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How to Use this Module.............................................................................

...................................................................................
1
Introduction...............................................................................................
Pre-Test.....................................................................................................
Definition of Terms...................................................................................
Learning Outcome 1: Introduce the Computer System.............................
Information Sheet 1.1:Types of Computer.............................................
Self Check 1.1......................................................................................
Information Sheet 1.2: Computer Components and its
Characteristics........................................................................................
Activity Sheet 1.2 ....................................................................
Self Check 1.2......................................................................................
Information Sheet 1.2: Distinguishing Hardware and
Software Relationship............................................................................
Activity 1.3...........................................................................................
Learning Outcome 2: Identify of computer parts and its
peripherals ............................................................................................
Information Sheet 2.1: Personal Protective Equipment........................
Self Check 2.1.....................................................................................
Information Sheet 2.2: Hand Tools.......................................................
Activity Sheet 2.2.................................................................................
Information Sheet 2.3..........................................................................
Activity Sheet 2.3.................................................................................
Self Check 2.3......................................................................................
Learning Outcome 3: Maintain Computer Hardware...............................
Information Sheet 3.1: Maintain computer System.............................

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Information Sheet 3.2: Cleaning Your Computer System.....................


Activity Sheet 3.2.................................................................................
Information Sheet 3.1 ........................................................................
Post Test..................................................................................................
Answer Keys............................................................................................

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Welcome to the Module Introducing Computer System. This


module contains training materials and activities for you to work on.
The unit of competency Introduce Computer System contains
knowledge, skills and attitudes required for a Computer Hardware
Servicing NC II course.
You are required to go through a series of learning activities in order
to complete each of the learning outcomes of the module. In each learning
outcome there are Information Sheets and Activity Sheets. Follow
these activities on your own and answer the Self-Check at the end of each
learning activity.
If you have questions, dont hesitate to ask your teacher for
assistance.
After completing this module ask your teacher to assess your
competency. Result of your assessment will be recorded in your
competency profile. All the learning activities are designed for you to
complete at your own pace.
Inside this module you will find the activities for you to complete
followed by relevant information sheets for each learning outcome. Each
learning outcome may have more than one learning activity.

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Program/ Course : Computer Hardware Servicing NC II


Unit of Competency
: Introduce Computer System
Module Title
: Introducing Computer System
INTRODUCTION:
This module contains information and suggested learning activities
on Computer Hardware Servicing. It includes training materials and
activities for you to complete.
Completion of this module will help you better understand the
succeeding module on Computer Hardware Servicing.
This module consists of 3 learning outcomes. Each learning outcome
contains learning activities supported by each instruction sheets. Before
you perform the instructions read the information sheets and answer the
self-check and activities provided to ascertain to yourself and your teacher
that you have acquired the knowledge necessary to perform the skill
portion of the particular learning outcome.
Upon completion of this module, report to your teacher for
assessment to check your achievement of knowledge and skills
requirement of this module. If you pass the assessment, you will be given
a certificate of completion.
SUMMARY OF LEARNING OUTCOMES:
Upon completion of the module you should be able to:
LO1. introduce the computer system
LO2. identify the computer parts and their peripherals
LO3. maintain computer system

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Multiple-choice:
1. What do you call the large screen in a laptop?
a) CPU b) Mother board c) Video Card

d) LCD

2. What type of motherboard design that is common in large PC


network servers and on other computers on which the
processor is upgraded frequently?
a) Motherboard
b) CPU
c) Backplanes
d)
ATX
3. It serves as the power supply for your laptop?
a) AT
b)Power Supply c) CMOS
d) Battery
4. It defines a motherboards size, shape and how it is mounted
to the case?
a) Motherboard
b) Form factor
c) LGX
d)
PSU
5. It is also known as mainboard, system board or planar?
a) Motherboard
b) Motherboard Style
c) CPU
d) LXG
6. It is the skeletal frame work of your computer system.
a) Cover b) Chassis c) Screws d) Power supply
7. It provides protection for the internal parts of the computer.
a) Chassis
b) Reset
c) Case
d) Cover
8. The part of the computer that provides power to the entire
system?
a) CPU b) Drive Bay
c) Power Supply d) Reset
9. A button that allows the user to Turn off the computer.
a) Reset b) Turbo
c) LED
d) Power switch
10.
The part of the chassis where you place the
Motherboard drives.
a) Drive Bay b) Cover
c) Chassis d) CPU

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Form factor - The industry standard that defines the physical and external
dimensions of a particular device.
AT

- Advance Technology

ATX

- (Advance Technology Extended) is a computer form factor


designed by Intel in 1995.

NLX

- (New Low Profile Extended) was a form factor proposed by


Intel and developed jointly with IBM, DEC, and other vendors.

Watts

- is the SI derived unit of power, equal to one joule of energy


per second.

Ergonomic - The study of work organization, and the human/machine


interface in particular.
Sensor

- The study of work organization, and the human/machine


interface in particular.

Platter

- The actual storage media in the different type of disk. In the


hard drive the platter have a core of glass or aluminum,
covered with a thin layer of Ferric oxide or Cobalt alloy (Co-Ni,
Co-Cr, Co-Ni-W).

Magnetic - having the properties of a magnet; i.e. of attracting iron or


steel; "the hard disk is covered with a thin coat of magnetic
material".
Static electricity- refers to the buildup of electric charge on the surface of
objects.

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Program/ Course : Computer Hardware Servicing NC II


Unit of Competency
: Introduce the Computer System
Module Title
: Introducing the Computer System
Learning Outcome 1 : Introduce the Computer System
ASSESSMENT CRITERIA:
1. Types of computers according to size and use are identified.
2. Characteristics of hardware, software and firmware are identified.
3. Relationship of hardware and software in a computer system are
distinguished.
RESOURCES:
Equipment and
Accessories
LAN Card
UPS
24 port-Hub
Modem
Computer Unit
USB External CD
writer
USB Scanner
USB Printers
USB Flash Drive

Tools

Materials

Screwdriver(standard)
Screwdriver(Philips)
Long nose pliers
Mechanical pliers
Allen wrench
Multi-tester
Crimping tools
Wire Stripper
LAN Tester
Anti-static wrist wrap
Device
drivers/installers

Software
Applications
RJ 45
UTP Cat 5 cable
Motherboards
Manual and Installer
Sound Device Driver
Installer

REFERENCES:

Antoinette R. Marcelo. Understanding PC Hardware. Copyright 2007


Jemma Inc.

