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AIHA Guideline 2 2004

Recommendations for the Management,


Operation, Testing, and Maintenance of
HVAC Systems: Maintaining Acceptable
Indoor Air Quality in Nonindustrial
Employee Occupancies Through Dilution
Ventilation

Approval date: 03/09/2004

American Industrial Hygiene Association

About this Document


AIHA guidelines are developed through a consensus process that involves review by
internal AIHA technical committees and external review by outside experts. Through this
process, AIHA brings together volunteers with varied backgrounds and viewpoints.
The intent of this document is to provide practical guidance to the practicing OEHS
professional. This document is not a standard.

Disclaimer
AIHA did not independently test the methods or verify the accuracy of recommendations
contained in this document. Specific mention of manufacturers and products in this book
does not represent an endorsement by AIHA.

Copyright
Copyright 2004 by the American Industrial Hygiene Association. All rights reserved.
No part of this publication may be reproduced in any form, by photostat, microfilm,
retrieval system, or any other means, without prior permission from the publisher.

American Industrial Hygiene Association


2700 Prosperity Avenue, Suite 250
Fairfax, VA 22031
(703) 849-8888
www.aiha.org
Stock #: IVEG04-658
ISBN #: 1-931504-52-0
Printed in the United States of America

Table of Contents
Forward ......................................................................................................................vii
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
7.
8.
9.

Scope......................................................................................................................1
Related Standards, Guidelines, and Publications ......................................................2
Definitions...............................................................................................................2
General Guidance...................................................................................................7
Management of HVAC Systems Used for Dilution ....................................................9
HVAC System Equipment .......................................................................................12
Outdoor Air ..........................................................................................................19
Operation and Maintenance..................................................................................26
Inspection, Monitoring, Testing, Balancing, and Operational Checks ......................29

Appendix A: Supplementary Information.....................................................................33


Appendix B: Audit Form..............................................................................................43

Guideline Administrative Statements

Explanation and Information

1.

Scope

1.

Scope

1.1

Scope. The Guideline provides suggestions


and recommendations for the management,
operation, maintenance, and testing of
heating, ventilation, and air conditioning
(HVAC) systems used for dilution ventilation to
provide acceptable air quality in nonindustrial
employee occupancies.

1.1

Properly operating HVAC systems are used


to maintain and promote comfortable and
healthful indoor air conditions in the nonindustrial occupational work environment
through dilution and removal of air
contaminants.
The committee recognizes that the Guideline
may need to be modified so as to apply to
older HVAC equipment, for example, induction
and fan-coil units.

1.2

Exclusions. The Guideline does not cover the


following.

1.2

Design and construction of HVAC systems


Ventilation of laboratories
Dilution ventilation systems used in
industrial employee occupancies
Local exhaust ventilation (LEV) systems used
for industrial process control
HVAC systems based exclusively on
displacement or plug-flow ventilation
approaches
Hospitals and other commercial facilities
that introduce unusual occupational
stressors into the air such as kitchens, photo
development labs, dry cleaners, and so forth
Exclusively naturally ventilated buildings

Exclusions. ASHRAE and other standards/


codes-setting organizations provide standards
and guidelines for the design and construction
of new HVAC facilities.
ANSI Z9 and AIHA have published standards
related to the ventilation of industrial occupancies. See Section 2 and the AIHA web site:
www.aiha.org. Other standards and guidelines
covering HVAC systems are found in
Appendix A2.
Industrial-occupancy dilution ventilation systems
will be covered in a future ANSI Z9 standard.
LEV systems are covered in ANSI Z9.2. Lab
ventilation systems are covered in ANSI Z9.5.
Many nonoccupancy buildings use exhaust
systems in bathrooms, kitchens, copy rooms,
and so forth. These exhaust systems are not
considered LEV systems in the Guideline.
Displacement and plug-flow ventilation
systems may not be dilution-based controls.
When these systems are considered
enhanced dilution systems, recommendations of the Guideline can be useful.
Other occupational stressor locations might
include oil vapors in kitchens, TB germs in
hospitals, perchloroethylene in dry cleaning
establishments, and acetic acid in photo
development shops. These occupancies are
better handled using traditional industrial
hygiene ventilation principles and practices.
Naturally ventilated buildings may include
warehouses, older office buildings in mild
climates, and so forth.

2.

Related Standards, Guidelines and


Publications

2.

Existing standards, guidelines, and other


sources of information contain provisions that
complement the recommendations of this
Guideline. Please see Appendix A2 for a list of
such documents.

3.

Related Standards, Guidelines and


Publications
The list in Appendix A2 is not all-inclusive but
contains items considered part of the body of
current and recognized standards of good
practice. All codes, regulations, standards,
guidelines, and publications are subject to
revision. Users of the Guideline are
encouraged to consult the most recent editions
of the codes, regulations, standards,
guidelines, and other publications listed.

Definitions

3.

Definitions
Definitions explain major and repeating terms
as they are used in the Guideline. Not all
terms in the Guideline are defined with
exactness, for example, experienced and
appropriately dry, because the definition
may vary with the time, the equipment, usage,
and so forth. Indeed, many recommendations
are purposely left undefined to assure
flexibility for the user. The user may find it
helpful to obtain the services of a cognizant
authority to assist in the definition of terms,
conditions, and recommendations not readily
understood.

3.1

Acceptable Concentration. The concentration in


air of a gas, vapor, or aerosol that the user
determines is acceptable for the occupied
space.

3.2

Air Cleaning Equipment. A device or


combination of devices for removing or
reducing contaminants from the air handler
by an HVAC system.

3.1

User-defined acceptable concentrations might


include, for example, carbon dioxide at or
below 700+ background ppm,,
nondetectable odor level, x% of the OSHA
PEL, and so forth. This definition is not in
conflict with the ASHRAE 622001 definition of
acceptable air: Air in which there are no
known contaminants at harmful or irritating
concentrations as determined by cognizant
authorities (e.g., toxicologists, industrial
hygienists, or other appropriate professionals).

3.2 Typically only particle filters are used in HVAC


systems, but some may provide chemical and
activated charcoal filters for gases and vapors.
Air-cleaning equipment may be specified to
protect air-handling equipment only, or may
be specified to protect occupants as well.

3.3 AHU; Air-Handling Unit. Those components of


the HVAC system that power and move
circulating air.

3.3 Typically includes mixing plenum, filters,


heating and cooling coils, and fans. (See
descriptive Figure A3.3 in the appendix.)
2

2.

Related Standards, Guidelines and


Publications

2.

Existing standards, guidelines, and other


sources of information contain provisions that
complement the recommendations of this
Guideline. Please see Appendix A2 for a list of
such documents.

3.

Related Standards, Guidelines and


Publications
The list in Appendix A2 is not all-inclusive but
contains items considered part of the body of
current and recognized standards of good
practice. All codes, regulations, standards,
guidelines, and publications are subject to
revision. Users of the Guideline are
encouraged to consult the most recent editions
of the codes, regulations, standards,
guidelines, and other publications listed.

Definitions

3.

Definitions
Definitions explain major and repeating terms
as they are used in the Guideline. Not all
terms in the Guideline are defined with
exactness, for example, experienced and
appropriately dry, because the definition
may vary with the time, the equipment, usage,
and so forth. Indeed, many recommendations
are purposely left undefined to assure
flexibility for the user. The user may find it
helpful to obtain the services of a cognizant
authority to assist in the definition of terms,
conditions, and recommendations not readily
understood.

3.1

Acceptable Concentration. The concentration in


air of a gas, vapor, or aerosol that the user
determines is acceptable for the occupied
space.

3.2

Air Cleaning Equipment. A device or


combination of devices for removing or
reducing contaminants from the air handler
by an HVAC system.

3.1

User-defined acceptable concentrations might


include, for example, carbon dioxide at or
below 700+ background ppm,,
nondetectable odor level, x% of the OSHA
PEL, and so forth. This definition is not in
conflict with the ASHRAE 622001 definition of
acceptable air: Air in which there are no
known contaminants at harmful or irritating
concentrations as determined by cognizant
authorities (e.g., toxicologists, industrial
hygienists, or other appropriate professionals).

3.2 Typically only particle filters are used in HVAC


systems, but some may provide chemical and
activated charcoal filters for gases and vapors.
Air-cleaning equipment may be specified to
protect air-handling equipment only, or may
be specified to protect occupants as well.

3.3 AHU; Air-Handling Unit. Those components of


the HVAC system that power and move
circulating air.

3.3 Typically includes mixing plenum, filters,


heating and cooling coils, and fans. (See
descriptive Figure A3.3 in the appendix.)
2

3.4 AMCA establishes certification criteria for fans


and other air-moving equipment such as
louvers, dampers, air curtains, airflow
monitoring stations, acoustic attenuators.

3.4 AMCA. The Air Movement and Control


Association.

3.5

Balancing; air balancing. The proportioning of


airflows within the duct or distribution system
according to specified design criteria.

3.5 Normally associated with testing and


adjustment of duct airflow controls (e.g.,
dampers) to assure proper distribution of
dilution air to occupied spaces.

3.6

Cognizant Authority (CA). A person or entity


who by education, training, or experience is
able to define terms, determine correct
approaches, solve problems, answer
questions, and so forth.

3.6 A term used also in ASHRAE 62, a cognizant


authority is a knowledgeable person or entity
the user can employ to assist in meeting
recommendations of the Guideline, for
example, industrial hygienists as the CAs for
determining if an IAQ problem exists, a
toxicologist as the CA for determining if a
chemical exposure is hazardous, a physician
for determining if a person has a buildingrelated illness, a government agency for
determining compliance with a code or
regulation, and so forth.

3.7

Commissioning. The process of ensuring that


systems are capable of being operated and
maintained according to design intent.

3.7 It is a process that ideally continues


throughout the life of the HVAC system, but
more commonly begins early in the design
process and continues actively for the first few
years of operation.

3.8

Commissioning Plan. Documentation that


defines the commissioning process.

3.9

Contaminant; Air Contaminant. A substance


(dust, fume, mist, vapor, or gas) the presence
of which in air is harmful, hazardous, toxic
(e.g., irritating), or creates a nuisance.

3.9 Also, occupational stressor.

3.10 DDC. Direct digital control.

3.10 Use of computer-driven electronic controls.


The control system may incorporate electronic
and pneumatic controllers and may include
analog as well as digital signaling from a
variety of types of sensors and controllers.

3.11 Dilution, Dilution Ventilation, Dilution and


Removal Ventilation, Ventilation. Use of
uncontaminated (fresh, outdoor) air to mix
with potentially contaminated indoor air to
reduce airborne concentrations of
contaminants to acceptable concentrations.

3.11 Contaminants thus leave the indoor


environment as general building exhaust and
relief air. All supply air systems provide
dilution ventilation when they contain a
component of fresh outdoor air of acceptable
quality.

3.12 Displacement Ventilation; Plug-Flow. Air


contaminant control in which air is induced to
move as a body in one direction.

3.12 For example, cold air introduced at the floor


level that rises through thermal action to
return grilles in the ceiling. In displacement
ventilation, mixing of contaminants in the
clean air at the occupant location is
discouraged.
3

3.13 Document; Documentation. The formal process


of planning and recording decisions made by
the user or relevant others.

3.13 Also may include the written procedures


developed for operating, testing, and
maintaining an HVAC system. It may also
include written health and safety plans for use
during testing and operation and maintenance
(O&M) procedures.

3.14 Ducts; Ductwork. Normally, elongated rigid or


flexible enclosures, pipes, or tubes used to
convey air and static pressure from one
location to another.

3.14 In the Guideline it can also mean mixing


boxes and any enclosed path taken by the air
in the HVAC system, not to include the
occupied space.

3.15 Economizer; Economizer Operations.


Generally, the use of up to 100% outdoor air
for cooling when the outdoor temperature is
below the air handler discharge temperature
set-point.

3.15 Economizer cooling is used to offset


mechanical cooling when outside air
temperatures are typically 50 to 70F. Check
set-points on individual HVAC systems. Most
economizers include enthalpy as a
determining metric.

3.16 Guideline. Refers to this Guideline, AIHA


Guideline 2-2004.
3.17 Health maintenance. Maintaining homeostasis
of occupants, thus promoting health and wellbeing; maintaining normally healthy
conditions.

3.17 Comfort is considered a component of good


mental and physical health and is also
desirable because it influences productivity
and performance.

3.18 HVAC system. Heating, ventilating, and air


conditioning system. Generic term for
ventilation systems providing both thermal
comfort and dilution ventilation for IAQ
control in industrial and nonindustrial
employee occupancies requiring control of
potential health hazards.
3.19 IH; Industrial Hygiene. The profession devoted
to the anticipation, recognition, evaluation,
and control of employee exposures to airborne
contaminants.

3.19 More broadly, industrial hygiene is the science


and art devoted to forestalling, anticipating,
recognizing, evaluating, and controlling
hazards and stressors in the workplace that
may cause illness, injury, or discomfort.

