You are on page 1of 12

Ritual Performing Arts

in the Court of Yogyakarta


Past and Present

Prof. Dr. R.M. Soedarsono


Faculty of Cultural Sciences
Gadjah Mada University
Yogyakarta, Indonesia

Abstract
Before World War II, almost every important event in the palace of Yogyakarta was
considered ritual and many of these events were accompanied by music, dance and
shadow puppet play. It is therefore that some gamelan ensembles, dances and shadow
puppets were and still are considered pusaka, the sacred heirlooms, which can
strengthen the legitimacy of the king. There are more than one and a half dozen sets of
gamelan ensemble and three which were and still are performed only for very important
rituals, i.e., gamelan monggang, gamelan kodhok ngorek and gamelan sekati. Due to their
sacredness they were named Kangjeng Kyai Guntur Laut, Venerable Sir Thunder of the
Sea, Kangjeng Kyai Mahesa Ganggang, Venerable Sir Fighting Buffalo, and Kangjeng
Kyai Guntur Madu, Venerable Sir Torrent of Honey, respectively. They were and still
are only played to celebrate very important events such as the celebration of the Sultans
coronation; to accompany the Sultans departure from the palace to attend important
ceremonies; formerly to add luster to the arrival of highly honored guests; to accompany
the first official meeting of a princely couple; etc. There are three dance forms which
were and still are used to celebrate some significant events, i.e., the female beksan
bedhaya, wayang wong dance drama, and the male beksan lawung ageng. Many beksan
bedhaya choreographies are owned by the palace of Yogyakarta, but only one which
was and still is considered very sacred, is the Bedhaya Semang. It tells the story of the
meeting between the third and greatest king of Mataram kingdom, Sultan Agung,
and Kangjeng Ratu Kidul, Queen of the Southern Sea. It was believed that Kangjeng
Ratu Kidul promised to help Sultan Agung and his descendants when a threatening
event occued.

27

R.M. Soedarsono

In previous time, beksan lawung ageng, the great lance dance, was only performed
after the main rituals when a bridal couple went to kepatihan, the prime ministers
residence, to accompany the grand reception. Wayang wong dance drama was
performed to celebrate the last ritual of the wedding ceremony of the princely couple,
held 35 days after the first ritual. Some leather puppets were also considered pusaka,
the sacred heirlooms. They are still housed at the dalem Prabayeksa and are not
used for performance. Each of the puppets has its own honorific name, such as
Kangjeng Kyai Jimat (puppet of Yudistira), Kangjeng Kyai Bayukusuma (puppet of
Bima), Kangjeng Kyai Jayaningrum (puppet of Arjuna), Kangjeng Kyai Wahyu Tumurun
(puppet Batara Guru), etc.
Keywords: gamelan, beksan bedhaya, beksan lawung ageng, wayang wong, and sacred
puppets.

efore World War II, almost every important event in the palace of
Yogyakarta was considered ritual and many of these events were
accompanied by performing arts. Robert Heine-Geldern observed
that some aspects of Southeast Asian kingship which were very important
besides the nature of the monarch, the structure of the state and the throne,
were pusakas (heirlooms), which strengthened the legitimacy of the
monarch.1 Pusakas the sacred objects consisted of a large collection of
spiritually powerful weapons, flags, musical instruments, leather puppets,
books and dance, with all the glitter and finery suitable for a king.
The court of Yogyakarta has numerous gamelan ensembles, but only
three which are considered pusakas: the gamelan Monggang, Kodhok
Ngorek and Sekati. Jaap Kunst categorizes these three age-old gamelans
as the orchestra reserved for certain ceremonies.2 The high esteem in which
these archaic orchestras are held is apparent from the titles preceding
their names, namely, Kangjeng Kyai, Venerable Sir. They have been
preserved by the Yogyakarta kraton since the Giyanti Contract in 1755,
when the kingdom of Mataram was divided into two, ie., the Kasunanan
of Surakarta and the Kasultanan of Yogyakarta.3
The gamelan Sekati in the Yogyakarta kraton is said to have been allotted
to Yogyakrta kraton by the Giyanti Contract in 1755.7 The kraton has
two gamelan Sekati. The oldest is named Kangjeng Kyai Guntur Madu,