McLaughlin,Robert, Sasser,Susan, Ralston,Mary.Fix Your Own


PC.Philippine Graphic Arts, Inc Tandang Sora St.Caloocan City
Meralco Faoundation. Microcomputer Servicing Plus. Pasig City,
Philippines.
Legaspi,Carlos, Caia, Mark Anthony. Operate A Personal Computer.
Dasmarias Computer Learning Center.Dasmarias,Cavite,
Philippines
Bigelow,Stephen J. PC Technicians Troubleshooting ,McGaw Hill

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INFORMATION SHEET 1.1


TYPES OF COMPUTER
What are computers?
Computers are electronic devices that are capable of processing
data/information given in the form of numbers, words, pictures, and
even sounds.
They can be programmed (given instructions) to carry out various kinds
of information processing jobs.

Different Kinds of Computers


Depending on the size and capacity, computers are classified into three
types:
MAINFRAME COMPUTERS
MINICOMPUTERS
MICROCOMPUTERS OR PERSONAL COMPUTERS.
Mainframe Computers
Large and powerful computers that are used by many people (users) at
the same time; typically installed in large organizations/companies.

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Supercomputers
Extremely powerful mainframe computers used in scientific and
engineering applications.

Minicomputers

Minicomputers are medium sized computers -- Between


Mainframe computers and Microcomputers

Application of Computers
Various kinds of jobs that are done using computers:
SCIENTIFIC COMPUTATIONS

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KEEPING TRACK OF INFORMATION

Example:
Banking, Railways or Airlines

Reservations

PREPARATION OF DOCUMENTS AND MULTIMEDIA PRESENTATIONS


Examples:
Power point Presentations in
meetings and seminars.
Video presentation of films and

footages

SIMULATION OF REAL OR IMAGINARY WORLD SCENES


Example:
Virtual Reality, Computer Games

STORING AND SHARING INFORMATION


Example:
World Wide Web(Internet)
Web Casting

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Matching Type:
Directions: Match column A to column B. Place your answer in the answer
sheet given by your teacher.
A
1.

Personal Computer
V-

2.
3

Mainframe Computer

W-

Mini computer

X-

4.
5.

World Wide Web

Y-

Super Computer

Z-

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INFORMATION SHEET 1.2


Computer components and its characteristics
Components of a Computer
1. The components of a computer are classified into the three main
categories hardware, software and documentation.
1.1 Hardware: The mechanical and electronic parts that perform the
various tasks of the computer
1.2 Software: The programs or instructions that tell the hardware what
tasks are to be done and how.
1.3 Firmware/Documentation: Instructions in read only memory (ROM).

1.1
Hardware components
The hardware of a typical computer system, irrespective of its
size, consists of the following components:
1.1.1 CENTRAL PROCESSING UNIT CPU

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1.1.2 MEMORY

1.1.2 STORAGE DEVICES

1.1.4 INPUT / OUTPUT DEVICES

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1.2 Computer Software


1.2.1 Computer Software/Program
A software/program is a sequence of commands written in a
computer programming language that specifies a task that the
computer will perform.
Some of the computer programming languages are:
VISUAL BASIC, C, C++, JAVA
Classification of Computer Software
Computer software can be classified into following categories:

OPERATING SYSTEM

USER PROGRAMS

APPLICATION PROGRAMS

Operating System
Operating system (OS) is the basic software responsible for
interacting with the hardware.
It is the foundation on which user programs and application
programs are built.
It helps the user to enter programs or data, store them in files
and execute programs.
Two popular operating systems in use today are

Unix for mainframes and minicomputers.

Windows and Linux used for personal computers.

User Programs
User Programs: Written by users or programmers for themselves
or for their organization.

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Application Programs
Computers are increasingly being used in almost every activity business, industry, commerce, health, education, entertainment,
sports, etc.
Word processing
Desktop Publishing
Spreadsheets

Ms
MS Powerpoint

Excel

1.3

Word

MS

Firmware

Is the program that is embedded in a silicon chip rather than


stored on a floppy disk.
You can access the computer BIOS utility by pressing a
special key right after you turn on your computer. The
special keys are (DEL) delete key or (F2) Function key no.2
or (F10) function key no. 10

Example: BIOS chip or CMOS

CM
OS CHIP

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BIOS UTILITY

Equipment, Tools, and Materials


Personal Computer
Directions:
1. Choose a partner to work with.
2. Given the following equipment, ask your partner to identify
the functions and characteristics of the computer components
(hardware/software/firmware) of a computer unit. (Give at
least 2 for each component)
3. Exchange roles. Your partner will now do the identification,
functions and characteristics.
4. Assess each others performance using the performance
criteria score card below.
PERFORMANCE SCORE CARD
Performance Criteria

Scoring
1 2 3 4 5

1. The hardware functions are identified successfully.


2. The software and firmware function is identified
successfully.
3. Proper access to the firmware is carefully observed.
4. Safety precautions are observed.

5
4

- Excellently Performed
- Very Satisfactorily Performed

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3
2
1

Satisfactorily Performed
Fairly Performed
- Poorly Performed

Multiple choice:
1. What do you call a program embedded on a silicon chip?
a) Peopleware b) Software c) Firmware d) Hardware
2. What do you call the software that interacts with the computer
hardware?
a) Applicationsb) Operating System
c) Firmware
d)
Spreadsheets
3. The mechanical and electrical part of the computer system is
the.
a) Software
b) Hardware
c) Unix
d) Firmware
4. An operating system used in mainframes and mini-computers
is the.
a)Windows XP b) Unix
c) Panda
d) BIOS
5. Which one is an example of an operating system commonly
installed in personal computers.
a) Unix b) Windows
c) BIOS
d) MS-Word

