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MAY 2015

Vol. 38, No. 5

The
Electronic
Warfare
Publication
www.crows.org

The Journal of Electronic Defense

Europes

EW
Programs
Also in this issue:

Technology Survey:
Gallium Nitride Transistors

ELECTRONIC WARFARE

MISSION:
SEIZE THE SPECTRUM

Staying a step ahead of emerging threats. Protecting


warfighters. Improving survivability. It all starts with
seizing control of the electromagnetic spectrum and
using it to ensure mission success. Raytheon enables
customers to do just that, with full-spectrum solutions
that span a broad range of domains and capabilities.

Seize the spectrum with products


like our Next Generation Jammer.
Raytheon.com/spectrum
Connect with us:
2015 Raytheon Company. All rights reserved.
Customer Success Is Our Mission is a registered trademark of Raytheon Company.

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May 2015 Volume 38, Issue 5

The
Electronic
Warfare
Publication
www.crows.org

The Journal of Electronic Defense

The Journal of Electronic Defense | May 2015

News
The Monitor
15
Air Force Seeks Highly Adaptable Counter to
Software-Defined Emitters.
World Report
24
UK Plans new EW and Cyber Framework.

Features
Upgrading Fast Jet Self Protection:
Europes Air Arms Look to Pods
and Pylons 26
Richard Scott, Luca Peruzzi

JED looks at how pods and pylons have made


inexpensive but effective electronic warfare upgrades
possible on Europes legacy fighter aircraft.

Pre-emptive Countermeasures
Potential Game Changer for
Airborne Self Protection 46

Technology Survey:
GaN Transistors

Gallium nitride (GaN) transistors have been the building


blocks of radios and RCIED jammers for nearly a
decade. GaN technology continues to evolve, finding
new EW and radar applications along the way. This
month, we take a closer look at these transistors and
what they can offer.

Departments
6
8
10
12
60
64
68
73
74

The View From Here


Conferences Calendar
Courses Calendar
From the President
New Products
EW 101
AOC News
Index of Advertisers
JED Quick Look

John Haystead

Pre-emptive countermeasures dispensers have been


available for decades. But new countermeasures
payloads and new threat concerns could mean they
are about to see a new wave of interest for fixed-wing
applications.

53

Ollie Holt

Cover photo courtesy Saab.

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the view

f rom he re

THE TYRANNY

OF DISTANCE

The
Electronic
Warfare
Publication
www.crows.org

The Journal of Electronic Defense

MAY 2015 Vol. 38, No. 5

EDITORIAL STAFF
Editor: John Knowles
Managing Editor: Elaine Richardson
Senior Editor: John Haystead
Technical Editor: Ollie Holt
Contributing Writers: Dave Adamy, Luca Peruzzi,