28

Ritual Performing Arts

The gamelan Monggang in the Yogyakarta kraton is named Kangjeng


Kyai Guntur Laut, Venerable Sir Thunder of the Sea, having a threetoned scale lima (5), nm (6) and pnunggul (1) the slendro tuning system.
According to the Yogyakarta kraton gending collection, Kangjeng Kyai
Guntur Laut was allotted to Yogyakarta in 1755 by the Giyanti Contract.4
Kangjeng Kyai Guntur Laut used to be played exclusively on very solemn
or festive occasions; for instance, to celebrate the Sultans coronation or
to accompany the Sultans departure from the palace to attend important
ceremonies; formerly to add luster to the arrival of highly honored guests;
during the former Saturday-tournaments (watangan); to the nightly official
repasts on the last five odd days of the month of fasting (Siyam or Ramadan),
the so-called malman, which was held on the 21st, 23rd, 25th, 27th and 29th;
to the first official meeting of a princely couple; to the garebegs three
great religious celebrations -; and formerly, when a letter arrived from
one of the other Javanese rulers or from the Dutch Governor-General.5
As the tournaments were usually held on a Saturday, the Monggang in
the Yogyakarta kraton is called Gangsa Setu (Saturday gamelan). Due to
its solemn function, the gamelan Kangjeng Kyai Guntur Laut only plays
one specific melody, called Gending Monggang. It is believed that Kangjeng
Kyai Guntur Laut was an heirloom from the House of Majapahit.
The gamelan Kodhok Ngorek, The Croaking Frog, of the Yogyakarta
kraton is named Kangjeng Kyai Mahesa Ganggang. The name literally means
Venerable Sir Fighting Buffalo, which according the kraton gending
collection was also allotted to Yogyakarta by the Giyanti Contract in 1755.6
This orchestra also possesses a three-toned scale of the slendro tuning
system. It has very sacred large gongs, called respectively Kangjeng Kyai
Mahesa Ganggang and Kangjeng Kyai Sima. It is known that for some rare
melodies such as the Gending Kodhok Ngorek Ayam Sepenan, Sultan
Hamengku Buwono I added some instruments. Gamelan Kodhok Ngorek
used to be played on the occasion of the first official meeting of a princely
couple; on the Sultans birthday; at the circumcision of the Sultans sons;
during the garebegs, when the gunungans, the sacred masses of food, were
brought in before being distributed among the people; during the highlights
of a wayang wong performance, accompanying the fight between two
strong warriors like Bima and Diradasura in the story of Mintaraga; in
the olden days when tigers were released in the Northern Square, after
which they were speared when trying to escape (Javanese: rampogan
macan), or during a fight between a tiger (Javanese: macan) and a buffalo
(Javanese: kebo). The gamelan Kodhok Ngorek plays only two melodies
called Gending Kodhok Ngorek and Gending Nalaganjur.