3.20 Industrial Occupancy. An employee-occupied


location where industrial operations and
production processes are carried out.

3.20 Examples include a foundry floor, wood shop,


welding operations, factory production floor.
It is an employee-occupied location where
primary air contaminants are generated by
industrial processes or is defined by the
Occupational Safety and Health
Administration (OSHA) as an industrial
operation and regulated by OSHA industrial
standards. (See also, Nonindustrial
Occupancy.)

3.21 LEV; Local Exhaust Ventilation. Ventilation


approach used to capture, control, contain,
receive, and/or remove air contaminants at
the source.
4

3.22 Leakage. Air crossing the building envelope


through unintentional openings such as doors,
fenestration, cracks, and so forth.

3.22 This includes infiltration (outside air leaks into


the building) and exfiltration (inside air leaks
out to the environment). Leakage can also
occur between rooms, hallways, and other
spaces within a building. Leakage can find
pathways through wall sockets, elevator shafts,
wiring chassis, ceiling tile frames, and so forth.
Also known as migration.

3.23 MERV. Minimum efficiency reporting value as


established by ASHRAE 52.21999.
3.24 NAAQS. National Ambient Air Quality
Standards established by the U.S.
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).
3.25 Nonindustrial Occupancy. An employeeoccupied location or space where industrial
operations and production processes are not
carried out.

3.25 Examples include offices, conference rooms,


cafeterias, break rooms, multipurpose rooms,
and any location where primary air
contaminants are generated by nonindustrial
sources, for example, humans, building
materials such as carpets, outdoor sources
such as smoke or herbicides, tobacco smoking,
natural sources such as mold spores and
pollen, and so forth. Could include, however,
infiltration into the occupied space of air
contaminants generated in industrial processes
in remote or adjacent spaces (See also,
Industrial Occupancy.)

3.26 Occupational Exposure Limit (OEL). A timeweighted average concentration of


contaminant in air not to be exceeded in the
breathing zone of employees.

3.26 Typical OELs include permissible exposure limit


(PEL, OSHA) workplace environmental
exposure level (WEEL, AIHA), recommended
exposure limit (REL, National Institute for
Occupational Safety and Health [NIOSH]), and
threshold limit value (TLV, American
Conference of Governmental Industrial
Hygienists [ACGIH]).

3.27 Occupied Space. Indoor space where


employees are located.
3.28 Outdoor Air (OA). Acceptably clean air
originating normally from outside the building.

3.28 Similar and familiar terms include clean


intake air, fresh air, makeup air, new air,
outside air, and OSA. Outdoor air is used
(1) to replace air that is exhausted to outside
the building or occupied space, and/or (2) to
dilute indoor contaminated air. The term
outdoor air or OA may also include
acceptably clean indoor air sources, such as
air taken from a warehouse or hallway that
has access to an outdoor air source. It might
also include return air that has been cleaned
to outdoor air quality.

3.29 Examples of such components include OA


dampers, minimum OA controls, return/relief
fans, CO2-demand control systems, and so
forth.

3.29 Outdoor Air Ventilation System. Those


components of the HVAC system responsible for
bringing fresh outside air into the building and
removing/relieving used air from the building.
3.30 Plug flow. See Displacement Ventilation.
3.31 Pressurization. Technique using pressure
differentials to induce airflow in an intended
direction.

3.31 Pressurization is used to prevent infiltration,


smoke control, and for isolation strategies.

3.32 Pulvation. The action of particles becoming


airborne.

3.32 Pulvation is the particle equivalent of the


evaporation of liquids. Particles are normally
pulvated by physical action (wind, vibration).

3.33 Relief Air. Air leaving the building through


designed, powered, or barometrically
controlled openings to the outside.

3.33 Relief air is used predominantly during


economizer cooling.

3.34 RRR. Remodeling, repairing, and redecorating.


3.35 Return Air. Air removed from an occupied and
conditioned space that is either recirculated or
exhausted.
3.36 Smoking Policy. A policy established by the
user that defines or specifies the limitations or
locations associated with smoking of tobacco
products in the workplace.

3.36 For OH&S professionals the most acceptable


smoking policy is one in which smoking is
controlled such that nonsmoking employees
have the right to remain unexposed to tobacco
smoke.

3.37 Supply Air. The total amount of air delivered to


a space used for ventilation, heating, cooling,
humidification, and dehumidification.
3.38 System. See Ventilation System.
3.39 User. Refers to the person or entity using the
Guideline, that is, those responsible for the
management, operation, testing, and/or
maintenance of the HVAC system.

3.39 The user of the Guideline could be defined


asbut is not limited tothe employer
(usually the ultimate user), the building owner,
the building supervisor, the building
maintenance supervisor, the HVAC system
operator, an industrial hygienist, a renovator,
and so forth. The definition of user varies
between Guideline paragraphs and may
involve individuals with different assigned
responsibilities, local environmental factors,
building and HVAC types, and so forth.
Examples of typical users are provided in some
paragraphs.
The intent of using the general term user in
the Guideline is to encourage and suggest the
assignment of responsibility to the appropriate
person, but in a way that allows flexibility for
users of the Guideline.
6

3.40 Ventilation System. The dilution ventilation


system; the HVAC system; the building
ventilation system and its components.

Suggestions and Objectives

Explanatory Materials

4.

General Guidance

4.

General Guidance

4.1

Traditional industrial hygiene air contaminant


control strategies (other than dilution
ventilation) should also be considered when
applying the Guideline.

4.1

Traditional approaches include local source


exhaust ventilation, source emission control,
isolation, personal protection, space
pressurization, barriers, and so forth. This
Guideline primarily covers the use of dilution
ventilation through HVAC systems as a control
strategy. When there are specific emission
sources, other controls used in conjunction with
dilution ventilation are usually cost-effective.
Dilution ventilation alone should not be used
for the control of highly toxic materials.

4.2

Written management policies and programs


should be established by the user to assure
effective observance of the Guideline.

4.2

See Section 5 for details for following this


recommendation.
As it applies to this recommendation, the user
would normally be the employer or building
owner.

4.3

Persons operating, maintaining, or testing an


HVAC system should be qualified by training
or experience to perform the job.

4.3

HVAC system operators (such as licensed


stationary engineers and others qualified by
training and experience) can be educated in the
basics of the HVAC system function and how to
determine proper performance. Testing
personnel can be trained in testing and balancing procedures; maintenance personnel, in
safety procedures and maintenance functions
such as found in ASHRAE 622001: Section 8;
and so forth. The user or a cognizant authority
can determine the extent to which system
operators should be qualified or trained,
depending on system complexity, building type,
and so forth.

4.4

The HVAC system should be kept clean and


appropriately dry, and the equipment should
be maintained in good working order
throughout its working lifetime.

4.4

Clean HVAC systems help avoid nuisance


and combustible dust accumulations and
microbiological activity in the HVAC system.
See Section 6 for details.
The terms appropriately dry and clean can be
defined by the user or by a cognizant authority
based on conditions found in the system, the
space, the weather, and so forth.

3.40 Ventilation System. The dilution ventilation


system; the HVAC system; the building
ventilation system and its components.

Suggestions and Objectives

Explanatory Materials

4.

General Guidance

4.

General Guidance

4.1

Traditional industrial hygiene air contaminant


control strategies (other than dilution
ventilation) should also be considered when
applying the Guideline.

4.1

Traditional approaches include local source


exhaust ventilation, source emission control,
isolation, personal protection, space
pressurization, barriers, and so forth. This
Guideline primarily covers the use of dilution
ventilation through HVAC systems as a control
strategy. When there are specific emission
sources, other controls used in conjunction with
dilution ventilation are usually cost-effective.
Dilution ventilation alone should not be used
for the control of highly toxic materials.

4.2

Written management policies and programs


should be established by the user to assure
effective observance of the Guideline.

4.2

See Section 5 for details for following this


recommendation.
As it applies to this recommendation, the user
would normally be the employer or building
owner.

4.3

Persons operating, maintaining, or testing an


HVAC system should be qualified by training
or experience to perform the job.

4.3

HVAC system operators (such as licensed


stationary engineers and others qualified by
training and experience) can be educated in the
basics of the HVAC system function and how to
determine proper performance. Testing
personnel can be trained in testing and balancing procedures; maintenance personnel, in
safety procedures and maintenance functions
such as found in ASHRAE 622001: Section 8;
and so forth. The user or a cognizant authority
can determine the extent to which system
operators should be qualified or trained,
depending on system complexity, building type,
and so forth.

4.4

The HVAC system should be kept clean and


appropriately dry, and the equipment should
be maintained in good working order
throughout its working lifetime.

4.4

Clean HVAC systems help avoid nuisance


and combustible dust accumulations and
microbiological activity in the HVAC system.
See Section 6 for details.
The terms appropriately dry and clean can be
defined by the user or by a cognizant authority
based on conditions found in the system, the
space, the weather, and so forth.

4.5

A tobacco smoke ventilation policy and/or


program should be established.

4.5

In practical terms a smoking policy or program


means a no-smoking policy or a separation of
smokers from nonsmokers program and how
to achieve cost-effective compliance with the
policy or program.
The tobacco smoke ventilation policy or
program might include locations where
smoking is not permitted; locations where
smoking is permitted; provision for dedicated
HVAC systems for spaces where smoking is
permitted; provision for air in smoking locations
to be directly exhausted to the outside; smoke
controls; compliance with ASHRAE 62.1
addenda on smoking; and so forth.
Tobacco smoke controls could include dilution
ventilation (through the HVAC system or
through a dedicated system); local or general
exhaust ventilation; displacement ventilation;
space pressurization schemes to keep smoking
spaces under negative pressure compared
with surrounding areas (e.g., hardwall
barriers); and so forth.
The policy might also include smokingcessation programs and other administrative
activities.
AIHA recognizes that the hospitality industry
(e.g., bars, taverns, hotel lobbies, restaurants,
casinos, bowling alleys) is a special (and
sometimes difficult) employee occupancy that
will require the employer or building owner to
follow local codes and to adopt smoking
policies and use ventilation approaches
uniquely suited to the situation.

4.6

The user should establish policies and


procedures to maintain indoor air quality
during remodeling, repairs, and redecorating.

4.6

Not having an RRR policy could result in RRR


activities overloading the existing HVAC
systems ability to provide adequate dilution
during such work. Typical RRR policies might
contain the following provisions.
Purchase of low-emitting RRR materials
(see Appendix 4.6)
Off-gassing or airing out of materials
before they are taken into the building.
Painting furnishings and applying
sealants/adhesives outside the building
Painting and applying adhesives before
textiles, carpets, or fleecy furnishings are
brought into the RRR area
Isolating the RRR area from the rest of the
building (e.g., using temporary barriers and
pressurization)

Conducting RRR activities during off-working


hours
Operating the HVAC at high-OA levels
during RRR and for 13 months after RRR
activities cease
Providing auxiliary dilution air, if necessary
Making sure building envelopes and
moisture barriers are maintained to initial
design specifications
4.7

Occupants should be provided with


information on proper HVAC operating and
control procedures for the space.

4.7

Occupants can be instructed in the basic


functioning of the HVAC system to perhaps
include operation of thermostats; humidistats
and adjustable supply registers and terminals;
proper use of mixing or cooling fans; portable
heaters; portable humidifiers; whom to contact
when problems arise; conditions should be
adjusted; and so forth. It should be noted that
in many buildings occupants have little or no
direct control of HVAC operations. In these
cases the HVAC operator must be contacted to
make changes, e.g.,, in air delivery rate, air
temperature, and so forth.

4.8

HVAC equipment suppliers and users of the


Guideline should not claim compliance with
the Guideline unless every element is
complied with.

4.8

The Guideline should not be used for


marketing purposes. A claim that new HVAC
equipment is AIHA Guideline 22004
compliant, for example, can be misleading
because it does not take into account
installation and on-going operating
conditions.

5.

Management of HVAC Systems Used for


Dilution

5.

Management of HVAC Systems Used for


Dilution

5.1

The user should review or establish dilution


and air quality performance standards for the
HVAC system.

5.1

Performance standards are normally


established during the HVAC design stage.
During commissioning, the system should have
been evaluated against design performance
intentions. At later dates, following building
and occupancy changes, the User might
review dilution ventilation- and air qualityrelated performance standards and revise
them to reflect the current situation. Such
standards could include, for example (but not
be limited to):

Hours of operation
Air volume flowrate specifications
Outdoor air control system set points.
Air cleaning standards of performance.
Air mixing potential.
Temperature and humidity set points (when
comfort is a consideration)

Conducting RRR activities during off-working


hours
Operating the HVAC at high-OA levels
during RRR and for 13 months after RRR
activities cease
Providing auxiliary dilution air, if necessary
Making sure building envelopes and
moisture barriers are maintained to initial
design specifications
4.7

Occupants should be provided with


information on proper HVAC operating and
control procedures for the space.

