods offer a way to obtain approximate analytical expressions for the wavenumbers under some conditions.
From these closed form expressions the physics as well as the quantitative dependence of wavenumbers on the
various parameters can be understood. Using asymptotic methods, wavenumber expressions have been found
for in vacuo and fluid loaded infinite cylindrical shells in [1,2,3]. Although they presented asymptotic
expressions for real wavenumber solutions of the dispersion relation, the method fails in finding the complex
solutions. Also, they have used only a regular perturbation method, thus, obtaining solutions for the extreme
values of frequency (small or large) but not for the intermediate frequency range, where the shell dynamics is
most interesting. In this paper, both the regular and the singular perturbation methods are used to obtain the
asymptotic expressions for all the wavenumbers (real and complex). Although these expansions are found for
a wide frequency range, the novelty is due to their validity around =1, where earlier studies are found
lacking.
2.

THE CYLINDRICAL SHELL DISPERSION RELATION

Using the Donell-Mushtari theory (DMT), the non-dimensional governing equation for an infinite in
vacuo cylindrical shell is given by [7],

L [ u ]= 0

(1)

2012 Acoustical Society of India

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

167

Vijay Prakash S. and Venkata R. Sonti

The dispersion relation is found from the determinant of L[5] which for the sake of brevity is not presented
here. The determinant is a function of the non dimensional wavenumber = k xa, the non dimensional frequency
= a/cL and 2=h 2/12a 2 where a is the radius of the shell and h is the thickness. The circular frequency is ,
the wavenumber in the axial direction is kx and the extensional wave speed is cL . Since we are considering the
cases of thin shells, we know the thickness parameter 2 <<1. Hence taking 2 as an asymptotic parameter, the
above equation is of the form,
(2)

a x4+ b x3+c x2+d+e=0


with 0 (as an asymptotic parameter) and x= 2.
Expansions using the regular perturbation method ( r ) for n=0,1, 2

In the Eq. (2), one can see that using a regular perturbation method with as the expansion parameter, one can
find expansions for small values of x. Thus, considering Eq. (1) as a fourth order polynomial in 2 and using
a regular expansion 2=k0+k1 , and balancing at each order of , the expression is given by,

with ,

b' =

((3 v )(1 2 ) + 2 n2 (1 v) 2 v 2 ) 2
2(1 v)( 2 (1 v 2 ))
1

( r2 )1,2

2
2
2
2
2
2
2
1 2 4 2 (2 1) (3 v) + n (1 + n )(1 v)
= b ' b '

2
2(1 v )( 2 (1 v 2 ))

(3)

This expansion is valid for n=0,1,2 at low frequencies and for all n's at high frequencies. However, this
captures mainly the longitudinal and the torsional wavenumbers. The positive-valued wavenumbers for n=0
are plotted in Fig. (1a, 1b) and the same for n=1 in Fig. (1c,1d). These are compared with the corresponding
numerical solution of the dispersion relation. Figure 1a corresponds to the real solution and Fig. 1b to the
imaginary part of the same, and similarly for Fig. (1c,1d). From the figures one can see that although a good
match was expected only at low frequencies the expansion does well over a wide frequency range. The expansion
however does breakdown around =1 for n>0, for which one has to use a different scaling.
3.

EXPANSIONS USING THE SINGULAR PERTURBATION METHOD (r ) for n=0,1,2

The presence of a small >0 makes a fourth order equation of Eq. (2). Thus, one can use a singular perturbation
to find expansions. Rescaling the dispersion relation as 2= (')2/ 2s, and doing an order balance we find s=1/2.
This can be easily understood using (2). In (2), in order to get singular solutions, the fourth order term should
be dominant. Hence, rescaling with x=y/s, where y is of O(I), we find s in such a way that the fourth order term
becomes dominant; with this as objective, balancing of order is done. It can be observed that for s<1/2, we get
regular roots and for s>1/2 we get y=0 as leading term which is not of O(I) [8]. Now, taking (')2=k0'+k1' and
balancing at each order of ,

'2 = 2 (1 v 2 ) +

( s2 )1,2

2 (1 v 2 )

n2 2(1 v 2 2 ) + v 2 2
2 (1 v 2 )

n2 2(1 v 2 2 ) + v 2 2

(4)

2 (1 v 2 )

The above expansions capture the flexural wavenumber. These are also plotted for n=0 and 1 in Fig. 1.

168

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

Generalized Asymptotic Expansions for the Wavenumbers ...in the Intermediate Frequency Ranges

(a)

(c)

(b)

(d)

Fig.1. Dispersion curves for in vacuo shell-comparison of asymptotic solutions ((3) and (4)) with the
numerical solution for positive values of . (a) and (b) real and imaginary parts of the solutions for n=0
respectively; (c) and (d) real and imaginary parts of the solutions for n=1 respectively
In both (3) and (4) the solutions seem to blow up at 21- 2 except for n=0, since the value of numerator is
of O(2)<<1 for that ranges of frequency. As n increases, the deviation from the numerical solutions increases
around =1-v^2 and this requires a tuning of .
4.

EXPANSIONS NEAR =1 for n=0,1,2

As seen from Fig. 1, for n>0, a different expansion is required in the neighborhood of 2=I-2. We tune as,
=1-v2+', where ' is an O(I) quantity. Around =1, the c coefficient in equation (2) becomes small, of O(2)
or O(), thus v is scaled as =1/2. The final regular and singular expansions are obtained as:

10 n2
2 + 2 2 3 2
2n2 + 1

+ v2
( r2 )1 =
n

8
2
2n2
4

(5)

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

169

Vijay Prakash S. and Venkata R. Sonti


1
1
2
2 3
2
2 3
2
2
3
(2
n
)
(3(
v
2
2)(2
n
)
(
v
8
8)

7
2
16
2
5
v

( s2 )1 =
n2 + +
+
6
3
18
2 /3
n 2 4/3

( s2 )2,3 =

1
4

18n

8/3

7 2 2
n +
6
3

(6)

( v6 6 v 4 ( 1 + v 2 ) + 12 v 2 ( 1 + v2 )2 8( 1 + v 2 )3 )

1
(2n 2 ) 3

1
,i

2
2 3
3
i

(2 v 2 )(2 n )
e
3
2 /3 e

6n2 4/3

(7)

The above expansions along with the numerical solutions are plotted in Fig. (2a,2b) for n=1. It can be seen
that tuning has given a better match around =1. The above expansions are valid for n=1,2.

Fig. 2. Dispersion curves for n=1, with (a) as the real part & (b) as the imaginary part, for 21-v2

5.

LOW FREQUENCY EXPANSIONS FOR n=3,4,5

It can be observed that in (1), the constant factor has terms like n8 2. This term is significant for large values of
n and at low frequencies. Therefore, we rescale n as n2=m2/ 1/2, and also =, = 1/2 so that n8 2 will be of
O(1) and 2 is of O(). The regular and singular expansions are found as,

( s2[1] )1,2 =

2 2
1 2
2
2
2
6 2+
1
(

)(4

)
n
3 +

+
+

+ 1 + 2 (5n 2 2)

4
2

8
2
n

n 2
( s2[1] )1,2 = n2 2 n 4 2 +
2

170

2
2

2 n

n2
2 n 4 2 + n 2 2 2 n6 2 

2 n2 2 n 4 2

(8)

(9)

(1 n2 )

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

Generalized Asymptotic Expansions for the Wavenumbers ...in the Intermediate Frequency Ranges

6.

EXPANSIONS FOR n=3, 4, 5 AROUND =1

Now in order to find solution near =1-2 , same rescaling =1- 2+', n is rescaled as n2=m2/
= 1/2. The singular expressions are found to be,
2
5 4 2

2
n
2 3 16 + 2 5

(2
)
n

7
2
6 2 + 12 12 n 4 2
2
2
18
+
( s )1 =
n + +

1
6
3
18
2n 2 4 /3

2 3 2 /3
(2
)

( s2 )2 ,3 =

7 n 2 2
+ +
6
3

( s2 )4 = 1

3
n2

1
2 3
(2 n )

18

(12 +
4 /3

2 5 4 2
,i
5 + n 2 16)e 3
18

2 /3

1/2

and

(10)

(11)


n4 2
2 2 )(2n 2 ) 3 e 3
6

n2
2

(12)

These latter expansions are not plotted in order to conserve space.


7.

CONCLUSION

Valid wavenumber expansions are found for the intermediate frequency range in in vacuo cylindrical shells.
Earlier work has found similar expansions for extreme values of the frequency range, using only regular
expansions and thus has missed out on the interesting part of the dynamics. The current work attempts to fill
the gap specially around =1 where the shell transitions from membrane to flexural behavior. These expansions,
unlike the regular ones, require some ingenuity and skill in deciding upon the magnitudes of individual terms.
Thus, in the current work we have been able to obtain valid expansions for n = 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 using both regular
and singular expansions of all the cylindrical shell waves. Future work will focus on higher orders of n and
also on fluid filled cylindrical shells.
8.
[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
[5]
[6]
[7]
[8]

REFERENCES
A. SARKAR and V.R. SONTI, 2009. Asymptotic analysis for the coupled wavenumbers in an infinite
fluid-filled flexible cylindrical shell: the beam mode, Journal of Sound and Vibration. 319, 646-667.
A. SARKAR and V.R. SONTI, 2007. Asymptotic analysis for the coupled wavenumbers in an infinite
fluid-filled flexible cylindrical shell: the axisymmetric mode, Computer modeling in Engineering and Sciences,
21(3), 93-207.
M.V. KUNTE, ABHIJIT SARKAR and VENKATA R. SONTI, 2010. Generalized asymptotic expansions
for coupled wavenumbers in fluid-filled cylindrical shells, Journal of Sound and Vibration, 329, 5356-5374.
C.R. FULLER, 1981. The effect of wall discontinuities on the propagation of flexural waves in cylindrical
shells, Journal of Sound and Vibration, 75 (2), 207-228.
C.R. FULLER and F.J. FAHY, 1982. Characteristics of wave propagation and energy distributions in
cylindrical elastic shells filled with fluid, Journal of Sound and Vibration, 81, 501-518.
D.G. CRIGHTON, 1989. The 1988 Rayleigh medal lecture: fluid-loading-the interaction between sound
and vibration, Journal of Sound and Vibration, 133, 1-27.
A.W. LEISSA, 1973. Vibration of shells, Technical Report NASA SP-288.
E.J.HINCH, 1991. Perturbation Methods, CambridgeUniversityPress, Cambridge.

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

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Acoustical Society of India


(Regn. No. 65-1971)
Executive Council (2010 - 2014)
President

Dr V Rajendran
[KSRCT, Tiruchengode; veerajendran@gmail.com; +91-99 94 13 03 03]

Vice President

NS Naidu
[NSTL, Vizag; nsnaidu04@yahoo.com; +91-94 90 75 05 82]

General Secretary

PVS Ganesh Kumar


[NSTL, Vizag; gkpakki@rediffmail.com; +91-98 66 40 08 94]

Jt. Secretary

Dr K Trinadh
[NSTL, Vizag; hello_trinath@yahoo.co.in; +91-97 04 71 95 00]

Treasurer

Prof AV Sharma
[AU, Vizag; sarmavakella@yahoo.co.in; +91-94 90 43 17 26]

Chief Editor

Dr Mahavir Singh
[NPL, New Delhi; mahavir@nplindia.org; +91-98 71 69 33 46]

Council Members

Dr SV Ranga Nayakulu
[VITAE, Hyderabad; nayakulu@rediffmail.com; +91-98 66 53 26 13]

Dr I Johnson
[SJ College, Trichy; jnaadarsh@hotmail.com; +91-94 42 90 48 20]

Dr Rajiv K Upadhayay
[Govt PG College, Rishikesh; rku8@rediffmail.com; +91-94 12 97 28 90]

Dr S Shekhar
[Oxford College, Trichy; acousticssekar@yahoo.co.in; +91-99 94 92 00 30]

Dr V Bhujanga Rao
[Past President; NSTL, Vizag; vepcrew1@rediffmail.com; +91-98 66 44 10 74]

Co-opted Members

Rajshekhar Uchil
[Josts, Bangalore; ruchil@josts.in; +91-98 80 17 08 95]

Dr NK Narayanan
[CIT, Kozhikode; csirc@rediffmail.com; +91-94 46 95 58 30]

MAHAVIR SINGH
Chief Editor
OMKAR SHARMA
Managing Editor
TRINATH KAR
Associate Scientific Editor
Yudhishter Kumar
Anil Kumar Nain
Naveen Garg
Assistant Editors

EDITORIAL BOARD
M L Munjal
IISc Banglore, India
S Narayanan
IIT Chennai, India
V Rajendran
KSRCT Erode, India
R J M Craik
HWU Edinburg, UK
Trevor R T Nightingle
NRC Ottawa, Canada
B V A Rao
VIT Vellore, India
N Tandon
IIT Delhi, India
P Narang
NMI Lindfield, Australia
E S R Rajagopal
IISc Banglore, India
A L Vyas
IIT Delhi, India
V Bhujanga Rao
NSTL Vizag, India
Yukio Kagawa
NU Chiba, Japan
S Datta
LU Loughborough, UK
Sonoko Kuwano
OU Osaka, Japan
K K Pujara
IIT Delhi (Ex.), India

JASI

Journal of Acoustical
Society of India (JASI)
A quarterly publication of the Acoustical Society of India

Volume 39, Number 4, October 2012


EDITORIAL
Acoustic Performance of Robust Doors
Mahavir Singh ............................................................................... 174

ARTICLES
Comparison of Coupling Loss Factors for Line Connected
and Point Connected Systems
V.H. Patil and D.N. Manik ............................................................ 175
Wavelet Hybrid Features for Malayalam CV Speech Unit
Recognition using Artificial Neural Networks
T.M. Thasleema and N.K. Narayanan.......................... ................ 181
Acoustic Emission Technique for Characterization of
Nuclear Reactor Materials - Brief Review
S.V. Ranganayakulu and B. Ramesh Kumar................................. 186
Vibration Analysis of Bent Pipes Using FEM
G.T.K. Manohar, Uday Shankar Roy and Abhijit Sarkar.............. 195
Localization of Low Flying Aircraft Based on Its Acoustic
Signature
A. Saravanakumar, S.Arunkumar and K. Senthilkumar.............. 200
Acoustical Study of Glycine, Fructose and Citric Acid in
Aqueous NaCl at Different Temperatures
Alka Tadkalkar and Govind K. Bichile........................................

High Temperature Study of Anharmonic Properties for


Halides of Na and Rb
Kailash, S.K. Shrivastava, Jitendra Kumar and
Virendra Kumar ............................................................................ 216

INFORMATION
Executive Council of Acoustical Society of India

A R Mohanty
IIT Kharagpur, India

International Conference Announcement

Ashok Kumar
NPL New Delhi, India

Information for Authors

V Mohanan
NPL New Delhi, India

209

230

Inside back
cover

EDITORS SPACE

Acoustic Performance of Robust Doors


Robust Acoustic Doors are designed to reduce the transference of noise from one area to another. Acoustic
doors are used in many applications to offer privacy or to reduce noise pollution from one area to another.
More stringent legislation makes it a requirement to consider the effects of noise pollution on the local
environment. Our standard doors offer a low level of acoustic performance but for higher acoustic performance
we custom manufacture doors tested to 45 dB and 50 dB. Due to the high performance criteria of these doors
they are of a heavy duty design and are a more difficult door set to install with tighter tolerances than our
basic doors. Robust doors have been tested as full installed door systems and should be installed by our
trained engineers For example; a 5 mm gap at the bottom of a door capable of reducing sound transmission by
45 dB would result in an overall sound reduction of only 25 dB. In other words 250 times as much sound
energy is transmitted underneath the door as through the door.
The performance of the robust acoustic door is described as the "Sound Reduction Index" and is shown
as a figure in dB. It is a weighted average over a range of frequencies prescribed in the test standard: ISO 1403: 1995.

Type

Rw

Performance

Description

FD*

22

Minimal

Speech clearly audible

FD-M*

25

Average

Normal speech understood

AC35 **

35

Good

Loud speech audible but not intelligible

AC45 **

45

Very Good

Loud speech just detectable

AC50 **

50

Excellent

Loud speech barely audible

* Standard general purpose door; ** Specific Acoustic Door

Mahavir Singh

Comparison
of Coupling
Loss39,
Factors
Line
Connected
Journal of Acoustical
Society
of India : Vol.
No. 4,for
2012
(pp.
175-180) and Point Connected Systems

Comparison of Coupling Loss Factors for Line


Connected and Point Connected Systems
V.H. Patil* and D.N. Manik
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay
Mumbai-400 076 (Maharashtra)
*e-mail: 09410005@iitb.ac.in
[Received: 09.12.2011; Revised: 29.06.2012; Accepted: 27.10.2012]

ABSTRACT
The present work mainly focuses on the determination of coupling loss factor for weld joint, rivet
joint and bolt joint through experimentation. The SEA power balance equations are used to determine
the coupling loss factor experimentally. The reverberation time method is used to determine the
individual plate damping. The coupling loss factor is determined in each octave band frequency,
ranging from 400 Hz to 10000 Hz. The results are compared with the analytical results. The weld
joint is having higher coupling loss factor than rivet and bolt joint at higher frequencies ranging from
3150 Hz to 10000 Hz.