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INFORMATION SHEET 1.3


Distinguishing Hardware and Software Relationship
Hardware and Software Relationship
For a computer to produce useful output its hardware and software must
work together. Nothing useful can be done with the hardware on its own,
and software cannot be utilized without supporting hardware.
To take an analogy, a CD player and its CD purchased from the market are
hardware. However, the songs recorded on the CD are its software. To
listen to a song, that song has to be recorded on one of the CD first, which
is then mounted on the compact disk and played. Similarly, to get a job
done by a computer, the corresponding software has to be loaded in the
hardware first and then executed.
Following important points regarding the relationship between hardware
and software are brought out by this analogy:
1. Both hardware and software are necessary for a computer to do useful
job. Both are complementary to each other.
2. Same hardware can be loaded with different software to make a
computer perform different types of jobs just as different songs can be
played using the same CD player.
3. Except for upgrades (like increasing main memory and hard disk
capacities, or adding speakers, modems, etc.); hardware is normally a
one- time expense, whereas software is a continuing expense. Like we buy
new cassettes for newly released songs or for songs whose cassettes, we
do not have, we buy, new software to be run on the same hardware as
and when need arises, or funds become available.
Software

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Your software is
useless without your
Hardware

The computer is
useless without your
Software
Hardware

Interview
Directions:
1. Work in groups of 6 as a panel. One will be the interviewer
,while the rest of the panel will answer
2. The students will be asked the following questions.
o Why do computers need software?
o Why do we need to install different software in our computers?
o Briefly explain the relationship between computer hardware
and software.
3. Rate your groups performance using the Performance score
card below:
PERFORMANCE SCORE CARD
Performance Criteria

Scoring
1 2 3 4 5

1. Importance of computers is clearly explained.


2. Installation of different software is explained.
3. Relationship between hardware and software is well
explained.

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5
4
3
2
1

- Excellently Performed
- Very Satisfactorily Performed
Satisfactorily Performed
Fairly Performed
- Poorly Performed

Program/ Course : Computer Hardware Servicing NC II


Unit of Competency
: Introduce Computer System
Module Title
: Introducing Computer System
Learning Outcome 2 : Identify of computer parts and its
peripherals
ASSESSMENT CRITERIA:
1. Appropriate personal protective equipment used in Hardware
Servicing is identified.
2. Appropriate tools are used according to standard safety
procedure.
3. Identification of the different computer parts is identified.
4. Characteristics and functions of each computer component are
identified.
5. Safety precautions are observed at all times.
REFERENCES:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Customer_service

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quality_standard

http://www.technet.unsw.edu.au/tohss/swp.htm

http://xnet.rrc.mb.ca/healthsafety/safeworkprocedures

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Antoinette R. Marcelo. Understanding PC Hardware. Copyright 2007


Jemma Inc.

http://www.empf.org/empfasis/aug04/prop.htm

http://www.lakeland.cc.il.us/~internal/policymanual/10fiscalaffairs/1
026.POL.htm

INFORMATION SHEET 2.1


Personal Protective Equipment

Refers to protective clothing, helmets, goggles, or other garment designed to protect the
wearer's body from injury by blunt impacts, electrical hazards, heat, chemicals, and
infection, for job-related purposes.

Personal Protective Equipment used in Hardware Servicing


There are certain personal protective devices used in computer hardware
servicing, this equipments are designed to protect the devices against
ESD ( Electro Static Electricity) and other environmental hazards.
Anti- Static Devices
Devices used to
computer unit
static electricity.
.1 Anti- Static

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protect the
against
Wrist Strap

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.2 Anti-Static Mat

.3 Anti Static Spray


- Use to remove ESD from your

work area

1.4 Anti- Static Bag


-Use to store your
devices safe from

sensitive
ESD.

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2. Power Protection Devices


- Devices use to protect the user and the computer from sudden
increase/dropped of electricity. Power protection devices are also
used against sort circuits.
2.1 AVR (Automatic Voltage Regulator)
-Automatically maintain a constant voltage level.

2.2 UPS (Uninterruptible Power Supply)


- Serves as a battery backup, provides
emergency power

2.3 Surge Suppressors


- An appliance designed to protect electrical
devices
from voltage spikes.

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Personal Protective Equipment application


Anti-static devices
- Always use an anti-static
wrist strap when working
on a computer except
when working on
monitors: more about that
below. One end is an
elastic band that fits
around your wrist and
which is connected to an
alligator clip by a wire.
The clip connects to a
metal part of the
computer chassis, which
equalizes the voltage
between you and the computer, thus avoiding static sparks.

Power Protection Devices


- Plug the computer to
protection device to
avoid voltage spikes
and power surges.

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UPS

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Identification Type
Directions: Answer the following questions and place your answer on your
test booklet.
1. A device used against power/voltage spikes.
2. A power protective equipment that serves as a backup battery for
your computer.
3. It is used to store sensitive computer peripherals.
4. A anti-static device you need to use when touching components in
a computer unit.
5. A device that provides a stable power system.

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INFORMATION SHEET 2.2


Using Hand Tools
Hand Tools
- device for performing work on a material or a physical
system using only hands. The hand tools can be manually
used employing mechanical force, or electrically powered,
using electrical current.
Types of hand tools
Side Cutter Pliers a tool used for cutting or trimming of connecting
wires or terminal leads in the circuit board
Long nose Pliers Used for holding, bending and stretching the lead of
electronics component or connecting wire.

Crimping Tool- a tool use to connect a RJ45 connector to a


network cable.

Tweezers- a tool use to hold small sensitive part of a computer.

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Cutter- a tool used in cutting wires.

Flat Screw Driver a tool used to drive or fasten


negative slotted screws

Philips Screw Driver- a tool used to drive or


fasten positive slotted screws

Flashlight- a small electric light, use to illuminate a dark


area..

Paint Brush - use for cleaning parts of a computer.

Magnifying glass- a device made in


glass with handle, to exaggerate or to
increase the apparent size of an object.

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Equipment, Tools, and Materials


Basic hand tools
Directions:
1. Choose a partner to work with.
2. Given the following equipment you are asked to identify the hand
tools and functions.
3. Take turns in during the task.
4. Assess each other using the criteria in the score card below.
PERFORMANCE SCORE CARD
Performance Criteria

Scoring
1 2 3 4 5

1. All hand tools are identified successfully.


2. All functions are identified successfully.
3. Proper handling of tools is observed.
4. Safety precautions are observed.

- Excellently Performed
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4
3
2
1

- Very Satisfactorily Performed


Satisfactorily Performed
Fairly Performed
- Poorly Performed

Matching Type:
Directions: Match column A to column B, place your answer in the answer
sheet given by your teacher.
A
1.

Phillip Screw driver


H-

2.
3

Crimping Tool

I-

Flash Light

J-

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4.
5.

