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# 1.

DC-DC converter

1)

## (1 pt) From the Kircho 's voltage law for

L and E , E = L dI
, hence
dt
= Et/L. From I0 = EL /L we obtain

## lect the presence of the diode since

Hence, the current

V0  Vmax .

LC -loop changes in
from i = I0 and end-

in the

RE /2.

## According to the Kepler's

3/2
III law, the period on such an orbit is 2

## times shorter than the Earth's orbital period

T.

0
Fm = Fm
(d)d =

because

d = x.

kn
x,
dn+1

Therefore

L = LI0 /E.
2) (1 pts) Once the current I0 is reached, the key
is opened; the current trough L cannot change

i = 0 (then the diode will close disconnecting the LC -loop). During that process, the
2
1
magnetic energy of the inductor 2 LI0 is conver-

3)

k):

v0 = 29.8 km/s.
4) The speed vS

R.

## time of this current loop (consisting of

is very short (L/R

K ),

and

ing when

## L ) as the heat dissipation on the res2

Q = Vav
L /R must be equal to the energy

duration

istor

## rent through the inductor, so that the key will

close again and the process will start repeating
from the beginning.

I
I0

2
Vav
L
1
= LI02 Vav = I0
R
2

6)

LR
=
2L

EI0 R
.
2

found as

qC = L Vav /R

(owing to

RC  LC ,

is small).

3)

## Hence, the voltage drop is found as

V = qC /C = L Vav /(RC).

## maximal when the current is maximal, which

happens immediately after the switch is opened;

## I0 so that Vmax = RI0 .

Vmax  V0 , we can neglect

U0 =

4)

(2 pts) Due to

## the eect of the diode; so we have the Kircho 's

dq
dI
voltage law L dt = RI = R dt (here we expressed the current via the charge q which ows
through the resistor). Integration over a single
cycle (when the inductor current drops from
down to

0)

yields

LI0 = Rq ,

I0

q = I0 L/R.

V0 ,
A = V0 q

performed work

RC -loop

## is very large, the capacitor main-

2.

1)

Waste project

the Earth's orbit needs to be as large as posit to the elliptical orbit), hence the full orbital
GM m
energy of the ship E = 2a
needs to be as
small as possible. Here, M is the mass of the
Sun,

## the longer semiaxis. So,

a needs to be as large as

2a = RE + rS ,

where

rS

RE

2a

RE + rS

r
vS =

Re

 

Sun

2)

2
vE
+ 2gR 29.2 km/s.

Magnets

## net: the downwards directed gravity force

T~ ,

is almost equal to

mg ,

kn
mg
=
.
dn+1
l

4.

Superballs

1)

During

the

bottom-most

collision

ball

will

(x/l)mg ,
x = 1 cm

the
its

oor,

the

speed

and

## v0 = v . Let the k-th ball move up with a

vk ; we'll consider the collision between
this and (k + 1)-st ball, which moves down with
the velocity v . In the frame of reference of the
vk f v
centre of mass, u =
; hence, after the
1+f
collision the upwards velocity equals to vk+1 =
f v
2
= 1+f
vk + 1f
v . With v0 = v , we
v + 2 vk1+f
1+f

3f
4
can conclude that v1 = 1+f v = 1+f 1 v . 2)
speed

velocity

One can see that if we apply the recurrent formula repetitively, the result at the n-th step will
n
2
vn = 2 1+f
1 v.
3) Now we need to relate the speeds to the jump2
2
ing heights via v = 2gh0 and vn = 2ghn ; hence,

hn /h0 =

~m .
F

so that its

with

retain

m~g ,

T~

kn
mg

= 0;
dn+1
l

xmg
k
=
,
dn
l

ulus of

Thus we

be

k
xmg

= 0,
dn
l

F = 0.

d/n = x, hence
n = d/x = 4.

## of the potential energy due to the gravitational

GME m
= gmR hence
pull of the Earth, =
R
2
2
vE
u
gR + 2 = 2 . Here, ME is the Earth's mass
and u is the launching speed. So,

3.

x.

equations we obtain

2rS

= v0 2 sin
v0 .
R E + rS
2
Numerically this yields vS 2.8 km/s; the speed
in the Earth's frame of reference vE = v0 vS
27.0 km/s.
vS = v0

GM 2rS
.
R E R E + rS

u=

kn
mg

dn+1
l

GM
as
ity v0 = R

rE

F =

hence

where

LC -loop is

rbit

TLC = 2 LC

In order to

## opens, the diode will open, and the capacitor

formed. That
loop admits oscillations of period

GM m
GM m
GM m
mvS2

5)

## of time when the diode is closed. Once the key

is connected to the inductor so that a

K1

I0
.
2RE

Earths o

the

L Vav
I0 L
V
=
=
2
2RC
2C

A
V0 I0 L
V0 E
P =
=
=
.
L
RL
R
5)

The amplitude is

t=2

t is half
T 64.6 days.

5/2

For

f = 0.5

vn /v0 =

2
1+f

n
1.

## n = 10 we obtain that the nal

ca 1200 larger than the initial one.

and

height will be
5.

s 

Planck's constant

1)

equilibrium

## ted light; the mapping is as follows:

is stable if

F = Fm (x/l)mg . At the
point F = 0. The equilibrium point
a small (virtual) displacement x

## gives rise to a returning force

x
F = Fm
mg
l
which needs to push towards the equilibrium
point. Let F
= kdn , where k is an unknown

## When we connect each of the diodes to the

940 nm 
620 nm  red, 590 nm  orgreen; 470 nm  blue; 450 nm

invisible (infrared),
ange,

525 nm

 violet.