1. INTRODUCTION
Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) is a theoretical framework for analyzing the average vibration levels of
interconnecting systems, based on energy flow relationships. The mean energy of the subsystems is related to
the input power by SEA parameters like coupling loss factors (CLFs), internal loss factors (ILFs) and modal
densities, to form a set of linear power balance equations. In most machinery structures, automobiles, aerospace,
ships and building structures, many plate junctions are constructed using weld, rivets, screws, and bolts. To
understand the vibrational energy transfer through these plates, it is necessary to know the energy loss at the
junctions of the plates. The joints behave as line or point connections (depending on the wavelength and
distance between the fasteners).
Lyon [1] suggested that the coupling loss factor for two connected subsystems can be obtained by driving
one system and then measuring the steady state energies of the two subsystems. Structure-borne sound
transmission at a variety of plate and beam junctions has been studied by Cremer et al. [2] for the cases of
normal and random incidence. Bies and Hamid [3] used power injection method (PIM) for two connected
subsystems to determine the coupling loss factor and the individual loss factors of two connected plates, for
broadband random excitation. Bosmans, Nightingale [4] used analytical model based on the wave approach
for junctions of semi-infinite plates and calculated coupling loss factor using SEA. Feng et al.[5] studied the
resonant type joint to increase the transmission loss. Langley and Shorter [6] presented the analysis for the
calculation of the elastic wave transmission coefficients and coupling loss factors between an arbitrary number
of structural components that are coupled at a point.
2.

TWO SYSTEM MODEL

The two system SEA model is used to represent the bolt, rivet and weld joint. Figure 1 shows the two system
model. For a single joint, each plate is considered as subsystem of SEA.
2012 Acoustical Society of India

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175

V.H. Patil and D.N. Manikh

Fig. 1. Two system model

Fig. 2. Schematic of experimental setup

2.1 Power Balance Equations


The energy balance equations for two conservatively connected systems are given below [1]. When power is
given to subsystem 1, energy balance is
P1 = E111 + E1112 E21 21

(1)

0 = E212 + E2121 E1112

If the power is given to only subsystem 2 then energy balance is

0 = E121 + E1212 E 22 21
(2)

P2 = E 22 2 + E 22 21 E1212

where Pi is the power input to the ith system. Eij is the energy of the ith system when power is given to jth system.
i is the internal loss factor for the ith system. ij is the coupling loss factor for power flow from system i to
system j and ij in reverse direction.
2.2 Determination of Loss Factor
For lightly damped structure, reverberation time delay method [1] is used to calculate the ILF.

= 2.2 fT60

(3)

Here f denotes the central frequency of the band in which measurements are taken, and T60 is the reverberation
time. From the power balance equations for steady state of two coupled systems [1, 3]:

E 21
12
=
E11 21 + 2
176

(4)
Journal of Acoustical Society of India

Comparison of Coupling Loss Factors for Line Connected and Point Connected Systems

The coupling loss factors for the junction of length L, were calculated from [1],

12 =

2C B1 L 12
S1

(5)

where, S1 is the area of the plate one and CB is the bending wave speed for the plate. 12 is the transmission
efficiency from plate1 to plate 2, calculated using the approximate formula [2, 3]

2.754 X
12 = 12 (0)
1 + 3.24 X

12 (0) = 2 X 5/4 + X 5/4

(6)

(7)

where X is the ratio of the thickness of plate 1 to that of plate 2.


When the two structures are joined at N points, the coupling loss factor between them is given by [1].

12

(
(

)(

)
)

2
2
4N h1CL 1 2 h2 CL 2 1 h1 CL 1
=

3S1 2 f h 2C + h 2C 2
2 2 L2
1 1 L1

(8)

where is density, h is the thickness and CL is the longitudinal wave speed in the plate.
The coupling loss factor per unit length is

12

2
=
3

1/4

1 h1CL 1

S1 2 f

1/2

( 2 h23/2CL1/22 )( 1 h13/2CL1/21 )
2
( 1 h13/2CL1/21 + 2 h23/2CL1/22 )

(9)

where h1 , h2 are the thicknesses and 1, 2 are the densities and CL1 , CL2 are the longitudinal wave speeds in
plate 1 and 2 respectively.
3.

EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATIONS

For the experiment, six mild steel plates each of size mm were used. The measurement system used was of B &
K, pulse 13.5. The schematic of experimental setup is shown in Fig. 2.
3.1 Internal Loss Factor
The internal loss factor of the individual plate was measured by using reverberation time delay method.
The Fig. 3. shows the internal loss factor. On each plate, five randomly selected locations were used for the
measurement of the response of the plate in terms of acceleration signal. At each point, three ensemble
averages and for each excitation five time averages were recorded. The recorded signal was then processed
using Hilbert Transform [7]. The magnitude of this complex signal was then calculated and plotted on
logarithmic scale to obtain the reverberation time. During reverberation time method, it was difficult to get 60
dB decay, so 30 dB decay was obtained and reverberation time for 60 dB was obtained by extrapolation. At
higher frequencies, as the number of modes increases spread of the internal loss factor decreases.

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

177

V.H. Patil and D.N. Manikh

Fig. 3. Internal loss factor


After measuring the internal loss factor, the plates were coupled to get two plate coupled model. In all the three
joints plates were coupled at right angles to each other.
3.2 Coupling Loss Factor
For the measurement of the CLF, five time averages and three ensemble averages were taken. Figure 4 shows the
coupling loss comparison for all the three joints.
The experimental results obtained by Eq. (4) with measured energy ratios and measured internal loss
factors are compared with the calculated values from the Eqs. (9 and 10). In case of the weld joint (Fig. 4 a), the
experimental results are fairly well predicted by the Eq. (5) although the theoretical values are slightly higher
than the measured values between 1000 Hz to 2000 Hz. At lower frequencies the coupling loss factor is lower
than theoretical values calculated by Eq. (5), which is also comparable to internal loss factor of the connected
plates. These discrepancies occur because of lower modal density of the connected plates. After 2000 Hz
frequency, measured coupling loss factors are higher than the calculated coupling loss factor. For the bolt joint
(Fig. 4 b), maximum coupling loss occurs at 1600 Hz. Also, at the plate critical frequency radiation from the
plate edges is maximum. For the rivet joint, higher coupling loss factor is obtained than the bolt joint. Between
5000 Hz to 6300Hz, there is transition from line connection to point connection. The measured loss factor is
slightly lower than calculated loss factor at this frequency.
Figure 4 c, shows the coupling loss comparison by measured values (Eq. 4) all three joints. After the critical
frequency, weld joint is having higher coupling loss factor than rivet and bolt connection. These results are in

178

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

Comparison of Coupling Loss Factors for Line Connected and Point Connected Systems

Fig. 4. Coupling loss factor


agreement with the earlier published results [1]. The maximum coupling loss factor for weld joint occurs at
3150 Hz close to critical frequency. Out of the three joint; rivet joint is having higher coupling loss factor at 2500
Hz (critical frequency-3000 Hz). This may be because of at critical frequency the contact between two plates in
case of rivet joint pumped small amount of air. At and below 1000Hz, rivet and bolt joint are having higher
coupling loss factors; behaving like line connection [1, 4]. The bolt joint is having lowest coupling loss factor
giving strong coupling.
3.

CONCLUSION

The results obtained in this experimental work are in well agreement with the theory. The weld joint is having
maximum coupling loss at higher frequencies than rivet and bolt joint. The assumption of infinite plate model
in the deriving the coupling loss factor is successfully used in finite coupled plates. The bolt joint is having
lowest coupling loss factor giving stronger coupling between the plates.
Future work: To analyze the effect of ILF, CLF and other geometrical parameters on the energy transfer through
coupled plates by using sensitivity analysis.
4.

REFERANCES

[1]

R.H. LYON and R.G. DEJONG, 1995. Theory and Application of Statistical Energy Analysis. Boston:
Butterworth-Heinemann, second edition.

[2]

L. CREMER, M. HECKL and E.E. UNGAR, 1987. Structure-Borne Sound. Berlin: Springer-Verlag.

[3]

D.A. BIES and S. HAMID, 1980. In Situ Determination of Loss and Coupling Loss Factors by the Power
Injection Method, Journal of Sound and Vibration, 70,187-204.

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

179

V.H. Patil and D.N. Manikh

[4]

IVAN BOSMANS and TREVOR R.T NIGHTINGALE, 2000. Modeling vibrational energy transmission
at bolted junctions between plate & stiffening rib, Journal of Acoustical Society of America, 109,999-1010.

[5]

LEPING FENG, MINGSHU LIN and ANDERS NILSSON, 2001. Experimental study of structure-borne
sound transmission loss of mechanical joints, Journal of Acoustical Society of America, 110, 1391-1397.

[6]

R.S. LANGLEY and P.J. SHORTER, 2003. The wave transmission coefficients & coupling loss factors of
point connected structures. Journal of Acoustical Society of America, 113, 1947-1964.

[7]

N. THRANE, 1984. B & K Technical Review, No. 3. The Hilbert Transform.

180

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

Wavelet
HybridSociety
Features
Malayalam
CV Speech
Unit181-185)
Recognition using Artificial Neural Networks
Journal
of Acoustical
of for
India
: Vol. 39, No.
4, 2012 (pp.

Wavelet Hybrid Features for Malayalam CV Speech Unit


Recognition using Artificial Neural Networks
T.M. Thasleema* and N.K. Narayanan
School of Information Science & Technology, Kannur University, Kannur-670 567 (Kerala)
*e-mail: thasnitm1@hotmail.com
[Received: 13.02.2012; Revised: 26.05.2012; Accepted: 27.09.2012]

ABSTRACT
Development of a robust CV speech unit recognition system for Malayalam language continuous to
be a challenge even today. Several disciplines and method are to work together to improve the
performance of the human machine interface (HMI) systems for any language. In the present study
we propose a novel and accurate method for Malayalam CV speech unit recognition using Wavelet
Hybrid Features (WHF). A combination of classical wavelet decomposition (CWD) and wavelet
packet decomposition (WPD) are employed for simulating the hybrid feature vectors. Daubecheis
wavelets (db2) are selected as optimum wavelet in the present work. CWD and WPD features are
obtained by applying 5-level decomposition on both techniques to get total of 20 features. This paper
describes the results of the experiments performed for recognizing 36 Malayalam CV speech units
containing 3456 speech samples uttered by 96 different speakers. The classification is performed
using 48 speech units each for training and testing. In the recognition stage we used Artificial Neural
Network classifier. Training is done using the back propagation algorithm. The overall recognition
accuracy obtained for the Malayalam CV speech database using WHF vector and ANN classifier is
69%. The results demonstrate the application of multi resolution capabilities of wavelet transform in
recognizing Malayalam consonants.
Keywords: Speech recognition, classical wavelet decomposition, wavelet packet decomposition,
artificial neural network.

1.

INTRODUCTION

Automatic speech recognition by machine has been the goal of research for more than five decades [1]. To
design an intelligent machine that can recognize the spoken word by different speakers in different
environments and comprehend its meaning is far from achieving the desired goal in any language. As the
speech recognition technology becomes more sophisticated, its uses become more widespread. For decades,
AT & T Bell Labs, USA has been at the fore front of speech recognition and natural language technology
research. They have invested more than one million research hours over the past few decades in Speech and
Language technology research. Recently it is reported that they have developed a core technology platform,
which is a cloud - based system of services that not only identifies words but interprets meaning and context
to deliver accurate result. The system is built on servers that model and compare speech to recorded voices.
Under these contexts in order to incorporate speech recognition and understanding capability in different
regional languages a lot of works related to the signal processing and language technology is to be carried out
in each language for generating the required know hows. In this circumstance we originate the current work
2012 Acoustical Society of India

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T.M. Thasleema and N.K. Narayanan

to improve the speech recognition system in Malayalam to use speech as input for getting into all kinds of
communications. There is less works carried out in Malayalam language studies.
Malayalam is the principal language [2] of the South Indian state of Kerala and also of the Lakshadweep
Islands off the west coast of India spoken by about 36 million peoples. In terms of the number of speakers [3],
Malayalam ranks eighth among the fifteen major languages of India. The word "malayalam" originally
means mountainous country ("mala"- mountain, "alam"-valley), signifying its origin from the western ghats.
Malayalam now consists of 51 V/CV units including 15 long and short vowels and the remaining consonants
[4] [5]. The earlier style of writing is now substituted with a new style from 1981.
The field of phonetics includes the study of speech production and the acoustics of the speech signal, and
provides a way to effectively describe speech. Phones are mainly divided as vowels and consonants. Vowels
are identifiable phenomena in a given language. A consonant can be defined as a unit sound in spoken
language which are described by a constriction or closure at one or more points along the vocal tract. According
to Peter Ladefoged, consonants are just ways of beginning or ending vowels [6]. The word consonant comes
from Latin meaning "sounding with" or "sounding together", the idea being that consonants don't sound on
their own [7], but only occur with a nearby vowel. Consonants are made by restricting or blocking the airflow
in some way and each consonant can be distinguished by where this restriction is made [8]. The point of
maximum restriction is called the place of articulation of a consonant. A consonant also can be distinguished
by how the restriction is made. For example, where there is a complete stoppage of air or only a partial
blockage of it. This feature is called the manner of articulation of a consonant. The combination of place and
manner of articulation is sufficient to uniquely identify a consonant.
In the present study we propose Wavelet Hybrid Feature (WHF) method for extracting features for the
Malayalam CV speech unit recognition using Artificial Neural Network (ANN). O Farook proposed the use
of wavelet transform based feature extraction technique for Hindi phoneme recognition and proved that the
proposed technique achieves better performance over MFCC based features [9]. V Kabeer and N K Narayanan
has presented an artificial light receptor model using WHF feature vector and has proved to be an efficient
feature extraction technique for human face recognition [10]. Results of Malayalam vowel speech recognition
experiments using WHF vector and k-NN classifier are already reported in the literature [11]. We already
presented an algorithm for recognizing Malayalam aspirated CV units (ka, kha, ga,gha, nga) using Linear
Predictive Coding (LPC) parameters and has got good recognition accuracy since it describes 5 class problem
[12]. The recognition of CV units in any language is a very difficult task as there are more number of CV
classes compare to vowel classes and also due to the lack of suitable discriminant feature vectors. In the
present work we have employed WHF vector and ANN classifier for recognition of Malayalam CV speech
units.
This paper is organized as follows. Section 2 presents an over view on wavelet transforms. In Section 3,
WHF vector extraction method is described. In Section 4, an overview on Artificial Neural Network in
general and multi-layer perceptron in particular for speech recognition are discussed. This section also
describes the simulation experiment conducted using Malayalam CV speech database and reports the
recognition results obtained using ANN classifier. Finally, Section 5 gives the conclusions and direction for
future research.
2.

Wavelet Transform

Certain ideas of wavelet theory appeared quite a long time ago [13]. For the last decades the applications of
wavelet theory become very popular in the area of signal processing. Wavelets are mathematical tool in the
time frequency analysis of both one dimensional and two dimensional signals. Various important classes of
wavelets include smooth wavelets, compactly supported wavelets, symmetric and non symmetric wavelets,
orthogonal and bi orthogonal wavelets etc. The present study describes daubechies wavelets from the orthogonal
wavelet class. Wavelet analysis is performed using single prototype wavelet function called mother wavelet.
More generally a wavelet function (t) will satisfy the following properties.

(t ) = 0
182

(1)
Journal of Acoustical Society of India

Wavelet Hybrid Features for Malayalam CV Speech Unit Recognition using Artificial Neural Networks

2
| (t )| dt <

(2)

|( )|2

0 < || dw <

(3)

The condition in Eq. 3 is known as the admissibility condition on (t). () is the Fourier transform of (t).
The discrete wavelet transform (DWT) which is based on sub band coding is a fast computation of
wavelet transform which can be referred as classical wavelet decomposition (CWD). It is easy to implement
and reduces the computation time and resources required. The continuous wavelet transform (CWT) was
computed by changing the scale of analysis window, shifting the window in time, multiplying by the signal
and integrates over all time s. In the case of DWT , a time scale representation of the digital signal is obtained
using digital filtering techniques. Filters of different cutoff frequencies are used to analyze the signal at
different scales. The signal is passed through a high pass filters to analyze the high frequencies, and it is
passed through a series of low pass filters to analyze the low frequencies.
Wavelet packet decomposition (WPD) is a wavelet transform where the signal is passed through more
filters than DWT. In DWT, each level is calculated by passing only the previous approximation coefficients
through high and low pass filters. While in WPD, both the detail and approximation coefficients are
decomposed.
3.