Tweezer

K-

Magnifying glass
L-

INFORMATION SHEET 2.3


Hardware Components and Peripheral
Your PCs system case is probably high on the list of components
you think about the least. However, in spite of the fact that the system
case has only one or two components that are active, namely the power
supply and the front panel, the PCs case plays a major role in the PCs
operation.
In spite of the fact that the PCs case just seems to sit there, it does
perform a number of very valuable functions.
Provides the aesthetics of the system
Provides the PC with its structure
Provides protection and cooling for the electronics and
other devices mounted inside
Computer case comes in al sizes,
shapes, colors and faces. These variations
in size
and shape are driven by the cases form
factor.
The form factor of the case is its shape, the way its components fit
together and most of all its size.

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Chassis the skeletal framework that provides the


structure, rigidity and strength of the case.
Cover plays an important role in the cooling, protection
and structure of the PC.
Power Supply a very important component, not only to
the case assembly, but to the PC and its other
components.
Front panel in addition to providing the PC with its looks
and color, the front panel also provides information on the
PCs status, allows the user to physically secure the PC
and on some case types, it is the starting point for
removing the case cover.
Power switch
Reset switch
Status LED
Power LED (Light Emitting Diode) typically green in
color and illuminated when the PCs power is on.
Hard drive LED when the drive is seeking, reading or
writing data, this red, orange or amber LED is lit and
flashes.
Turbo LED if present, this yellow LED indicates that the
PC is in turbo mode.
Switches most new systems now have their two main
switches, the power switch and the reset switch, on the
front panel.
Power button - in older PCs, the power switch was a part
of the power supply and located on the right rear corner
of the PC.

Reset button performs a hardware reset when pressed.


This provides the user with a means of restarting the PC
should it halt and not respond to normal shutdown or
restart command.
Drive bays disk drives with removable media have been
mounted in the system case so that they can be accessed
from the front panel. Typically, the drive bays are used for
3.5-inch disk drives, optical drives and removable hard
drives.
External drive bays these drive bays are actually
internal to the case and chassis, but they can be
accessed externally.

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Internal drive bays these drive bays are completely


inside the system case and are not accessible from
outside the chassis
Cover
Switches

Power Supply

Drive Bays
Chassis
Front Panel

System Case Styles


1. Desktop case the flat, boxy one is the desktop case PC.
It doubles as the base for PCs monitor.
2. Tower cases the tall, thin case are the tower style.
Below are the popular variations of the tower case
Full tower are the largest standard PC cases
available. They offer the most of any case style in the
way of expandability, typically having three to five
external drive bays and a few internal drive bays as
well.

Mid-tower is a slightly shorter version of the full


tower.
Midi-tower exist somewhere between the mid-tower
and the mini-tower. By definition, a midi-tower is
smaller than a mid-tower and larger than a minitower.
Mini-tower this is the most popular case today. It
provides slightly more expansion capacity than
desktop cases.

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Desktop Case

Tower Case
The Power Supply
The power supply unit (PSU) in a computer regulates and delivers the
power to the components in the case.
Power Supplies contain dangerous voltages and should only be opened by
experienced and qualified engineers; there are no user serviceable parts inside.
Always disconnect the PSU from the mains supply before removing the cover of the
PC.
Standard power supplies turn the incoming 110V or
220V AC (Alternating Current) into various DC
(Direct Current) voltages suitable for powering the
computer's components.
Power supplies are quoted as having a certain
power output specified in Watts, a standard power
supply would typically be able to deliver around 350
Watts.
The more components (hard drives, CD/DVD drives,
tape drives, ventilation fans, etc) you have in your
PC the greater the power required from the power
supply.
By using a PSU that delivers more power than required means it won't be
running at full capacity, which can prolong life by reducing heat damage
to the PSU internal components during long periods of use.
Always replace a power supply with an equivalent or superior power
output (Wattage).

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There are 3 types of power supply in common use:

AT Power Supply - still in use in older PCs.

ATX Power Supply - commonly in use today.

ATX-2 Power Supply - recently new standard.

A power supply can be easily changed and are generally not expensive, so
if one fails (which is far from uncommon) then replacement is usually the
most economic solution.
The power supply connectors
4 Pin Berg Connector
-Used to connect the PSU to small form factor devices, such as
3.5" floppy drives.
-available in: AT, ATX & ATX-2
4 Pin Molex Connector
-This is used to power various components, including hard
drives and optical drives.
-available in: AT, ATX & ATX-2
20 Pin Molex ATX Power Connector
-This is used to power the motherboard in ATX systems.
-available in: ATX( ATX-2 have four extra pins)

4 Pin Molex Power Connector


-Used specifically for Pentium 4 Processor Motherboards.
-available in: ATX (integrated into the power connector in ATX2)
6 Pin AUX Connector
-Provides +5V DC, and two connections of +3.3V.
-available in: ATX/ATX-2

ATX Power Supply Pin outs


Below are pin out diagrams of the common connectors in ATX power
supplies.

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The Motherboard
The motherboard is easily the most important part of the computer.
Although there are a number of components that a PC cannot function
without, its the motherboard that ties them all together and turns them
into a personal computer.
The motherboard, or main board, of a PC is a large printed circuit
board that is home to many of the most essential parts of the computer,
including the CPU, chipset, cache, memory sockets, expansion bus,
parallel and serial ports, mouse and keyboard connectors and IDE, EIDE or
SCSI controllers. Thee motherboard binds the PCs operational
components together.

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Motherboard Form Factors


Form factors define a motherboards size, shape and how it is
mounted to the case. However, form factors now include the size, shape
and function of the system case; the type, placement and size of the
power supply; the systems power requirements; the location and type of
the external connectors, and the cases airflow and cooling system.
AT(Advance Technology) Form Factor
The initial design of motherboards introduced by IBM (International
Business Machines)

ATX Form Factor


It was released by Intel in 1995 and was an improvement over the
LPX form factor.

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Mini ATX
This is slightly smaller than ATX but all the specifications of the ATX
are included.

NLX Form Factor


A new standardized form factor. The three primary focuses of the
NLX are the processor and system cooling, the number of connections for
multimedia hardware and reducing the clutter of interior cables.