2)

through the

R),

be

Vd = E IR,

## voltage. However, we do know that the diode's

voltage equals approximately to the photon's
energy

Ep

hc/(e).
if we plot

Ep =
IR = E Vd ,

## Since we expect that

IR

versus

1/,

we should obtain a

straight line

IR = E

3)

h =

## the instrument uncertainties, but the departure

of the real diode data from the simplistic model.
Therefore we can try to t the data points with
dierent straight lines making the slope

as

steep as possible (while still keeping a reasonable t with the data points, and also as at
as possible; the uncertainty of
A = 21 (Amax Amin ), and h
6.

1)

## perbolic tangent, the last expression can be ap2

proximated as E N  /4kT .

4)

pk Ec .

## According to the denition of the heat capa2

2
dE
city, C = dT = N  /4kT .
8.

Mirror interference

1)

1 hc
.
e

A = hc/e,
eA/c.

3)

A is found
= hA/A.

as

For a position

= y/L

angle

## the arriving rays form an

imation; the angle is in radians). Then, the optical path dierence between the reected and
2
direct rays is = 2l cos 2N N .
Since there is an additional phase shift for the
reected rays at the reection from optically
denser dielectric material, the total phase shift
2
is = 2/ = 4N (2N 1). At the
maxima, this equals to
is an integer.

2(2N n),

Let us

vx vy point A with

2)

n + 0.5
yn = L
N
n = 0, 1, . . .  N .

n + 0.5
,
N

x-axis,

the max-

(v, 0)

(0, v)

to a point

with coordinates

vx vy -plane

is

## the acceleration of the body, which has here a

constant modulus

g .

Obviously,the fastest

path
is a straight line of length

v 2,

so that

radii
form a sequence

3)

number of maxima

9.

## According to Boltzmann's distribution, p =

em , where the constant A can be found

from the condition that the probability of having either up or down orientation is one:
e/2 + A e/2 = 1, hence

1
1
A = /2kT
=
.
2 cosh(/2kT )
e
+ e/2kT
Thus,
/2kT

p =
2)

e
.
e/2kT + e/2kT

## of up- and down-state energies for a single spin,

multiplied by the number of spins:
/2kT
/2kT

N e
e
N
E=
=
tanh(/2kT ).
2 e/2kT + e/2kT
2

max = 4N +

and

min = .

The

1)

hence

es to

4)

T = 0,

## this as the area under the curve, q R560 J/K.

3
The number of moles = a /MA 0.117 mol,

Q = q 546 J.
2) Each photon of frequency radiated by the
cube carries away heat energy equal to E = h ,
and carries momentum p = h/ = h/c = E/c.
If the photon departs at the angle with rehence the total heat energy

## is xed to the stand, and the plastic bag is xed

to the free end of the thread. The hex nuts are
added, one-by-one, into the bag, starting with
zero and ending with 15. The laser light is directed to the thread and the diraction pattern
is observed on the screen (which is a vertically
xed sheet of graphic paper on a support). The
diraction pattern from a wire is the same as
from a single slit (the superposition of the Huygens sources from those two cases gives a full set

and opposite wave amplitudes and equal intensities). So, if we measure on the screen the dis-

ated by

tance

n/d = a/L,

where

## that the molecules colliding with the coated

they came, but uncoated face gives away heat
energy, and the molecules leave at higher temIf we assume that the departing

where

vT =

RT /MH

1/vT ,

## the molecules after the collision with the cube

for the motion along the surface normal. So we
3
estimate a v Q/vT , hence

Q
a3

## The strain is calculated by making markings on

the thread and measuring the distance

MH
180 m/s.
RT

b between

b b0
,
b0

d = nL/a.

perature.

meter. So,

dT
= Bt T = A eBt .
T

## For the heat energy of one mole of material

no heat energy by

is a constant,

stant, and

1)

## cube (which serves us only as an estimate 

Thermal acceleration

dq = Cv dT .R There is
T
hence q =
Cv dT .
0

10.

Q
v 3 0.67 mm/s.
a c

1)

3 1.73,

2)

Spin system

1 = 1,

between

7.

etc).

t = v 2/g 7.2 s.

## length unit dened by the

smallestradius, the

5 2.23,

momentum equals to

## The heat balance at very low temperatures

3
4
can be written as AT dT = ST dt, where

## 1/c, the overall

Q/c. Thus, a3 v Q/c,

3)

coordinates

## Since the momentum-energy ratio is the

1
If we apply the exact factor 3 (obtained above
via integration), we end up with v 0.22 mm/s.

maxima is written as

where

where

## If we want to obtain an exact result, we need

to integrate over all the directions while keeping
in mind that the light intensity is proportional to
cos .
So, the momentum
R 2 averaged over all the
1
directions pk = Ec 2
cos d, where the solid
angle dierential d = 2 sin d. Therefore, pk =
R
R /2 2
/2
E
E
.
sin cos2 d = E
cos d cos = 3c
c
c
0
0

Running on ice

y,

where

b0

=
where
and

4N mg
,
d2

The data

## are plotted in a graph; linear relationship corresponds to a straight line.

The uncertainties

are calculated using the rule of relative uncertainties, either using Pythagorean or simple addition, e.g.

= b
where

b 0.5 mm

2
1
+
b b0
b0

## is the length measurement

uncertainty. Similarly,

= 2

d
.
d

## spect to the surface normal then the componE

ent parallel to the surface normal pk = c cos .

error bars.

2)

value of

## maining heat at low temperatures is propor4

tional to T , and therefore the contribution of

that for

1 > ,

it is impossible

## to draw a straight line intersecting the error bars

of all the data points with

1 < .