WHF SPEECH FEATURE EXTRACTION

Wavelet Hybrid Feature (WHF) vector is generated using CWD and WPD. method to develop the feature
vectors for representing CV speech unit recognition in Malayalam language.
The process for extracting WHF feature vector is described below.
In the first step, the sound signal is made to undergo recursively to decompose into kth level of resolutions;
therefore the approximation coefficient matrix at this level is a sufficiently small representative of the original
sound signal and carries enough information content to describe sounds characteristics coarsely.
Let Ak represents this approximation matrix at decomposition level k, which can be written as
A1,1
A
2,1
Ak =
...

Ak ,1

A1,2

A2,2
...
Ak ,2

.... A1,n
.... A2,n

.... ....

.... Ak ,n

Then, the first component of WHF feature vector v1 is,


k

{ }

v1 = Ai , j
i =1 j =1

In the second step, for Wavelet Packet Decomposition, decompose each sound using kth level of resolutions for
the best level of wavelet packet decomposition tree. The first coefficient matrix at the best level tree contains
enough information to represent the given input consonant CV speech unit without loss of much speech
Journal of Acoustical Society of India

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T.M. Thasleema and N.K. Narayanan

features. Let represent mean of one row vector in the coefficient matrix then the WPD feature vector is given by

2 = i = 1,2,..m (number of rows in the best level coefficient matrix).


In the third step we combined v1 and v2 to form final WHF feature vector.
2

F = {vi }
i =1

Figure 1 given below shows the feature vector graph using WHF coefficients plotted for the CV speech
unit 'ka' uttered by first 10 different speakers. The feature number and the corresponding feature value graph
obtained for different speakers shows the similarity of the sound.

Fig. 1. Feature vector generated for ten CV speech unit for the sound 'ka' using WHF coefficients

4.

CLASSIFICATION USING ANN CLASSIFIER

ANN is an arbitrary connection of simple computational element [14]. In other words, ANN's are massively
parallel interconnection of simple neurons which are intended to abstract and model some functionalities of
human nervous systems [15, 16]. Neural networks are designed to mimic the human brain in order to emulate
the human performance and there by function intelligently [17]. Neural network models are specified by the
network topologies, node or computational element characteristics, and training or learning rules. The three
well known standard topologies are single or multilayer perceptrons, hopfield or recurrent networks and
Kohonen or self organizing networks.
Multi layer perceptron (MLP) consists of multiple layers of simple neurons that interact using weighted
connections. Each MLP is composed of a minimum of three layers consisting of an input layer, one or more
hidden layers and an output layer. The input layer distributes the inputs to subsequent layers. Input nodes
have linear activation functions and no thresholds. Each hidden unit node and each output node have
thresholds associated with them in addition to the weights. The hidden unit nodes have nonlinear activation
functions and the outputs have linear activation functions. Hence, each signal feeding into a node in a
subsequent layer has the original input multiplied by a weight with a threshold added and then is passed
through an activation function that may be linear or nonlinear (hidden units).
In the present work we used three layer multi layer perceptron network to classify each CV unit using a
CV speech database spoken by different speakers. Training is done using the back propagation algorithm. In
the present work we used 20 neurons in input layer, 10 neurons in the hidden layer and 36 neurons in the
output layer. During the experiment we repeated the iteration 6000 times for getting better recognition
accuracy. By changing the neurons in the hidden layer between 1 and 10 and we analyzed the classification
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Wavelet Hybrid Features for Malayalam CV Speech Unit Recognition using Artificial Neural Networks

accuracy in all the cases with various network parameters. From the experiment we found out that middle
layer with 10 nodes derive better classification result of 69 % than the other cases.
5.

CONCLUSION

The features obtained using the wavelet hybrid features shows higher recognition rates if the features are
extracted properly. Neural network classifier improves the recognition performance significantly. The result
shows that the wavelet transform can be effectively used for the extraction of features for speaker independent
CV speech recognition. Higher recognition performance can be achieved by using more complex classification
techniques like support vector machines. Further improvements in classification accuracy can be expected
with more careful experimentation with the exact details of the parameters and for other wavelet families.
6.
[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
[5]
[6]
[7]
[8]
[9]
[10]
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[16]
[17]

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PETER LADEFOGED, 2004. " Vowels and Consonants- an Introduction to the Sounds of Language",
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DANIAL JURAFSKY, JAMES H. MARTIN, 2004. "An Introduction to Natural Language Processing,
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V. KABEER and N.K. NARAYANAN, 2009. "Wavelet Based Artificial Light Receptor Model for Human
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IJWMIP (World Scientific), 7(5), 617-627.
T.M. THASLEEMA and N.K. NARAYANAN, 2008. "Malayalam Vowel Recognition Based On Wavelet
Hybrid Features and K-NN Algorithm". Proceedings of the Second international conference on
Cognition and Recognition - ICCR08, Mandiya, India, pp. 17-22.
T.M. THASLEEMA and N.K. NARAYANAN, 2010. " Consonant Speech Recognition based on Linear
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A. GROSSMAN, J. MORLET and P. GAOUPILLAUD, 1984. "Cycle octave and related transforms in
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W.S. MCCULLOUGH and W.H. PITTS, 1943. " A logical calculus of ideas immanent in nervous activity",
Bull Math Biophysics, 5, 115-133.
R.P. LIPPMANN, 1987. "An introduction to computing with Neural Nets", IEEE Trans. Acoustic Speech
& Signal Processing Magazine, 61, 4-22.
T. KOHONEN, 1988. "An introduction to Neural Computing, Neural Networks, Springer -Verlag.
SANKAR K. PAL and SUSHMITA MITRA, 1992. "Multilayer perceptron, Fuzzy sets, and Classification",
IEEE Trans. Neural Networks, 3(5), 683-697.

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

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Ranganayakulu
B.186-194)
Ramesh Kumar
Journal of Acoustical Society of IndiaS.V.
: Vol.
39, No. 4, 2012and
(pp.

Acoustic Emission Technique for Characterization of


Nuclear Reactor Materials - Brief Review
1Department

S.V. Ranganayakulu 1* and B. Ramesh Kumar 2

of Humanities and Sciences, Gurunank Engg College-Technical Campus


Ibrahimpatnam- 01 506, R.R.Dt, Hyderabad (AP)
2Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat-382 428, Gandhinagar (Gujarat)
*e-mail: svrnayakulu@gmail.com.
[Received: 13.04.012; Revised: 22.06.2012; Accepted: 24.08.2012]

ABSTRACT
Acoustic Emission technique is one of the potential tool for the materials evaluation in various
application with characteristic features. The stress released in the form of sound waves is responsible
for the acoustic emissions within the materials subjected to the conditions in the form of mechanical
or thermal loading. Several attempts were given from various areas of researchers to enhance the
application of acoustic emission monitoring as a potential diagnostic tool for the characterization of
materials. Nuclear reactor materials are having critical procedures for the inspection, maintenance
and operation of the components for the performance evaluation. Acoustic emission technique
advantages are exploited in the nuclear technology areas for the preventive maintenance of the
catastrophic effects during the operational conditions. The current development activities in the area
of nuclear fission reactors (Fast breeder reactors, Heavy water reactors, etc.) and fusion reactor
applications (tokamak , stellarators, ITER like devices etc.) are under active consideration world
wide showing cause of necessary for preventive maintenance and long life safe operation of reactor
components which are concerned on future energy resources and power generation aspects. The
present paper describes the review of on going research with Acoustic Emission technique application
in the nuclear technology areas with different applications of nuclear fission reactors and fusion
reactors. The failures occurring into the nuclear reactors in both fission and fusion reactor component
materials like welded joints of steel structures, pressure vessel leaks, superconducting magnet
quenching monitoring and first wall plasma divertor thermal gradients have applied this acoustic
emission technique for the monitoring applications. The potential advantages and limitations in
utilization of Acoustic emission technique as a tool will be discussed in this paper with examples.
Keywords: Acoustic emission, nuclear reactors, materials.

1. INTRODUCTION
Acoustic emission is the natural process. The materials which are under continuous stress loading condition
like mechanical and thermal loads will undergo plastic deformation and are the source of acoustic signals in
the form of sound waves [1, 2]. The materials under stress can be detected in due course or initial stages of the
process by using the application of acoustic emission technique. The potential areas of application of acoustic
emission technique as non destructive evaluation and online health monitoring purposes are aeronautical
components, chemical plants, pressure vessels and nuclear industry. Acoustic emission is widely applied in
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Acoustic Emission Technique for Characterization of Nuclear Reactor Materials - Brief Review

the materials research in monitoring for different parameters like crack growth initiation and propagation
[3-5], pressure vessel leak measurements [6-9], fatigue failures [10], weld in-process monitoring [11], plastic
deformation [12] and phase transformations[13-15] in steel materials. The present paper aimed to review the
acoustic emission technique applications and some highly demanding areas of future requirements in the area
of emerging field of nuclear reactor materials referring to fission and fusion reactors research. The efforts made
by several researchers towards exploiting acoustic emission technique towards application with nuclear
reactor technologies in both fission reactors (BWR,PHWR and PWR) and upcoming challenges in thermo
nuclear fusion reactors like ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) and sub systems health
monitoring and developments are reviewed [16-18]. The potential and limitations of the acoustic emission
method application are highlighted for the required new direction of material challenges in nuclear applications.
2. ACOUSTIC EMISSION BASIC WORKING PRINCIPLE AND INSTRUMENTATION
Some recent developments have given much attention into the nuclear reactor components performance
evaluation online inspection of components health and defect monitoring applications [19-23]. The basic
sources of acoustic emission are mainly due to the transient elastic energy stress wave released during the
loading onto the material in any form like stress, pressure or heat [1]. The AE technique is having advantages
as it is global, gives dynamic characteristics of events, real time monitoring of defects, volumetric technique
and source locations low operational cost. The signals of acoustic emission are mainly fall in the range of
audible to ultra sonic range frequencies (50 kHz-1 MHz) depending on the kind of load and material properties.
The acoustic emission system set-up consists of a source (component under test), PZT type sensors unit with
pre amplifier and amplifier with noise filters and a signal processing units. In general identification and
analysis of AE signals data for the confirmation of observed phenomena is involves critical observation with
noise elimination from the background sources. So data analysis is having serious impact on the discriminating
the AE signal data and noise filter techniques with more attention in the case of weak signals generating
sources. The AE signals are fall in two types namely burst emission mode and continuous emission mode. The
burst mode is in discrete formats with some time interval and where as the continuous mode having bunch of
burst mode without much time intervals. The detail schematic was shown in Fig.1. The detected signal consists
of AE signals along with the background noise and their duration and amplitude are dependent on the type
of source and its mechanism. The classification of signals with combined noise are to be analyzed carefully as
it may be difficult to distinguish in terms of noise.

Fig. 1. Basic schematic of AE system set-up and Signal features


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3.

NUCLEAR REACTORS BRIEF INTRODUCTION

The nuclear reactors are promising sources of green energy and have to be exploited in safe operational
conditions for energy requirements of society. The nuclear reactors with high energy generation are always
under planning and preparation process planned in all over the world with construction of like LWR, BWR,
PHWR, IV generation reactors etc [ 16 ].

Fig. 2. Schematic of BWR reactor


The nuclear power plants are operated in harsh conditions and can cause damages to the structural
components over longer periods of operation in the structural materials extensively used like austenitic stainless
steels and some other nuclear grade alloys. The schematic of BWR reactor for simple view and visualization
of the structural plan is shown in Fig.1 which clearly indicates the type of reactor components required to be
developed and long periodic operation and maintenance.

Fig. 3. Schematic of ITER fusion reactor and Power plant schematic


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In addition upcoming thermo nuclear fusion reactors being planned like ITER, DEMO type devices are
experimented for proof of principle for demonstration of clean fusion energy resources [17,18]. These reactor
subsystems like vacuum vessel, TBM (Test blanket modules), Divertor first wall plasma facing components
and Super conducting -cryogenic operated magnets etc. These components are fabricated with different kind
of stainless steel materials like SS 304, SS 316L(N)-IG and special type nuclear grade RAFM steels with
different joining techniques. Even though the safety in connection with nuclear damage onto society is feeble,
the safety of the sub system components which are in close association with reactor operation are highly
concerned with appropriate safety and maintenance.
4.

APPLICATIONS OF ACOUSTIC EMISSION IN FISSION REACTORS (PWR/PHWR/BWR )


ENVIRONMENT

Nuclear fission reactor technology is well established and its monitoring components health in long term
operational scenarios is major concern. The continuous working conditions of the reactor holds variety of
scenarios under structural, thermal and high pressure cyclic loads into the subsystems operation and
maintenance. The unforeseen failures may cause catastrophic effects and adverse effects in the operational
conditions and maintenance point of view of the reactor heavy vessels which are developed with different
types of nuclear grade stainless steel materials in the form of structural materials, vessels, coolant channel
pipes, fuel flow channels and welded joints. In service inspection has to be regularly carried out with nondestructive methods for the pressure vessel health monitoring. The AE technique is routinely applied in
pressure vessels leakage monitoring and identification , storage tanks, pipe lines for monitoring of crack
initiation and crack growth formation into these components which are under heavy loads from structural,
hydraulic and thermal conditions [4,5] and require continuous monitoring. Acoustic Emission is successfully
applied for the leak detection of both liquid and gas phase containers in PWHR and their leak path in both low
and pressure conditions [6]. They have applied the frequency domain analysis of the obtained measurements
and further analyzed the feasibility of the low pressure leakage signals. Acoustic emission during tensile
deformation occurs due to rapid release of transient energy from localized sources such as regions of relaxation
of stress and prior yielding conditions. The intensity of AE is proportional with the plastically deformed area
of the sample. Detailed experimented studies are attempted to differentiate signatures of acoustic emission in
different materials of nuclear grade AISI SS 304 and non nuclear grade 304 with notched specimens and un
notched specimens[24]. It was concluded that the notched specimens in nuclear grade AISI 304 shown more
acoustic emission characteristics with notched specimens and the AE signals enhanced with larger notch
lengths prior to and during yielding. The measurement and evaluation of stress corrosion cracking in SS 316L
in MgCl2 during the annealing conditions was studies and interpreted with the microscopic examination and
confirmed the applicability of AE technique is confirmed [25]. Some studies with EN and AE techniques were
carried out to study corrosion initiation and compared for SS 304 materials with NaCl environment and
significant measuremenst were observed with AE with sequentially[26].The nuclear fission reactor materials
health monitoring in various conditions for their safe operation and maintenance is essential for the reactor
life time and operational performance. The acoustic emission techniques is having potential utilization and
making in routine non destructive evaluation of the parametric analysis of events.
5.

FUSION REACTOR MATERIALS RESEARCH WITH ACOUSTIC EMISSION

5.1 Super Conductor Magnet Testing


Super conducting magnets are widely used in the thermonuclear fusion reactor applications[ 27,28 ]. The
performance of SCM is having crucial role as it is first prior requirement for the operation of the reactor. The
super conductor magnet operation with cryogenic fluid conditions like Liquid Helium and Liquid Nitrogen
environment for super critical to room temperature exposes lot of stresses during thermal cycles on to the
exposed materials. Quenching, heating are regular practices to qualify the magnetic coil joints performance
and qualification for operative conditions. The detailed application of Acoustic emission measurements with
SCM were reported in detailed experiments and theoretical analysis[29]. AE can be applied with multiple
sensor locations without get in touch with the SC coil and serves as a global technique for the strain monitoring
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and offers advantage over the other regular sensors which have to be coupled onto the SC coil [30,31]. The
fabrication and testing of HTS technology also have the potential application of Acoustic emission NDT
evaluation for the strain monitoring of the joints.
As per report [34], the testing of CS coil testing forth ITER main magnet system testing evaluation is
completely characterized with acoustic emissions from the CIC conductors of the model coil. The behaviour
during the operation was completely utilized with AE sensors extensively. SCM research and development
has strong association with acoustic emission monitoring for the performance evaluation as a strong candidate
for the NDT evaluation.
5.2 AE Application in Plasma Facing Components or Divertor
In fusion reactor, the plasma facing components which serve as heat sinks are divertor components. During
the plasma operation , due to plasma wall interaction scenarios the huge heat loads falling onto the plasma
first wall components can cause severe heat flux damages on the materials dn can halt the operational
conditions of the machine[ 35,36]. Critical Heat flux are to be identified before the failure of the component
conditions and the useful Acoustic methods are under intense consideration of various parties of ITER
programme. These HHF components basically undergo huge heat fluxes of the few orders of MWatt from
plasma radiation during plasma wall interaction. In order to have protection to the device wall some heat
conducting materials like Carbon fiber composites (CFC) are promising Plasma-Facing-Material (PFM)
candidates for the heat flux load carriers based on their superior material properties[ 37,38,39]. The detection
of failure events in ITER type operational regime is very high priority task to establish the acoustic methods for
the fault event detection.

