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DC-DC converter

1)

L and E , E = L dI

, hence

dt

= Et/L. From I0 = EL /L we obtain

Hence, the current

V0 Vmax .

LC -loop changes in

from i = I0 and end-

in the

RE /2.

3/2

III law, the period on such an orbit is 2

T.

0

Fm = Fm

(d)d =

because

d = x.

kn

x,

dn+1

Therefore

L = LI0 /E.

2) (1 pts) Once the current I0 is reached, the key

is opened; the current trough L cannot change

i = 0 (then the diode will close disconnecting the LC -loop). During that process, the

2

1

magnetic energy of the inductor 2 LI0 is conver-

3)

k):

v0 = 29.8 km/s.

4) The speed vS

R.

is very short (L/R

K ),

and

ing when

Q = Vav

L /R must be equal to the energy

duration

istor

close again and the process will start repeating

from the beginning.

I

I0

2

Vav

L

1

= LI02 Vav = I0

R

2

6)

LR

=

2L

EI0 R

.

2

found as

qC = L Vav /R

(owing to

RC LC ,

is small).

3)

V = qC /C = L Vav /(RC).

happens immediately after the switch is opened;

Vmax V0 , we can neglect

U0 =

4)

(2 pts) Due to

dq

dI

voltage law L dt = RI = R dt (here we expressed the current via the charge q which ows

through the resistor). Integration over a single

cycle (when the inductor current drops from

down to

0)

yields

LI0 = Rq ,

I0

q = I0 L/R.

V0 ,

A = V0 q

performed work

RC -loop

2.

1)

Waste project

the Earth's orbit needs to be as large as posit to the elliptical orbit), hence the full orbital

GM m

energy of the ship E = 2a

needs to be as

small as possible. Here, M is the mass of the

Sun,

a needs to be as large as

2a = RE + rS ,

where

rS

RE

2a

RE + rS

r

vS =

Re

Sun

2)

2

vE

+ 2gR 29.2 km/s.

Magnets

T~ ,

is almost equal to

mg ,

kn

mg

=

.

dn+1

l

4.

Superballs

1)

During

the

bottom-most

collision

ball

will

(x/l)mg ,

x = 1 cm

the

its

oor,

the

speed

and

vk ; we'll consider the collision between

this and (k + 1)-st ball, which moves down with

the velocity v . In the frame of reference of the

vk f v

centre of mass, u =

; hence, after the

1+f

collision the upwards velocity equals to vk+1 =

f v

2

= 1+f

vk + 1f

v . With v0 = v , we

v + 2 vk1+f

1+f

3f

4

can conclude that v1 = 1+f v = 1+f 1 v . 2)

speed

velocity

One can see that if we apply the recurrent formula repetitively, the result at the n-th step will

n

2

vn = 2 1+f

1 v.

3) Now we need to relate the speeds to the jump2

2

ing heights via v = 2gh0 and vn = 2ghn ; hence,

hn /h0 =

~m .

F

so that its

with

retain

m~g ,

T~

kn

mg

= 0;

dn+1

l

xmg

k

=

,

dn

l

ulus of

Thus we

be

k

xmg

= 0,

dn

l

F = 0.

d/n = x, hence

n = d/x = 4.

GME m

= gmR hence

pull of the Earth, =

R

2

2

vE

u

gR + 2 = 2 . Here, ME is the Earth's mass

and u is the launching speed. So,

3.

x.

equations we obtain

2rS

= v0 2 sin

v0 .

R E + rS

2

Numerically this yields vS 2.8 km/s; the speed

in the Earth's frame of reference vE = v0 vS

27.0 km/s.

vS = v0

GM 2rS

.

R E R E + rS

u=

kn

mg

dn+1

l

GM

as

ity v0 = R

rE

F =

hence

where

LC -loop is

rbit

TLC = 2 LC

In order to

formed. That

loop admits oscillations of period

GM m

GM m

GM m

mvS2

5)

is connected to the inductor so that a

K1

I0

.

2RE

Earths o

the

L Vav

I0 L

V

=

=

2

2RC

2C

A

V0 I0 L

V0 E

P =

=

=

.

L

RL

R

5)

The amplitude is

t=2

t is half

T 64.6 days.

5/2

For

f = 0.5

vn /v0 =

2

1+f

n

1.

ca 1200 larger than the initial one.

and

height will be

5.

s

Planck's constant

1)

equilibrium

is stable if

F = Fm (x/l)mg . At the

point F = 0. The equilibrium point

a small (virtual) displacement x

x

F = Fm

mg

l

which needs to push towards the equilibrium

point. Let F

= kdn , where k is an unknown

940 nm

620 nm red, 590 nm orgreen; 470 nm blue; 450 nm

invisible (infrared),

ange,

525 nm

violet.