29

R.M. Soedarsono

which literally means Venerable Sir Torrent of Honey, received by Sultan


Hamengku Buwono I at Giyanti. The other one, manufactured in 1757 during
the reign of the Sultan, is called Kangjeng Kyai Naga Wilaga, which literally
which means Venerable Sir Fighting Snake. Both gamelan Sekati have a
seven-toned scale of the pelog tuning system. It is believed that Kangjeng Kyai
Guntur Madu is an heirloom from the House of Demak. Both gamelan Sekati
of the Yogyakarta kraton are and used to be played inside the compound
of Mesjid Ageng, The Great Mosque, during the Sekaten-week. This is from
the night of the 6th to the 12th of the third Javano-Muslim month Mulud,
except on Thursday evening and Friday morning. This celebration preceded
the Garebeg Mulud which is on the 12th of Mulud, commemorating the birthday
of the Prophet Muhammad. The gamelan Sekati of the Yogyakarta kraton
play a dozen pieces, such as the gending Rambu, Rangkung, Andong-Andong,
and Lunggadhung.8
The Yogyakarta kraton has another ancient gamelan but not as sacred as
the gamelan Monggang, Kodhok Ngorek, and Sekati, namely Kangjeng Kyai
Guntur Sari. This gamelan used to be played only to accompany a particular
dance called Beksan Lawung (lance dance) at the wedding ceremonies of the
Sultans children. This ensemble has a pelog scale system and an honorary
name which literally means The Honored Beautiful Thunder. The size of its
instruments are much bigger and thicker and there are also more instruments
compared to the other new ensembles, therefore it can produce a more
thundering sound.
Court gamelan in the Yogyakarta kraton constitutes a great contribution
to the authority of the Sultan, which runs under the concept of ratu gung
binathara (godly king). Besides the above gamelan, there are thirteen new
ensembles which were and still are used for ordinary purposes, such as to
accompany a dance and wayang kulit (leather puppet play), and uyon-uyon
(gamelan concert). The thirteen new ensembles which used to be called gamelan
agng (big ensembles) are:
(1) Kangjeng Kyai Marikangen in a slendro scale system;
(2) Kangjeng Kyai Bremara in a pelog scale system;
(3) Kangjeng Kyai Panji in a pelog scale system;
(4) Kangjeng Kyai Surak in a slendro scale system;
(5) Kangjeng Kyai Kancilbelik in a pelog scale system;
(6) Kangjeng Kyai Harjanegara in a slendro scale system;
(7) Kangjeng Kyai Harjamulya in a pelog scale system;
(8) Kangjeng Kyai Medharsih in a slendro scale system;
(9) Kangjeng Kyai Mikatsih in a pelog scale system;
(10) Kangjeng Kyai Madumurti in a slendro scale system;
(11) Kangjeng Kyai Madukusuma in a pelog scale system;
(12) Kangjeng Kyai Madukentir in a slendro scale system;
(13) Kangjeng Kyai Siratmadu in a pelog scale system.

30

R.M. Soedarsono

II

here are three dance forms which were and still are used to celebrate
some significant court events, i.e., beksan bedhaya, wayang wong and
beksan lawung ageng. Beksan bedaya or just bedaya is composition
performed by nine female dancers; wayang wong is a dance drama with
spoken dialog; and beksan lawung ageng or just lawung ageng is a strongstyle composition performed danced by 16 male dancers. It is believed
that the first bedaya and also the most sacred one was created by Sultan
Agung (r. 1613-1645), the third and greatest king of the Mataram
kingdom. It symbolized the nine human orifices, like those of the kraton
(palace) which also had nine main entrances. The dance composition
was also associated with the structure of the human body, consisting of a
heart, a head, a neck, two arms, a chest, two legs, and a sex organ. This
association can be identified by looking at the names of the performers
and the composition of the bedaya, consisting of endhel (representing desires
emerging from the heart), batak (head with the mind or soul), jangga (neck),
apit ngajeng (right arm), apit wingking (left arm), dhadha (chest), endhel
wedalan ngajeng (right leg), endhel wedalan wingking (left leg), and buntil
(sex organ). Bedaya was also associated with the nine human orifices:
two eyes, two nostrils, two ears, one mouth, one anus, and one sex organ.
The leading roles of the bedaya were batak (representing mind or soul)
and endhel (desires). Kangjeng Brongtodiningrat remarks that the fight
between endhel, the human desires, and batak, the human mind, is a
natural thing in human life. He says, in this world, there are two opposite
characters only in human life, i.e., good and bad, right and wrong, and
so on. These two opposite characters always fight each other and, of
course, the ideal goal of man is to conquer the bad which will result in the
ideal life.9 Thus man as Microcosm always has two opposite characters
which exist be in harmony. Human desires must remain in balance with
the human mind, otherwise disorder will result which will affect the
Macrocosm.
Prince Suryobrongto informs us that bedaya was sacred because it was
a pusaka inherited by the Sultans of Yogyakarta from the greatest ruler of
Mataram, Sultan Agung. So it is not surprising that only the bedaya (and
also srimpi) used to be performed on the Bangsal Kencana, The Golden
Hall. Since the bedaya was a pusaka, the dancers started their dancing
from Bangsal Prabayeksa, in which almost all the pusakas were installed,
walking (kapang-kapang) from it to the Bangsal Kencana.10 Formerly the
Sultan and the Dutch Governor General were seated in the western section
of the Bangsal Kencana.