D
The Journal of Electronic Defense | May 2015

eputy Secretary of Defense Bob Work has placed a marker on the ground
for the EW community. His recent speeches about the long-range
precision-guided weapons that are entering the arsenals of potential
adversaries strongly suggest that non-kinetics (traditional electronic
warfare, directed energy and cyber attack) will be at the heart of DODs
Third Offset Strategy.
From the Gulf War onward, most of us have seen news footage of US bombs and
missiles hitting their targets with extreme precision. It is easy to forget that what
really underpins the DODs entire precision-guided weapons capability is mastery
of the Electromagnetic Domain. This includes much more than airborne electronic
attack. Without this mastery of the EM Domain, there is no long-range space and
airborne reconnaissance, no global command and control network to move information from sensors to shooters, no low-observable weapons platforms to access
the targets, no stand-off precision targeting, no precision navigation for weapons
platforms and no precision guidance for the munitions at the end of the kill chain.
Other countries that aspire to challenge US power and become either regional or
global powers themselves are developing their own precision-guided weapons regime, with many of the same basic elements described above. These countries will
also face the same EM Domain challenges that I like to think of as the tyranny
of distance. Yes, true, it is easier to build a long-range precision-guided-weapons
capability today compared to past decades, because the technologies needed to do
so have matured. However, the US has one significant advantage in this competition. The US was discovering its own EM weaknesses and figuring out technological and operational solutions to these challenges decades before any other nation.
In other words, the US has spent decades overcoming the tyranny of distance in
the EM Domain. This puts the US in a good position to recognize and exploit the
many weak links in other nations precision guided-weapons strategies. As the
US knows from experience, most of these weak links reside in the EM Domain and
in the Cyber Domain. (Remember that EW operators see enemy weapons systems
differently from the rest of the fighting force. While most soldiers may look at an
S-300 surface-to-air missile system and see radars and missiles, an EW operator
sees a system with a bunch of antennas, which equate to targets and access points
for jamming and cyber attacks.)
When I read between the lines of Bob Works recent speeches on future warfare,
I see a pretty clear message: as potential adversaries seek to replicate and build
the long-range precision-guided weapons regimes that could enable them to match
US capabilities today, the US is looking to leap ahead once again by developing
new non-kinetic strategies that will deliver another 20-30 years of military advantage by disabling an adversarys ability to maneuver in the EM Domain and launch
coordinated salvoes of precision-guided munitions. Ill admit, thats a mouthful.
Perhaps its easier to say (with a wry smile), Welcome to the tyranny of distance.
J. Knowles

Richard Scott
Marketing & Research Coordinator: Kent Agramonte
Proofreader: Shauna Keedian
Sales Administration: Candice Blair

EDITORIAL ADVISORY BOARD


Mr. Micael Johansson
Senior Vice President and Head of Business Area,
Electronic Defence Systems, Saab
Mr. Edgar Maimon
General Manager, Elbit Systems EW and SIGINT Elisra
Mr. Jeffrey Palombo
Senior VP and GM, Land and Self-Protection Systems Division,
Electronic Systems, Northrop Grumman Corp.
Mr. Steve Roberts
Strategy Director, Airborne and Space Division, Selex ES
Mr. Travis Slocumb
VP, Electronic Warfare Systems, Raytheon Space and Airborne Systems
Mr. Rich Sorelle
President, Electronic Systems Division, Exelis
Gp Capt P.J. Wallace
Assistant Head Targeting, Military Strategic Effects, UK MOD
Dr. Richard Wittstruck
Acting Deputy Program Executive Officer, PEO Intelligence, Electronic
Warfare and Sensors, USA

PRODUCTION STAFF
Layout & Design: Barry Senyk
Advertising Art: Elaine Connell
Contact the Editor: (978) 509-1450, JEDeditor@naylor.com
Contact the Sales Manager:
(800) 369-6220 or sales@crows.org
Subscription Information: Please contact Glorianne ONeilin
at (703) 549-1600 or e-mail oneilin@crows.org.
The Journal of Electronic Defense
is published for the AOC by

5950 NW 1st Place


Gainesville, FL 32607
Phone: (800) 369-6220 Fax: (352) 331-3525
www.naylor.com
2015 Association of Old Crows/Naylor, LLC. All rights reserved. The
contents of this publication may not be reproduced by any means, in
whole or in part, without the prior written authorization of the publisher.
Editorial: The articles and editorials appearing in this magazine do not
represent an official AOC position, except for the official notices printed
in the Association News section or unless specifically identified as an
AOC position.
PUBLISHED MAY 2015/JED-M0515/8956

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MAY
Unmanned Systems 2015
May 4-7
Atlanta, GA
www.auvsishow.org