The
the
The
composed of
parts:

Expansion
slots

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Components of
Motherboard
motherboard is
Back
panel
the
following

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CPU

CMOS

Power
Conner
stor

Memory
Slots

The Central Processing Unit


CPU stands for Central Processing Unit. It is
the brain of the computer unit.
The reason the CPU is called a processor is
because it can work with data. And it has
two important jobs:

It can do calculations.
It can move data.

The CPU is very fast at doing both


jobs. The faster the CPU can do calculations
and move data, the faster we say the PC is.
What follows is a short description of how to
achieve faster data processing. Read it, and
see if you understand all the concepts.
There are three ways to improve a PCs
performance.

The Evolution of the CPU


Intel CPU Family Tree
1. First Generation: 8088, 8086, 80188, 80186and 8087 these
were introduced in 1978 and had a clock speed of 4.77MHz. .

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Intel 8088
2. Second Generation: 80286 and 80287 it has a clock speed of 6
to 8 MHZ and uses 16 bit data bus.

80286 CPU
3. Third Generation: this was a full 32 bit processor and has clock
speed of 16 MHz.

4. The Fourth Generation: this CPU incorporates a cache memory


and an integrated math coprocessors. This was the first to use
Intels new socket numbering system, the Socket 1.

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486DX and Socket 1

5. The Fifth Generation: Intel P5 Pentium and Pentium MMX


5 was originally known as 80586, but Intel found out that
model numbers could not be copyrighted. So, instead of numbers,
they used a trademark name, Pentium.

6. The
Sixth
Part1
:
P6
Pentium
II,
Pentium II Xeon

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Generation,
Pentium Pro,
Celeron
and

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Intel Pentium Pro and Socket 8


CPU Accessories

CPU Cooling System

CPU Heat sink It is use to cool down the

CPU.

Computer Ports and Connectors


The first input and output devices you encounter are the external devices,
such as the keyboard, video monitor, printer and so forth. Some of these
devices have connectors that are the same as, or very similar to, the
connectors used for other devices. In most cases plugging a new device
into the wrong connector can damage the device or the system, so you
need to know all the different connectors and which devices use them.

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Connector Types

Keyboard
Port

USB Port

LAN Port

Video Out

Audio Port

Keyboard port connects the computer keyboard.


Video Out Provides Video output for your computer.
USB (Universal Serial Bus)- connect computer peripherals such as mice,
keyboards, PDAs, gamepads and joysticks, scanners, digital cameras,
printers, personal media players, flash drives, and external hard drives.

The Computer Keyboard


This is the most common input device. The keyboard allows the user to
communicate with the PC through keystrokes that represent character
data and commands.

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Keyboard Elements
1. Alphanumeric keys the alphabet keys along with row
numbers and special characters. These keys match those on a
typewriter.
Alphabet keys
Punctuation and special characters
Actions keys
Character selection keys
Command control keys
Enter key
White space keys
Number/special character keys
2. Cursor control key located on the right side of the
alphanumeric keys, this group of keys has two smaller groups of
keys: the cursor function keys and cursor arrow keys.
3. Function keys- located across the top of a keyboard.
4. Numeric keypad the number pad, which is located on the
extreme right side of nearly all modern keyboards, contains keys
for ten numbers, as well as the four arithmetic functions. This can
also be used as a cursor control pad by toggling the NUM LOCK
key.
5. Toggle and Lock keys
6. Special purpose keys
ESC key
Print Screen key
Pause/break key
7. Window keys
Windows key
Application/Context key

Keyboard Layout and Design


1. 83-keys PC/XT keyboard the keyboard included in the
original IBM PC and the XT

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2. 84-keys AT keyboard it is a step closer to the standard


keyboard layout used today

3. Enhanced 101- keys keyboard - it is the one most familiar to


computer users today. Later models are really just enhancements
of the design. This is the industry standard today.

4. Windows 104- keys keyboard this is identical to 101-keys


keyboard layout except for the addition of three new keys; two
Windows keys, located between the CTRL and ALT keys on both
sides and an Application key on the right side, next to the
Windows key.

5. Natural and Ergonomic Keyboard this keyboard help relieve


the stress caused by the position of the users hands and wrist
and prevent repetitive stress injuries such as carpal tunnel
syndrome.

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Keyboard Elements/Layout
Alphanumeric keys the alphabet keys along with row numbers
and special characters. These keys match those on a typewriter.
Alphabet keys
Punctuation and special characters
Actions keys
Character selection keys
Command control keys
Enter key
White space keys
Number/special character keys
Cursor control key located on the right side of the alphanumeric
keys, this group of keys has two smaller groups of keys: the cursor
function keys and cursor arrow keys.
Function keys- located across the top of a keyboard.
Numeric keypad the number pad, which is located on the
extreme right side of nearly all modern keyboards, contains keys for
ten numbers, as well as the four arithmetic functions. This can also
be used as a cursor control pad by toggling the NUM LOCK key.
Special purpose keys
ESC key
Print Screen key
Pause/break key
Window keys
Windows key
Application/Context key

Keyboard Layout
Function
keys

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Numeric
keypad

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Special
purpose
keys

Window
keys

Alphanumeri
c keys

Cursor
control key

Keyboard Connectors
1. The 5 pin DIN connector - this is the oldest of the keyboard
connectors, also known as the AT form factor.
Pin Number
Signal
1
Keyboard Clock
2
Keyboard Data
3
Unused
4
Ground
5
+ 5v Power
2. The 6 pin Mini DIN Connector it is designed to used six pins
arranged in a circular pattern around a plastic case, also known
as PS/2 connector.
Pin Number
1
2
3
4
5
6

Signal
Keyboard Data
Unused
Ground
+ 5v Power
Keyboard Clock
Unused

3. The USB Connector the universal serial bus is a multifunction


peripheral bus that is growing rapidly in popularity, and the
keyboard is one of many devices that can use it.

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4. IrDA (infrared) connector - it is a wireless keyboard.

Pointing Devices
1. Traditional Mice/Mouse - a palm-sized plastic housing with a
rubber ball protruding from the bottom and a cord coming out
the back.

2. Trackballs it is an upside-down mouse with a larger than


normal ball. Instead of rolling the ball by moving the whole
mouse across a surface, you move the ball directly while the
device itself remains stationary.

3. IBM /Track Point also known as Glide point mouse. It is


created by IBM for its ThinkPad line of notebook computer to
solve the pointing device problems.