31

Ritual Performing Arts

The theme of the bedaya is love or war, for example, Bedaya Bedhah
Mediun depicting the attack of Mataram on the regency of Madiun.
Bedaya Arjunawiwaha depicts the marriage of Arjuna and Dewi Supraba;
and Bedaya Sang Aji Dasanti depicts the coronation ceremony of Sultan
Hamengku Buwono X and the appointment of Gusti Kangjeng Ratu
Hemas as his prameswari, the main consort. During the reign of Sultan
Hamengku Buwono X, a new theme has developed, that is, the Bedaya
Sang Amurwabumi depicting the struggle of Sang Amurwabumi (Ken
Arok) for the throne of Singasari kingdom and his marriage to
Prajnyaparamita (Ken Dedes). It was performed for the first time in the
commemoration of Sultans 13 years on the throne, which was held on
17 October 2001. It was worth noting here that the abhiseka (royal title)
Amurwabumi actually means Hamengku Buwono.11 It is believed that
the oldest bedaya in the Yogyakarta kraton was Bedaya Semang, which
was created by Kangjeng Ratu Kidul and Sultan Agung and therefore is
considered the most sacred. Is has been long forgotten, and last year it
was reconstructed and performed to celebrate the coronation anniversary
of Sultan Hamengku Buwono X. Bedaya was also performed to celebrate
the circumcision ceremony of the Sultans sons and to receive highly
honored guests like the Dutch Governor-General.
According to Babad Kraton Ngayogyakarta, the chronicle of the court
of Yogyakarta, wayang wong dance drama was created by Sultan
Hamengku Buwono I in about 1756. The chronicle reads:
Bedaya lan sarimpi,
beksa lawung beksa sekar,
beksa wayang beksa tameng,
reringgitan gedhog purwa,
miwah kang ringgit jalma[wayang wong],
anglangkungi sukanipun,
malah Sang Sri Nara Nata.
(Bedaya and srimpi dances,
lawung and sekar [Medura] dances,
wayang and shield dances,
gedhog and purwa shadow plays,
and wayang wong,
there were entertaining,
even His Highness the King.)

32

R.M. Soedarsono

From the above information it is clear that Sultan Hamengku Buwono


I was fond of performing arts very much, including bedaya, wayang wong
and lawung (lawung ageng). Wayang wong was performed for the first
time in 1756 to celebrate the foundation of the new kingdom or sultanate,
Kasultanan Ngayogyakarta Hadiningrat. It is therefore that I assume that
wayang wong was a state ritual dance drama.12 It reached its high standard
and sophistication during the reign of Sultan Hamengku Buwono VIII,
who was known as the great patron of wayang wong.
I suspect that the first production of the wayang wong performance
with the story of Gandawardaya must have been performed to
commemorate the coronation day of the Sultan, and the second with the
story of Jayasenadi to celebrate the eight-year-cyclic birthday of the Sultan.
When the wayang wong with the story of Gandawardaya was put on
stage by Sultan Hamengku Buwana I in 1756 commemorating the
establishment of the Yogyakrta kraton, this performance was a state ritual.
The performance started at dawn, when the sun began to appear in the
world and lasted until dusk. The kratons tradition of the time arrangement
of the wayang wong performance starting at 6.00 in the morning was
preserved until the reign of Sultan Hamengku Buwana VIII (r. 1921-1939).
This unusual time arrangement may have had a symbolic significance,
i.e., to honor the appearance of the Sun, thus the god Wisnu, in the World.
Another ritual aspect of wayang wong can be seen in the prayer recited
by the pemaos kandha, the reader of the narration, near the end of the
performance.
. . . sinawunga ing sih paramita, ingkang rama Kangjeng Tuwan Residen,
tuwin ingkang eyang Kangjeng Tuwan Gupernur Jenderal, saha ingkang
eyang Kangjeng Raja Ingkang Maha Agung, saestu lulusa supeket
prasobat ginunturan tresna wilasa, lusweng puja trusing kaluhuranDalem, dumugiya sakarsa-Dalem, harjanipun negari-Dalem ing
Ngayogyakarta . . . .13
( . . . hopefully He is supported by the love shown for Him by His
Lordly Father Mr. Resident, His Lordly Grandfather Mr. GovernorGeneral and His Lordly Grandmother Queen the Great [of the
Netherlands]. It is hoped that there is a close friendship covered
with love. Sympathy is prayed for His nobleness, His long life, His
highly-honored country, His orders, and the well-being of His
country, Ngayogyakarta . . . . )