&

trad e s hows

6th Annual Electronic Warfare/


Cyber Convergence Conference
June 2-4
Charleston, SC
www.crows.org

DSEI 2015
September 15-18
London, UK
www.dsei.co.uk

OCTOBER

12th Little Crow Conference


May 11
Simons Town, South Africa
www.aardvarkaoc.co.za

AOC International & Foreign Military


Sales EW Symposium
June 8-12
Atlanta, GA
www.peachtreeroost.org

Cyber Electromagnetic Activity 2015


October 6-8
Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD
www.crows.org

International Microwave Symposium


May 17-22
Phoenix, AZ
www.ims2015.org

Paris Air Show


June 15-21
Paris, France
www.siae.fr/EN

AUSA Annual Meeting and Exposition


October 12-14
Washington, DC
www.ausa.org

2015 Special Operations Forces


Industry Conference
May 19-21
Tampa, FL
www.ndia.org

AOC Northeast Regional Symposium


June 25-26
Nashua, NH
www.crows.org

USMC Spectrum Maneuver Warfare


October 27-28
MCAS Cherry Point, NC
www.crows.org

AOC EW Europe 2015


May 26-28
Stockholm, Sweden
www.eweurope.com

JUNE
Kittyhawk Week 2015 Technical
Interchange Meeting
June 1-3
Dayton, OH
www.kittyhawkaoc.org

AUGUST

DECEMBER

7th Annual EW Capability Gaps


Information Exchange
August 11-13
Crane, IN
www.crows.org

52nd Annual AOC International


Symposium and Convention
December 1-3
Washington, DC
www.crows.org a

SEPTEMBER
AFA Air & Space Conference
September 14-16
National Harbor, MD
www.afa.org

Items in red denote AOC Headquarters or


AOC Global Connections events. Items in
blue denote AOC Chapter events.

The Journal of Electronic Defense | May 2015

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May 5-8
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Essentials of 21st Century


Electronic Warfare
May 12-15
Alexandria, VA
www.crows.org

AOC Virtual Series: Evolving to the


Next Generation of Multifunctional
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May 28
www.crows.org

AOC Virtual Series: Demystifying


Monopulse Radars
May 7
www.crows.org

Digital RF Memory (DRFM)


Executive Overview
May 13
Atlanta, GA
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Airborne EW Systems Integration


May 12-14
Atlanta, GA
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Signals Intelligence Fundamentals


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Atlanta, GA
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June 8-10
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AOC Virtual Series: Signal Analysis in
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June 11
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June 12
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Advanced Electronic Warfare
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JULY
Adaptive Arrays: Algorithms,
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July 28-31
Atlanta, GA
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The Journal of Electronic Defense | May 2015

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THE YEARS
THE LOCUSTS
HAVE EATEN

Association of Old Crows


1000 North Payne Street, Suite 200
Alexandria, VA 22314-1652
Phone: (703) 549-1600
Fax: (703) 549-2589
PRESIDENT
Ken Israel
VICE PRESIDENT
Dave Hime
SECRETARY
Vickie Greenier
TREASURER
Joe Koesters
PAST PRESIDENT
Wayne Shaw