2)

through the

R),

be

Vd = E IR,

voltage equals approximately to the photon's

energy

Ep

hc/(e).

if we plot

Ep =

IR = E Vd ,

IR

versus

1/,

we should obtain a

straight line

IR = E

3)

h =

of the real diode data from the simplistic model.

Therefore we can try to t the data points with

dierent straight lines making the slope

as

steep as possible (while still keeping a reasonable t with the data points, and also as at

as possible; the uncertainty of

A = 21 (Amax Amin ), and h

6.

1)

proximated as E N /4kT .

4)

pk Ec .

2

dE

city, C = dT = N /4kT .

8.

Mirror interference

1)

1 hc

.

e

A = hc/e,

eA/c.

3)

A is found

= hA/A.

as

For a position

= y/L

angle

imation; the angle is in radians). Then, the optical path dierence between the reected and

2

direct rays is = 2l cos 2N N .

Since there is an additional phase shift for the

reected rays at the reection from optically

denser dielectric material, the total phase shift

2

is = 2/ = 4N (2N 1). At the

maxima, this equals to

is an integer.

2(2N n),

Let us

vx vy point A with

2)

n + 0.5

yn = L

N

n = 0, 1, . . . N .

n + 0.5

,

N

x-axis,

the max-

(v, 0)

(0, v)

to a point

with coordinates

vx vy -plane

is

constant modulus

g .

Obviously,the fastest

path

is a straight line of length

v 2,

so that

radii

form a sequence

3)

number of maxima

9.

em , where the constant A can be found

from the condition that the probability of having either up or down orientation is one:

e/2 + A e/2 = 1, hence

1

1

A = /2kT

=

.

2 cosh(/2kT )

e

+ e/2kT

Thus,

/2kT

p =

2)

e

.

e/2kT + e/2kT

multiplied by the number of spins:

/2kT

/2kT

N e

e

N

E=

=

tanh(/2kT ).

2 e/2kT + e/2kT

2

max = 4N +

and

min = .

The

1)

hence

es to

4)

T = 0,

3

The number of moles = a /MA 0.117 mol,

Q = q 546 J.

2) Each photon of frequency radiated by the

cube carries away heat energy equal to E = h ,

and carries momentum p = h/ = h/c = E/c.

If the photon departs at the angle with rehence the total heat energy

to the free end of the thread. The hex nuts are

added, one-by-one, into the bag, starting with

zero and ending with 15. The laser light is directed to the thread and the diraction pattern

is observed on the screen (which is a vertically

xed sheet of graphic paper on a support). The

diraction pattern from a wire is the same as

from a single slit (the superposition of the Huygens sources from those two cases gives a full set

and opposite wave amplitudes and equal intensities). So, if we measure on the screen the dis-

ated by

tance

n/d = a/L,

where

they came, but uncoated face gives away heat

energy, and the molecules leave at higher temIf we assume that the departing

where

vT =

RT /MH

1/vT ,

for the motion along the surface normal. So we

3

estimate a v Q/vT , hence

Q

a3

the thread and measuring the distance

MH

180 m/s.

RT

b between

b b0

,

b0

d = nL/a.

perature.

meter. So,

dT

= Bt T = A eBt .

T

no heat energy by

is a constant,

stant, and

1)

Thermal acceleration

dq = Cv dT .R There is

T

hence q =

Cv dT .

0

10.

Q

v 3 0.67 mm/s.

a c

1)

3 1.73,

2)

Spin system

1 = 1,

between

7.

etc).

t = v 2/g 7.2 s.

smallestradius, the

5 2.23,

momentum equals to

3

4

can be written as AT dT = ST dt, where

Q/c. Thus, a3 v Q/c,

3)

coordinates

1

If we apply the exact factor 3 (obtained above

via integration), we end up with v 0.22 mm/s.

maxima is written as

where

where

to integrate over all the directions while keeping

in mind that the light intensity is proportional to

cos .

So, the momentum

R 2 averaged over all the

1

directions pk = Ec 2

cos d, where the solid

angle dierential d = 2 sin d. Therefore, pk =

R

R /2 2

/2

E

E

.

sin cos2 d = E

cos d cos = 3c

c

c

0

0

Running on ice

y,

where

b0

=

where

and

4N mg

,

d2

The data

The uncertainties

are calculated using the rule of relative uncertainties, either using Pythagorean or simple addition, e.g.

= b

where

b 0.5 mm

2

1

+

b b0

b0

uncertainty. Similarly,

= 2

d

.

d

ent parallel to the surface normal pk = c cos .

error bars.

2)

value of

tional to T , and therefore the contribution of

that for

1 > ,

it is impossible

of all the data points with

1 < .

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