4.7

Occupants can be instructed in the basic


functioning of the HVAC system to perhaps
include operation of thermostats; humidistats
and adjustable supply registers and terminals;
proper use of mixing or cooling fans; portable
heaters; portable humidifiers; whom to contact
when problems arise; conditions should be
adjusted; and so forth. It should be noted that
in many buildings occupants have little or no
direct control of HVAC operations. In these
cases the HVAC operator must be contacted to
make changes, e.g.,, in air delivery rate, air
temperature, and so forth.

4.8

HVAC equipment suppliers and users of the


Guideline should not claim compliance with
the Guideline unless every element is
complied with.

4.8

The Guideline should not be used for


marketing purposes. A claim that new HVAC
equipment is AIHA Guideline 22004
compliant, for example, can be misleading
because it does not take into account
installation and on-going operating
conditions.

5.

Management of HVAC Systems Used for


Dilution

5.

Management of HVAC Systems Used for


Dilution

5.1

The user should review or establish dilution


and air quality performance standards for the
HVAC system.

5.1

Performance standards are normally


established during the HVAC design stage.
During commissioning, the system should have
been evaluated against design performance
intentions. At later dates, following building
and occupancy changes, the User might
review dilution ventilation- and air qualityrelated performance standards and revise
them to reflect the current situation. Such
standards could include, for example (but not
be limited to):

Hours of operation
Air volume flowrate specifications
Outdoor air control system set points.
Air cleaning standards of performance.
Air mixing potential.
Temperature and humidity set points (when
comfort is a consideration)

Water treatment standards (biological,


chemical, etc.)
User, as used in this Section, would normally
refer to the employer or building owner.
5.2

The user should develop a written


management policy that supports ongoing
successful performance of the HVAC system.

5.2

No HVAC system can be successfully operated,


or be properly maintained without
management involvement. The policy
statement should contain such items as:
Performance standards to be followed.
Identification or assignment of a cognizant
or responsible person.
Assignment of roles and responsibilities for
those involved with the HVAC system. Such
responsibilities might include, for example:
For building owners: Plans for IAQ control
during design, materials selection,
construction and operating phases of new and
remodeled buildings.
For building managers: Keeps the HVAC
system clean and well maintained; plans for
HVAC modifications during remodeling,
repairs, and redecorating.
For employers and supervisors of occupants:
Establishes written HVAC system policies and
programs. Selects a person responsible for the
HVAC system (HVAC Manager). Establishes
an IAQ database for the building, HVAC
systems, and occupants. Establishes a
recordkeeping program. Establishes a smoking
ventilation policy and program. Provides a
preventive maintenance program. Provides
training and education for HVAC staff.
For HVAC system managers: Maintains HVAC
equipment in good working order. Operates
HVAC systems to optimize IAQ. Keeps HVAC
systems clean and dry. Controls pests and
microorganisms in HVAC systems. Provides
training for HVAC technicians.
Recordkeeping provisions.
Maintenance of up-to-date plans and
specifications.
Development of emergency plans.
Provisions for employee training.
A tobacco smoke ventilation control
program.
Provisions for testing and monitoring of
HVAC systems.

10

Response to chemical, biological or


radiological attacks.
5.3 The user should assure that HVAC systems are
operated and maintained by those with proper
training and credentials following recognized
standards of good practices and equipment
manufacturers recommendations.

5.3

See Section 8.

5.4 The user should develop and implement a


written HVAC system preventive maintenance
program.

5.4

The program should include the following


elements:
An inventory of AHU components requiring
maintenance.
A list of tasks and frequency of task
performance.
Inspection procedures.
Operating schedules to assure system
operation during periods of significant
activity.
See Section 8 for details.

5.5

The user should establish and maintain a


written HVAC system testing and monitoring
program.

5.5

See Section 9 for details.

5.6

The user should establish a program to


respond to occupants who have IAQ/HVACrelated complaints.

5.6

Understanding and satisfaction with system


operation helps occupants deal with the
normal transient problems that occur in all
buildings. The program should provide for the
identification of how complaints are filed,
investigated and tracked. This should include
both health- and comfort-related issues.

5.7

The user should establish and maintain an


HVAC system recordkeeping program.

5.7

As a minimum, the following records are often


kept:

Training of HVAC personnel.


Test and balancing results.
As-built HVAC plans and specifications.
Deficiencies identified during testing and
inspection and corrective actions taken.
Commissioning plan changes/updates
HVAC/IAQ-related occupant complaints and
actions taken to resolve concern(s).
Water treatment records
Maintenance schedules and documentation
Maintenance records

11

6.

HVAC System Equipment

6.

HVAC System Equipment

6.1

HVAC equipment and components should be


kept appropriately dry and clean.

6.1

Most surfaces within the HVAC system must


remain dry to prevent microbial growth, which
if allowed to proliferate could result in
contamination, exposures to occupants, and
odors. Some surfaces, such as chiller coils and
condensate trays, routinely become moist
during normal cooling-operation periods.
These areas should be routinely inspected,
and trays should completely drain to prevent
pooling of condensate water.
The use of disinfectants and other biocides in
condensate trays is not advised, because trays
that properly drain and are periodically
cleaned do not need disinfectants to prevent
microbial growth.
Interior surfaces of HVAC systems should be
free of significant quantities of accumulated
dust and debris.
Treatment and coating of interior AHU
surfaces should be done only with products
specifically registered with EPA for use in
HVAC systems. In addition, the product label
must contain clear detailed instructions for
how and when to apply the product, and these
instructions should be followed, as instructed
by EPA. See Appendix A6.1.
A clear and universal definition of clean and
significant quantities cannot be provided.
The user must determine appropriate
definitions for the circumstances, equipment,
and conditions involved. For example, what
one person may see as dirty may be a quite
well-maintained and nonproblem 30-year-old
duct system. Or, a small amount of odorproducing dust in a duct may be a significant
quantity, whereas a thicker layer of
nonpulvating, nonodorous dust may not.
See Sections 6.18 and 6.19 for additional
insight and guidance. See Appendix 6.1 for
information on cleaning approaches.
Interior surfaces can be inspected periodically
to determine if cleaning is necessary, for
example, once or twice per year. AHU surfaces
(e.g., heating and cooling coils, condensate
trays, other major surfaces within the air
handler/fan coil unit) should be cleaned on a
scheduled basis (e.g., once per year). Such

12

cleaning should avoid the use of chemical


agents that could result in contaminating the
supply air or corroding internal surfaces. (Duct
surfaces should not need routine or scheduled
cleaning if the AHU is kept reasonably clean
and proper filters are used.)
6.2

6.2

HVAC system controls and sensors should be


maintained in good working order, and these
components should be inspected and
calibrated to ensure proper operation.

As it relates to good working order, HVAC


controls, such as electrically or pneumatically
operated systems (e.g., variable air volume
boxes, dampers) and sensors (e.g.,
temperature and pressure sensors, smoke/fire
sensors, damper position sensors, water
temperature) may fail or need adjustment over
time to accurately reflect the measurement
parameter.
Additionally, without routine inspections and
calibrations the system will fail to maintain
proper pressures, airflow rates, and thermal
conditions. System component manufacturers
can offer guidance concerning appropriate
schedules for such inspections and
calibrations. Such inspections and calibrations
should be documented to assist in future
efforts or troubleshooting. See Sections 8 and
9 for more detail.

6.3

6.3

Building and process exhaust stack outlets


should be maintained well above and away
from outdoor air (OA) intakes.

The user must take care that adequate


separation is maintained between exhausts
(e.g., attic exhausts, bathroom exhausts,
combustion gas flues, laboratory chemical
hood exhausts, parking garages, cooling
towers, and other sources of air contaminants
or excessive heat or cold air) and air intakes
during any renovations, remodeling, or
additions to the buildings ventilation systems.
Refer to Chapter 16, Airflow Around
Buildings, ASHRAE Handbook 2001,
Fundamentals Volume, for guidance.
The user, in this context, could refer to the
building maintenance supervisor or the
renovation engineer or architect.
The term well above and away can be
defined by the user or by a cognizant authority
based on conditions found in the system, the
roof, the weather, and so forth.

6.4

6.4

Areas adjacent to OA intakes and air mixing


plenums should be kept clean and dry.

13

Surfaces and areas near OA intakes are


inspected to ensure the area is free of
excessive debris, animal and insect pests (e.g.,
birds), apparent microbial growth, vegetation
growth, and standing water. The presence of

these materials may block air inflow and/or


create odors and health hazards if there are
significant accumulations.
The terms clean and dry can be defined by
the user or by a cognizant authority based on
conditions found in the system, positions of the
intakes and plenums, the weather, the season
(what happens when it snows?), and so forth.
6.5

Air intakes should be provided with security to


guard against accidental or intentional
contamination.

6.5

Common problems include the smoking of


tobacco products near the OA intake and the
use of herbicides/pesticides on vegetation
located near the intake.
OA intakes could be potential targets for
purposeful introduction of air contaminants or
offensive odors into buildings. Appropriate
security measures should be taken to prevent
such an occurrence. The degree of security is
dictated by the sensitivity of the structure to be
protected, the likelihood that any particular
structure may be a target for a malicious act,
and the impact that shutting down or
evacuating any particular building due to
purposeful contamination may have. Common
security measures include the following.
Limiting access to air-handling equipment
and OA intakes, such as in locked
mechanical rooms
Placing OA intakes in secure areas with
limited access, such as on rooftops
Erecting security fences around OA intakes
The use of security monitoring equipment
such as access alarms, cameras, smoke and
chemical detection equipment

6.6

Air intake louvers should be maintained to


meet AMCA 501 standards.

6.6

AMCA-certified air intake louvers restrict water


infiltration and reduce static pressure losses.
(See Appendix A.2.)

6.7

Water-based cooling towers, evaporative


condensers, and other water mist generating
equipment should be provided with a written
control program to minimize microbiological
activity.

6.7

Water mist generating equipment may be


treated and/or operated to prevent hazardous
microbial growth. OA intakes should be
positioned well away from mist generating
equipment to prevent entrainment. Refer to
ASHRAE Guideline 12, Minimizing the Risk of
Legionellosis in Building Water Systems.

6.8

Access to water-based cooling towers,


evaporative condensers, and other water mist
generating equipment should be restricted by
the user.

6.8

Access to areas near mist generating


equipment that could harbor microorganisms
should be restricted to minimize exposures.
The user, in this context, might refer to the
building operator who will establish access
limits.

14

6.9

6.9

Air mixing box configurations should be


maintained to assure thorough mixing of OA
and return air.

After-installation modification of inlet damper


locations, installation of sound insulators,
improper storage of equipment and materials,
and other changes in the mixing box can
disrupt the mixing of OA and return air. Where
HVAC equipment rooms are used as mixing
chambers (nonducted returns and/or
nonducted OA intakes), they should be kept
clean and not used for storage.
Mixing boxes should also be kept free of
accumulations of dust and debris.

6.10 Proper selection and use of replacement air


filters is essential to the proper operation and
maintenance of HVAC equipment.

6.10 Replacement filters should be selected in


accordance with ASHRAE 52.11992 and
ASHRAE 52.21999.

Many existing building operators will employ


new filters not specified during design and
construction.
Filters help prevent accumulation of dust and
debris on critical system components and help
to keep internal surfaces clean. Filter housings
should be maintained to ensure appropriate
airflow through the filter. If high-efficiency
particulate air (HEPA) filters or other types of
air cleaners are used, refer to appropriate
standards for those air cleaners.
6.11 If AHU shutdown is required to change filters,
this is often performed when the system is
normally shut down (e.g., after hours or on
weekends). Changeout procedures should
follow manufacturers recommendations.
See also Section 9.

6.11 The user should retain (or establish) testing


and maintenance programs to assure reliable
and consistent operation of the air filtering
and cleaning equipment.

When they are available, the user might


follow manufacturers recommendation for
filter testing, changing, and maintenance, for
example, as found in published O&M
manuals.
6.12 Airflow dampers (such as minimum OA
dampers, economizer dampers, return air
dampers, relief air dampers) are inspected to
ensure proper operation, for example, every 3
months for OA louvers and actuators and
every 6 months for other components. Poorly
working dampers can result in inadequate and
inconsistent air distribution.

6.12 Airflow dampers should be routinely inspected


and maintained in good working order.

15

6.13 Airflow through wet cooling coils should not


strip water from the coils nor allow mist to
impinge or settle on downstream surfaces.

6.13 In some cases airflow through the system is


increased to meet airflow requirements. This
new high-velocity airflow through wet cooling
coils may strip water mist off of the coils,
creating wet surfaces downstream and
allowing for microbial growth and corrosion to
occur.
Where this is found to be a problem, reduce
air velocities through the coil to prevent this
from occurring, or install nonadsorbing and
draining baffles to capture the mist. Surfaces
downstream of cooling coils should be
inspected to determine if microbial growth is
occurring. Treatment and coating of surfaces
to inhibit the growth of mold and bacteria
should be done only with products specifically
registered with EPA for use in HVAC systems.
6.14 The user must assure that standing water is
not allowed to accumulate in the air-handling
unit. The drain line should include a water
trap. User, in this context, might refer to the
building operator.