M
The Journal of Electronic Defense | May 2015

12

ilitary historians have noticed one peculiarity of the American polity


one that has cost them dear war fatigue. We seem to marginalize, after a resounding operational victory, the greater part of the
advantages we gained in that struggle. It was true in Viet Nam, in
Desert Storm, and in Operation Iraqi Freedom/Operation Enduring
Freedom. For the AOC, it is our national investment and attention
in Electronic Warfare (EW) activities, technologies and operations. EW is a major
Pentagon focus area now due in large part to the recent Deputy Secretary of Defense
memorandum (dated 17 March 2015) on the establishment of an Electronic Warfare
Executive Committee and the timely Defense Science Board Study on EW. There is a
clear awareness in both efforts that as a Nation we have lost our dominating position
in deploying and modernizing EW systems.
Although we still maintain an EW advantage across most of the Electromagnetic
Spectrum (EMS), that lead is rapidly diminishing and is being compromised by adversaries harvesting significant amounts of EW information from unclassified contractor
networks and the global availability of high-end electronic technologies. These latter
realities allow adversaries to avoid or minimize R&D investments and cut both technology development and acquisition cycle times. The DOD tends to focus on traditional
weapons platforms and not the subsystem capabilities that allow those platforms to
survive and dominate in a contested and congested electromagnetic domain. While we
focus on deterring or defeating a specific threat, our adversaries go after our integrated
decision making centers of gravity, networks and data. In short, EW has been overlooked,
underfunded and taken for granted with harmful consequences.
A robust EW capability ensures the US/coalition warfighter has freedom of operations
in land, maritime, air and space domains by detecting, denying, degrading, destroying,
deceiving and shaping adversaries use of the electromagnetic spectrum. Today, in the
Air Force alone, there are more than 70 unique EW system types that use 35 different
languages on 23 different platforms. We can, and must, do better from an exaggerated
need to sustain so many different systems. The DODs new EW Executive Committee
is long overdue, and it will focus on EW at the programmatic and strategic level, and
should recreate the mechanisms needed to develop EW strategies, synchronize programs,
and advise the Secretary of Defense on vital EW matters. The International AOC fully
supports this initiative.
There are three major lessons we have learned. First, our EW advantage has been
declining and,without a rapid response from the community at large, we will fall behind.
Second, we initially failed to recognize that spectrum dominance requires synchronization of EW, cyber, IO, and stealth. Finally, we have taken too long to appreciate our total
reliance on and the fragility and vulnerability of the wireless connectivity that
enables space, net-centricity, ISR, and precision navigation and timing (PNT). These
are precious years the locusts have eaten. Maj Gen Ken Israel, USAF (Ret.)

AT-LARGE DIRECTORS
Powder Carlson
Todd Caruso
Vickie Greenier
Craig Harm
Brian Hinkley
Amanda Kammier
Mark Schallheim
Muddy Watters
Paul Westcott
APPOINTED DIRECTORS
Robert Elder
Anthony Lisuzzo
REGIONAL DIRECTORS
Southern: Lisa Fruge-Cirilli
Central: Joe Koesters
Northeastern: Nino Amoroso
Mountain-Western: Sam Roberts
Mid-Atlantic: Douglas Lamb
Pacific: Joe Hulsey
International I: Robert Andrews
International II: Jeff Walsh
IO: Al Bynum
AOC STAFF
Mike Dolim
Executive Director
dolim@crows.org
Shelley Frost
Director, Logistics
frost@crows.org
Glorianne ONeilin
Director, Member Services
oneilin@crows.org
Brock Sheets
Director, Marketing
sheets@crows.org
John Clifford
Director,
Global Programs
clifford@crows.org
Stew Taylor
Exhibits Manager
taylor@crows.org
Bridget Whyde
Marketing/Communications Assistant
whyde@crows.org