Fig. 4. AE sensing of testing of SCM coils


6.

WELDING PROCESS MONITORING WITH ACOUSTIC EMISSION TECHNIQUE

The fabrication of nuclear reactor process utilize different stainless steel and special grade alloys of special
grade as per required guidelines from the materials point of view. The joining of these metals mainly use
different weld techniques like TIG, MIG, MAG, spot welds , Laser welds etc. for the development of sub system
components. high thick materials are highly demanding in fusion reactor fabrication in orders of ~ 60 mm as
per the demands [40,41 ] in ITER like devices. The quality assessment and inspection of welds is very important
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Fig. 5. a) Non-penetration phase; b) Transition phase; c) keyhole formation


for the integration. Offline techniques offer inspection procedures with after development and cost involvement
as any fault finding do require to be repaired in the later stage. Online inspection of weld quality is advantageous
for the immediate action against the defects during in-process control.
Acoustic emission applied by several researchers for on-line weld quality and applicability towards
development as a NDE effective tool. Even though the signal analysis and interpretation of the AE signals to
evaluate and interpret the results is typical to give straight conclusion, continuous efforts are under way to
envisage the AE signals [11, 42]. The applicability of AE signals for the assessment of weld quality with
GMAW was thoroughly attempted for the detailed comparison and interpretation [43]. They also have critically
noticed that the signals of Acoustic emission are mainly influenced by arc welding instrumentation and
shielding gases. Further, the influence of metal droplet mechanism showed more activity in AE rather than
microstructural changes during welding. The plasma arc welding online monitoring with sound emission of
acoustic signals was attempted to figure out the key hole depth [42]. How ever they have achieved they
observed the AE signals are mainly caused during the movement of the weld pool and formation of key-hole
with developed low frequency (100Hz) acoustic power spectra. The details are shown in Fig. 4 for the
visualization of plasma key-hole formation and concluded that the acoustic signals can used for the stability
monitoring purposes of the weld process. Resistance Spot Weld process monitoring with pipe welding is
attempted for the application of online acoustic emission measuremenst for the weld process monitoring
[45].Laser welding is also monitoring for the keyhole penetration condition in weld pool with acoustic emission
signals in high frequency range and interpreting them monitoring applications and their analysis [46]. Some
studies with Frictional stir welding of dissimilar metals in nuclear reactor application with RFM & SUS304 is
carried out with non destructive AE technique and confirmed the applicability of weld quality evaluation in
process by comparing the acoustic emission counts with Tensile properties [ 47-49]. The development activity
towards on-line inspection of weld process with AE techniques are still challenging because of the complexity
involved with weld process system integration sensors and the extraction of the actual signals out of the noise
signals. In view of the upcoming requirement in large scale weld processes for various nuclear power plants,
fusion reactors with thick SS weld fabrication processes, the development of weld analysis in on-line is highly
demanding and the only possible option is the acoustic monitoring development. The community has to put
efforts to make it inline with the demands of the obtain with to bring the, however, applications in this field
have declined due to their limitations.
7.

SUMMARY AND OUT LOOK

The potential applications of acoustic emission are reviewed in the area of nuclear fission and nuclear fusion
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reactor applications. The research and development in the areas of leak detection in pressure vessels, crack
detection and path identification, fatigue , stress corrosion cracking are applied with acoustic emission in
nuclear materials health monitoring extensively. Even though the online weld inspection is still having some
technological challenges it will be highly required for the in process development for thick materials welding
online analysis for the future requirements of FBR and ITER type reactor materials fabrication as unique online
NDT technique. Advanced signal analysis procedures have to be adopted for the clear analysis of the identified
problems in data processing of acoustic emission raw signals into the useful.
8.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

Greatefully acknowledgements due to scientist of IPR for valuable suggestions to include in this paper.
9.
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waves in SiC/SiC Composites", Composites Science and Technology, 62, 1171-1180.
X. COURTOIS, F. ESCOURBIAC, A. DUROCHER, B. RICCARDI, M. BOINET and M. MEROLA, 2007.
Acoustic precursors of critical heat flux on actively cooled fusion reactor components, in: Proceedings of
the 12th Nuclear Reactor Thermal Hydraulics Int. Meeting (NURETH), Pittsburgh.
L.P. JONES, P. AUBERT, V. AVILOV, F. COSTE, W. DAENNER, T. JOKINEN, K.R. NIGHTINGALE and
M. WYKES, 2003. Towards advanced welding methods for the ITER vacuum vessel sectors, Fusion
Engineering and Design, 69(1-4), 215-220.
M. ONOZUKA, J.P. ALFILE, PH. AUBERT, J.F. DAGENAIS, D. GREBENNIKOV, K. IOKI, L. JONES, K.
KOIZUMI, V. KRYLOV, J. MASLAKOWSKI, M. NAKAHIRA, B. NELSON, C. PUNSHON, O. ROY and G.
SCHRECK, 2001. Manufacturing and maintenance technologies developed for a thick-wall structure of
the ITER vacuum vessel , Fusion Engineering and Design, 55(4), 397-410.
G. DEUSTER and R. SINZ, 1983. Acoustic emission measurements during welding of a 250 mm test
plate, Nuclear Engineering and Design, 76(3), 299-308.
YAOWEN WANGA and PENSHENG ZHAOB, 2001. Noncontact acoustic analysis monitoring of plasma
arc welding, International Journal of Pressure Vessels and Piping, 78, 43-47.
LADISLAVGRAD, JANEZ GRUMB, IVAN POLAJNAR and JANEZ MARKO SLABE, 2004. Feasibility
study of acoustic signals for on-line monitoring in short circuit gas metal arc welding , International
Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture, 44 , 555-561.
Stability analysis of the gas metal arc welding process based on acoustic emission technique Welding
International, 23 ( 2009 )173.
SHANGLU YANG, WEI HUANG, DECHAO LIN, FANRONG KONG and RADOVAN KOVACEVIC.
Monitoring of the Spatter Formation in Laser Welding of Galvanized Steels in Lap Joint Configuration by
the Measurement of the Acoustic Emission.
HAN-KI YOON, YU-SIK KONG, SEON-JIN KIM and AKIRA KOHYAMA, 2006. Mechanical properties
of friction welds of RAFs (JLF-1) to SUS304 steels as measured by the acoustic emission technique, Fusion
Engineering and Design, 81(8-14), 945-950.
JOHN W. DOANE, 2004. Acoustic inspection of friction-stir weld, J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 116, 2627.
OH SAE-KYOO, HASUI ATSUSHI, KUNIO TAKESHI and WANG KUO-KING -Effects of Initial Energy
on Acoustic Emission Relating to Weld Strength in Friction Welding. Transactions of the Japan Welding
Society, Japan Welding Society ISSN:0385928, 13(2),15-26.

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

Vibration
of Bent
Using FEM
Journal of Acoustical Society of India
: Vol. 39,Analysis
No. 4, 2011
(pp. Pipes
195-199)

Vibration Analysis of Bent Pipes Using FEM


G.T.K. Manohar, Uday Shankar Roy and Abhijit Sarkar*
Machine Design Section, Department of Mechanical Engineering,
Indian Institute of Technology Madras, Chennai-600 036 (Tamil Nadu)
*e-mail: asarkar@iitm.ac.in
[Received: 18.12.2011; Revised: 27.07.2012; Accepted: 21.09.2012]

ABSTRACT
Voluminous literature is available on the dynamic analysis of straight circular pipes. Similar analyses
of bent pipes have not received wide attention in the research community. However, in most
engineering applications pipeline networks generally contain one or more bends. In this article, we
investigate the effect of bending radius on the natural frequencies of thin-walled pipes of circular
cross-section using Finite Element Method (FEM). The FEM computation is accomplished using
ANSYS. The boundary conditions at the ends are kept fixed. The modal analysis results are analyzed
so as to determine the trend in natural frequency for a fixed mode of vibration for different bent radii.
The objective of the analysis is to be able to infer from the results the effect of bend in terms of
additional mass or stiffness. This facilitates better understanding of the curved shell dynamics.
These results can also serve as benchmarks for further experimental or analytical investigations.

1.

INTRODUCTION

Piping networks are commonly used in various industrial applications for conveying fluids and gases. Common
examples of such applications occur in chemical industry, nuclear installations, aircraft fuselage, ventilation
ducts, etc. Such piping networks mostly consist of straight pipes of annular cross-section with small thickness.
However, to allow the fluid flow in different directions it also has bent portions. These bent portions join in to
the straight pipes.
Vibration of such piping system is of great interest to the engineering community. Failures have been
known to occur in such systems in response to dynamic loads. Further, condition monitoring systems for fault
detection in these structures have evolved based on these vibration studies. Vibration prediction of straight
pipes usually employs the well established thin shell theory.
There exists voluminous literature on straight pipes modelled as thin circular cylindrical shells. A
comprehensive review of this material has been carried out by Leissa [1]. Similar analyses of bent pipes have
not received wide attention in the research community.
Huang et al. [2] has formulated the equations of motion or bent pipe in toroidal coordinate system using
Sanders shell theory. Further, numerical results were presented and compared with earlier published work on
Donell-Mushtari-Vlasov shell theory [7], as well as with Finite Element Method (FEM) results. Salley [3] has
demonstrated the efficacy of using FE analysis for similar pipe geometries by comparing with experimental
results.
In the present work, we wish to study the effect of bend in thin-walled circular cylindrical shells. For this
we use Finite Element Analysis through the commercial package ANSYS. The variation of natural frequencies
2012 Acoustical Society of India

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G.T.K. Manohar, Uday Shankar Roy and Abhijit Sarkar

with increasing bend angles is presented. The results shown are for two modes of vibration. The analysis
shows the effect of bend angle is in terms of added stiffness for certain modes of vibration whereas for some
other modes the effect of bend can be interpreted as an added mass on the straight cylindrical shell. Further, the
value of added stiffness or mass is dependent on the mode of vibration.
2.

METHOD

The commercial FEM program ANSYS is used in this study to determine the natural frequencies of straight
and bent pipes as described above (see figure 1a and 1b). For the analysis we use quadrilateral 4 noded shell
elements (SHELL63 in ANSYS). It has both bending and membrane capabilities. The model parameters used in
the analysis is shown in Table 1. The validation process of the FEM model is described in the Appendix.

Fig. 1. Geometry of the models used for analyses shown in orthographic projection (a) straight pipe (b) bent pipe
Modal analysis is performed for different bend angles of the pipe keeping both ends as fixed (all dofs at the
ends are constrained to zero). All other parameters indicated in Table 1 is kept constant.
Table 1. Parameters used in modelling
Length of pipe

3m

Young's modulus

2.1 1011N/m2

Thickness of the cross section

5mm

Density

7850 kg/m3

Radius of the cross section

10cm

Poisson's ratio

0.3

It is well known that for straight circular cylindrical thin shells the modes of vibration of a cross-section is
in the form of cos(n) (where n is any integer and theta is the circumferential coordinate) [2]. Schematic
presentations of these modes are shown in Fig. 2. Further, in the above reference it is shown that the ordering
of the natural frequencies corresponding to these modes is not strictly monotonically increasing with n.
Specifically the natural frequency for the n=0 mode may be higher than the natural frequencies for the n =1 and
the n = 2 mode. This is attributed to the interplay of membrane and bending effects in the shell geometry.

Fig. 2. Cross-sectional view of the mode shapes of straight circular cylindrical thin shells.
The mode shapes are in the form of cos(n ), n being an integer (a) n = 0, (b) n = 1, (c) n = 2
196

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Vibration Analysis of Bent Pipes Using FEM

As said earlier, in the present work the objective is to investigate the primary effect introduced due to the bend
in straight circular pipes. For this, the analysis is limited to small bend angles in the range of 1 degree to 10
degree in steps of one degree. Further, it is verified from the simulation results that the modal deflection pattern
of the cross-section of bent pipes remain approximately same as in straight pipes viz. of the form cos (n) [ Fig. 2].
This is attributed to the small bend angle. For higher bend angles even the mode shape will change. The
primary interest here is to identify the change in natural frequencies of these vibration modes.
3.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The modal analysis results are studied to identify the modes corresponding to n=1. As shown in Fig. 2., in the
n = 1 mode the cross-section executes a translational motion transverse to the axis. This can happen in two
ways, namely (a) translation of the cross section along the y direction (b) translation of the cross section along
the z direction. Thus, there are two n=1 modes corresponding to these translations. In this article, we refer to
these modes as n =1 (y) and n=1 (z), respectively.
Similarly, modal analysis results are studied to identify the modes corresponding to n=2. As shown in
Fig. 2., in the n =2 mode the cross-section oscillated in the form of ellipse. Again this can happen in two ways,
namely (a) the major axis of the ellipse along the y axis (b) the major axis of the ellipse along the z direction. In
this article, we refer to these modes as n =2 (y) and n=2 (z), respectively. All the four modes described above are
illustrated in Fig. 3.
Due to symmetry of the straight pipe, the natural frequencies of the pairs described in each of the earlier
two paragraphs are identical. However, for bent pipes this symmetry is disturbed. Hence, we wish to study the
variation of these natural frequencies.

(a) n=1(z) mode

(b) n=1(y) mode

(c) n=2(z) mode

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G.T.K. Manohar, Uday Shankar Roy and Abhijit Sarkar

(d) n=2(y) mode


Fig. 3. Mode shapes of a straight pipe
The natural frequencies corresponding to the modes described above are tabulated. These results are nondimensionalized with respect to the corresponding natural frequency of the straight pipe. The variation of the
non-dimensional frequency with increasing bend angle is shown in Fig. 4.
Variation of natural frequencies with respect to increasing bend angle is different for n=1(y) and n=1(z)
mode as shown in Fig. 4. As bend angle increases, it is seen from the figure that the natural frequency of the
n=1(y) mode increases while the natural frequency of the n=1(z) mode decreases. The former has a more rapid
rate of change than the later. Thus, the influence of bend angle is in the form of additional stiffness for the
n=1(y) mode whereas for the n=1(z) mode the effect of bend angle is that of additional mass.
In case of n=2(y) and n=2(z) mode, cross section of pipe oscillates in the form of ellipse. It is observed that
as the bend angle increases, rate of increase of natural frequencies is minimal. Variation of normalised natural
frequency for the pair of n=2 mode is same because the oscillations in the form of ellipse along y and z
directions are identical with the increase of bend angle.

Fig. 4. Normalised natural frecuency Vs Bend angle


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4.

CONCLUSION

Natural frequency analysis of bent pipes has been presented in this article. Finite Element Method using the
commercial package ANSYS has been used for the calculations. The objective of the study is to understand the
effect of bend angles on modal stiffness and modal masses. The investigation has been limited to two different
modes of vibration for the straight pipe. The incorporation of bend entails a loss of axial symmetry and each of
these two modes bifurcate into two modes for the bent pipe (giving a total of four modes). These are illustrated
in figure 3. Further, variations in natural frequency for each of these modes are studied as a function of the bend
angle. It is found that the beam mode in the plane of the bend angle has a comparatively sharp increase in
natural frequency. In contrast, the beam mode in the other orthogonal plane shows a gradual decrease in
natural frequency. Both the n=2 modes, shows an equally increasing trend in the natural frequency. For the
cases of increasing (or decreasing) natural frequencies, the incorporation of bend angle is thus analogous to
additional stiffness (or mass) of the straight pipe. These results serve as a reference point for further analytical
investigation of dynamic analysis of bent pipes as a geometric perturbation of straight pipes [6].
APPENDIX: Validation of the FE Analysis
Apart from the mesh convergence validation, the following exercise was done to ensure the accuracy of the
FEM model. In beam theory, for fixed-fixed end condition with central point load, the deflection and natural
frequencies can be calculated with the help of standard analytical formulae [4, 5]. Straight circular cylindrical
shell with the same boundary condition and loading is analysed using ANSYS. The results obtained by the
two methods are verified to be close. This validates the analysis for straight pipes and allows us to use the FEA
model even for bent configurations. The results of these analyses are presented below.
When the central load of 20000N is applied, the deformation calculated with analytical formulae is

Fl 2
= 9.19E-04m. For the same data, Ansys results were found to be 9.76E-04m. The percentage error is
192 El

therefore 6.17%. Similarly the natural frequency using well-known relations is = 22.37

El
=887 rad/sec.
l4

Ansys modal analysis results in this case is 135.11 Hz (= 849.26rad/sec). The percentage change in error of
these values is 4.21%.
5.
[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
[5]
[6]
[7].