6.14 Condensate drainage from the air-handling


system should remove liquid water and remain
clean and free of standing water.

Users may want to review the ASHRAE


Fundamentals Handbook coverage of
configuration of condensate drains. See
Appendix A2.
6.15 The user will develop a comprehensive
occupational health and safety program that
includes provisions similar to these. Relevant
safety information is available from OSHA, the
National Safety Council, and others.

6.15 The user should maintain appropriate


mechanical guards, lockout/tagout provisions,
and fall protection provisions to assure safe
inspection, operation, and maintenance of
moving equipment such as fans, shafts, and
belts.

When maintenance and repair require


personnel access to the point of operation of
moving parts, proper lockout and tagging
procedures can be followed to prevent
unexpected start up of the equipment.
Fall protection is often necessary when
maintenance personnel are working on AHUs
mounted on sloped roofs.
See also Section 8.6.
6.16 Humidification equipment should be operated
to avoid microbiological growth in the supply
water and to prevent introduction of
potentially hazardous chemicals in the supply
water. Disinfection of supply water, and the
use of additives, should follow the
manufacturers recommendations.

6.16 Humidification equipment can introduce


microbial contaminants and chemical
contaminants to the HVAC system.
Humidification systems should be operated
according to manufacturers procedures and
should be rigorously maintained and
inspected. Chemical additives must be
16

carefully used and should not result in


detectable amounts of airborne watertreatment chemicals in the occupied space.
Ideally, no chemical additives will be used in
the steam used to humidify supply air.
Steam humidification systems using distilled or
reverse-osmosis treated (RO) water may be
used where feasible, and may be required in
some areas where high levels of chemical
additives are used to prevent scale and other
deposits from occurring. Humidification
equipment must be routinely inspected during
operation.
6.17 Internal duct linings can sometimes support
the accumulation of dirt and moisture and the
potential for biological growths. Contaminated
duct liner should normally be removed and
not cleaned unless the lining was specifically
intended to be cleaned.

6.17 Interior duct sound and thermal linings should


be maintained dry and clean.

Uncoated and uncovered fiberglass


replacement linings should be avoided
because of the potential for fiber erosion,
sloughing, and the resulting degradation of
the occupied space.
The terms dry and clean can be defined by the
user or by a cognizant authority based on
conditions found in the system, the equipment,
the weather, and so forth.
6.18 Duct cleaning should be performed after
careful analysis, because cleaning is difficult to
perform and its effectiveness is sometimes
questionable. Small areas of limited dust
deposition are normal in many older duct
systems, often do not adversely contribute to
the presence of air contaminants in the
building, and rarely interfere with airflow.

6.18 Ductwork and interior surfaces of the AHU


should be cleaned or corrected when any of
the following conditions exist.
Permanent or chronic water damage or
infiltration
Presence of visible mold growth or slime
Dust or debris is present that restricts airflow
Evidence exists that significant amounts of
combustible dust is present in the ducts
Evidence that significant amounts of dust or
debris are being emitted from the system
Offensive odors are emitted from the HVAC
system and evidence exists that the odor
source is present in the ducting, and
cleaning is shown to be an effective solution

This recommendation primarily applies to the


air supply system, but return ductwork should
be included in this recommendation as
appropriate and necessary. For example, if
mold growth or combustible dust are found in
return ductwork, it will need to be remediated.
The presence of microbial growth,
accumulations of significant deposits of
combustible dust (e.g., paper dust), and
evidence of other hazardous deposits should
be removed by thorough cleaning, or the
ducts should be replaced.
17

Cleaning porous surfaces, such as thermal or


sound insulation, is difficult and may not be
effective or remove sufficient amounts of the
deposits. Cleaning these surfaces may release
insulation materials such as fibrous glass.
If duct cleaning is to be performed, a written
specification should be prepared. The work
should be conducted by a firm that is qualified
and experienced in cleaning similar systems.
References should be checked. The work
should be inspected prior to activating the
HVAC system.
When sound or thermal linings are located
within the first 20 feet of the air handling unit,
they are more likely to become contaminated
than in other locations and should be
inspected and cleaned periodically, as
necessary. Such linings need not be cleaned if
inspection shows linings are clean and dry. In
some cases cleaning of linings will be
ineffective or impossible and they will require
replacement. See Appendix 6.1 for more
information on cleaning methods.
Open plenum space, when used as a return
plenum, should be maintained at the same
level of cleanliness as duct interiors. Leaks or
water damaged insulation and ceiling tiles
should be quickly remediated.
During inspection of ductwork it is also useful
to look for physical damage (crushed
ductwork, damaged equipment), corroded
duct sections, and loose, damaged, friable, or
missing insulation.
The terms significant amounts of dust and
offensive odors can be defined by the user
or by a cognizant authority based on
conditions found in the HVAC system, the
occupied space, complaints, and so forth.
6.19 Duct and system cleaning should be
performed in accordance with recognized duct
cleaning guidelines.

6.19 The user might obtain and follow, for example,


National Air Duct Cleaners Associations
(NADCAs) guide, ACR 2002 Assessment,
Cleaning, and Restoration of HVAC Systems, as
appropriate. SMACNA also provides duct
cleaning standards and assistance, See
Appendix 6.1 for information on common
cleaning methods.
The duct-cleaning firm should normally be
certified (e.g., by the Sheet Metal and Air
18

Conditioning Contractors National Association


(SMACNA), NADCA, or other testing and
certifying organizations.
6.20 Visible mold or fungal growth in any part of
the HVAC system should be removed and the
source of the original moisture and organic
materials determined and controlled.

6.20 This may, in some cases, require the


replacement of equipment and materials, for
example, sound insulation inside ductwork, or
replacement of duct system or AHU
components in extreme cases.

6.21 After replacement or major modifications of


HVAC system components, the system should
be reevaluated for IAQ impacts.

6.21 The proper operation of rebuilt or replaced


HVAC equipment may be confirmed using a
commissioning process. New or substantially
replaced or rebuilt HVAC systems could be
balanced and airflow verified according to
relevant standards (e.g., ASHRAE Standard
111). Condensate drain pans might be tested
to verify proper drainage, for example.

6.22 Use of biocides or antimicrobial treatments in


HVAC systems, either for remediation or
preventative treatment, should be monitored
and controlled in accordance with EPA
guidelines for the specific registration
properties of the product.

6.22 Generally, applications of biocide or


antimicrobial products inside supply or return
ductwork should be avoided. When such
products must be used, only U.S. EPAregistered products labeled for use in HVAC
systems should be employed. EPA has also
published specific warnings about the
potential misuse and subsequent risks to
building occupants associated with EPAregistered products not intended for use in
HVAC systems. (See more information in the
appendix.)

7.

Outdoor Air (OA)

7.

Outdoor Air (OA)

7.1

As conditions in the building change, outdoor


airflow rates supplied to the occupied space
for dilution should be maintained or adjusted
to assure that sufficient air is provided to
dilute air contaminants to user-defined
acceptable concentrations in the occupied
space.

7.1

Changes almost always occur in the


occupancy rate or building HVAC equipment
after construction that require changes in the
quantities of OA supplied to various spaces in
the building.
OA is normally acceptably clean air
originating from outside the building. See
Section 3 for a complete definition of OA as it
is used in this Guideline.
Air supplied to an occupied space may consist
of all OA (e.g., 100% OA, straight-through
ventilation, economizer operations,
dedicated OA system), or more commonly,
air consisting of mixed return and OA (e.g.,
80% return air mixed with 20% outside air).
Generally speaking, it is only clean fresh air
that creates steady-state dilution of air

19

Conditioning Contractors National Association


(SMACNA), NADCA, or other testing and
certifying organizations.
6.20 Visible mold or fungal growth in any part of
the HVAC system should be removed and the
source of the original moisture and organic
materials determined and controlled.

6.20 This may, in some cases, require the


replacement of equipment and materials, for
example, sound insulation inside ductwork, or
replacement of duct system or AHU
components in extreme cases.

6.21 After replacement or major modifications of


HVAC system components, the system should
be reevaluated for IAQ impacts.

6.21 The proper operation of rebuilt or replaced


HVAC equipment may be confirmed using a
commissioning process. New or substantially
replaced or rebuilt HVAC systems could be
balanced and airflow verified according to
relevant standards (e.g., ASHRAE Standard
111). Condensate drain pans might be tested
to verify proper drainage, for example.

6.22 Use of biocides or antimicrobial treatments in


HVAC systems, either for remediation or
preventative treatment, should be monitored
and controlled in accordance with EPA
guidelines for the specific registration
properties of the product.

6.22 Generally, applications of biocide or


antimicrobial products inside supply or return
ductwork should be avoided. When such
products must be used, only U.S. EPAregistered products labeled for use in HVAC
systems should be employed. EPA has also
published specific warnings about the
potential misuse and subsequent risks to
building occupants associated with EPAregistered products not intended for use in
HVAC systems. (See more information in the
appendix.)

7.

Outdoor Air (OA)

7.

Outdoor Air (OA)

7.1

As conditions in the building change, outdoor


airflow rates supplied to the occupied space
for dilution should be maintained or adjusted
to assure that sufficient air is provided to
dilute air contaminants to user-defined
acceptable concentrations in the occupied
space.

7.1

Changes almost always occur in the


occupancy rate or building HVAC equipment
after construction that require changes in the
quantities of OA supplied to various spaces in
the building.
OA is normally acceptably clean air
originating from outside the building. See
Section 3 for a complete definition of OA as it
is used in this Guideline.
Air supplied to an occupied space may consist
of all OA (e.g., 100% OA, straight-through
ventilation, economizer operations,
dedicated OA system), or more commonly,
air consisting of mixed return and OA (e.g.,
80% return air mixed with 20% outside air).
Generally speaking, it is only clean fresh air
that creates steady-state dilution of air

19

contaminants. Recirculated (return) air


cannot provide dilution in the steady-state
condition.
User-determined acceptable concentrations
are normally established and documented for
each occupied space. For example, The
average acceptable concentration will be onehalf of the TLV in the space under the worst
conditions, and to below 5% of the TLV during
normal operation; or Carbon dioxide
concentrations will not exceed 700+ambient
ppm during normal operating conditions, and
so forth.
Appropriate acceptable concentrations can be
chosen by the user in consultation with an
industrial hygienist or other cognizant
authority. The user may estimate or measure
airborne contaminant concentrations in the
occupied space during various operations or
conditions using traditional industrial hygiene
approaches.
Typical indoor airborne concentrations in
nonindustrial occupancies with trigger
concentrations are summarized in Appendix
A7.1.
Acceptable concentrations may be chosen for
specific air contaminants known or thought to
be possible in the space (e.g., volatile organic
compounds or carbon monoxide) or for
surrogate gases and vapors in air (e.g., carbon
dioxide, which can be a surrogate indicator of
the amount of dilution air being introduced to
a space; or water vapor, which might be a
surrogate for the potential growth of mold).
This provision does not preclude the use of
more cost-effective controls, for example,
emission source controls when they are more
cost-effective. Indeed, use of other controls
can reduce the need for dilution ventilation.
7.2. OA used for dilution should be clean.

7.2

20

This provision suggests the use of dilution and


OA that meets minimum standards of
cleanliness, as reflected in U.S. EPA National
Ambient Air Quality (NAAQ) standards and
other recommended air concentrations. Any
air used for dilution (e.g., OA, air from
hallways or warehouses) should be evaluated
for cleanliness to assure that safe and effective
dilution is accomplished and that user-defined
acceptable concentrations are maintained in

the occupied space. See Section 3 for a more


complete definition of OA.
The user should establish good practices to
maintain a consistent delivery of clean air over
time, for example, use and maintain AMCAcertified louvers and grilles at air intakes; use
bird screens on air intakes; restrict tobacco
smoking near intakes; maintain filters and
scrubbers; keep mechanical and fan rooms in
a clean and sanitary condition; discourage the
use of mechanical rooms as storage areas for
cleaning supplies, landscape chemicals;
manage the loading and unloading of vehicles
near intakes and so forth.
7.3

Appropriate OA volume flow rates should be


determined by the user for each occupied
space, but outdoor air flow rates should not
normally be less than 15 cfm per person in
the occupied space.