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Model No.
Freq (GHz) Gain (dB) MIN Noise Figure (dB) Power -out @ P1-dB 3rd Order ICP
VSWR
CA01-2110
0.5-1.0
28
1.0 MAX, 0.7 TYP
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+20 dBm
2.0:1
CA12-2110
1.0-2.0
30
1.0 MAX, 0.7 TYP
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+20 dBm
2.0:1
CA24-2111
2.0-4.0
29
1.1 MAX, 0.95 TYP
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+20 dBm
2.0:1
CA48-2111
4.0-8.0
29
1.3 MAX, 1.0 TYP
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2.0:1
CA812-3111
8.0-12.0
27
1.6 MAX, 1.4 TYP
+10 MIN
+20 dBm
2.0:1
CA1218-4111
12.0-18.0
25
1.9 MAX, 1.7 TYP
+10 MIN
+20 dBm
2.0:1
CA1826-2110
18.0-26.5
32
3.0 MAX, 2.5 TYP
+10 MIN
+20 dBm
2.0:1
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CA01-2111
0.4 - 0.5
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0.6 MAX, 0.4 TYP
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CA01-2113
0.8 - 1.0
28
0.6 MAX, 0.4 TYP
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+20 dBm
2.0:1
CA12-3117
1.2 - 1.6
25
0.6 MAX, 0.4 TYP
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+20 dBm
2.0:1
CA23-3111
2.2 - 2.4
30
0.6 MAX, 0.45 TYP
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2.0:1
CA23-3116
2.7 - 2.9
29
0.7 MAX, 0.5 TYP
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CA34-2110
3.7 - 4.2
28
1.0 MAX, 0.5 TYP
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2.0:1
CA56-3110
5.4 - 5.9
40
1.0 MAX, 0.5 TYP
+10 MIN
+20 dBm
2.0:1
CA78-4110
7.25 - 7.75
32
1.2 MAX, 1.0 TYP
+10 MIN
+20 dBm
2.0:1
CA910-3110
9.0 - 10.6
25
1.4 MAX, 1.2 TYP
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+20 dBm
2.0:1
CA1315-3110
13.75 - 15.4
25
1.6 MAX, 1.4 TYP
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+20 dBm
2.0:1
CA12-3114
1.35 - 1.85
30
4.0 MAX, 3.0 TYP
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CA34-6116
3.1 - 3.5
40
4.5 MAX, 3.5 TYP
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2.0:1
CA56-5114
5.9 - 6.4
30
5.0 MAX, 4.0 TYP
+30 MIN
+40 dBm
2.0:1
CA812-6115
8.0 - 12.0
30
4.5 MAX, 3.5 TYP
+30 MIN
+40 dBm
2.0:1
CA812-6116
8.0 - 12.0
30
5.0 MAX, 4.0 TYP
+33 MIN
+41 dBm
2.0:1
CA1213-7110 12.2 - 13.25
28
6.0 MAX, 5.5 TYP
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2.0:1
CA1415-7110 14.0 - 15.0
30
5.0 MAX, 4.0 TYP
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CA1722-4110 17.0 - 22.0
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3.5 MAX, 2.8 TYP
+21 MIN
+31 dBm
2.0:1
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Model No.
Freq (GHz) Gain (dB) MIN Noise Figure (dB) Power -out @ P1-dB 3rd Order ICP
VSWR
CA0102-3111
0.1-2.0
28
1.6 Max, 1.2 TYP
+10 MIN
+20 dBm
2.0:1
CA0106-3111
0.1-6.0
28
1.9 Max, 1.5 TYP
+10 MIN
+20 dBm
2.0:1
CA0108-3110
0.1-8.0
26
2.2 Max, 1.8 TYP
+10 MIN
+20 dBm
2.0:1
CA0108-4112
0.1-8.0
32
3.0 MAX, 1.8 TYP
+22 MIN
+32 dBm
2.0:1
CA02-3112
0.5-2.0
36
4.5 MAX, 2.5 TYP
+30 MIN
+40 dBm
2.0:1
CA26-3110
2.0-6.0
26
2.0 MAX, 1.5 TYP
+10 MIN
+20 dBm
2.0:1
CA26-4114
2.0-6.0
22
5.0 MAX, 3.5 TYP
+30 MIN
+40 dBm
2.0:1
CA618-4112
6.0-18.0
25
5.0 MAX, 3.5 TYP
+23 MIN
+33 dBm
2.0:1
CA618-6114
6.0-18.0
35
5.0 MAX, 3.5 TYP
+30 MIN
+40 dBm
2.0:1
CA218-4116
2.0-18.0
30
3.5 MAX, 2.8 TYP
+10 MIN
+20 dBm
2.0:1
CA218-4110
2.0-18.0
30
5.0 MAX, 3.5 TYP
+20 MIN
+30 dBm
2.0:1
CA218-4112
2.0-18.0
29
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The Journal of Electronic Defense | May 2015

A pilot from Luke Air Force Base, AZ, flew the 1,000th F-35A Lightning II training sortie March 31, 2015. The 56th Fighter Wing is the fastest
F-35 wing to reach the 1,000-sortie milestone in the Defense Department. (US Air Force photo/Senior Airman Devante Williams)