REFERENCES
A. W. LEISSA, 1973. "Vibration of Shells", NASA Technical Report no. NASA SP-288.
D.HUANG, B. XU AND D. REDEKOP, 1997. Natural frequencies and mode shapes of curved pipes,
Computers and Structures, 63(3), 465-473.
LAURENCE SALLEY and JIE PAN, 2002. A study of the modal characteristics of curved pipes, Applied
Acoustics, 63, 189-202.
S. THIMESHENKO and D.H. YOUNG, 1968. "Elements of Strength of Materials", EWP Private Limited,
5th edition.
W.T. THOMSON, M.D. DAHLEH and P. CHANDRAMOULI, 2008. "Theory of Vibrations with
Applications", Pearson Education, 5th edition.
A. SARKAR and V.R. SONTI, 2009. Wave equations and solutions of an in vacuo and fluid-filled elliptic
cylindrical shell, International Journal of Acoustics and Vibration, 14, 35-45.
D. REDKOP, 1994. Natural frequencies of a short curved pipe, Transactions CSME, 18, 35-45.

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

199

Saravanakumar,
and K. Senthilkumar
Journal of Acoustical Society ofA.India
: Vol. 39, No.S.Arunkumar
4, 2012 (pp. 200-208)

Localization of Low Flying Aircraft Based on Its


Acoustic Signature
1Division

A. Saravanakumar 1*, S.Arunkumar 1 and K. Senthilkumar 1


of Avionics, Department of Aerospace Engineering, Madras Institute of Technology
Campus, Anna University. Chennai-600 044 (Tamil Nadu)
*e-mail: Saravanakumar_a@yahoo.com
[Received: 19.02.2012; Revised: 18.07.2012; Accepted: 22.10.2012]

ABSTRACT
An aircraft generates an acoustic impulse that propagates outwards from the source. The position of
the source and hence the trajectory can be estimated by measuring the relative time of arrival of the
impulse at a number of spatially distributed sensors. The time difference for the acoustic wave front
to arrive at two spatially separated sensors is estimated by cross correlating the digitized outputs of
the sensors. The time delay estimate is used to calculate the source bearing and the position of the
source is found using triangulation technique using the bearings from two widely separated receiving
nodes. The flight parameter of the aircraft is obtained by Cepstrum method using acoustic Multipath
delays. The signal emitted by an UAV arrives at a stationary sensor located above a flat ground via a
direct path and a ground-reflected path. The difference in the times of arrival of the direct path and
ground-reflected path signal components is known as the Multipath delay. A model is developed to
predict the variation with time and Cepstrum method is formulated to estimate the motion parameters
like speed and altitude of the aircraft.

1. INTRODUCTION
Acoustic techniques have been widely used in variety of fields. An aircraft which is an acoustic source produces
sound that can be received by placing sensors on the ground that captures the sound waves propagated
through the air. Acoustic sensors are used widely because of their passiveness, affordability, robustness, and
compatibility. Ground sensors are often deployed in remote areas for surveillance and early warning purposes
[1]. Due to the high levels of acoustic energy radiated by the propulsion systems of aircraft and by the engines
of vehicles, it is possible to detect these sources using passive acoustic sensors mounted close to the ground.
Here described a technique that utilizes the Lloyd's mirror effect [2] of the radiated sound to estimate the speed,
altitude of a low-flying aircraft by using only a single sensor. The localization of acoustic source is usually
done with sensor array in which the output of each sensor is a scalar corresponding to the acoustic pressure.
For linear trajectory, we consider a different approach for solving this problem using Acoustic Vector Sensor
whose output is a vector corresponding to the acoustic pressure and acoustic particle velocity. The main
advantage of these vector sensors over traditional scalar sensors is that they make use of more available
acoustic information, hence they should outperform sensor array in accuracy of localization [6]. An array of
sensors has been used to find the non linear trajectory as it will be a convenient way to find the trajectory of an
aircraft.
2.

EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE

2.1 Multipath Propagation


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Localization of Low Flying Aircraft Based on Its Acoustic Signature

In a Multipath propagation environment, two or more attenuated and delayed replicas of the same radiated
signal are received at a sensor. Based on the model of the Lloyd's mirror effect, a method has been formulated
to estimate the flight parameters of the source. In that method, the time-frequency distribution of the sensor
output is treated as an image. This image is preprocessed to enhance the fringe pattern and then the flight
parameters are extracted from the resultant image by optimizing a cost function. The temporal variation of the
multipath delay (time difference between the arrival of the ground-reflected path signal and the direct path
signal), and then minimize the sum of the squared deviations of the noisy multipath delay estimates from their
predicted values over a sufficiently long period of time. The multipath delay is estimated by finding the
Cepstrum of the sensor output over a short time interval [3, 5]. The performances of the proposed flight
parameter estimation methods are evaluated using real data recorded from the sensor.
2.2 Time-delay Model
Consider an airborne acoustic source (aircraft) moving in a straight line at constant subsonic speed v and
constant altitude ht over a hard ground. An acoustic sensor is located at a height hr above the ground [5]. The
source is at the closest point of approach (CPA) to the sensor at time c, with the ground range at the CPA being
dc. However the aircraft which we considered flies at varying velocity and at different altitudes. But for study
purpose we consider that it is flying at constant velocity, constant altitude and follow a straight line.
The source emits a broadband random acoustic signal, which arrives at the sensor via a direct path and a
ground-reflected path. A model for the temporal variation of the multipath delay is derived below using a
quasi-stationary approach.[4,8] To calculate the multipath delay at a given time t, the source is assumed to be
fixed at the position at an earlier time (< t) which accounts for the sound propagation delay from the source to
the sensor. For this model the height of the sensor from the ground surface is about 1 meter. The source-sensor
geometry used for the calculation of multipath delay time is depicted below[5].

Fig. 1. Source-sensor geometry


The delay time for the desired model is obtained as
D(t )

2(cr2 vr2 )/cr2


v 2 (cr2 + vr2 ) + cr2 vt2 ( c )2 vr vt ( c )

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where, the values of vr, vt, , cr given by


(1a)

vr = v / hr
vt = v / ht

(1b)

= (1 + ( dc / ht )2

(1c)

cr = c / hr

(1d)

Note that D(t) is a function of {vr,vt, c,}or equivalently the flight parameters {v,ht,c,dc}. The main flight
parameters such as {vr,vt, c,} or equivalently {v, ht ,tc,} estimated using a non-linear least square method [5].
That is by minimizing the sum of squared deviations of delay estimates from their predicted values. Defining
the parameter vector as
(2)

z = [ vr , vt , c , ]T
^

The estimate of z which is z = [ v r , v , c , ]T is obtained by minimizing the cost function


K

[D(tk D(tk , z))]2

P( z) =

(3)

k =1

where,
^

D(t k ) is the multipath delay time at tk and D(tk, z) is the corresponding predicted value using(1) the model for

1 k K . Given the sensor height hr, the speed, altitude and CPA ground range of the source is estimated as
^

^ ^

v = hr vr

(4)

ht = v/ vt

(5)
^

dc =|ht ( 2 1)|

(6)

The multipath delay at time tk is estimated using Cepstrum method.


2.3 Model for Linear Trajectory
The relationship between the target trajectory and the single sensor can be simply described by two parameters.
One is the slant range from the sensor to the CPA (closest point to approach), denoted as r. The other is x0,
which represents the initial position coordinate to a new axis that is built along the trajectory line and makes
the CPA as its origin.
2.4 Triangulation Method for Non-linear Trajectory
By knowing the sensor separation distances and the speed of sound propagation in the medium, a threeelement linear array can be used to estimate the range and bearing of the source by measuring the time delay
between the center sensor and each of the other two sensors [7].
The Fig. 3 shows the principle of triangulation using two nodes. The source and the two nodes, labeled 1
and 2, are located on the x - y plane at coordinates (xs,ys), (x1,y1), and (x2,y2), respectively, with the y axis
pointing towards the north. The bearing lines from the two nodes intersect to determine a unique source
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Fig. 2. Parameter model for a single sensor


location. Assuming line-of-sight propagation, the source position is given by
xs= (ys-y1)tan1+x1,

(7)

ys= (x2-x1 +y1 tan1-y2tan2)/(tan1- tan2).

(8)

Fig. 3. Triangulation method for finding the position


The source bearing can be estimated using either pair of sensors or both. An estimate of the source bearing
with respect to the NS sensor pair axis is given by
(9)

NS= cos-1(c12/d)

where c is the speed of sound propagation in air and ?12 is the time delay between sensors 1 and 2 and same
wise calculated for EW pair. Since both pairs are orthogonal, it could also be found as
NS=tan-1(13/12).

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2.5. Cepstrum
Consider a signal which has an echo i.e., delayed components of the signal. When Fourier spectral density
(spectrum is taken), the spectrum of signal with echo has the form of envelope that modulates a periodic
function of frequency i.e., the spectrum of echo. By taking log of spectrum, the product is converted to sum of
two components, one of the original signal and the other an additive periodic component whose fundamental
frequency is the echo (delay).In conventional analysis, such periodic components show up as lines or sharp
peaks when the original wave form contained an echo. This new spectral representation domain was not
frequency domain nor is it time domain, so it is termed as quefrency domain. The cepstrum of the data block is
obtained by applying a FFT to the logarithm of its power spectrum.
2.6 Data analysis to Estimate Multipath Time Delay
The data from sensor are processed in overlapping blocks, each containing 40000 samples, with 50% overlap
between two consecutive data blocks. Each data block is divided into three 50% overlapping sections and their
periodograms are calculated using FFT (Fast Fourier Transform). The three periodograms are then averaged to
give the power spectrum of the data block. The cepstrum of the data block is obtained by applying a FFT to the
logarithm of its power spectrum. Each peak in the cepstrum corresponds to a rahmonic and the position of the
first rahmonic (peak) along the quefrency axis gives the multipath delay estimate. The delay time estimated
and the predicted delay time gives the error delay value which is minimized using a cost function.
2.7 Calculation of Direction
Filtering has been done on the pressure signal which is multiplied with velocity vectors to obtain the intensity
vectors in each axis. By assuming a cylindrical coordinate (r, , ) with Acoustic Vector Sensor as origin

= cos 1 I Z / ( I X 2 + IY 2 + I Z 2 )
= cos -1 I Z / ( I X 2 + IY 2 )

(12)

where IX, IY, IZ are the intensity vectors along X, Y, Z axis respectively. To find the initial direction average of ten
samples in each direction has taken and applied the above formula. For getting the direction of CPA time taken
from initial position to CPA has calculated using aircraft velocity (v) and distance from CPA to initial position
(x0) both of them obtained through iteration of aircraft parameters.
3.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The total duration of the flight is about 690 seconds. The data has pressure component and three velocity
components but the main interest is on pressure component which is sampled at a frequency of 20 kHz and the
number of samples is around 1 crore and 37 lakh. The duration of flight is truncated for about 200 seconds
such that this period of duration gives the exact flight period.
Total duration of flight = 689.04695 seconds
Sampled frequency = 20000 kHz
Total number of samples = 13780939
Truncated duration = 200 seconds
Number of samples = 4000000
A. Initial estimation of the parameters
The initial estimate of is obtained using the following procedure.

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^ 1

1) Finding the time ^t at which D (t ) 1/ D(t ) is the minimum.


0
^ 1 ^0

^0

2) Computing = 2 D ( t 0 )/ cr
^0
vr

3) Calculating

^ 1

where D

^ 1

= cr

^ 1

D+ + D

^ 1 ^ 1
D+ D

and

^0
v

4
=
cr

^ 1 ^ 1

D+ D
^ 1 ^ 1
D D
+

^ 1

and D+ are the respective gradients of two straight lines that provide best fit to the first few and
^ 1

last few data points of D (t ) .

4) Calculating

^0
tc

^0
t0

^0 ^ 0
vr
^0

cr v t

3.1. Calculated Parameters for Finding the Trajectory


From the recorded pressure signal the following parameters are calculated
Initial Position from CPA

= 14m

Closest Point of Approach

= 8.2m

Source frequency

= 1692.7 Hz

Time to reach CPA from


initial position tCPA

= 5.6 seconds

Initial range to aircraft, d0

= 16.1892m

Initial position
In Cylindrical coordinate
(d0, , ) = (16.1892m, 123.15470, 32.66350)
In Cartesian coordinate
(x1,y1,z1) = (11.4020m 7.3134m -8.8656m)
Closest point of approach
In Cylindrical coordinate
(r, , ) = (8.1807m, 129.38570, 44.96250)
In Cartesian coordinate
(x2,y2,z2) = (5.7617m 3.6956m -4.4800m)
The multipath delay is calculated for different values of time. The maximum multipath delay is found to be
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A. Saravanakumar, S.Arunkumar and K. Senthilkumar

Fig. 4. Spectrogram of a flight transit

Fig. 5. Fast Fourier transform of a block

Fig. 6. Multipath delay vs time


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Fig. 7. Spectrogram of Intensity vector in X direction

Fig. 8. Spectrogram of Intensity vector in Y direction

Fig. 9. Spectrogram of intensity vector in Z direction


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1.1 ms which occurs at 22nd second. This delay value is used to calculate the delay inverse from which the
initial estimation of the parameters is found. The estimated values of velocity and Altitude using Cepstrum are
35 m/s and 15 m respectively.
Based on the Cartesian coordinates obtained for initial position and CPA, trajectory has been plotted.
4.

CONCLUSION AND FUTURE WORKS

In this work, flight parameters such as velocity, altitude and straight line trajectory of an aircraft are estimated
using a single Acoustic Vector Sensor on the assumption that aircraft following a straight line trajectory. This
method exploits the both the scalar as well as vector properties of sound signal for trajectory estimation.
Cepstrum algorithm is used to calculate the four flight parameters with the pressure signal obtained. from a
single AVS. The pressure signal along with velocity vectors are filtered and multiplied to get the intensity
vectors. By making use of intensity vectors direction has been found out. Non linear trajectory of the source is
found by triangulation method and it is in progress.
5.
[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
[5]
[6]
[7]
[8]

208

REFERENCES
H.E. DEBREE, JELMER WIND, ERIC DRUYVESTEYN and HENK TE KULVE, 2010, "Multipurpose
Acoustic Vector Sensors for Battlefield Acoustics - A passive sensor to detect multi events that can be
used on multiple platforms", NATO Symposium DAMA, Norway.
K.W.LO, S.W. PERRY and B.G. FERGUSON, 2002, "Aircraft flight parameter estimation using acoustical
Lloyd's mirror effect", IEEE Transactions on Aerospace & Electronics Systems , 38 (1).
DAI HONGYAN ZOU and HONGXING, 2007, "Aircraft motion parameter estimation via Multipath
time-delay using a single ground based passive acoustic sensor". Journal of electronics.
TAOWANG and QUNWAN, 2007. "Motive Parameters Estimation Using Narrow-band Passive
Acoustical Measurements". IEEE Transactions of Aerospace and Electronic Systems.
KAM W.LO, BRIAN G.FERGUSON, YUJINGA and LAIN MAGUER, 2003. "Aircraft Flight parameter
Estimation using Acoustic Multipath delay". IEEE Transactions of Aerospace and Electronic Systems, 39 (1).
S. SADASIVAN, HE DEBREE and TOM BASTEN, 2009. "Acoustic Vector Sensor based Intensity
Measurements for Passive Localization of Small Aircraft", Journal of Acoustical Society of India, 36(1) 8-13.
BRIAN G. FERGUSON, LIONEL G. CRISWICK and KAM W LO, 2002. "Locating far-field Impulsive
sound sources in air by triangulation", Acoustical Society of America.
KAM W. LO and B.G. FERGUSON, 2000. "Broadband Passive Acoustic Technique for Target Motion
Parameter Estimation", IEEE Transactions of Aerospace and Electronic Systems.

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

Localization of Low Flying Aircraft Based on Its Acoustic Signature

Fig. 2. Parameter model for a single sensor


location. Assuming line-of-sight propagation, the source position is given by
xs= (ys-y1)tan1+x1,

(7)

ys= (x2-x1 +y1 tan 1-y2tan2)/(tan 1- tan2).

(8)

Fig. 3. Triangulation method for finding the position


The source bearing can be estimated using either pair of sensors or both. An estimate of the source bearing
with respect to the NS sensor pair axis is given by
(9)

NS= cos-1(c12/d)

where c is the speed of sound propagation in air and 12 is the time delay between sensors 1 and 2 and same
wise calculated for EW pair. Since both pairs are orthogonal, it could also be found as
NS=tan-1(13/12).