33

Sultan Hamengku Buwana VIII, known as the great patron of wayang


wong, celebrated his fifty-sixth birthday (the seventh Tumbuk-Dalem cycle)
with a three-day wayang wong performance of three lakons or stories, Samba
Sebit, Rama Nitik, and Rama Nitis. During his reign he performed big
wedding ceremonies for his children and also to celebrate the wedding of
Princess Juliana of the Netherlands and Prince Bernhard van LippeBiesterfeld. These signified that besides the coronation day of the Sultan,
the wedding ritual was also considered very important in the kratons life
and used to be performed in a number of steps concluded by a grandscale wayang wong performance.
The wedding festivities in the Yogyakarta kraton were held in ten steps:
(1) majang and tarub, preparing and decorating the places which would
be used for the ceremonies; (2) siraman, the ceremonial bathing of the
bride and bridegroom; (3) lenggahan midadareni, the ceremony held at night
before the main ritual, to ask for blessing from the widadaris, the heavenly
nymphs; (4) panantunipun panganten putri, the formal proposal to the bride;
(5) ijabipun panganten kakung, the formal wedding contract between the
bridegroom and the brides father or his representative sanctioned by the
pengulu, the religious official; (6) dhaupipun panganten, the official meeting
between the bride and the bridegroom; (7) lenggahan ageng, the grand
reception; (8) sepekenan, the ceremony held on the fifth day after the
wedding contract was signed; (9) jangan menir, going to the permanent
residence of the couple; and (10) selapanan, the ceremony held on the thirtyfifth day after the wedding contract was signed.1
Formerly, after the main rituals the bridal couple went to the kepatihan,
the prime ministers residence, in a grand procession accompanied by the
royal entourages and edan-edanan, the male and female clowns. In the
procession the Sultan was represented by a group of male dancers of the
beksan lawung ageng, The Great Lance Dance, riding on horseback and
protected by the royal parasols. Along the way from the kedhaton, the
palace, to the kepatihan approximately one mile the procession was
accompanied by the sounding of the gamelan Kangjeng Kyai Guntur Sari.
Upon the arrival of the couple at the kepatihan, the grand reception
started accompanied by the performance of the beksan lawung ageng (and
also the bedaya). After the wedding reception, the couple stayed at the
kepatihan for six days. On the fifth day after the wedding contract was
signed the couple went to the kraton to pay homage to the Sultan. This
ceremony was called sepekenan. On the sixth day after the wedding
contract the couple went to their permanent residence, and this ceremony
was called jangan menir.15 The last festivity was the selapanan, held on the
thirty-fifth day after the wedding contract.