7.3

For most nonindustrial employee-occupied


spaces, following provisions of ASHRAE 62
2001 for estimating the required amount of
clean outdoor is usually acceptable.
Addendum n of ASHRAE 62.1, when adopted,
will change the determination of OA from
cfm/person to cfm/person plus cfm/sq ft.
Even with that change, most employee
occupancies will continue to receive 15
cfm/person, or more. See Appendix A1.1 and
A7.3 for additional information.
Studies in Canada and elsewhere suggest that
employee occupant complaints rise sharply
when outside air delivery rates are less than
15 cfm/person. (See Rajhans in Appendix
A1.2.)
The minimum flow rate of 15 cfm/person
coincides with carbon dioxide concentrations
of 10001100 ppm when background
concentrations are 370450 ppm and humans
are the only source of CO2.
The user in this context might refer to the
building industrial hygienist.
The user also should evaluate the effect of
dedicated exhaust systems (e.g., toilet
exhausts, kitchen exhausts) on the delivery of
OA. For example, if the bathroom exhausts
are configured to be turned off with the light
switch, how would that effect the delivery and
mixing of OA in adjacent spaces?

21

For special employee occupancies not meeting


the criteria of the Guideline, the user can
follow traditional industrial hygiene methods
for determining appropriate minimum dilution
volume flow rates. See Appendix A1.1 for
typical approaches.
7.4

Air supplied for dilution should be distributed


throughout the occupied space and without
significant interruption.

7.4

This recommendation implies supplying


dilution air to the actual location of occupants.
Simply supplying air to the building or to the
space does not meet the recommendations of
the Guideline unless occupants receive the
benefits of dilution. In some cases provisions
for greater mixing or distribution may be
required, for example, use of freestanding
fans, lifting partitions from the floor, proper air
balance, and so forth.
The user should recognize that the outside air
ventilation function of the HVAC system is
often designed for or controlled by comfort,
not for dilution criteria. For example:
(1) In some variable air volume (VAV) air
distribution systems, VAV boxes close
completely when the thermostat is satisfied.
This results in a complete shut down of the
outside air ventilation in the zone served by
that thermostat.
(2) Many smaller office buildings are served
by modular or unitary HVAC units, in which
each unit is controlled by a single space
thermostat. With the subbase fan switch in
the auto position the fan is thermostatically
controlled to deliver conditioned air to the
space on a call for heating or cooling only
rather than running continuously to provide
outside air ventilation.
(3) Many automatic temperature control
(ATC) sequences favor comfort over
ventilation. For example, during heating
season early morning warm-up control
schemes shut the OA damper until the
building reaches its occupied temperature
set-point. Mixed-air controllers also favor
comfort and close the OA damper when the
air handler discharge temperature increases
above a typical discharge set-point of 55F
during cooling season.
(4) In some VAV systems, supply fan airflow
rate is diminished by dampers or fan speed
to match VAV box requirements. Because the

22

total air supply flow rate is diminished, so is


the amount of OA pulled in to the system.
Where this is the case (comfort taking
precedence over dilution), the user should
determine whether airflow rates are sufficient
for proper dilution.
7.5

7.5

Pressurization relationships established during


design should not be abandoned without
consideration and documentation of the
consequences.

The user will review (e.g., from the initial


design) or determine the static pressure
relationships required in occupied spaces (re:
adjacent spaces and the outside environment)
and assure the continued provision of supply
and exhaust air volume flow rates and ratios
accordingly.
The user will normally evaluate the effect of
dedicated exhaust systems (e.g., toilet
exhausts, kitchen exhausts, copy room
exhausts) and assure that changes in such
dedicated exhaust systems do not change
appropriate pressure relationships. For
example, if the bathroom exhausts are
configured to be turned off with the light
switch, how would that effect the
pressurization relationships?
The volume flow rate of supply air is often
designed to be greater than the design return
volume flow rate. However, in some
circumstances a slight negative pressure may
be required in an area to control fugitive
emissions and/or prevent migration of odors
or contaminants to other areas of the building.
Actual static pressure differences between
adjacent spaces are usually very low, not
exceeding 12 Pa in most cases. When
working with existing spaces, flow rate may be
a better indicator of pressurization differences
than measuring actual pressure difference.
For example, it is common HVAC design for
buildings to be under positive pressure
compared to the outside environment. This is
done to prevent the infiltration of moisture,
dirt, and untempered air. If a user replaces a
rotating airlock door in a building lobby with
sliding doors to improve access, then the lobby
will get cold in heating season and street level
contaminants will be distributed throughout
the building via the elevator shafts and
temperature stratification.
In humid climates loss of positive building
pressurization will allow infiltration of moisture

23

into the building. Moisture may condense on


dew-point surfaces in the building and support
microbial growth such as fungus (mold)
growing on the back of vinyl wall coverings.
Conversely, during cold, dry, winter weather,
too much positive pressure in the building may
cause warm moist air to exfiltrate through the
inside wall and condense on cold surfaces
near the outside wall.
7.6

Outdoor air should be filtered or cleaned as


necessary and as feasible to meet the
recommendations of paragraphs 7.1 and 7.2
and to protect HVAC equipment.

7.6

In most cases OA is cleaned and conditioned


after it has mixed with return air. In some
cases OA is prefiltered before mixing with
return air. Typical filters to protect fans and
coils include ASHRAE 52.11992 arrestance
ratings of 6090% and ASHRAE 52.21999
minimum efficiency rating value (MERV)
ratings of 610.
If filtration is used to remove particulate for air
cleanliness in the occupied space, the user can
consult ASHRAE 52.21999 for guidance on
filter selection.
Feasibility issues may occur, for example,
when older systems are to be retrofitted with
more efficient filters.

7.7

When VAV systems are used sufficient OA


should be supplied to meet the
recommendations of paragraphs 7.1 and 7.2.

7.7

ASHRAE 622001 allows for a lead/lag time


for ventilation functions. The user will
document the procedure for providing the
required volume flow rate of OA air in VAV
systems during periods of reduced system flow
rate.

7.8

OA that is mechanically heated or cooled


should be conditioned in accordance with
ASHRAE comfort standards.

7.8

The World Health Organization has defined


comfort as an integral part of good health.
Conditioning OA for thermal comfort implies
heating, cooling, humidifying, or dehumidifying air to meet the needs and desires of
occupants of the space. ASHRAE 551992,
Thermal Comfort, can provide guidance. These
standards suggest that 8090% of occupants
will be satisfied with relative humidities of
3060% and temperatures of 6876F. These
standards, although normally considered
comfort standards, indirectly affect human
health and well-being.
This recommendation does not apply where
natural ventilation is employed.

24

7.9

7.9

Where OA and/or supply air is heated by a


direct-fired heater, the following provisions
should be followed.
Comply with the provisions of the latest
version of ANSI Z38.18, Recirculating Direct
Gas-Fired Industrial Air Heaters.
Combustion products should not create
airborne concentrations in supply air in
excess of user-defined acceptable
concentrations.
A monitor should be installed in the supply
air to monitor carbon monoxide
concentrations.
Relative humidities should not exceed that
which produces condensation on interior
surfaces.
Applicable codes should be complied with.
Manufacturer recommendations should be
complied with.

Direct-fired makeup air equipment, in which


natural gas or liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) is
burned directly in the airstream, is sometimes
used for tempering supply air in nonindustrial
occupational settings.
ANSI Z38.18 establishes minimum standards,
for example, a limit of 5000 ppm carbon
dioxide in the occupied space, adjustable
firing rates depending on temperature rise,
and minimum OA requirements. (See ANSI
Z38.18.)
The following items also should be considered
in the selection and operation of direct-fired
heaters.
The heater is not subject to freezing
problems.
The delivered air temperature can be easily
controlled by modulating the flame, which
usually has a turndown ratio from 25-to-1 to
45-to-1.
Industrial installations should normally meet
the requirements of Industrial Risk Insurers
(GE Capital or its successors), Factory Mutual
(FM), and/or local codes. Generally, manual
as well as automatic shutoff valves, gas
pressure regulators, airflow switches, safety
pilots, and high limit temperature controls
are required.
One-hundred percent OA should be
handled over the burner with air velocities
based on the burner manufacturers
recommendations. This velocity is usually in
the range of 2500 to 3000 ft/min (13 to 15
m/sec).
Burners may be either of the raw gas or
premixed type.
When OA is subject to being dusty or dirty, it
should be filtered before it reaches the
premix burner.
Direct fired units generate carbon dioxide,
carbon monoxide, water, and other products
of combustion. When burners and controls
are properly selected, installed, and
maintained, these products of combustion
should not be a problem.
When establishing user-defined allowable
concentrations, applicable codes and
standards of the authority having jurisdiction
should be consulted. See also Guideline
Section 7.1.
Corrosive or flammable material should not
come in contact with the heating unit.

25

7.10 Tobacco smoke-contaminated air from


smoking-permitted areas should not be
returned to or passed through occupied
spaces.

7.10 Passed through does not mean air in ducts.


It refers to air moving openly through the
occupied space. Returned to means
recirculating the tobacco smoke-contaminated
air back to the AHU to be mixed with OA. An
exception to this provision is possible when air
from a smoke-permitted areas is completely
cleaned before recirculation.
A cognizant authority can be utilized to help
define these terms and approaches.

7.11 The user should monitor the amount of


dilution air delivered to the occupied space.

7.11 The user can establish a program to monitor


the continued effectiveness of the HVAC
system in providing dilution ventilation (usually
OA) to occupied spaces. The monitoring
program can be based on the needs and
character of the space and system equipment.
For example, in office spaces, the program
might call for a measurement at initial
occupancy and then again during the testing
and balancing of the HVAC system.
Provision 8.4.1.8 of ASHRAE 622001
provides for an actual measurement of OA
delivery at least once every 5 years.
Tracer gas approaches are acceptable. A
cognizant authority can be used to help with
this approach.
See Section 9 for more guidance.

8.

Operation and Maintenance

8.

Operation and Maintenance

8.1

HVAC operation may be required outside of


normal occupancy periods to ensure the
building can be made comfortable prior to
occupant arrival, during off-hours occupancy
(e.g., evenings/weekends or other periods of
time). Consideration should be given to
ensuring the occupied spaces are properly
ventilated during janitorial activities, especially
if janitorial products (or other maintenance
products such as paints, pesticides, adhesives,
etc.) that generate air contaminants are being
used.

There are some existing buildings where one


or more Section 8 recommendations will be
impossible to apply because of the lack of
system capabilities. The user can simply note
that fact and make plans for upgrade at some
future date, for example.
8.1

HVAC system equipment should be operated


during normal occupancy periods to ensure
user-defined dilution ventilation conditions are
maintained.

26

7.10 Tobacco smoke-contaminated air from


smoking-permitted areas should not be
returned to or passed through occupied
spaces.

7.10 Passed through does not mean air in ducts.


It refers to air moving openly through the
occupied space. Returned to means
recirculating the tobacco smoke-contaminated
air back to the AHU to be mixed with OA. An
exception to this provision is possible when air
from a smoke-permitted areas is completely
cleaned before recirculation.
A cognizant authority can be utilized to help
define these terms and approaches.

7.11 The user should monitor the amount of


dilution air delivered to the occupied space.

7.11 The user can establish a program to monitor


the continued effectiveness of the HVAC
system in providing dilution ventilation (usually
OA) to occupied spaces. The monitoring
program can be based on the needs and
character of the space and system equipment.
For example, in office spaces, the program
might call for a measurement at initial
occupancy and then again during the testing
and balancing of the HVAC system.
Provision 8.4.1.8 of ASHRAE 622001
provides for an actual measurement of OA
delivery at least once every 5 years.
Tracer gas approaches are acceptable. A
cognizant authority can be used to help with
this approach.
See Section 9 for more guidance.

8.

Operation and Maintenance

8.

Operation and Maintenance

8.1

HVAC operation may be required outside of


normal occupancy periods to ensure the
building can be made comfortable prior to
occupant arrival, during off-hours occupancy
(e.g., evenings/weekends or other periods of
time). Consideration should be given to
ensuring the occupied spaces are properly
ventilated during janitorial activities, especially
if janitorial products (or other maintenance
products such as paints, pesticides, adhesives,
etc.) that generate air contaminants are being
used.

There are some existing buildings where one


or more Section 8 recommendations will be
impossible to apply because of the lack of
system capabilities. The user can simply note
that fact and make plans for upgrade at some
future date, for example.
8.1

HVAC system equipment should be operated


during normal occupancy periods to ensure
user-defined dilution ventilation conditions are
maintained.

26

8.2

The user should develop written operating


procedures for the operation of the HVAC
system.

8.2

The plan will be used by operators,


renovators, maintenance personnel, and for
parts inventory.
The written operating procedures might
include the following.
An inventory list of components of the
system, such as OA intake louvers; OA
dampers; OA damper motor operator;
minimum OA controls; demand ventilation
controls; mixed air controls; early morning
warm-up controls; VAV box minimum
position controls; return/relief fan; and so
forth.
Operating criteria for components of the
ventilation system including both (original)
design intent and (current) operating
criteria, for example, minimum volumetric
airflow of OA per supply fan; total occupants
in zone served by each supply fan;
volumetric airflow OA per occupant; ATC
sequences affecting operation of OA
ventilation; building static pressure setpoints; CO2 demand ventilation system setpoints; mixed air control set-points; morning
warm-up control set-points; start-up and
shutdown times; and so forth.
All documentation associated with the
ventilation system such as design drawings
(red-lines); construction specifications; shop
drawings and submittals; ATC schematics;
ATC written sequences of operation; test and
balance reports; and so forth.