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

(10)

203

of Glycine,
Citric
Aqueous NaCl at Different Temperatures
Journal ofAcoustical
AcousticalStudy
Society
of India :Fructose
Vol. 39, and
No. 4,
2012Acid
(pp. in
209-215)

Acoustical Study of Glycine, Fructose and Citric Acid in


Aqueous NaCl at Different Temperatures
Alka Tadkalkar 1* and Govind K. Bichile 2

1Department of Physics, Yogeshwari Mahavidyalaya, Ambajogai- 431 517


2Department of Physics, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University,

Aurangabad-431 001 (Maharashtra)


*e-mail: tadkalkar_alka@rediffmail.com

[Received: 29.04.2012 ; Revised: 25.06.2012 ; Accepted: 25.10.2012]

ABSTRACT
Ultrasonic velocity, density and viscosity measurements of Glycine, Fructose and Citric acid at different
concentrations in aqueous NaCl have been carried out at 298.15 , 303.15 and 308.15 K in solute
concentration of 1- 5 % gm.The experimental data have been used to calculate various acoustical
parameters such as adiabatic compressibility, change in adiabatic compressibility, relative change
in adiabatic compressibility and intermolecular free length. The results suggest the presence of
molecular interactions. The effect of temperature variation on the strength of molecular interactions
has been studied and the data have been quantitatively explained in terms of solute-solute and
solute-solvent interactions.
Keywords: Ultrasonic velocity, density, viscosity, glycine, fructose and citric acid at different,
aqueous NaCl, relative change in adiabatic compressibility.

1. INTRODUCTION
Ultrasonic wave propagation in liquids has been the subject of exhaustive research which has been carried out
theoretically and practically. The ultrasonic velocity measurements find wide applications various in
characterizing the physico-chemical behavior of liquid mixture and molecular interaction in pure liquids
[1-2], liquid mixture [3-6], electrolytic solution [7-9] at various temperatures [10-11]. Many workers [12-13]
have studied the solute-solvent interactions in aqueous and non aqueous solutions [14-15]. Citric acid is a tri
basic, environmentally acceptable and versatile chemical. As it occurs in metabolism of almost all living
things, its interactions in an aqueous solution is of great value to the biological scientists. Citric acid can be
used as cleaning agent and acts as antioxidant. It has wide applications in medicine and industry.
Ultrasonic study on the amino acids, with aqueous solution of electrolytes and non electrolytes provides
useful information in understanding the behavior of liquid systems, intramolecular and intermolecular
association, complex formation and related structural changes. The study of carbohydrates has become a
subject of increasing interest because of the multi dimentional,physical,biochemical and industrially useful
properties of these compounds. In addition to their importance to the food, pharmaceutical and chemical
industries, simple Saccharides have received considerable attention for their ability to protect biological
macromolecules [16]. In the present paper an effort has been made to determine the acoustic parameters of
three systems as,
2012 Acoustical Society of India

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

209

Alka Tadkalkar and Govind K. Bichile

System 1: aq.NaCl + Fructose


System 2: aq.NaCl + Glycine
System 3: aq.NaCl + Citric acid
At different temperatures in the range 298-308 K in the solute concentration of 1-5 % gm (by weight) to study the
strength of molecular interactions and predict the solution properties .
2.

EXPERIMENTAL

All the chemicals used were of AR grade. Fructose (99.8%), Glycine (99.0%), Citric acid (99.8%) and Sodium
chloride (99.9%) were obtained from Research lab, Fine Chem. Industries, Mumbai-400 002. These chemicals
were used without further purification. Water used in the present investigation was double distilled. The
solute and solvents were purified by standard procedure [17]. The density measurements were made by a 25
ml specific gravity bottle, the accuracy in density measurements was found to be 0.001g/cc.
All the weights were made on digital balance with an accuracy of 1 10-5kg. Ultrasonic sound velocity
measurement was made by single crystal interferometer (F-81, Mittal Enterprises, and New Delhi) at 2 MHz
with an accuracy of 2ms-1. The temperature of the solutions placed in the interferometer cell was changed
through 5C (from 298.15 K to 318.15 K) by circulating water around the cell from a thermostat. The viscosity
of the solutions at different temperatures and concentrations were measured with Ostwald's viscometer
apparatus. The temperature was maintained with an accuracy of 0.1 C.
3.

THEORY

The adiabatic compressibility () is given by:

1
u2

(1)

The change in adiabatic compressibility calculated by:

= 0

(2)

Relative change in adiabatic compressibility is determined by:

0
4.

(2)
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

In system 1 (glycine related), intermolecular interactions of electrostriction and hydrophilic nature exists .This
is due to existence of ion-solvent or solute -solvent interaction. In glycine, COOH group shows more association
with ions of sodium chloride. The ultrasonic velocity increases in the solution because the solution is in
dimeric form. In glycine ionisable and acceptable groups are more; also glycine is neutral molecule because of
its zwitterionic nature. Hence association is more compared to citric acid and fructose [18].
In the system 1, interactions may be taking place as ion-dipolar or hydrophilic interactions between the
ions (Na+&CH3COO - ), (Cl- &NH3+) [19].
In case of system 2, in fructose COOH group is absent. In aqueous NaCl there is more H-bonding.
Therefore ultrasonic velocity increases. In sugars, OH group is functional leading High values of ultrasonic
velocity. The association in mixture is result of H-bonding between solute and solvent.
In case of system 3, due to carboxylic group OH ion concentration increases more, therefore pH of
solution increases. In aqueous NaCl, citric acid forms salt. Salt shows dissociation. This shows again decrease
210

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

Acoustical Study of Glycine, Fructose and Citric Acid in Aqueous NaCl at Different Temperatures

in ultrasonic velocity .Thus this solution is denser than other two solutions for the sound waves. The acetic
radical is formed in citric acid with NaCl solution I.e. carboxyl ate ion is formed. The solute-solvent interaction
follows the order Glycine>Fructose>Citric acid.
The viscosity values for all three systems have been presented in Tables 1-3. It is evident from these
Tables, that viscosity () values increase with increase of concentration of solute, showing the presence of
strong solute- solvent interactions. Also suggest more association.
Table 1. Variation in Density, viscosity and Velocity of (aqueous NaCl +Fructose) at different
wt%
Con.

Density() kg/m3
298.15

303.15

308.15K

Viscosity() Nsm-2
298.15 303.15 308.15K

Velocity(u) m/s
298.15

303.15

308.15K

1058.0

1060.4

1060.0

09.158

10.964

09.915

1583.90

1500.24

1583.60

1076.7

1067.0

1068.4

11.321

11.221

11.160

1575.08

1580.04

1584.08

1081.3

1081.1

1079.5

11.400

11.332

11.275

1599.40

1600.08

1664.64

1091.3

1090.5

1087.2

11.475

11.447

11.709

1503.20

1565.44

1565.44

1109.4

1108.1

1104.1

11.502

11.551

11.806

1612.76

1624.08

1634.44

1123.9

1121.4

1195.0

11.652

11.780

11.915

1632.68

1635.52

1637.20

Table 2. Variation in Density, viscosity and Velocity of (aqueous NaCl +Glycine) at different
concentration and temperature at 2MHz
wt%
Con.

Density() kg/m3
298.15

303.15

308.15K

Viscosity() Nsm-2
298.15 303.15 308.15K

Velocity(u) m/s
298.15

303.15

308.15K

1060.4

1060.0

1058.0

10.9637

09.9150

09.1575

1500.24

1583.60

1583.90

1062.4

1051.6

1051.1

10.3060

09.6309

09.0717

1561.53

1572.20

1576.20

1067.0

1065.0

1064.0

11.1288

10.1002

10.4020

1563.67

1581.21

1576.90

1073.2

1064.7

1061.3

12.1288

10.9401

10.1402

1564.28

1589.70

1597.80

1074.0

1072.2

1070.2

15.2598

13.1559

10.4132

1568.14

1601.80

1607.00

1077.4

1076.7

1075.6

15.6058

14.2682

10.6920

1613.80

1610.80

1612.00

Table 3. Variation in Density, viscosity and Velocity of (aqueous NaCl +Citric acid) at different
concentration and temperature at 2MHzs
wt%
Con.

Density() kg/m3
298.15

303.15

308.15K

Viscosity() Nsm-2
298.15 303.15 308.15K

Velocity(u) m/s
298.15

303.15

308.15K

0996.3

0995.7

0994.0

08.2100

07.9800

07.1800

1500.24

1583.60

1583.90

1070.0

1069.0

1068.0

11.9754

12.9250

11.0385

1620.01

1613.03

1612.09

1078.0

1076.0

1075.0

12.4979

12.0432

11.0649

1612.04

1612.00

1624.03

1099.0

1097.0

1096.0

11.2120

12.9958

13.3273

1580.10

1609.36

1617.46

1101.0

1099.0

1098.0

10.6265

13.2514

13.5570

1537.74

1602.66

1602.26

1106.0

1105.5

1104.0

10.8479

13.3860

13.8760

1496.00

1546.00

1553.20

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

211

Alka Tadkalkar and Govind K. Bichile

Table 4. Variation in Adiabatic compressibility, Change in compressibility and Relative change in


compressibility of (aqueous NaCl +Fructose) at different concentration and temperature at 2MHz.
Wt%
Con.

Adiabatic compressibility
()x10-10 m2N-1
298.15

Change in compressibility
x10-12 m2N-1

303.15

308.15K 298.15

303.15

308.15K

Relative change in compressibility


/(0x10-12) m2N-1
298.15

303.15

308.15K

3.7675

3.7684

3.7617

3.7435

3.7428

3.7300

+24.0

+25.6

+31.7

+6.37

+6.79

+8.43

3.6152

3.6128

3.3430

+15.23

+15.56

+41.87

+4.04

+1.07

+11.13

4.0553

3.7419

3.7533

-28.78

+2.65

+2.65

-7.63

+0.70

+0.70

3.9076

3.4214

3.3904

-14.01

+34.7

+37.13

-3.72

+9.21

+9.87

3.3378

3.3337

3.1219

+42.97

+43.47

+63.98

+11.41

+56.57

+17.00

Table 5. Variation in Adiabatic compressibility, Change in compressibility and Relative change in


compressibility of (aqueous NaCl +Glycine) at different concentration and temperature at 2MHz.
Wt%
Con.

Adiabatic compressibility
()x10-10 m2N-1
298.15

Change in compressibility
x10-12 m2N-1

303.15

308.15K 298.15

303.15

308.15K

Relative change in compressibility


/(0x10-12) m2N-1
298.15

303.15

308.15K

3.7684

3.7617

3.7675

3.8602

3.8471

3.8294

-9.18

-8.54

-6.19

-2.44

-2.27

-1.64

3.8330

3.7555

3.7844

-6.46

-6.21

-1.69

-1.71

-1.65

-0.49

3.8079

3.7165

3.6907

-3.95

-4.52

+7.68

-1.05

-1.20

-2.04

3.7863

3.6350

3.5987

-1.79

+12.67

+16.88

-0.48

+3.37

+4.48

3.5638

3.5794

3.5778

+20.46

+18.23

+18.97

+5.43

+4.85

+5.04

Table 5. Variation in Adiabatic compressibility, Change in compressibility and Relative change in


compressibility of (aqueous NaCl +Glycine) at different concentration and temperature at 2MHz.
Wt%
Con.

Adiabatic compressibility
()x10-10 m2N-1
298.15

4.4500

Change in compressibility
x10-12 m2N-1

303.15

308.15K 298.15

4.4000

4.3400

303.15

308.15K

Relative change in compressibility


/(0x10-12) m2N-1
298.15

303.15

308.15K
-

3.5600

3.5900

3.6000

+89.0

+81

+74

+20.0

+18.40

+17.05

3.5800

3.5700

3.5200

+87.0

+43.0

+82

+19.55

+9.77

+18.89

3.6900

3.5100

3.4800

+76.0

+89

+86

+17.8

+20.22

+19.82

3.8400

3.5300

3.5200

+115.88

+87

+82

+26.04

+19.77

+18.89

4.0400

3.7800

3.7300

+41

+116.4

+61

+9.21

+26.45

+2.12

The values of in system 1 and 2 show a decreasing trend. The values of are larger in system 2 than
system 1.this shows that the molecular interaction is more in system 2 than system 1. Glycine molecules in the
polar solution have interaction with surrounding water molecules. The electrostrictive compression of water
around the molecules results in larger.
Table 3-6 show the values of change in and relative change in of the three systems there is non linearly
change in these parameters , depicted in Figures 1-3 ,which may is attributed to solute solvent interactions.
212

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

Acoustical Study of Glycine, Fructose and Citric Acid in Aqueous NaCl at Different Temperatures

Table 6. Variation in Adiabatic compressibility, Change in compressibility and Relative change in


compressibility of (aqueous NaCl +Citric acid) at different concentration and temperature at 2MHz
Wt%
Con.

Adiabatic compressibility
()x10-10 m2N-1
298.15

Change in compressibility
x10-12 m2N-1

303.15

308.15K 298.15

303.15

308.15K

Relative change in compressibility


/(0x10-12) m2N-1
298.15

303.15

308.15K

4.4500

4.4000

4.3400

3.5600

3.5900

3.6000

+89.0

+81

+74

+20.0

+18.40

+17.05

3.5800

3.5700

3.5200

+87.0

+43.0

+82

+19.55

+9.77

+18.89

3.6900

3.5100

3.4800

+76.0

+89

+86

+17.8

+20.22

+19.82

3.8400

3.5300

3.5200

+115.88

+87

+82

+26.04

+19.77

+18.89

4.0400

3.7800

3.7300

+41

+116.4

+61

+9.21

+26.45

+2.12

Fig. 1. Variation of relative change in adiabatic compressibility with different concentration and
temperature for the system 1 (aqueous NaCl +Fructose) at 2 MHz
Journal of Acoustical Society of India

213

Alka Tadkalkar and Govind K. Bichile

Fig. 2. Variation of relative change in adiabatic compressibility with different concentration and
temperature for the system 1 (aqueous NaCl +Glycine) at 2 MHz

Fig. 3. Variation of relative change in adiabatic compressibility with different concentration and
temperature for the system 1 (aqueous NaCl +Citric acid) at 2 MHz
214

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

Acoustical Study of Glycine, Fructose and Citric Acid in Aqueous NaCl at Different Temperatures

5.
[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
[5]
[6]
[7]
[8]
[9]
[10]
[11]
[12]
[13]
[14]
[15]
[16]
[17]
[18]
[19]

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M.K. RAWAT and SHARMA GEETA, 2007. J. Indian Chem. Soc., 81, p. 46.
S.U. PATIL, P.B. RAGHUWANSHI and D.T. TAYADE, 2007. J. Indian Chem. Soc., 84, p. 389.
SHESHAGIRI and M.G. RAO, 1977. Ind. J. Pure Appl. Phys., 9, p. 169.
R.P. VARMA and SURENDRAKUMAR, 2006. Ind. J. Pure Appl. Phys., 38(2), p. 96.
SHESHAGIRI and K.C. REDDY, 1973. Acoustica, 29, p. 09.
S.K. UPADHYAY, 2000. Ind. J. Chem., 39, p. 537.
S. THIRUMARAN and S. SUDHA, 2010. J. Chem, Pharm. Res., 1, p. 327.
S. GHANANBA B.R. RAO, 1969. Ind. J. Pure Appl. Phys., 7.
M.L. PARMAR, R.K. AWASTHi and M.K. GULERIA, 2000. J. Chem. Sci., 116, p. 33.
G.V. RAMA RAO, A. VISWANATHA SARMA, D. RAMCHANDRAN and C. RAMBABU, 2005. Ind. J.
Pure & Appl. Phys., 43, p. 602.
S. THIRUMARAN and K. JOB SABU, 2009. Ind.J. Pure & Appl. Phys., 47, p. 87.
S. SHAKEEL, AHMAD KHALIL A. NASIR and RUBINA SALEEM, 2004. Pak. J. Sci. Ind. Res., 47(5),
349-355.
CHERKUPALLY, SANJEEVA REDDY, 2007. J. Ind. Chem. Soc., 84, 165-170.
V.A. TABHANE, O.P. CHIMANKAR, S. MANJA and T.K. NAMINARAYANAN, 1999. Pure. Appl. Ultraso.,
21, p. 67.
S. THIRUMARAN and A.N. KANNAPAN, 2009. Global J. Mole. Sci., 4(2), p. 160.
R. PALANI, G. SRINIVASAN and B. GEETA LAKSHMI, Ind. J.Chem. Tech. Res. , 3 (1),264-89.
S.R. KANHEKAR, PRAVINA PAWAR and G.K. BICHILE, 2010. Ind. J. Pure & Appl. Phys., 48, 95-99.
KANNAPPAN and PALANI, 2007. Ind. J. Pure and Appl. Phy., 45, 575-579.
S. THIRUMARAN and K. JOB SABU, 2009. Ind. J. Pure &Appl. Phys., 47, 87-96.