34

Ritual Performing Arts

This last ceremony used to be celebrated by a full-scale wayang wong


performance.
Beksan lawung ageng, which was danced in a strong male character,
was a group choreography performed danced by sixteen male dancers. It
depicted a fight between two groups of warriors equipped with lances
(lawung). The sixteen dancers were categorized into five roles, i.e., four
lurah, four jajar, two botoh (leaders of the fight), four salaotho (clownservants), and four ploncon (lance bearers). Beksan lawung ageng was also
called beksan Trunajaya because formerly it was danced by a group of
royal soldiers called Trunajaya. It was believed that this dance was
associated with fertility which could be recognized in the fighting
movement when the lances were pushed against the dance floor and not
against the body of the dancers. So, it is therefore that beksan lawung ageng
was, and still is, performed by the end of the ritual ceremonies of a royal
marriage, with the hope that in the near future the couple would bear
children.
There were three important events in the Yogyakarta kraton which
were celebrated by a wayang kulit purwa (leather puppet play)
performance. Thee were, to celebrate the birthday of the Sultan which
was held every wiyosan dalem; to entertain participats of the watangan or
tournament, and to celebrate the end of the Garebeg Mulud ritual. Formerly,
the birthday of the Sultan which was held once in every 35 days of the
Javanese calendar system when the day of the seven-day week system
met with the day of the five-day week system (pasaran). Wayang kulit,
which was performed by the end of the watangan or tournament which
was held every Saturday was also called barwatang, literally means after
the watangan tournament was over. Wayang kulit purwa, which was
performed once a year by the end of the Garebeg Mulud ritual was called
bedhol songsong and literally means to pull the umbrellas from the
Northern Square (Alun-Alun Lor). It was a tradition that the Garebeg
Mulud ritual celebrating the birth of the Prophet Muhammad, was also
used by the Sultan to test the loyalty of the regents signified by the planting
of their umbrellas in the Northern Square.16 Some wayang kulit, or leather
puppets, are classified as pusaka or heirlooms which are housed at the
dalem Prabayeksa. These are not used for performance. Each puppet has
an honorific named such as Kangjeng Kyai Jimat (Yudistira), Kangjeng
Kyai Bayukusuma (Bima), Kangjeng Kyai Jayaningrum (Arjuna),
Kangjeng Kyai Wahyu Tumurun (Bathara Guru), Kangjeng Kyai Gendreh
(Kresna), etc.17

35

R.M. Soedarsono

III

y looking at the above description, it was clear that almost every


important event in the palace was accompanied by performing arts;
either gamelan music, dance, or leather puppet play. Formerly
almost all of the performing arts functioned as state rituals signifying the
grandeur of the ratu gung binathara, the great god-king. Today some of
the prewar performing arts are still performed. Some specific events have
still been accompanied by either gamelan music, dance, or wayang kulit
purwa. When Sultan Hamengku Buwana IX passed away in 1988, the
departure of his body from Bangsal Kencana, The Golden Hall to the
Imagiri royal cemetery was accompanied by Gamelan Kangjeng Kyai
Guntur Laut. During the coronation ceremony of Sultan Hamengku
Buwana X which was held on 7 March, 1989, both Kangjeng Kyai Guntur
Laut and Kangjeng Kyai Mahesaganggang were played after the master
of ceremonies read the letter of confirmation of the coronation. The
coronation ceremony of Sultan Hamengku Buwana X was performed
following royal tradition. However, was one thing which differed from
the ceremony before World War II, that was the pinning of the gold royal
star which in past times was done by the Dutch Governor General
signifying that Sultan Hamengku Buwana was still under the supremacy
of the Dutch, although he still used the kingship concept, ratu gung
binathara (godly king). The gold royal star was pinned on the jacket of the
Sultan by the oldest pangeran, that was Gusti Bandara Pangeran Harya
Purubaya, the uncle of the Sultan.
When Sultan Hamengku Buwana X held a wedding ceremony for his
oldest daughter a couple years ago, the reception was not held in the
kepatihan, but in the palace. This was because after the war, there was a
change of the status of the Kingdom of Yogyakarta. Since 1945 Yogyakarta
has not been a kingdom in the real sense any more. It has belonged to the
Republic of Indonesia and its status was changed to become a Special
Territory, equivalent with a province. There is no prime minister any more,
and the kepatihan has become the center of all administrative activities of
the Province. Sultan Hamengku Buwana X, as Governor of the Province
himself, has his office in the kepatihan. So, the grand reception of the
marriage of his daughter was held in the kraton, including the performance
of bedaya and beksan lawung ageng. Some dance masters of the Yogyakarta
kraton had already successfully reconstructed the long forgotten Bedaya
Semang and it was performed for the first time to celebrate the coronation
anniversary of Sultan Hamengku Buwana X last year.