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4. Touch Pads it is a rectangular pad located below the spacebar


on a laptop keyboard. The pad senses the capacitance of your
finger as you move it across the surface.

5. Joystick a type of pointing device that is used primarily with


game software on a PC.

6. Graphic Tablets similar in conception with the touch pad, but


it is larger and used with a stylus instead of your finger.

Hard Disk Basics


A device that allows the user to store large amounts of data in the
computer unit, sometimes refered also as the hard drive or Winchesters
drive.
.

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Here is a typical hard-disk drive:

Inside the Hard Disk


Platters
Arm

The platters - These typically spin at 3,600 or 7,200 rpm when the
drive is operating. These platters are manufactured to amazing
tolerances and are mirror-smooth.

The arm - This holds the read/write heads and is controlled by the
mechanism in the upper-left corner.

The Floppy Disk


The floppy disk drive (FDD) was the primary means of adding
data to a computer until the CD-ROM drive became popular. In fact, FDDs
have been a key component of most personal computers for more than 20
years.
Basically, a floppy disk drive reads and writes data to a small,
circular piece of metal-coated plastic similar to audio cassette tape. In this
article, you will learn more about what is inside a floppy disk drive and
how it works. You will also find out some cool facts about FDDs.

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Optical drives
Optical drives uses laser light or electromagnetic waves near the light
spectrum as part of the process of reading or writing data to or from
optical discs

Portable Devices
Devices that are compact and portable and often enable wireless
high-speed broad band access, including laptops, personal digital
assistants (PDAs), gaming consoles, mobile phones.
Types of portable devices
Laptop
- a personal computer designed for mobile use and small and
light enough to sit on one's lap while in use. A laptop integrates most of
the typical components of a desktop computer, including a display, a
keyboard, a pointing device (a touchpad, also known as a track pad ,
and/or a pointing stick), speakers, and often including a battery, into a
single small and light unit.

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Smart phones and PDAs - PDA and Smart phones are examples of
portable, hand-held devices that are becoming more popular. PDAs offer
features such as games, web surfing, e-mail, instant messaging, and
many other features offered by PCs

Basic parts of a laptop


System Board The system board is the main logic board in any laptop.
All internal components are connected to the system board. This is one of
the most
expensive parts in a
laptop

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Memory - temporary data storage. Its a volatile type of memory. When


you turn off the laptop, all the information stored in a RAM module is lost.

Hard Drive - is the main storage of information in a laptop. All system


files, personal files are stored inside the hard drive. Find the difference
between SATA and IDE hard drives. Faster hard drive you have installed
faster data access you get.

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Processor the brain of the computer. The processor is one of the main
components in a laptop. Laptop processors are made mainly by Intel and
AMD.

Optical Drive - The CD/DVD drive allows you to read/write data from/to a
CD or DVD disc.

Cooling Fan -The cooling fan is a part of the cooling module in a laptop.
The fan helps to cool down the processor when the laptop is turned on.

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Video card - In most modern laptops the video card is integrated into the
system board. If the video card fails you have to replace the whole
motherboard.
In some laptops the video card is a discrete module and can be removed
or replaced separately from the motherboard.

Audio and Sound - In most laptops the audio board is a part of the
motherboard. If thats the case, all audio board input/output components
such as volume control, microphone jack and headphone jack are soldered
directory to the motherboard.

Wireless card - The internal wireless card helps you to connect to the
Internet without running a cable. Learn about different types of internal
wireless cards and how they are connected to the motherboard.

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CMOS Battery - The CMOS battery provides power to the CMOS chip when
the laptop is turned off or disconnected form the wall outlet.

LCD screen - one of the most expensive parts in a laptop computer. The
LCD screen mounts inside the display panel.If you accidentally cracked
the screen, it has to be replaced. You cannot repair a cracked screen.

Inverter board - is a power supply for the backlight lamp inside the LCD
screen. When inverter fails, the LCD screen goes very very dark and you
barely can see any image on the screen. In most laptops the inverter
board is mounted inside the display panel below the LCD screen.

Backlight lamp - is the main source of light in the LCD screen. The
backlight lamp is mouted

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iside the screen. When the backlight lamp fails, you have to replace the
whole LCD screen. Its possible to replace just the lamp inside the screen
but its very hard and has to be performed by an experienced technician.

Video cable - connectes the Laptop screen to motherboard. The video


cable carries data signal for the LCD screen and power for the inverter
board.

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Web Camera - Many modern laptops come with a web camera built into
the display panel. The web camera is not a part of the LCD screen. The
web camers is located on a separate board and can be replaced
separately from the LCD.

Display hinges - connect two main parts of any laptop the display panel
and base assembly.

The AC/DC power adapter - converts high voltage AC power from the
mains to low voltage DC power required by the laptop.

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Main Battery - a secondary source of power for a laptop. The battery gets
charged while the laptop is plugged into the mains and keeps the laptop
running when its unplugged from the mains.

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Directions:
1. Work in groups using a Personal Computer complete with peripherals.
2. Given the following tools, materials and equipment, identify the
different parts of a personal computer starting from the front up to the
internal parts of the PC.
3. Take turns doing this until every member of the group is done.
4. You will be assessed using the criteria in the score card below.
PERFORMANCE SCORE CARD
Performance Criteria

Scoring
1 2 3 4 5

1. The components are identified successfully.


2. The peripherals are identified successfully.
3. Safety precautions are carefully observed.
4. Connecting the proper connections are performed.

5
4
3
2
1

- Excellently Performed
- Very Satisfactorily Performed
Satisfactorily Performed
Fairly Performed
- Poorly Performed

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Multiple-choice:
Test A:
1. What do you call the large printed circuit board inside your
computer?
a) CPU b) Mother board c) Video Card
d) PSU
2. What type of input device that I common referred to as mice?
a) Keyboard b) CPU
c) Backplanes
d) Mouse
3. What type of form factor that was released by Intel in 1995
was an improvement over the LPX form factor?
a) AT
b) BABY AT
c) NLX
d) ATX
4. It defines a motherboards size, shape and how it is mounted
to the case?
a) Motherboard
b) Form factor
c) LGX
d)
PSU
5. It is also known as mainboard, system board or planar?
a) Motherboard
b) Motherboard Style
c) CPU
d) LXG
6. It i the skeletal frame work of your computer system.
a) Cover b) Chassis c) Screws d) Power supply
7. It provides protection for the internal parts of the computer.
a) Chassis
b) Reset
c) Case
d) Cover
8. The part of the computer that provides power to the entire
system?
a) CPU b) Drive Bay
c) Power Supply d) Reset
9. A button that allows the user to change the clock speed of old
computers.
a) Reset b) Turbo
c) LED
d) Power switch
10.
The part of the chassis where you place the internal
drives.
a) Drive Bay b) Cover
c) Chassis d) CPU

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Test B:
Identification
Direction: Identify the name of each connector found in the power supply.
Write your answer on a separate sheet
The power supply connectors
1.