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

215

Kailash,
S.K.: Vol.
Shrivastava,
Kumar
and Virendra Kumar
Journal of Acoustical Society
of India
39, No. 4,Jitendra
2012 (pp.
216-229)

High Temperature Study of Anharmonic Properties for


Halides of Na and Rb
Kailash 1*, S.K. Shrivastava 2, Jitendra Kumar 3 and Virendra Kumar 1
1Department of Physics, BN PG College, Rath, Hamirpur-210 431 (UP)
2Department of Physics, Bundelkhand University, Jhansi-284 128 (UP)
3Department

of Physics, Govt. Girls P.G. College, Banda-210 001 (UP)


*e-mail: kailashrath@gmail.com

[Received: 17.04.2012 ; Revised: 18.07.2012 ; Accepted: 21.09.2012]

ABSTRACT
A method for evaluating the temperature variation of second, third and fourth order elastic constants
for FCC crystal structure solids is developed on the basis of long range Coulomb and short range
Born-Mayer potentials using nearest-neighbour distance and hardness parameter. The theory is
tested for higher order elastic constants and related physical properties of halides of Sodium and
Rubidium from low temperature to near their melting points. The temperature variation of higher
order elastic constants and related physical properties for these crystals has been discussed properly
to provide valuable information. The values obtained are compared with other theoretical and
experimental data available which shows that the general behaviour of the constants confirms the
validity of simple theoretical model.
Keywords: Higher order elastic constants, pressure derivatives, partial contractions, sodium halides,
rubidium halides, mono - valent crystals, FCC crystals.

1. INTRODUCTION
The alkali halide crystals have always been at the centre stage of solid-state physics. These have been used as
model crystals for testing many solid-state theories. In recent decade, these have also been proved useful in
several applications.The elastic properties of ionic solids provide valuable information about cohesive energies,
interatomic forces and anharmonic properties such as thermal expansion and attenuation of high frequency
sound waves. For this reason, there have been numerous experimental and theoretical studies of the elastic
properties of the alkali halides. The alkali halides are the simplest ionic solids and the computation of their
elastic properties have been very useful in providing information on short range interatomic forces, anharmonic
properties and equations of state.
A theory for obtaining anharmonic properties such as higher order elastic constants of materials which
possess face centered cubic crystal structure has been developed starting from primary physical parameters
viz., nearest neighbour distance and hardness parameter using long- and short- range potentials. The elastic
energy density for a deformed crystal is expanded as a power series of strains. The coefficients of quadratic,
cubic and quartic terms are known as the second, third and fourth order elastic constants (SOECs, TOECs and
FOECs) respectively. When the values of elastic constants of any crystalline solid are known, many of the
2012 Acoustical Society of India

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High Temperature Study of Anharmonic Properties for Halides of Na and Rb

anharmonic properties of the substance can be treated within the limit of the continuum approximation in a
quantitative manner. These elastic constants are used to compute ultrasonic parameters [1, 2] such as ultrasonic
velocities, thermal relaxation time, pressure dependence of anharmonic properties [3] etc. The variation of
elastic constants [4-5] with respect to pressure can reveal many important features of the short range forces at
high pressure. The ultrasonic studies [6-8] can provide interesting information on the specificities of ionsolvent interaction related to the structure of the solute and the reciprocal effects which arise in the solvent.
Several physical properties and crystal anharmonicities such as thermal expansion, specific heat at higher
temperature, temperature variation of acoustic velocity and attenuation [9-11] and the first order pressure
derivatives (FOPDs) of SOECs, Grneisen numbers and temperature derivatives of SOECs are directly related
to SOECs and TOECs. While discussing higher order anharmonicities such as the FOPDs of TOECs, the
second order pressure derivatives (SOPDs) of SOECs, partial contractions and deformation of crystals under
large forces, the FOECs are to be considered extensively.
In these days, keen interest has been taken in investigation of anharmonic properties of materials of
various kinds [12-19]. Many workers have contributed in this field through their experimental and theoretical
approach. Several efforts have been made in the study of physical and anharmonic properties of solids of
different types [20-22] utilizing different physical conditions and using several techniques. Some interesting
results have been presented by several investigators while studying the anharmonic properties of the substances
possessing various crystal structures. Some have studied temperature variation of anharmonic properties [2326] of a few alkali cyanides, of mixed alkali halides and cyanides, of rare gas materials, of alkali halides using
ultrasonic, theoretical and Brillouin scattering methods and others the temperature variation of lattice
anharmonicities [27] and the role of collinear and noncolinear phonons in anharmonic scattering processes
and in ultrasonic attenuation for different structured solids [28].
No complete experimental or theoretical efforts have been made so for obtaining the temperature variation
of anharmonic properties such as the SOECs, TOECs and FOECs, the FOPDs of SOECs and TOECs, SOPDs of
SOECs and partial contractions of materials possessing different crystal structures up to near melting point.
The present work is concerned with the formulation to evaluate the SOECs, TOECs and FOECs, the FOPDs of
the SOECs and TOECs and the SOPDs of SOECs and the partial contractions at an elevated temperature using
long-and short- potentials starting from the nearest neighbour distance and hardness parameter. Section 2
deals with the derivation of the theory. In Section 3, the theory is tested for halides of Sodium and Rubidium.
The results thus obtained are widely discussed in Section 4.
2

THEORY

The theory consists of two parts. In first part we discuss the temperature variation of elastic constants and in
second part the pressure derivatives of these constants.
2.1 Elastic Constants
The elastic energy density for a crystal of a cubic symmetry can be expanded up to quartic terms as shown
below [29];
U0 = U1 + U2 + U3
= { [1/2!] C ijkl eab e cd } + {[1/3!] C ijklmn e ab e cd e mn } + { [1/4!] C ijklmnpq e ab e cd e mn e pq }

(1)

where Cijkl, Cijklmn and Cijklmnpq are the SOECs, TOECs and FOECs in tensorial form; eij are the Lagrangian strain
components. The SOECs, TOECs and FOECs are as given below:
Cijkl = CIJ = ( 2 U / eab ecd )= 0 ,
and

C ijklmn = C IJK = ( 3 U / e ab e cd e mn )= 0

(2)

C ijklmnpq = C IJKL = ( 4 U / e ab e cd e mn e pq )= 0

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

217

Kailash, S.K. Shrivastava, Jitendra Kumar and Virendra Kumar

where CIJ, CIJK and CIJKL are the SOECs, TOECs and FOECs in Brgger's definition and Voigt notations30.
The free energy density of a crystal at a finite temperature T is
3sN

U vib = [KT /NVc ] ln 2Sinh( i /KT)

UTotal = U0 + Uvib ,

(3)

i =1

where U0 is the internal energy per unit volume of the crystal when all ions are at rest on their lattice points, Uvib
is the vibrational free energy, Vc is the volume of the primitive cell, N is the number of the primitive cells in the
crystal and s is the number of ions in the elementary cell. Other notations used in this equation have their usual
meanings.
An elastic constant consists of two parts as follows:
0
vib
vib
+ CIJK
C IJ = C IJ0 + C IJvib , CIJK = CIJK
and C IJKL = C 0IJKL + CIJKL

(4)

The first part is the strain derivative of the internal energy Uo and is known as static elastic constant and the
second part is the strain derivative of the vibrational free energy Uvib and is called vibrational elastic constant. The
superscript 0 has been introduced to emphasize that the static elastic constants correspond to 0 K.
The energy density of the non- deformed crystal is expressed as:
s

U 0 = [1/2Vc ]

v=1 mo
u v

uv

(R mo
uv ) = 'Q uv (R)/2Vc

(5)

where R mo
is the distance between the v-th ion in the o-th cell and the u-th ion in the m-th cell and Quv is the
uv
interaction potential between the ions. The indices (v, o) and (u, m) are sometimes dropped when no confusion
occurs. One assumes that Quv is the sum of the long-range Coulomb and the short-range Brn-Mayer potentials.
(6)

Q uv (r0 ) = (e 2 /r0 ) + A exp( r0 / )

where e is the electric charge, sign apply to like and unlike ions respectively, r0 is the nearest-neighbour
distance, is hardness parameter and A is

A = 0.29126(z 2 e 2 /r04 )/[exp( r0 / ) + 2 2 exp( r0 2 / )]

(7)

It is assumed that the crystal is deformed homogeneously. When the crystal is deformed homogeneously,
r mo
the distance between (v, o) and (u, m) ion in the deformed and non- deformed states, R mo
uv and uv , are related
to the Lagrangian strains eab as follows:

(8)

2
mo 2
mo mo
mo
(R mo
uv ) (ruv ) = 2Yuvi Yuvj e ab = 2Z uv

mo
mo
where Yuvi is the i-th Cartesian component of the vector ruv
. The definition of the quantity Z mo
uv is also

expressed in Eq.(8). The internal energy U0 given by Eq.(5) can be expanded in terms of Z mo
uv , which will yield
quadratic, cubic and quartic terms as given below:
U2 = [1/2Vc] [Z2D2Q(R)/2!]R=r

[1/4Vc]eabecdYiYjYkYlD2Q(R)]R=r

U3 = [1/2Vc][Z3D3Q(R)/3!]R=r

[1/12Vc]eabecdemnYiYjYkYlYmYnD3Q(R)]R=r

U4 = [1/2Vc][Z4D4Q(R)/4!]R=r

[1/48Vc]eabecdemnepqYiYjYkYlYmYnYpYqD4Q(R)]R=r

218

(9)

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

High Temperature Study of Anharmonic Properties for Halides of Na and Rb

With reference to Eqs. (3) and (4) and comparison of Eqs. (1) and (9), one may obtain the static elastic
constants which are presented in Table 1. For a central force model, there are only two independent SOECs,
three independent TOECs and four independent FOECs at absolute zero temperature. As in the case of the
internal energy U0, the vibrational free energy is also expanded in terms of strains, the quadratic, cubic and
quartic terms are as below:

U 2 = [1/Vc 2!] ' '[Z'Z(D'D)U vib ]Z = 0

= [1/2Vc ]e ab e cd fijkl

'

U 3 = [1/Vc 3!] ' ' '[Z'Z''Z(D'D ''D)U vib ]Z = 0


'

''

= [1/6Vc ]eab e cd e mn fijklmn


= [1/24Vc ]e ab e cd e mn e pq fijklmnpq

U 4 = [1/Vc 4!] ' ' ' '[Z'Z''Z'''Z(D 'D ''D '''D)U vib ]Z = 0
'

where

''

'''

fijkl = ' '[Yi Yj Yk' Yl' (D'D)U vib ]R = r


'

fijklmn = ' ' '[Yi Yj Yk' Yl' Ym'' Yn'' (D''D'D)U vib ]R = r
'

and

''

fijklmnpq = ' ' ' '[Yi Yj Yk' Yl' Ym'' Yn'' Yp''' Yq''' (D'''D''D'D)U vib ]R =r
'

''

'''

On comparison Eqs. (1) and (10); one determines the vibrational elastic constants. Vibrational contributions
to SOECs, TOECs and FOECs are given in Table 2. These are shown as a combination of n's and n's which are
evaluated by taking crystal's symmetry into account and the expressions for n and n are presented in Tables
3 and 4. By adding the vibrational elastic constants to the static elastic constants, one may get SOECs, TOECs
and FOECs at any temperature for monovalent FCC crystals.
'
''FOPDs
'''
The
of SOECs are concerned with SOECs and TOECs. The FOPDs of TOECs and SOPDs of SOECs
are directly related to the SOECs, TOECs and FOECs. The Partial contractions are mere combination of FOECs.
The expressions for the FOPDs and SOPDs of SOECs and the FOPDs of TOECs, partial contractions for
monovalent FCC solids are given in Tables 5 and 6.

Table 1. Expression for the SOECs, TOECs and FOECs at 0K for fcc Crystals
C 101 = 1.56933 + 1 + 2 2 ,

C 102 = C 044 = 0.347775 + 2

C 1011 = 10.2639 3 -2 4 , C 1012 = C 1066 = 1.208625 4 , C 1023 = C 1044 = C 0456 = 0.678375


C 01111 = -80.71455 + 5 + 2 6 , C 01123 = C 01144
C 10112 = C 10155

= C 01255 = C 10456 = C 04455 = -1.584975

= 4.43205 + 6 , C 01122 = C 10266 = C 04444 = 5.615925 + 6

Where; = z 2 e 2 /r04 , 1 = (1/r0 + 1/ ) Q (r0 )/ r0 , 2 = (

2/2r0 + 1/ ) Q (r0 2 )/ r0

3 = (3/r02 + 3/r0 + 1/2 ) Q (r0 )/, 4 = (3 2/r02 + 6/r0 + 2 2/2 ) Q (r0 2 )/4
5 = (15/r0 3 + 15/r02 + 6/ 2 r0 + 1/3 )r0 Q(r0 )/
6 = (15 2 /4r03 +15/2r02 + 3 2 /2 r0 + 1/ 3 ) r0 Q(r0 2 )/2

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

219

Kailash, S.K. Shrivastava, Jitendra Kumar and Virendra Kumar

Table 2. Expressions for Vibrational Contribution to the SOECs, TOECs and FOECs for fcc Crystals
C 1v1ib

= 1 12 + 1 2 ,

C 1v2ib

= 2 12 + 1 3 ,

vib
C 111

vib
= 3 13 + 2 2 1 + 1 5 , C 112

vib
C 123

3 13 + 32 1 3 ,

vib
C 144

vib
C 166

2 1 3 + 1 6 ,

vib
C 456
= 0

C v44ib = 1 3

= 1 13 + 2 1 (23 +2 ) +1 6
=

2 1 3

vib
C 1111

4 14 + 63 12 2 + 32 22 + 42 1 5 + 1 4 ,

vib
C 1112

4 14 + 33 12 (3 + 2 ) + 3 2 3 2 + 2 1 (36 + 3 )+ 1 7

vib
C 1122

4 14 + 23 12 (23 + 2 ) + 2 (232 + 22 )+ 4 2 1 2 + 17

vib
C 1123

4 14 + 3 12 (53 + 2 ) + 2 1 (23 + 2 )+ 22 1 6

vib
C 1144

vib
3 21 3 + 2 3 2 , C 4444
=

vib
C 1456
=

32 32 + 2 7

vib
C 1155

3 12 3 + 2 3 2 + 2 2 1 6 + 1 7 ,

vib
C 1255

vib
3 12 3 + 2 32 +2 1 6 , C 1266
=

vib
C 4455
=

3 32

3 12 3 + 2 32 + 22 1 6 + 1 7

Table 3. Expression for n's for fcc Crystals

1 = 0 ;

3 = 0 [(2X 2 /31 ) + (X/1 ) + ]/48;

2 = 0 [(X / 1 ) + ]/2;

4 = - 0 [(X 3 2 /21 ) + (X 3 /61 2 ) + (X 2 /1 ) + (5X/41 ) + (5/4)]/144;


0 = 0 /8r0 3 ;
= Coth X; 1 =

02 = (1/m 1 + 1/m 2 )/r0 0 ;

X =0 / 2KT;
Sinh 2 X

Table 4. Expression for n'S for fcc Crystals


0 = 1/ [(0 -2) (Q (r0 ) + 2(0 - 2 ) Q (r0

2 )) ,

1 = 2[(2 + 20 -02 )Q(r0 ) + 2 ( 2 + 20 - 2 02 )Q(r0

0 = r0 / ;
2 )] 0 ;

2 = 2( - 6 - 60 - 02 + 03 ) Q (r0 ) 0 + 23 ;
3 =(- 3 2 - 6 0 -

2 02 + 2 03 ) Q (r0

2 ) 0 ;

4 =2(- 210 - 2100 - 7502 - 5 03 + 4 04 + 05 ) Q (r0 ) 0 + 2 7 ;


5 =2(- 30 - 300 - 902 +03 - 04 ) Q (r0 )0 + 26 ;
6 =[(15/ 2 ) + 150 - (9/

2 ) 02 - 03 -

2 04 ] Q (r0

2 )0 ;

7 =[-(105/ 2 2 ) - (105/2)0 - (75/ 2 2 ) 02 - (5/2) 03 + 2 2 04 + 05 ]Q (r0 2 )0


220

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

High Temperature Study of Anharmonic Properties for Halides of Na and Rb

2.2 Pressure Derivatives of Elastic Constants


Using the second, third and fourth order elastic constants, the FOPDs of SOECs and TOECs can be calculated
using following expressions:
Table 5. Expression for the FOPDs of the SOECs and TOEC for fcc Crystals
d
C 11 =
dp

(2C 11 + 2 C 12 + C 111 + C 112 ) S;

d
C 111 =
dp

d
C 12 =
dp

(- C 11 - C 12 + C 123 + 2C 112 ) S;

d
C 44 =
dp

d
C 112 =
dp

- (C 11 + 2 C 12 + 3C 112 + C 1112 + C 1122 + C 1123 )S;

d
C 113 =
dp

- (-C 11 -2 C 12 + 3C 113 + 3C 1123 )S;

d
C 144 =
dp

- (C 11 + 2 C 12 + 3C 144 + C 1144 + 2C 1244 )S;

- (-3C 11 -6 C 12 + 3C 111 + C 1111 + 2C 1112 ) S;


- (C 11 + 2 C 12 + C 44 + C 144 + 2C 166 S;

d
C 456 =
dp

S = 1 /C 11 + 2C 12
-(-C 11 - 2 C 12 + 3C 456 + 3C 1456 )S;

d
C 166 = -(-C 11 -2 C 12 + 3C 166 + C 1166 + 2C 1244 )S;
dp

Also the second order pressure derivatives of SOECs and Partial Contractions can be calculated using
following expressions.
Table 6. Expression for the SOPDs of the SOECs and for Partial Contraction of the FOECs for fcc Crystals
d2
C 11 = [ (1 + 3C P )C 11 + (4 + 3C P )(C 111 + 2C 112 ) + C 1111 + 4C 1112 + 2C 1122 + 2C 1123 ]S 2 ;
dp 2
d2
C 12 = [(1 + 3C P )C 12 + (4 + 3C P )(2C 112 + C 123 ) + 2C 1122 + 5C 1123 ]S 2 ;
dp 2
d2
C 44 = [ (1 + 3C P )C 44 + (4 + 3C P )(C 144 + 2C 166 ) + C 1144 + 2C 1166 + 4C 1244 + 2C 1266 ]S 2 ;
dp 2
CP
Y11

= C 1111 + 4C 1112 +

2C 1122 +

Y12

= 2C 1112 + 2C 1122 +

5C 1123 ;

= C 1144 + 2C 1122 +

4C 1144 +

Y44

3.

