PID controller

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PID Controller

PID controller

© All Rights Reserved

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PID controller is named after the term it consists, Proportional, Integral and Derivative. It is

commonly used in control system loop.

Here the desired output value is called the Set Point (SP) and measured value is called Process

Variable (PV), and the output of the PID controller is called Manipulated Variable (MV), the

difference between Set Point (SP) and Process Variable (PV) is the error (e).

After calculating the error the controller decides how to set the Manipulated Variable (MV)

: Integral gain, a tuning parameter

: Derivative gain, a tuning parameter

: Error

: Time or instantaneous time (the present)

: Variable of integration; takes on values from time 0 to the present

Proportional term

The proportional term produces an output value that is proportional to the current error value.

The proportional response can be adjusted by multiplying the error by a constant Kp, called the

proportional gain constant.

The proportional term is given by:

Where,

e (t) = SP-PV

If the proportional gain Kp is high, then the system can become unstable.

Integral term

The integral of a signal is the sum of all the instantaneous values that the signal has been, from

whenever you started counting until you stop counting.

So if you are to plot your signal on a graph and your signal is sampled every second, and lets

say you are measuring temperature. If you were to taking the integral of the signal over the first 5

seconds it would look like this:

The green line is your temperature, the red circles are where your control system has

sampled the temperature, and the blue area is the integral of the temperature signal. It is

the sum of the 5 temperature values over the time period that you are interested in. In

numerical terms it is the sum of the areas of each of the blue rectangles, units are not

important.

(13 x 1)+(14x1)+(13x1)+(12x1)+(11x1) = 63 C s

The integral term accelerates the movement of the process towards set point and eliminates the

residual steady-state error that occurs with a pure proportional controller. However, since the integral

term responds to accumulated errors from the past, it can cause the present value to overshoot the

set point value

Derivative term

The derivative of the process error is calculated by determining the slope of the error over time

and multiplying this rate of change by the derivative gain Kd. The derivative term is given by

Ex. derivative of reactors pressure is same as the rate of change of reactors pressure. Anyone

who has the required data will easily say About 5 PSI every 10 minutes if before 10 minutes

the value was say, 25 PSI and present value is 30 PSI, irrespective of the intermediate value.

So adding derivative action can allow you to have bigger P and I gains and still keep the loop

stable, giving you a faster response.

Derivative action improves the controller action because it predicts what is yet to happen by

projecting the current rate of change into the future.

The units used for derivative action describe how far into the future you want to look. i.e. If

derivative action is 20 seconds, the derivative term will project the current rate of change 20

seconds into the future.

The big problem with Derivative control is that if you have noise on your signal then, this

confuses the algorithm. It looks at the slope of the noise-spike and thinks that the process is

changing quickly, and keeps adding the D term and control output behaves erratically. We can

try and filter the noise out, but it is best advised that, unless PI control is really slow, dont worry

about switching Derivative on.

//Initialization

integral=0;

previous_error = 0;

//Calculation of PID terms

loop:

error = set_point measured_value;

integral = integral + error*dt;

derivative = (error-previous_error)/dt;

output = Kp*error + Ki *integral + Kd*derivative;

previous_error = error;

wait(dt);

goto loop

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