8.3

The user should operate the ventilation system


per the written operating procedures.

8.4

The user should train operators of the


ventilation system per the written operating
procedures.

8.5

8.6

8.3

This recommendation is flexible and must be


tempered by local conditions, for example,
filter change-out can occur on Tuesday if
intake louvers were leaking on Monday.

If instrumentation is provided, the operator


should periodically record operating
measurements.

8.5

These might include air volume flow rate


(cfm), relative humidities, and so forth.

Maintenance personnel responsible for HVAC


systems should be instructed on their proper
operation and the objectives for the
installation.

8.6

This provision includes providing safe


operating procedures to be followed during
maintenance. Safety provisions will likely
include fall protection provisions, lock
out/tagout provisions, potential sources of
contaminants to be avoided, nip point
provisions, and so forth.

27

8.7

Maintenance personnel responsible for an


HVAC system should be trained to
troubleshoot the system in the event of
malfunction.

8.7

Troubleshooting in this context is the ability


recognize problems and does not necessarily
require the ability to repair a problem.

8.8

The user should establish a program of


preventive and scheduled maintenance.

8.8

For an HVAC system to perform its designed


functions, preventive and scheduled
maintenance is necessary. The program can
be tailored to the needs of the system.

8.9

The user should understand and follow the


provisions of ASHRAE 622001 Section 8 for
maintaining HVAC equipment.

8.9

ASHRAE 622001 Section 8 contains minimum


maintenance recommendations for filters; aircleaning equipment; humidifiers;
dehumidifying coils; drain pans; air intakes;
control sensors; and cooling towers. The
Guideline sees these provisions as minimum
criteria.

8.10 Manufacturers recommendations for the


maintenance of HVAC system components
should be considered when establishing the
maintenance schedule.

8.10 Exceptions could include recommendations


that conflict with each other or are not
feasible.

8.11 Operation and management of humidification


systems should be tailored to the type of
humidification equipment used.

8.11 Humidifier operation and maintenance vary


with the type of equipment, but pan
humidifiers should be drained and cleaned
regularly (depending on circumstances) and at
the end of the heating season. Makeup water
valves should be cleaned of scale or other
deposits.

8.12 The user should establish and support a


program to keep maintenance records.

8.12 It is useful to keep a log book of maintenance


services and dates at or near the ventilation
system. The responsibility for scheduled
maintenance should rest with a single
individual who should also see that adequate
records are maintained. Computerized
maintenance records are generally acceptable
when they are readily available to users.
Users in this case might be the building owner,
the HVAC operator, or the maintenance
supervisor.

8.13 Drawings, plans and specifications should be


kept up-to-date as the HVAC system changes.

8.13 Every person testing, maintaining and


operating an HVAC system should have access
to and be familiar with the most recently
updated plans and specifications for the
system.

8.14 Occupants of a space served by an HVAC


system should be provided with information on
proper HVAC operation, maintenance and
control procedures for the space.

8.14 See also Section 4.7.

28

9.

Inspection, Monitoring, Testing, Balancing,


and Operational Checks

9.

Inspection, Monitoring, Testing, Balancing,


and Operational Checks

9.1

Dilution and air quality performance standards


and operating outcomes, if not defined during
design and installation, should be established
by the user for the HVAC system.

9.1

Air quality and dilution performance standards


are normally established during design and
then evaluated against the performance
standards during commissioning. After
installation, performance standards should be
reviewed periodically and, if necessary, revised
to reflect the current situation.
User, in this context, might refer to the
building owner or building supervisor.
Performance standards are the design
characteristics of the HVAC system. They may
include dilution ventilation-related parameters
such as volumetric flow rates (main ducts and
branches); supply, intake, and duct velocities;
and return intake air volume ratios. They may
also consider air conditioning parameters such
as temperature settings, heat transfer rates of
heating and cooling components, and
dehumidifying capacity. They may also consider
air-cleaning parameters such as filtration
capacity, efficiency, velocity of air through the
filtering media, and pressure drop of filters.
Operating outcomes define the ambient
conditions of the occupied space expected
under proper operation of the HVAC system.
These conditions may include ambient
temperature and humidity; maximum
acceptable concentration of CO2; ambient air
velocity in sensitive areas; mixing; maximum
concentration of contaminants of concern
(paper dust, formaldehyde, ozone, carbon
monoxide, bioaerosols); cleanliness of interior
surfaces; and any other dilution-related
parameter identified by the user.

9.2

The user should select testing, monitoring, and


balancing methods and instruments that can
measure the performance standards and
outcomes of paragraph 9.1.

9.2

HVAC systems are tested to be certain that they


perform according to design or operating
performance criteria. Performance criteria (e.g.,
the minimum outdoor airflow rate is 1000
scfm; the static pressure drop across the air
cleaner should not exceed 0.75 w.g., etc.) are
useful because testing and measurements can
then confirm satisfactory performance of the
HVAC system in providing dilution ventilation.
Instruments used to measure outcomes may
include IAQ monitors with probes for
temperature, humidity, and CO2
concentration, and so forth.

29

Testing and balancing firms may be employed


to carry out these recommendations.
9.3 After system modification or building renovation
the HVAC system should be tested before
routine service begins, to assure that the
HVAC system meets the established
performance criteria of paragraph 9.1.

9.3

In some situations modifications cannot be


fully evaluated. For example, some
temperature and humidity criteria may not be
testable until proper environmental conditions
present themselves.
New ductwork and other AHU equipment used
in any modification or renovation project
should normally be sealed before delivery to
the job site and remain sealed during
installation. (Unsealed equipment can be
contaminated by renovation debris and mold
from water infiltration e.g., rain.) Note,
however, in warm, humid climates, sealing
ductwork may create a humid condition in the
ductwork suitable for the growth of mold.
SMACNA recommends that the contractor cap
ductwork and equipment ends for transport
and then keep end caps on ductwork until
final connection.
Testing protocols should consider seasonal
impacts, for example, summer, transitional,
and winter operation.
This recommendation normally applies only to
the portions of the building or HVAC system
modified. Relocation of a supply diffuser in
one office would not trigger a test of the
entire system, for example.

9.4

The HVAC system should be periodically


inspected, tested, and/or monitored in
accordance with a schedule determined by the
user.

9.4

Objectives of inspection and testing should


normally include the following.
Determination of the effectiveness of the
ventilation system (e.g., the quantity of
outdoor air, dilution and mixing
effectiveness, occupant satisfaction,
condition of the air cleaning system)
Determination of the distribution of supply
air through the systems. Depending on the
system design, this could be volumetric flow
through each zone or airflow measurement
at the supply fixture. For variable air volume
systems (VAV) the measurements may need
to be made under several conditions.
Monitoring of conditions throughout the life
of system
Continued compliance with appropriate
building code requirements and
management-determined performance
criteria

30

Surfaces within the AHU, such as the


condensate drain pan, should be inspected
at least once per year. Mechanically
operated louvers such as used at the OA
intake should be inspected more frequently,
for example, every 3 months.
9.5

The HVAC system should be air balanced on a


schedule determined by the user.

9.5

The initial evaluation establishes baseline


conditions. Periodic evaluations determine
conformance with performance standards and
changes of baseline conditions. The frequency
of testing should be determined by the user.

9.6

Persons performing inspection, testing, and


balancing should be qualified by training,
experience, or certification to perform the
work.

9.6

Such services are normally performed by a


testing, adjusting, and balancing (TAB or T&B)
technician who has been certified by the
National Environmental Balancing Bureau, the
Associated Air Balance Council, or other
certification groups. (See Appendix A2 for
addresses.)
T&B firms and technicians usually do not have
the ability to determine if the HVAC system
controls the health hazard. A team approach
may be necessary.

9.7

Testing and balancing instrumentation should


be suitable for the measurements to be taken.

9.8

Testing and balancing instruments should be


calibrated in accordance with manufacturers
recommendations.

9.8

Calibration will follow, as a minimum,


equipment manufacturers recommendations
and methods. The schedule usually follows
that recommended by the instrument
manufacturer but may be modified as
determined by the user (e.g., more frequently
when used more often.)

9.9

Records of testing and balancing should be


maintained by the user.

9.9

The life of the ventilation system often exceeds


20 or 30 years. Access to the original design
intent, commissioning documents, history of
modifications, and recent testing and
balancing reports allow for intelligent
evaluation of the system and possible
modifications. Consequently, some of the
information should be maintained for the life
of the equipment.

9.10 When following ASTM D6245 guidelines, users


of carbon dioxide measurements should, for
example, measure outside air concentrations,
calibrate monitoring equipment, take
measurements at the appropriate times and
places, and consider age, gender, and activity

9.10 Use of carbon dioxide as a surrogate measure


for outdoor air and dilution ventilation should
follow the guidelines of ASTM D6245.

31

when using carbon dioxide as a measure of


dilution ventilation. Because the investigator is
a significant source of carbon dioxide, extreme
care is required to ensure accurate
measurements.
Keep in mind that carbon dioxide is not
normally considered a measure of air quality.
It is usually only a measure of ventilation and
OA delivery.
9.11 A monitoring system should be provided that
signals an air quality-impairing malfunction of
the HVAC system.

9.11 The intent of this provision is to provide a


warning should the HVAC system fail to
provide appropriate dilution ventilation air to
maintain user-defined indoor air quality
criteria and acceptable concentrations.
In DDC systems, for example, the computer
might be set up to flag low airflow at any
point in the system. In pneumatic systems,
pressure sensors can be used. In some systems
carbon dioxide monitors may serve the
purposes of this provision. In small buildings
with very simple HVAC systems occupants
could report the status of air delivery in their
spaces: Air is not coming through the register
today.
The user can select a monitoring system that
meets the needs of the building, the occupied
space, the HVAC equipment, the financial
situation, and other local factors.
A cognizant authority can be used to help
implement this recommendation.

32

Appendix A: Supplementary Information


Note: Appendix sections are numbers based on the
main text of this guideline.
Concentration (mg/m3)

Supplementary materials are provided by Guideline


section number. These materials are considered educational and informational and are not part of the
Guideline recommendations.

A1. Dilution Ventilation


The four most commonly used IAQ control approaches are
(1) dilution of airborne contaminants with
fresh (or, less contaminated) air;
(2) emission source control (which is closely
related to dilution);
(3) treatment (filtration / scrubbing) and
recirculation of indoor air; and
(4) identifying and improving confounding
factors.

EF
EF
EF
EF
EF

=
=
=
=
=

0.1
0.5
1
1.5
5

Air exchange rate (h-1)


Figure A1.1. Air Exchange Rates and Exposure
Concentrations (Source: H. Levin, IA Bulletin 3(5).
1996.)

Indoor air problems often are controlled with fresh


dilution air. An inadequate amount of dilution ventilation allows background levels of air contaminants
to increase to unacceptable levels rather quickly in
most occupancies.

Numerous studies have shown that when the OA


supply for dilution is less than 510 cfm/person,
complaints and symptoms occur at rates in excess of
those found in normal or healthy buildings. Studies
by EPA, NIOSH, ASHRAE, and the State of
Washington suggest the following normal complaint rates in healthy buildings.

For a constant emission source, no sinks, perfect


mixing, and a constant airflow, the following equation describes the resulting equilibrium concentration
in the ventilated space (e.g., chamber, room, building):

Comfort Issues: up to10% complaining of any


one thermal condition; up to 20%
complaining of general thermal conditions

C=E/Q

Health Issues: 0% complaining of infectious


diseases; 15% complaining of
asthma/allergies/multiple chemical sensitivity

where E=emission rate and Q=ventilation rate in


the same units as E.

General, any or all IAQ complaints: up to


20% complaining of any IAQ-related issue

Figure A1 shows the situation for five different emission rates, all other conditions equal and at steadystate conditions. The numbers suggest ratios of emission rates based on typical emission factors of 0.1 to
5 mg/m2/hour. Note that background concentrations
increase significantly at air exchange rates less than
N=0.5 ac/hour. Also, increases above 12 ac/hour
do not offer equivalent reductions in concentrations.

ASHRAE 622001, in its Ventilation Rate Procedure


(VRP), suggests 15 cfm/person as the minimum dilution ventilation necessary to avoid complaints and
odor problems. (Note: As of March 1, 2004, the VRP
rate determination was in the process of being
changed from a rate-per-person formula to rate-per-

33

person plus rate-per-floor-area formula.) ASHRAE


622001 also suggested minimum rates of OA for
various employee occupancies (e.g., 20 cfm/person
in typical offices.) The VRP does not require much
evaluation of emission sources, but this may change
as the ASHRAE 61.2 standard is modified in the
future.