= (4C 11 + C 111 + 6C 112 + 2C 123 ) S


2C 1123 ;

2C 1266 ;

EVALUATION

The detailed study of formulation is given in preceding Section 2. The expressions for various anharmonic
properties of solids possessing FCC crystal structure are shown in Tables 1- 6. Starting from basic parameters
such as nearest-neighbour distance and hardness parameter, the SOECs, TOECs and FOECs for NaX and RbX
(where X= F, Cl, Br and I) are evaluated up to their nearest melting point. The values of SOECs, TOECs and

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

221

Kailash, S.K. Shrivastava, Jitendra Kumar and Virendra Kumar

FOECs at 300K for these crystals are given in Tables 7 - 9. The FOPDs of SOECs and TOECs, the SOPDs of
SOECs and partial contractions for these materials are evaluated utilizing room temperature data of
Tables 7 - 9 and the results are shown in Tables 10 and 11. The experimental and theoretical data are also given
for comparison.
4.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION

The SOECs and TOECs in 1011dyne/cm2 at 300K for NaX and RbX are presented in Tables 7 and 8 along with
theoretical and experimental values [31, 32]. The experimental values of SOECs and TOECs for these crystals
are of the same order and are in well agreement with present results. The values of FOECs in 1011dyne/cm2 at
room temperature are also shown in Table 9. The FOPDs of the SOECs and TOECs are presented in Table 10
along with theoretical data [31, 32] which are in well agreement at a great extent. The SOPDs of the SOECs in
10-10 cm2/dyne and partial contractions in 1013 dyne/cm2 are shown in Table 11 along with theoretical values [33].
The temperature variation of various anharmonic properties such as SOECs, TOECs and FOECs, FOPDs
of SOECs and TOECs, the SOPDs of SOECs and partial contractions are presented graphically for NaX and
RbX (Figs. 1 - 22). There are three second order elastic constants for monovalent crystals. One may state that all
SOECs are positive in nature. It is clear from Figs. 1 and 2; the values of C11 and C44 are increasing and the value
of C12 is decreasing as temperature increases for NaF and RbF. There are six third order elastic constants for
Halides. For all Halides; the values of C111, C112 and C166 are negative in nature while C123, C144 and C456 are
positive in nature. The values of C111, C123, C144 and C166 are increasing; the value of C112 is decreasing as
temperature increases and C456 remains constant. Figs. 3 and 4 show that the value of C111 and C123 is increasing
but C112 is decreasing as temperature increases for NaF and RbF. The same results are found for other halides.
It is seen that C144 and C166 are increasing but C456 remains constant for all halides and presented graphically for
NaF and RbF in Figs 5 and 6. There are eleven fourth order elastic constants for monovalent crystals. For all
halides, the values of C1111, C1112, C1122, C1144, C1155, C1255, C1266, C4444 and C4455 is decreasing as temperature increases
and the value of C1123 is increasing as temperature increases. The value of C1456 remains constant. In Figs. 7 and
8; one can see that the values of C1111, C1112 and C1122 are decreasing as temperature increases for NaCl and RbCl.
The same is true for remaining halides. It is also seen that the value of C1123 is increasing and the value of C1144
and C1155 is decreasing as temperature increases and the value of C1255, C1266, C4444 and C4455 are decreasing as
temperature increases for all halides and presented graphically for NaCl and RbCl in Figs. 9 - 12. There are
three FOPDs of SOECs for FCC crystals. For all halide single crystals; the values of dC11/dp and dC12/dp are
decreasing and the value of dC44/dp first increases and after some temperature it decreases as temperature
increases. It is remarkable that the FOPDs are dimensionless quantities. From Figs. 13 and 14; one can see that
the temperature variation of FOPDs of SOECs for NaBr and RbBr, the values of dC11/dp and dC12/dp are
decreasing and the value of dC44/dp first increases and after some temperature it decreases. The same results
are obtained for other halides. There are six FOPDs of TOECs for monovalent FCC crystals. The values of dC111/
dp, dC112/dp, dc144/dp, dC166/dp and dC456/dp are increasing and the value of dc123/dp is decreasing. It is seen
that the values of dC111/dp, dC112/dp are increasing and dc123/dp is decreasing as temperature increases and
the values of dc144/dp, dC166/dp and dC456/dp are increasing in nature for all halides and presented graphically
for NaBr and RbBr in Figs. 15 - 18. There are three SOPDs of SOECs for these monovalent crystals. It may be
stated that all the SOPDs are positive in nature. Figs. 19 and 20 present that the values of d2C11/dp2 and d2C44/
dp2 are decreasing but d2C12/dp2 is increasing as temperature increases for NaI and RbI. It is seen for remaining
halides also. There are three partial contractions for monovalent crystals. The values of partial contractions for
all halide Crystals are decreasing. Figs. 21 and 22 shows that the values of Y11, Y12 and Y44 are decreasing for
NaI and RbI.
The cases discussed in present study are overall in good agreement with theoretical and experimental
results which shows the validity of present theory. The data obtained in present investigation will be helpful
to those workers who are engaged in such studies.
222

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

High Temperature Study of Anharmonic Properties for Halides of Na and Rb

Fig.1. Temperature Variation of SOECs


for NaF

Fig. 2. Temperature Variation of SOECs


for RbF

Fig. 3. Temperature Variation of TOECs


for NaF

Fig. 4. Temperature Variation of TOECs


for RbF

Fig. 5. Temperature Variation of TOECs


for NaF
Journal of Acoustical Society of India

Fig. 6. Temperature Variation of TOECs


for RbF
223

Kailash, S.K. Shrivastava, Jitendra Kumar and Virendra Kumar

224

Fig. 7. Temperature Variation of FOECs


for NaCl

Fig. 8. Temperature Variation of FOECs


for RbCl

Fig. 9. Temperature Variation of FOECs


for NaCl

Fig.10. Temperature Variation of FOECs


for RbCl

Fig. 11. Temperature Variation of FOECs


for NaCl

Fig. 12. Temperature Variation of FOECs


for RbCl
Journal of Acoustical Society of India

High Temperature Study of Anharmonic Properties for Halides of Na and Rb

Fig. 13. Temperature Variation of FOPDs


for NaBr

Fig. 14. Temperature Variation of FOPDs


for RbBr

Fig. 15. Temperature Variation of FOPDs


for NaBr

Fig.16. Temperature Variation of FOPDs


for RbBr

Fig. 17. Temperature Variation of FOPDs


for NaBr

Fig. 18. Temperature Variation of FOPDs


for RbBr

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

225

Kailash, S.K. Shrivastava, Jitendra Kumar and Virendra Kumar

Fig. 19. Temperature Variation of SOPDs


for NaI

Fig.20. Temperature Variation of SOPDs


for RbI

Fig. 21. Temperature Variation of


Partial Contractions for NaI

Fig. 22. Temperature Variation of


Partial Contractions for RbI

) in 10-8cm and SOECs


Table 7. The nearest-neighbour distance (r0) in 10-8cm and hardness parameter (
in 1011 dyne/cm2 at room temperature for Sodium and Rubidium Halide Crystals.

226

Crystal

MP(K)

r0

C11

C12

C44

Ref

NaF

1265

2.3032

0.256

15.10
11.80

3.10
2.96

3.40
3.41

Present [31]

NaCl

1073

2.7865

0.296

8.07
6.00

1.38
1.27

1.56
1.57

Present [31]

NaBr

1028

2.9567

0.310

6.63
4.90

1.07
1.06

1.22
1.23

Present [31]

NaI

924

3.1967

0.326

5.25
3.95

0.76
0.69

0.89
0.89

Present [31]

RbF

795

2.7914

0.357

5.29

1.54

1.67

Present

RbCl

718

3.2564

0.39

3.49
4.29

0.78
0.64

0.88
0.49

Present [32]

RbBr

693

3.4263

0.36

3.72
3.86

0.59
0.47

0.68
0.40

Present [32]

RbI

647

3.6220

0.41

2.60
3.21

0.49
0.36

0.56
0.29

Present [32]

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

High Temperature Study of Anharmonic Properties for Halides of Na and Rb

Table 8. TOECs in 1011 dyne/cm2 at room temperature for Sodium and Rubidium Halide Crystals
Crystal
NaF
NaCl
NaBr

C111

C112

C123

C144

C166

C456

Ref

-163.34 -40.79

6.80

6.18

-13.44 -

5.55

Present [31]

-179.66 -27.00

3.22

5.66

13.51

5.56

-84.47

-21.8

3.20

2.93

-6.09 -

2.59

-86.36

-5.71

2.84

2.60

6.08

2.59

-68.48 -18.01

2.53

2.23

-4.76 -

2.04

-77.22

-4.40

0.69

2.09

4.98

0.04

-53.34

-14.63

1.83

1.71

-3.43 -

1.49

-61.62

-2.69

0.32

1.53

3.45

1.49

RbF

-102.32 -25.70

2.99

2.89

-5.82 -

2.57

1.66

2.56

5.74

2.47

RbCl

-67.14 -1.58 -

1.47

1.56

-2.98 -

1.39

-67.87

NaI

-83.83

RbBr
RbI

-5.26

0.38

1.36

2.79

1.32

-55.32 -15.76

2.21

1.19

1.28

-2.42 -

1.13

-50.72

0.30

1.13

2.38

1.10

0.91

1.03

-1.91 -

0.90

0.002

0.88

1.74

0.85

-1.83

-46.35 - -13.95
50.72

-1.23

Present [31]
Present [31]
Present [31]
Present [32]
Present [32]
Present [32]
Present [32]

Table 9. FOECs in 1011 dyne/cm2 at room temperature for Sodium and Rubidium Halide Crystals
Crystal

C1111

C1112

C1122

C1123

C1144

C1155

C1255

C1266

C1456

C4444

C4455

Ref

NaF

772.2

-234.3

-68.60

-11.81

-13.5

53.17

-18.09

68.70

-12.9

74.31

-13.12

Present

NaCl

185.2

-169.2

-66.60

-4.76

-6.39

22.73

-8.92

30.61

-6.05

33.84

-6.12

Present

NaBr

83.46

-151.3

-63.07

-3.55

-5.05

17.38

-7.16

23.76

-4.77

26.48

-4.83

Present

NaI

-20.25

-136.1

-61.90

-2.35

-3.71

12.07

-5.37

16.92

-3.49

19.07

- 3.53

Present

RbF

106.01

-69.39

-2.680

-6.151

-6.31

25.11

-8.82

32.52

-6.02

35.85

-6.145

Present

RbCl

39.19

-63.88

-15.49

-3.204

-3.44

12.41

-5.04

16.80

-3.25

18.80

-3.318

Present

RbBr

10.45

-58.98

-16.27

-2.399

-2.82

9.85

-4.19

1.35

-2.65

1.53

-2.708

Present

RbI

-302.3

-180.8

-1.062

-0.868

-2.26

6.42

-3.27

9.20

-2.12

10.56

2.318

Present

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

227

Kailash, S.K. Shrivastava, Jitendra Kumar and Virendra Kumar

Table 10. The First Order Pressure Derivatives of the Second and Third Order Elastic
Constants for Sodium and Rubidium Halide Crystals
Crystal

dC11/- dC12/- dC44/- dC111/- dC112/- dC123/- dC144/- dC166/- dC456/dp


dp
dp
dp
dp
dp
dp
dp
dp

Ref.

NaF

-12.89
-9.84

-5.47
1.69

0.045
0.06

14.27
243.00

25.43
341.0

1.91
2.28

1.21
10.40

2.41
115.0

2.34
2.26

Present
[33]

NaCl

-14.23
10.40

-6.15
1.65

-0.02
-0.02

54.58
46.60

37.83
153.0

1.59
1.93

1.33
0.26

2.70
52.8

2.31
2.20

Present
[33]

NaBr

-14.69
-10.56

-6.40
1.63

0.042
-0.04

71.06
-7.64

42.60
101.0

1.49
1.84

1.39
0.17

2.80
35.6

2 .31
2.18

Present
[33]

NaI

-15.62
-10.9

-6.96
1.61

-0.08
-0.09

100.30
-30.00

51.52
83.4

1.84
1.33

1.43
0.08

2.92
30.0

2.29
2.14

Present
[33]

RbF

-10.72
9.66

-5.18
1.90

0.34
-0.03

21.49

18.49

2.27

1.78

2.93

2.62

Present
[34]

RbCl

-12.32
3.10

-5.88
1.70

0.21
-0.23

54.02

29.89

1.93

1.88

3.21

2.54

Present
[34]

RbBr

-14.92
2.52

-6.85
1.70

-0.01
-0.22

100.83

48.45

1.40

1.69

3.16

2.37

Present
[34]

RbI

-20.45
3.66

-9.49
1.38

-0.30
-0.34

249.87

100.38

0.95

1.16

2.98

2.12

Present
[34]

Table 11. The SOPDs of the SOECs in 10-10 (dyne/cm2)-1 and Partial Contractions in 1013 dyne/cm2
for Sodium and Rubidium Halide Crystals
Crystal

5.

dC11/- dC12/- dC44/dp


dp
dp

Y11

Y12

Y44

Ref.

NaF

2.09
-2.85

0.53
-4.33

1.95
-1.01

-3.25 -6.64
-150.3 -182.5

1.52
-38.32

Present [33]

NaCl

4.04
-1.22

1.07
-3.79

0.34
-0.64

-6.34 -4.95
-25.41 -40.32

0.61
-7.98

Present [33]

NaBr

4.91
-3.96

1.33
-3.01

0.40
-0.32

-6.55 -4.46
-11.01 -21.39

0.46
-4.00

Present [33]

NaI

6.46
-6.78

1.86
-3.24

0.50
-0.24

-6.93
-4.45

-4.07
-13.43

0.30
-2.46

Present [33]

RbF

3.7

1.7

0.54

-1.26

-1.75

0.17

Present

RbCl

6.4 11.3

1.9
-3.0

7.88
-1.10

-2.53
11.20

-0.20
-2.72

0.33
0.16

Present [35]

RbBr

7.9 15.6

2.4
-3.5

0.71
-1.20

-4.84
9.10

-2.72
-0.30

0.23
0.18

Present [35]

RbI

10.2
-18.4

3.5
-2.3

0.53
-1.30

-12.40
7.70

-5.78
-0.41

0.14
0.21

Present [35]

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

The authors are thankful to the University Grants Commission, New Delhi for financial support.

228

Journal of Acoustical Society of India

High Temperature Study of Anharmonic Properties for Halides of Na and Rb

6.
[1]
[2]
[3]
[4]
[5]
[6]
[7]
[8]
[9]
[10]
[11]
[12]
[13]
[14]
[15]
[16]
[17]
[18]
[19]
[20]
[21]
[22]
[23]
[24]
[25]
[26]
[27]
[28]
[29]
[30]
[31]
[32]
[33]
[34]
[35]

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Journal of Acoustical Society of India

229

Acoustical Society of India


(Regn. No. 65-1971)
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