15

AIR FORCE SEEKS HIGHLY ADAPTABLE COUNTER TO


SOFTWARE-DEFINED EMITTERS
The Air Force Research Laboratory (AFRL), Sensors Directorate, Aerospace Components and Sub-Systems Technology
Division (RYD), (Wright-Patterson AFB, OH), has issued a
Broad Agency Announcement (BAA) for the Reconfigurable
Electronics for Multifunction Agile RF (REMAR) program.
REMAR is intended to develop and demonstrate leapahead agile RF front-end systems with multi-function
transmit/receive technology using reconfigurable RF and
mixed-signal components to enable integrated radar, communications and EW suites within a single platform, according to the BAA. The ultimate goal is to provide a
highly-flexible, advanced sensor system capable of adaptable On-The-Fly (OTF) multi-sensor functionality and to
counter digitally programmable/software defined radar, radios and EW systems, together with major reduction in Cost,
Size, Weight and Power (CSWAP) requirements.
As outlined in the BAA, systems with fixed RF operating
performance metrics are no longer able to counteract new
and agile threats posed by the advent of software-defined
radios and highly flexible communication and radar systems. Even systems that employ an agile digital backend
architecture (enabled by reconfigurable digital components
such as FPGAs) and adaptive digital signal processing algo-

rithms will ultimately be limited in their ability to adapt if


they employ a fixed RF front end architecture.
The primary requirements of proposed solutions are operation/coverage over a very wide frequency range (0.1
to 40 GHz); detection, identification, tracking and countering of agile and software defined waveforms capable
of rapidly changing polarization, operating frequency,
power, and pulse modulation characteristics (from mode
to mode, from coherent processing interval (CPI) to CPI
and potentially from pulse to pulse); handling increased
numbers of simultaneous signals; and limiting co-site, intentional, and unintentional interference. Critical performance goals include: ultra-wide bandwidth, high dynamic
range, low phase noise, environmental compensation, onchip calibration to enable autonomous adaptation, and
precise bias control.
In total, the program is expected to be a 3.5-year effort
with an 18-month baseline phase and a 24-month option
phase. The Air Force plans to award two $3.2 million contacts (basic $1.2 million, option $2 million) in August of
this year. Proposals are due by May 12.
The solicitation number is: BAA-RQKSE-2015-0006.
The primary point of contact is: Trisha Buddelmeyer,
(937) 713-9969, e-mail: trisha.buddelmeyer@us.af.mil
J. Haystead

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DEPUTY SECRETARY OF DEFENSE:


SEQUESTER POSES VERY REAL
THREAT TO US TECHNOLOGICAL
SUPERIORITY
Recently, Deputy Secretary of Defense, Robert Work, spoke at the
McAleese/Credit Suisse Defense Programs Conference in Washington DC on
the Presidents FY2016 defense budget
request. His unexpected discussion of
the DODs Third Offset Strategy and
potential non-kinetic countermeasures
to the threat of guided munitions salvos, appropriately generated great interest from the EW community as did
his announcement of the formation of
a new high-level Electronic Warfare Executive Committee.
But, perhaps overshadowed by these
highlights, was his at-least-equallyimportant assertion that, The Services
have been forced in some cases to divert
resources from modernization unable to
fully fund both capacity and capability,
and that the bottom line is that, because
of the budget uncertainty and restrictions imposed by Congress, and because
of our unrelenting focus on the readiness

of forward deployed forces, weve been


chronically under-investing in new weapons and capabilities. As a result, Work
says that, Today we see our potential
competitors developing capabilities that
challenge us in all domains that put our
space assets at risk, as well as our global
command and control system.
In particular, Work called attention to
the impending damage to US technological superiority posed by sequester. Let
me tell you, the return to sequestrationlevel funding, no matter how you cut
it, is a very real threat to the department and its overall strategy and overall
fundamental premise of technological
superiority that I consider to be one of
the most dangerous things that you can
imagine. As Secretary Carter testified
two weeks ago, if confronted with the
sequestration-level budgets, quote, Wed
have to change the shape, and not just
the size of our military, significantly
impacting parts of our defense strategy. And the parts that I worry about
most are our technological superiority,
dominance and readiness. Those are the
things that I worry about the most.