American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA);


DiNardi, S. (ed.): The Occupational Environment
Its Evaluation, Control, and Management. Fairfax,
Va.: AIHA, 2003.
American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and
Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE): Handbook
of Fundamentals. Atlanta: ASHRAE, 1997. One of
four basic handbooks.

An alternative approach mentioned in ASHRAE 62.1


is the indoor air quality procedure, which requires an
evaluation of sources, emission rates, mixing efficiencies, and actual dilution ventilation flow rates
required. This is the traditional IH approach noted
in this Guideline.

Application Guide: Indoor Air Quality Standards of


Performance. Atlanta: ASHRAE, 1999.
Burton, D.J.: IAQ/HVAC Workbook, 4th ed.
Bountiful, Utah: IVE Press, 2004. Also available from
ACGIH, AIHA, ASHRAE, ASSE, NSC, and others.

In both approaches, contaminated air is to be diluted


to some acceptable concentration. This safe, healthy,
or nonirritating level of exposure is called the acceptable concentration, CA (e.g., formaldehyde at
CA=0.05 ppm, carbon monoxide at 9 ppm, and so
forth, depending on occupancy). Application of this
approach is not often seen in nonindustrial applications because of the difficulties of determining input
data. However, in this Guideline the user is prompted in some cases to determine acceptable concentrations and appropriate dilution air volume flow rates
based on the acceptable concentration.

CMHC: Building Materials for the Environmentally


Hypersensitive. Toronto, Ontario, Canada: CMHC,
1996. Contact CMHC at 1-800-668-2642.
CH2M Hill: Preventing Indoor Air Quality Problems in
Hot, Humid Climates: Problem Avoidance Guidelines.
Greenwood Village, CO: CH2M Hill and Disney
Development Corp., 1996. Contact CH2M Hill at
407-423-0030 for more information.
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), U.S.
Public Health Service (PHS), and the National
Environmental Health Association (NEHA):
Introduction to Indoor Air Quality: A Reference
Manual (EPA/400/3-91-003). Washington, D.C.: EPA,
1991. Eight sections covering the basics of IAQ,
many useful tables, and reference guides.

See Paragraph A7.1 for more information on the


approach.
Following any of the approaches previously
described is appropriate.

A2.

Godish, T.: Indoor Air Pollution Control. Chelsea,


Mich.: Lewis Publishers, 1989. Good summary of
1980s literature, emphasis on residential indoor air
quality; one of the better books on IAQ.

Related Standards, Guidelines,


and Sources of Information

Guffey, S.E.: Proceedings of the Workshop on


Ventilation Engineering Controls for ETS in the
Hospitality Industry. Cincinnati, Ohio: American
Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists,
1998.

Books
Books are listed alphabetically by author or source.
American Conference of Governmental
Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH): Bioaerosols:
Assessment and Control. Cincinnati, Ohio: ACGIH,
1999.

Illinois Department of Energy and Natural


Resources: Illinois Homeowners Guide to Reduction
of Indoor Radon (ILENR/RE-AQ-89-17). University of
Illinois, Springfield. 1989. The definitive guide for
radon control.

Air Sampling Instruments for Evaluation of


Atmospheric Contaminants. Cincinnati, Ohio: ACGIH,
2001.

Institut de Reherche Robert-Sauv en sant et


en scurit du travail (IRSST): Strategy for Studying
Air Quality in Office Buildings, by N. Goyer and V.H.

Air Sampling Instrument Selection Guide: Indoor Air


Quality. Cincinnati, Ohio: ACGIH, 1998.

34

Nguyen. Montreal, Quebec, Canada: IRSST, 1989.


Contact IRSST for more information and purchase,
505 de Mainsonneuve Blvd West, Montreal, Quebec,
Canada H3A 3C2.

Test Method for Formaldehyde Levels from Pressed


Wood (E1330-90). In Annual Book of Standards, vol
11.03. Philadelphia: ASTM, 1990.
Guidelines, Papers, and Articles

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and


the National Institute for Occupational Safety
and Health (NIOSH): Building Air QualityA Guide
for Building Owners and Facility Managers
(EPA/400/1-91/033). Washington, D.C.: EPA, 1991.
Call 202-260-2080 to order.

American Conference of Governmental


Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) Committee on
Bioaerosols: Guidelines for the Assessment of
Bioaerosols in the Indoor Environment, vol. 2.
Cincinnati, Ohio: ACGIH, 1997.
American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and
Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE): Guideline
for the Commissioning of HVAC Systems (Guideline
1). 1989. Atlanta: ASHRAE, 2001.

Sheet Metal and Air Conditioning Contractors


National Association (SMACNA): HVAC SystemsTesting, Adjusting, and Balancing. Rockville, Md.:
SMACNA, 1983.

Preparation of O&M Documentation for Building


Systems (Guideline 4). Atlanta: ASHRAE, 1993.

Indoor Air Quality. Rockville, Md.: SMACNA, 1989.


General info about IAQ and ductwork.

Minimizing the Risk of Legionellosis Associated


with Building Water Systems (Guideline 12). Atlanta:
ASHRAE, 2000.

Watson, R.R., and M. Witten: Environmental


Tobacco Smoke. Boca Raton, Fla.: CRC Press, 2001.
Last chapter discusses ventilation control of environmental tobacco smoke.

Batterman, S.A., et al.: Characterization of


emission sources in buildings and HVAC systems:
Quantification and uncertainty. Am. Ind. Hyg. Assoc.
J. 56:10831089 (1995).

Weeks, D.M., and R.B. Gammage: The


Practitioners Approach to IAQ Investigations. Fairfax,
Va.: American Industrial Hygiene Association, 1989.
Proceedings of the IAQ International Symposium.

Institut de Reherche Robert-Sauv en sant et


en scurit du travail (IRSST): Guide for the
Prevention of Microbial Growth in Ventilation Systems,
Montreal, Canada: IRSST, 505 de Mainsonneuve
Bovd. West, Montreal, Quebec, Canada H3A 3C2,
1995. (Call 514-288-1551.)

Standards
American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and
Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE): Ventilation
for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality (Standard 62-2001
plus addenda). Atlanta: ASHRAE, 2001. On IAQ.

Rajhans, G.S.: Findings of the Ontario InterMinisterial Committee on indoor air quality. In IAQ
89, pp. 195223. Atlanta: American Society of
Heating, Refrigeration, and Air Conditioning
Engineers, 1989.

Thermal Environmental Conditions for Human


Occupancy (Standard 55-1992 to 2000). Atlanta:
ASHRAE, 1992-2000. On thermal comfort.
Gravimetric and Dust-Spot Procedures for Testing
Air-Cleaning Devices and Method of Testing General
Ventilation Air-Cleaning Devices for Removal Efficiency
by Particle Size (Standard 52.1 and 52.2-1991 to
1999). Atlanta: ASHRAE, 1991-1999. On thermal
comfort. On filter testing.

Sterling, E.M., et al.: Criteria for human exposure


to humidity in occupied buildings. ASHRAE Trans.
91(1B):611622 (1991).
Tucker, W.G.: Emissions of Air Pollutants from
Indoor Materials. Fifth Canadian B&C Congress,
Montreal, Canada, November 1988.

Method of Testing for Rating the Performance of


Air-Outlets and Inlets (Standard 70-1991). Atlanta:
ASHRAE, 1991. On intakes and outlets.

Periodicals
American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and
Air Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE). IAQ
Applications, 24-page quarterly; ASHRAE Journal,
monthly magazine for members; 1791 Tullie Circle
NE, Atlanta, GA 30329; www.ashrae.org.

ASTM: Standard Guide for Small-Scale Environmental


Chamber Determinations of Organic Materials from
Indoor Materials/Products (D5116-90). Philadelphia:
ASTM, 1990.
35

Canada Mortgage and Housing Agency. Healthy


Materials, contact RD, CMHC, 700 Montreal Road,
Ottawa, Ontario, Canada K2P 0M8; quarterly;
emphasizes emissions testing, emissions factors, and
standards development.

ASHRAE (American Society of Heating,


Refrigeration, and Air Conditioning Engineers).
Numerous books, articles, standards; journal. 1791
Tullie Circle, NE, Atlanta, GA 30329.
ASTM. Standards and guidelines; subcommittee
D22.05, testing for indoor air quality. 1916 Race St.,
Philadelphia, PA 19103.

Hal Levin. Indoor Air Bulletin; a few issues/year;


contact Gina Bendy, 2548 Empire Grade, Santa
Cruz, CA 95060. This is one of the best but is published on an irregular basis.

Canadian Mortgage and Housing Corporation.


Publications, guidelines. 682 Montreal Road, Ottawa,
Ontario, Canada K1A 0P7

Training Courses
American Conference of Governmental
Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH). Fundamentals of
IAQ/HVAC, self-directed study course, contact
ACGIH, 1330 Kemper Meadow Road, Cincinnati,
Ohio 45240; 513-742-2020.

NADCA (National Air Duct Cleaners


Association). Publications on duct cleaning, recommended standards for duct cleaning. 1518 K St. NW,
Suite 503, Washington, DC 20005; 202-737-2926.
NEBB (National Environmental Balancing
Bureau). List of certified HVAC balancing firms, publications, standards, and practice for testing, adjusting, and balancing. 4201 Lafayette Center Dr.,
Chantilly, VA 22021; 703-803-2980

American Industrial Hygiene Association (AIHA).


Indoor Air Quality, 3-day training courses offered
periodically; contact AIHA at 2700 Prosperity Ave,
Suite 250, Fairfax, VA 22031-4319; 703-849-8888.
U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA).
Introduction to Indoor Air Quality: A Self-Paced
Learning Module. This self-directed course uses the
companion reference manual in a six-lesson course.
Contact EPA, Indoor Air Division, OAR, EPA,
Washington, DC, and ask for EPA/400/3-91/002 and
003. (July 1991)

NCIAQ (National Coalition on Indoor Air


Quality). An association of industry and trade
groups; holds annual conference and publishes conference transactions. 1518 K St. NW, Washington DC
20005; 202-628-5336.
NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational
Safety and Health). Lists of publications, studies of
indoor air quality, standards, research. 4646
Columbia Parkway, Cincinnati, OH 45226; 513-8414382.

Occupational Safety and Health Administration


(OSHA). Training Institute: IAQ course number 233,
Indoor Air Quality Student Manual; contact
OSHA/DOL, 1555 Times Dr., Des Plaines, IL 60018

SMACNA. Publication: Indoor Air Quality; sheet


metal, ductwork. 1385 Piccard Drive, Rockville, MD
20850; 301-573-8330.

Agencies and Associations Involved in IAQ


AABC (Associated Air Balance Council). Sets standards for testing, adjusting, and balancing of HVAC
systems) 1518 K St. NW, Suite 503, Washington, DC
20005; 202-737-2926.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. General


publications on the subject; conducts research, training, information dissemination. 401 M St. SW,
Washington, DC 20460; 202-260-2080.

ACGIH (American Conference of Governmental


Industrial Hygienists). Publications, reports, committee publications, biohazards committee. 1330
Kemper Meadow Road, Cincinnati, OH 45240

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.


Information on smoking. Office on Smoking and
Health, 1600 Clifton Road, NE, Atlanta, GA 30333;
404-488-5705.

AIHA (American Industrial Hygiene Association).


List of industrial hygiene consultants, Indoor
Environmental Quality Committee reports. 2700
Prosperity Ave., Suite 250, Fairfax, VA 22031-4319;
703-849-8888.

Emissions Testing Establishments


This section includes the United States and Canada;
testing data and testing services. Mention of private
firms does not constitute an endorsement by AIHA.

36

Air Quality Sciences, Inc. (404-933-0638) Wide


range of testing for VOCs, HCHO, particulates,
ozone; various materials; follows EPA and ASTM
methods; large database.

800-356-4674: NIOSH indoor air quality hotline.