2.

3.

4.

5.

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Program/ Course : Computer Hardware Servicing NC II


Unit of Competency
: Introduce Computer System
Module Title
: Introducing Computer System
Learning Outcome 3 : Maintain Computer System
ASSESSMENT CRITERIA:

ASSESSMENT CRITERIA
1. Appropriate personal protective equipment are identified, used
and checked based on the standard procedures.
2. Computer normal function is checked based on correct operation
and safety.
3. Periodic maintenance of the equipment is performed following
manufacturers requirements.
4. Safety precautions are observed at all times.
RESOURCES:
Equipment/Faciliti
es
Computer
peripherals
Desktop computers
Laptop Computer
OHS guidelines
Phil. Environmental
protection standards
Monitors
Motherboard
Power supply
Network device and
cablings
Hubs
Switches
LAN Cards
Printers and
Scanners
Routers
USB Flash Drives

Tools & Instruments


Protective eye wear
Wire stripper with cutter
Pliers(Assorted)
Screw drivers (Assorted)
Soldering iron/gun
De-soldering tool
Flashlight
Tweezers
Mirrors
Antistatic wrist wrap
LAN Tester
Crimping tool
Software installer
Work bench
Magnifying glass

Supplies &
Materials
Floppy disk
Compact Disk

REFERENCES:

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http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Customer_service
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Quality_standard
http://www.technet.unsw.edu.au/tohss/swp.htm
http://xnet.rrc.mb.ca/healthsafety/safeworkprocedures
Antoinette R. Marcelo. Understanding PC Hardware. Copyright 2007
Jemma Inc.

http://www.empf.org/empfasis/aug04/prop.htm
http://www.lakeland.cc.il.us/~internal/policymanual/10fiscalaffairs/1026
.POL.htm

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INFORMATION SHEET 3.1


Maintaining Computer System
Planning and preparing systematic maintenance procedure save time,
money and frustration. It is a good idea and opportunity to learn the
proper care and maintenance of your computer.
PC maintenance is an important topic for anyone who owns a PC.
Looking after your PC properly ensures you of trouble-free use. Regular PC
maintenance also keeps the machines performance optimal.
TYPES OF MAINTENANCE PROCEDURE:
1. Hardware maintenance is the testing and cleaning of equipment.
2. Information system maintenance is the routine updating of master
files, such as adding and deleting employees and customers and
changing credit limits and product prices.
3. Software or program maintenance is the updating of application
programs in order to meet changing information requirements.
4. Disk or file maintenance is the periodic reorganizing of disk files that
have become fragmented due to continuous updating.
Work place
Identify hazards and risks.
Safety policies are executed and carried out along with the task.
Following certain procedure is very important to perform a given
operation or evolution or in reaction to a given event. The table below
shows different elements and their corresponding performance criteria to
be able to identify occupational health and safety hazards, and assess
risk, as well as follow instructions and procedure in the workplace with
minimal supervision. The students will also be capable of participating
and contributing to OHS management issues.

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SAMPLE MAINTENANCE PLAN:


MONTHLY COMPUTER MAINTENANCE PLAN
JUNE

JULY

AUG

SEPT

OCT

NOV

DEC

Cleaning your
computer
Disk space
utilization
Scan for
viruses
Check for
hardware and
software
issues
Personal Protective Device
There are tools and equipments used to protect the user and the
computer system.
Types of personal protective devices
1. Anti-static devices
2. Power surge protectors
3. Personal equipments

Personal Equipment
1. Small paint brush
2. Screw drivers
3. Pliers and tweezers
4. Compressed air
5. Handheld vacuum

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Sample Hardware Inspection Checklist


Computer no:____________________
Component

Working

Not Working

Monitor
Keyboard

Mouse

Speaker
Printer

Voltage regulator

Sample Software Inspection Checklist


Computer no:____________________
Software

Working

Not Working

Applications
Operating System

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User programs

INFORMATION SHEET 3.2


Cleaning Your Computer System
Appropriate cleaning procedures
Proper routine cleaning is the easiest, least expensive way to protect and
to extend the life of a laptop. It is very important to use the right products
and procedures when cleaning a laptop. Always read all warning labels on
the cleaning products. The components are very sensitive and should be
handled with care. Consult the compuer manual for additional information
and cleaning suggestions.
Keyboard Cleaning Procedures
1. Turn off the computer
2. Disconnect all attached devices.
3. Disconnect laptop from the electrical outlet.
4. Remove all installed batteries.(for laptops)
5. Wipe the keyboard with a soft, lint-free cloth that is lightly
moistened with water or computer-screen cleaner.
Ventilation Cleaning Procedures
1. Turn off the computer/laptop.
2. Disconnect all attached devices.
3. Disconnect computer from the electrical outlet.
4. Remove all installed batteries. .(for laptops)
5. Use compressed air or a non-electrostatic vacuum to clean out the
dust from the vents and the fan behind the vent.
6. Use tweezers to remove any debris.
LCD Cleaning Procedures
1. Turn off the computer..
2. Disconnect all attached devices.
3. Disconnect computer from the electrical outlet.