Big picture, Work observed that, The


global demand for US forces remains unrelenting, particularly for deployable
headquarters units, ISR assets, missile
defense, naval, and aerospace forces; and
that the strategic priorities identified
in the 2014 Quadrennial Defense Review
(QDR) strategy remain sound rebalancing to the Asia-Pacific region; maintaining a strong commitment to security and
stability in Europe and the Middle East;
sustaining a global counterterrorism campaign; strengthening key alliances and
partnerships; and prioritizing key modernization efforts. Though he says the
force planned in the 2014 QDR remains
broadly sufficient to need, he pointed to
heavy ISR use as one key exception area
where need continues to outstrip supply. Specifically, Work pointed to threats
such as, new and advanced anti-ship and
anti-air missiles, new counter-space, cyber, electronic warfare, undersea and air
attack capabilities.
Recognizing and stating the requirement, however, is very much different than meeting it and, according
to Work, the Department needs to see

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The Journal of Electronic Defense | May 2015

16

12/28/14 11:09 AM

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1-3 percent real growth per year to keep


its program in balance, but that the last
three years have (instead) seen essentially flat budgets. Nevertheless, Work says
that DOD is now moving ahead aggressively to redress long-deferred modernization, pointing to additional funding
in the budget of about $21 billion in
additional requirements over the FYDP
to make targeted investments in space
control and launch capabilities, missile
defense, cyber, and advanced sensors,
communications, and munitions.

The Journal of Electronic Defense | May 2015

18

In fact, he says DOD is focused on addressing the erosion of US technological superiority across the board citing
the Defense Innovation Initiative (DII),
which is aimed at identifying, developing and fielding breakthrough technologies and concepts, and the Long Range
Research and Development Planning
Program (LRRDPP) which he noted was
central to the effort and will form the
DNA of the third offset strategy.
Research and development is not a
variable cost, asserts Work. When we

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cut funding for R&D, it doesnt mean we


will have less of something, it means we
wont have those things at all. Work
identified a number of fantastic, potentially game-changing new technologies
that will be invested in over the FYDP
including $149 million in unmanned undersea vehicles; $77 million in advanced
sea mines; $473 million in high speed
strike weapons; $706 million in rail gun
technology; $239 million in high-energy
lasers; and a new Aerospace Innovation
Initiative to develop a wide range of advanced aeronautical capabilities to maintain our air dominance. He also notes
that the FY2016 budget request includes
a reserve account to resource future
projects which are expected to emerge
from the DII over the coming years.
Notably, Work identified the electromagnetic spectrum as another big area,
for renewed and increased attention,
noting that Electronic Warfare (EW) is
often regarded as a combat enabler, but
that more and more, it is at the actual
forefront of any conflict. Moreover, compared to the platforms we put the EW
suite on, it is a relatively small investment, but it has the potential to have
a very high payoff. Our potential competitors seek to contest the EW space, an
area where we retain a decided lead, but
that lead is tenuous, and we believe that
there has been insufficient focus on EW
across the Department.
Ultimately, Work says the modernization challenge can only be met by
Congress and the public coming together behind a long-term budget approach that dispels sequester once and
for all and provides the Department
flexibility in making needed cost saving
reforms. If not, he predicts continued
sequester will result in further delays
in modernization; increased weapon
system procurement costs; higher costs
to maintain aging legacy platforms; a
less ready force with delayed response
times; and a smaller force that provides
future Presidents far less flexibility.
J. Haystead

EW PROGRAMS INCLUDED IN DODS


FY2016 UNFUNDED PRIORITY LISTS
Secretary of Defense Ashton Carter
has sent the Services lists of FY2016 unfunded priorities to Congress. Congress