202-554-1404: Toxic Substances Control Act
Hotline Service; for information on asbestos and
toxic substances

Anderson Labs, Inc. (617-364-7357) Building


materials testing; follows ASTM E981.

www.cmhc-schl.gc.ca: Web site for Canada


Mortgage and Housing Corporation, sponsor of
Health Materials periodical

Canadian Carpet Institute (613-232-7183) Carpet


tests for VOC, 4-PC, others; follows ASTM D511690.

www.epa.gov/iaq/iaq/index/html: Web site for EPA


information on indoor air quality

Concordia University (514-848-3192) Testing of


paint and wall materials, TVOC; follows ASTM
D5116-90.

www.ashrae.org: ASHRAE Web site.


www.acca.org/index.html: Air Conditioning
Contractors of America home page

EPA (202-260-3920) In development: testing capability for all office equipment; VOC, ozone, particulates.

www.elitesoft.com/sci.hvac: A source for finding


hundreds of other sources related to indoor air
quality

Georgia Tech Research Institute (404-894-3825)


Testing of building materials, furniture, biocides; follows ASTM D5116-90 and EPA Carpet Policy
Dialogue.

http://ftp.cdc.gov/niosh/ieqwww.html: NIOSH
survey

Health Canada (613-957-1646) Multiple sources,


multiple chemicals; database of 500 chemicals.

www.aiha.org: Web site for AIHA


www.acgih.org: Web site for ACGIH

Ortech Corp. (905-822-4111) Office workstations


and furniture; follows ASTM D5116-90.

www.peci.org: Web site for U.S. Department of


Energy, Seattle Regional Office, and supplier of
commissioning information

Saskatchewan Research Council (306-933-6138)


Interior materials and kitchen cabinets; VOCs,
HCHO.

www.bcxa.org: Web site for Building


Commissioning Association

Hotlines and Web Sites


This list is for emergencies or information.

www.cti.org: Web site for the Cooling Technology


Institute (Legionella)

800-858-7378: National Pesticide


Telecommunications Network; for information on
pesticides

37

A3.3 Air Handling Unit


Heat/Cool
Coils

OA

Mixing
Plenum
SA
to
Occupied
Space

RA
from
Occupied
Space
Filters
Relief Air
Figure A3.1 Schematic of air handling unit

A4.5 Smoking Policy


The Formaldehyde Institute, the National
Particleboard Association, ASTM, and the Carpet and
Rug Institute are just a sample of industry associations that have developed testing procedures and
emissions standards with the aim of identifying low
emitters among their products.

In most cases, the user will develop a policy to


restrict smoking to designated smoking areas or
lounges or to eliminate smoking totally in the building. If a smoking area is provided, it generally has
the following features.
The smoking area is physically isolated from the
rest of the building. It could include, for example,
walls resistant to air leakage and sliding doors with
automatic closures, airtight ceiling tiles, and so
forth.
The smoking area is exhaust-ventilated to outside the
building with no return of exhausted air to the
building.
The smoking area is maintained under negative
pressure with regard to adjacent areas.
No worker should be required to enter the
smoking area.

ASTM D5116-90, Standard Guide for Small-Scale


Environmental Chamber Determinations of Organic
Materials from Indoor Materials/Products, is an example of the various testing procedures developed by
government and industry. As of 1994, according to
Healthy Materials (see Appendix A2), more than 20
different committees from at least four different standards-setting organizations were developing emissions testing standards.
So, what is a low emitter? Emissions rates vary by
initial chemical makeup, temperature, humidity, time
elapsed, surface area, and other factors. One measure is the quantity of emitting VOC in the original
product. A Canadian group (Environmental Choice
Program, Environment Canada; (613) 952-9440)
adopted the content maximums shown in Table A4.6
in 1994 as guidelines for what can be considered a
low emitter.

A4.6 Establishing Policies and


Procedures during RRR Activities
The definition of low-emitting RRR materials is not
universal. Specifying emission-free materials is
almost impossible, but specifying low-emitters is an
excellent approach for RRR activities.

During RRR activities the user can ask suppliers and


contractors to provide information on emission
expected from materials to be installed in the building and specify low-emitting materials.

As IAQ has become a popular public issue, manufacturers and suppliers have become aware of the need
for emission reductions and the identification of
emission rates from their products.
38

HEPA primary filter if the collection system discharges


air inside the building.

Table A4.6. Content Maximums for Low Emitters


Materials

Maximum VOC Content (g/L)

Paint, water-based
Paint, solvent-based
Caulks, adhesives and sealants
Varnish, water-based
Stain, water-based

250
380
020
300
250

Contact vacuuming. This is similar to vacuuming a


carpet. A vacuum cleaner head is inserted into the
ductwork and simply contacts the duct surface as it
moves and relies on high-velocity air removed by the
vacuum to entrain and remove settled dust and other
contaminants. This approach typically requires larger
openings in the duct than air washing.

Source: Healthy Materials, Spring, 1994.

Brushing. Power brushing is similar to air washing


except that the process uses a rotary or vibrating
brush to dislodge settled dust. Contaminated dust is
then collected as in air washing. The brushing
method typically requires large holes in the ductwork. Brushing can be used with fiber-lined ductwork
if the brush does not damage the liner. Very stiff
brushes and slow-moving brushes are more likely to
damage fiber linings.

A6.1 to 6.21 Duct Cleaning


When cleaning AHU components such as coils and
ductwork, follow these helpful procedures, as appropriate.
When inspecting the ductwork:
(1) Use existing openings in equipment and
ductwork; avoid cutting new holes; make
inspection holes as small as possible; cut so as
to able to easily and completely close the hole
after inspection (and cleaning).
(2) Replace or repair insulation that was
removed or disturbed during inspection (and
cleaning). Not doing so could lead to heat loss
or water condensation.
(3) Take precautions to protect occupants;
inspection activities may dislodge dirt or other
duct contaminants.
(4) Inspect (and clean) when building
occupants are not present.
(5) Clean any building spaces contaminated
during inspection (and cleaning).
(6) Collect samples of duct contaminants and
have them tested to determine what the
contaminant is.
(7) Return all dampers and other
controls/equipment to their original positions
after inspection.

After cleaning has been completed,


(1) all inspection and cleaning holes must be
closed properly and sealed;
(2) contaminated AHU surfaces should be
cleaned;
(3) filters should be replaced;
(4) dampers should be set to their original
positions; and
(5) supply diffusers should be covered with a
course filter media (e.g., cheesecloth), and the
AHU should be run for 30-60 min to collect
any loose materials in the system and avoid
contaminating the soon-to-be occupied space.

6.3 Stacks
Process exhaust stacks may be placed at locations
appropriate to meet the needs of the exhaust system,
with careful consideration given to the possibility of
reentrainment into the building through OA intake or
inlet points. A commonly used standard is to locate
the process or fume hood exhaust at least 50 feet
from the air intake and 10 feet above the roof line
or air intakes. Exhaust velocity is an important consideration and may be used to limit the distance
between exhaust point and intake.

There are three basic approaches to duct cleaning:


air washing, contact vacuuming, and brushing with
air washing or vacuuming.
Air washing. Used primarily in smaller ducts (>24 in
equivalent diameter), this technique uses compressed
air (typically at 150200 psia) to dislodge dirt, coupled with collection and filtration of contaminated air
at the end of the duct section being cleaned. Air is
moved at a high velocity through the duct section at
about 1 inch of negative static pressure. The duct
cleaner should assure that the duct will not collapse
at these pressures. Filter systems at the collection
point are typically equipped with a prefilter and

Some local jurisdictions require aesthetic or architectural enclosures and screens around rooftop equipment, and to limit the height of stacks, to hide such
equipment. In these cases additional care is
required to prevent accidental reentrainment of the
exhaust air, such as the following.

39

A7.1. Typical Concentrations of


Airborne Materials Found in
Nonindustrial Employee Occupancies

Do not place exhaust and intake equipment within


the same screen or enclosure.
Separate the exhaust and intake as far as possible.
Increase the velocity of the exhaust air to eject the
exhaust away from the intake.
Use open enclosures (e.g., slatted sides) to
enhance dilution of the exhaust.

See Table A7.1 below.

A6.22 Use of Biocides or Antimicrobial


Treatments

A7.3 Determining Appropriate Dilution


Air Volume Flow Rates Using Traditional
Industrial Hygiene Approaches

Before applying biocides or antimicrobials, see the


U.S. EPA Letter dated March 14, 2002, Use of
Disinfectants and Sanitizers in HVAC and
Refrigeration Systems. It is signed Marcia E. Mulkey,
director, Office of Pesticide Programs. It is available
from U.S. EPA, Office of Prevention, Pesticides, Toxic
Substances. Another excellent source of information
is chapter 16, Biocides and Antimicrobial Agents,
of the ACGIH book Bioaerosols: Assessment and
Control, latest edition, Janet Macher, editor.

When using traditional industrial hygiene approaches


to determine the dilution airflow rate, develop the
following information:
(1) a profile of potential contaminant(s)
sources;
(2) an estimate of emission rates for each
contaminant of concern:
(3) a description of the space (e.g, volume,
height, air supply registers, windows,
population, etc.);

Table A7.1. Typical Concentrations of Airborne Materials Found in Nonindustrial Employee


Occupancies
Chemical

Typical Indoor ConcentrationsA

Trigger ConcentrationsB

CO2
TVOC
HCHO
CO

450 to 1100 ppm


up to 500 g/m3
0.010.05 ppm
1 ppm

NO2
Ozone
particles

0.010.05 ppm
0.010.02 ppm
up to 50 g/m3 (total)
up to 50 g/m3 (PM-10, PM 2)

background concentration +700 ppmC


500 g/m3 to 3000 g/m3
>0.05 ppm (60 g/m3)
>1 ppm (direct-fired heating may
see higher values)
>0.05 ppm
>0.05 ppm
50 g/m3
50 g/m3
visible aerosols, high quantities of
settled dust on flat surfaces, or visible
particles emitted from supply registers

Bioaerosols

varies with site, season


and other factorsD
<0.01 fb/cc or <2 g/m3
(using OSHA analytical method)
<0.5 pCi/lit

Asbestos
Radon

>0.01 fb/cc or >2 g/m3


>4 pCi/lit

Note: Typical concentrations in direct-fired heater occupancies may be higher than those shown in this
table.
ANonindustrial occupational environments
BTrigger means take note, investigate. It is not an upper limit.
CCarbon dioxide is not considered an "air contaminant" at these concentrations.
DAirborne concentrations guidelines do not exist for bioaerosols. To interpret air sampling data, use chapters
7 and 9 of the ACGIH publication, Bioaerosols: Assessment and Control.
Source: Consensus of the ANSI Z9.8 Subcommittee.
40

(4) acceptable exposure concentrations for


contaminants of concern (may be based on
breathing zone exposures or area
concentrations in the occupied space); and
(5) an appropriate dilution airflow rate.

recommended minimum delivery that takes into


account more than health concerns.

A7.4 Providing Adequate Mixing of


Outdoor Dilution Air
The mixing of air is sometimes called ventilation
efficiency, Keff (or ventilation effectiveness, Ea, as
used by ASHRAE). Industrial hygienists and environmental health and safety professionals are generally
more familiar with the Keff approach.

The following formulas are often used.


Item 2. An estimate of the emission rate. See next
equation.
387 w
q
MW t

0.0244 w
[SI] q =
MW t

Mathematically, Keff can be stated as:


Actual QOA required to provide minimum OA to occupied zone

Keff =

where:
q = volume of vapor generated in scfm, at
standard conditions, STP [SI: m3/sec]
MW = molecular weight or molecular mass
t = approximate time, minutes [SI: seconds]
w = pounds evaporated [SI: grams]

Ideal QOA required to provide minimum OA to occupied zone

The value of keff ranges from 1.0 to 2.0 in most IAQrelated cases.
If keff>2, think first of improving mixing or of going
to another form of controldilution is likely to be too
expensive, and the uncertainties are too high.

Item 5. An estimate of the dilution volume flow rate:

QOA

q Keff 106

Ca (ppm)

Dilution will be more effective, and lower values of


the mixing factor keff can be selected when

where

(1) dilution air is uniformly routed through the


occupied zone;
(2) supply air is distributed where it will be
most effective (e.g., be sure a supply register
serves every office);
(3) returns are located as close to contaminant
sources as possible; and
(4) auxiliary or freestanding fans are used to
enhance mixing.

QOA = volume flow rate of dilution air,


scfm [m3/sec]
q = volume flow rate of vapor, scfm [m3/sec]
Ca = the acceptable exposure concentration,
ppm
Keff = a mixing factor to account for incomplete
or poor delivery of dilution air to
occupants (see paragraph A7.4)

A measured estimate of Keff can sometimes be


obtained using tracer gases, but that is rare.

This approach is limited when dealing with nonindustrial environments in which only one or two
chemical stressors are often being evaluated and
controlled. Determining Ca and Keff can be difficult,
especially given the numbers of potential contaminants in the atmosphere. This approach works best
when one target air contaminant can be used as a
surrogate for all other potential air contaminants.
For example, carbon monoxide, if it is known to exist
in a space, can be used to represent other contaminants of lesser concern. In some cases several air
contaminants should be lumped together for analysis. For example, many similar-acting organic chemicals must be treated as being additive. Additionally,
it should be noted that this approach may result in
less air being delivered than 15 cfm per person, the

A7.11 Dilution and OA Delivery


The following is a list of potential problems that can
disrupt the delivery of dilution air or OA to an occupied space.
Loose connections or defects in the supply ductwork.
Damper controls not maintained.
Short-circuiting of air from supply registers to
return grilles when located in close proximity to
each other.
Obstacles to flow placed in the airstream, for
example, newly constructed walls, installation of
office cubicles, closed smoke dampers, clogged
terminal supply diffuser filters, and so forth.
41