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4. Remove all installed batteries. .(for laptops)


5. Wipe display with a soft, lint-free cloth that is lightly moistened with
a mild cleaning solution.
CAUTION: Do not spray cleaning solution directly onto the LCD display.
Use products specifically designed for cleaning LCD displays.
Touch Pad Cleaning Procedures
1. Turn off the computer.
2. Disconnect all attached devices.
3. Disconnect computer from the electrical outlet.
4. Remove all installed batteries. .(for laptops)
5. Wipe surface of touch pad gently with a soft, lint-free cloth that is
moistened with an approved cleaner. Never use a wet cloth.
The small screen of a PDA or Smartphone requires special care. The user
operates these devices by touching the screen with a stylus. If dirt is
present, the PDA may not accurately detect the stylus position or
movement. The dirt can also scratch the screen. Clean the screen with a
small amount of non-abrasive cleaning solution on a soft cloth. To protect
the screen surface from a stylus, use self-adhesive screen covers.
CAUTION: Use a soft, lint-free cloth with an approved cleaning solution to
avoid damaging laptop surfaces. Apply the cleaning solution to the lintfree cloth, not directly to the laptop.
Floppy Drive Cleaning Procedures
Use a commercially-available cleaning kit to clean a floppy drive. Floppy
drive cleaning kits include pre-treated floppy discs that remove
contaminants from the floppy drive heads that have accumulated through
normal operation.
1. Remove all media from the floppy drive.
2. Insert the cleaning disc and let it spin for the suggested amount of
time.
Optical Drive Cleaning Procedures
Dirt, dust, and other contaminants can collect in the optical drives.
Contaminated drives can cause malfunctions, missing data, error
messages, and lost productivity.
1. Use a commercially-available CD or DVD drive cleaning disc. Many
floppy disc cleaning kits include an optical disc cleaner. Like the

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floppy disc cleaner, optical disc cleaner kits contain a cleaning


solution and a non-abrasive disc that is inserted into the optical
drive.
2. Remove all media from the optical drive.
3. Insert the cleaning disc and let it spin for the suggested amount of
time to clean all contact areas.

Cleaning a CD or DVD Disc


Inspect the disc for scratches. Replace discs that contain deep scratches;
they may cause data errors. If you notice problems such as skipping or
degraded playback quality with your CDs or DVDs, clean the discs.
Commercial products are available that clean discs and provide protection
from dust, fingerprints, and scratches. Cleaning products for CDs are safe
to use on DVDs.
1. Hold the disc by the outer edge or by the inside edge.
2. Gently wipe the disc with a lint-free cotton cloth. Never use paper or
any material that may scratch the disc or leave streaks.
3. Wipe from the center of the disc outward. Never use a circular
motion.
4. Apply a commercial CD or DVD cleaning solution to the lint-free
cotton cloth, and wipe again if any contaminates remain on the disc.
5. Allow the disc to dry before it is inserted into the drive.
Computer operating environment
An optimal operating environment for a omputer is clean, free of potential
contaminants, and within the temperature and humidity range specified
by the manufacturer.
It is important to transport or ship laptops carefully. Use a padded
computer case to store your laptop. When you carry it, use an approved
computer bag. If the
Laptops and computers are transported to many types of environments.
Dust particles, temperature, and humidity can affect the performance of a
laptop.
Follow these guidelines to help ensure optimal operating performance
from your computers/ laptop:

Clean the PC frequently to remove dust and potential contaminants.

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Do not obstruct vents or airflow to internal components. A laptop


can overheat if air circulation is obstructed.

Keep the room temperature between 45 to 90 degrees Fahrenheit (7


to 32 degrees Celsius).

Keep the humidity level between 10 to 80 percent.

CAUTION: Use a soft, lint-free cloth with an approved cleaning solution to


avoid damaging laptop surfaces. Apply the cleaning solution to the lintfree cloth, not directly to the laptop.
Temperature and humidity recommendations will vary by laptop
manufacturer. You should research these recommended values, especially
if you plan to use the laptop in extreme conditions

Equipment, Tools, and Materials:


Personal Computer complete with peripherals
Cleaning tools
Directions:
1. Groups yourselves into five. The teacher will assign a computer unit to
your group.
2. Create checklist for your hardware and software.
3. Given the following tools, materials and equipment, inspect and clean
your computer hardware.
4. Take turns in doing the task.
5. You will be assessed using the criteria in the score card below.
PERFORMANCE SCORE CARD
Performance Criteria

Scoring
1 2 3 4 5

1. Proper inspection is performed.


2. The peripherals are checked successfully.
3. Safety precautions are carefully observed.
4. Proper cleaning of devices are performed.

- Excellently Performed

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4
3
2
1

- Very Satisfactorily Performed


Satisfactorily Performed
Fairly Performed
- Poorly Performed

Written
Answer the following questions in your answer sheet.
1. Why do we need to perform a system inspection?
2. Why is it important to clean your computers hardware?

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Multiple-choice:
1. What do you call the large screen in a laptop?
a) CPU b) Mother board c) Video Card

d) LCD

2. What type of motherboard design that is common in large PC


network servers and on other computers on which the
processor is upgraded frequently?
a) Motherboard
b) CPU
c) Backplanes
d)
ATX
3. It serves as the power supply for your laptop?
a) AT
b)Power Supply c) CMOS
d) Battery
4. It defines a motherboards size, shape and how it is mounted
to the case?
a) Motherboard
b) Form factor
c) LGX
d)
PSU
5. It is also known as mainboard, system board or planar?
a) Motherboard
b) Motherboard Style
c) CPU
d) LXG
6. It i the skeletal frame work of your computer system.
a) Cover b) Chassis c) Screws d) Power supply
7. It provides protection for the internal parts of the computer.
a) Chassis
b) Reset
c) Case
d) Cover
8. The part of the computer that provides power to the entire
system?
a) CPU b) Drive Bay
c) Power Supply d) Reset

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9. A button that allows the user to Turn off the computer.


a) Reset b) Turbo
c) LED
d) Power switch
10.
The part of the chassis where you place the
Motherboard drives.
a) Drive Bay b) Cover
c) Chassis d) CPU

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Self Check 1.1


1. Z
2. V
3 Y
4. X
5. W
Self Check 1.2
1. C
2. B
3. B
4. B
5. B
Self Check 2.1
1. Surge Suppressor
2. UPS
3. Anti-static Bag
4. Anti-static Wrist strap
5. AVR
Self Check 2.2
1. K
2. L
3. I
4. J
5. H

Self Check 2.3


Test A:
1. B
2. D
3. C
4. B
5. B
6. B
7. D
8. C
9. B
10. A
Test B:
1. 4 pin Berg Connector
2. 4 pin Molex Connector
3. 20 pin Molex Connector
4. 4 pin Molex Connector
5. 6 pin AUX Connector
Post and Pre Test
1. B
2. A
3. C
4. C
5. A
6. B
7. A
8. C
9. D
10. C

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