36

Ritual Performing Arts

REFERENCES
1
Robert Heine-Geldern, 1956. Conceptionss of State in Southeast Asia. Revised
version. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University Southeast Asia Program 1.
2
Jaap Kunst, 1958. Some Sociological Aspects of Music. Washington: The Library
of Congress, 2.
3
See M.C. Ricklefs, 1974. Jogjakarta under Sultan Mangkubumki, 1749-1792: A
History of the Division of Java. London: Oxford University Press, 53.
4
Jaap Kunst, 1973. Music in Java: Its History, Its Theory and Its Technique.
Third and enlarged editon by E.L. Heins, Vol. I. The Hague: Martinus
Nijhoff, 258.
5
See Kunst, 1958. Some Sociological Aspects of Music, 5; also see Sultan
Hamengku Buwono X, patron and chief editor, 2002. Kraton Jogja: The History
and Cultural Heritage. Jakarta: Karaton Ngayogyakarta Hadiningrat and
Indonesia Marketing Association, 187.
6
Kunst, Music in Java, Vol. I, 261.
7
Kunst, Music in Java, Vol. I, 266.
8
Wasisto Surjodiningrat, 1971. Gamelan, Dance and Wayang in Jogjakarta.
Jogjakarta: Gadjah Mada University Press, 2.
9
See K.P.H. Brongtodiningrat, 1979. Lelangen-Dalem Bedoyo sarta Srimpi.
Yogyakarta: ASTI, 1.
10
An interview with Pangeran Suryobrongto on 20 August, 1981, as quoted
by Soedarsono in his Wayang Wong: The State Ritual Dance Drama in the
Court of Yogyakarta (Yogyakarta: Gadjah Mada University Press, 1984), 82.
11
Hamengku Buwono X, 178-179.
12
R.M. Soedarsono, 1984. Wayang Wong: The State Ritual Dance Drama in the
Court of Yogyakarta. Yogyakarta: Gadjah Mada University Press, 90-96.
13
Serat Kandha Ringgit Purwa Lampahan Jayasemadi (dated 10 December, 1856
AD). Yogyakarta kraton MS W.A1, 292-94.
14
See B.P.H. Poeroebojo, Rondom de Huwelijken in de Kraton te Jogjakarta,
Djawa, Vol. 19 (1939), 295-329.
15
Poeroebojo, 298.
16
See R.M. Soedarsono, 1989/1990. Seni Pertunjukan Jawa Tradisional dan
Pariwisata di Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta. Yogyakarta: Departemen
Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan, 73-81.
17
See Hamengku Buwono X, 136.

37

R.M. Soedarsono

BIBLIOGRAPHY
Brongtodiningrat, K.R.T., 1979. Lelangen-Dalem Bedojo sarta Srimpi hing
Ngayigyakarta Hadiningrat. Yogyakarta: Proyek NKK ASTI
Yogyakarta.
Hamengku Buwono X, patron and chief editor, 2002. Kraton Jogja: The
History and Cultural Heritage. Jakarta: Kraton Ngayogyakarta
Hadiningrat and Indonesia Marketing Association (IMA).
Heine-Geldern, R. von., 1956. Conceptions of State and Kingship in Southeast
Asia. Revised version. Ithaca, New York: Cornell University
Southeast Asia Program.
Kunst, J., 1958. Some Sociological Aspects of Music. Washington: The Library
of Congress.
__________, 1973. Music in Java: Its History, Its Theory, and Its Technique.
Third and enlarged edition by E.L. Heins. The Hague: Martinus
Nijhoff.
Rickelfs, M.C., 1974. Jogjakarta under Sultan Mangkubumi, 1749-1792: A
History of the Division of Java. London: Oxford University Press.
Poeroebaja, B.P.H. Rondom de Huwelijken in den Kraton te Jogjakarta,
Djawa, Vol. 19 (1939), 85-108.
Serat Kandha Ringgit Purwa Lampahan Jayasemadi (dated 10 December,
1856). Yogyakarta kraton MS A.66.
Soedarsono, R.M., 1989/1990. Seni Pertunjukan Jawa Tradisional dan
Pariwisata di Daerah Istimewa Yogyakarta. Yogyakarta:
Departemen Pendidikan dan Kebudayaan.
__________, 1990. Wayang Wong: Ritual Dance Drama in the Court of
Yogyakarta. Second printing. Yogyakarta: Gadjah Mada
University Press, 1990.
Surjodiningrat, Wasisto, 1971. Gamelan, Dance and Wayang in Jogjakarta.
Jogjakarta: Gadjah Mada University Press.

38