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Countermeasures System for its AH64E Apache helicopters. The Armys
FY2016 regular budget request asked
for $77.5 million for CIRCM development (PE 0605035A).

requested the lists in order to gain better insight about which programs and
budget line items the Services want to
fund, but which did not make it into
their respective FY2016 budget requests.
Each of the Services indicated several
electronic warfare priorities:

NAVY
The Navys UPL list included:
$170 million for anti-jam upgrades to
radars on F/A-18 E/F Super Hornets
and EA-18G Growlers. The funding will
provide an additional 170 Counter
Electronic Attack-2 Kits, which will

ARMY
Among the Armys UPL items focusing on modernization, it requested:
An additional $110 million to develop and procure the Common IR

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The Marine Corps UPL requested:


$14.8 million for procurement of Integrated Aircraft Survivability Equipment (IASE) for MV-22 aircraft.
$75 million to procure Counter RadioControlled Improvised Explosive Device
Electronic Warfare (CREW) systems.

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jamming at longer ranges. These additional kits enable 100% of the Super
Hornet and Growler fleets to feature
counter-DRFM capabilities by 2020.
$28 million to procure two Surface
Electronic Warfare Improvement Program (SEWIP) Block II electronic support kits. This funding will enable the
Navy to upgrade two additional surface
combatants with the SEWIP Block II
capability, which will give the Navy 18
SEWIP Block II-equipped ships by 2018.
$1.15 billion for 12 additional F/A-18F
Super Hornet aircraft. The Navy can
use these aircraft to reduce near-term
strike fighter inventory gaps. Also,
the aircraft can be manufactured with
the required wiring and infrastructure needed to convert these aircraft
to EA-18G aircraft in the future. Pending the outcome of a Joint Airborne
Electronic Attack study due this
spring, the Navy could opt to pursue
Growler conversion of these aircraft.

8/29/13 2:51 AM

The Air Forces UPL called for:


$68.2 million for Miniature Air
Launched Decoy-Jammer (MALD-J)
procurement. This funding enables
the Air Force to raise MALD-J production to its maximum level in FY2016 in
order to offset procurement shortfalls
in previous years.
$10 million for ALE-70 decoy procurement to address the F-35 IOC requirements shortfall. The Air Force also
requested $2.8 million for cartridges
for the ALE-70 decoys.
$10 million for sustainment of Joint
Counter RCIED Electronic Warfare
(JCREW) systems.
$30.3 million for range operation and
maintenance (contract labor) to integrate new threat emitters, communications and fiber at Nevada and Utah
test and training ranges.

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The Journal of Electronic Defense | May 2015

$1.2 million to complete undisclosed


SUTER cyber warfare modifications in
FY2016.
$10.4 million for software and facilities
upgrades at Electronic Warfare Avionics
Integration Support Facility (EWAISF)
to retain Electronic Warfare Integrated
Reprogramming (EWIR) capability.
$4.2 million for Large Aircraft IR
Countermeasures (LAIRCM) system
procurement. The Air Force wrote,
Changes in employment concepts
are placing KC-135 aircraft in high
threat areas. Low altitude refueling,
forward positioning, and mission sets
establishing the tanker as a command
and control relay are subjecting the
KC-135 to increasingly hostile operational environments. There is no
nitrogen inerting in the KC-135 fuel
system, and old technology fuel tanks
are not designed to withstand battle
damage. An advanced IRCM system is
needed to counter MANPADS threats;
one that does not rely on pyrotechnic
expendables (incompatible with an air
refueling mission) and leverages off of
previous government investments in
laser-based countermeasures.
$7.3 million to support integration of
missile warning systems into the Pylon Integrated Dispenser System Universal (PIDSU) pylon on F-16s. Each
modified pylon doubles the number
of self-protection chaff and flare cartridges that can be carried and will
greatly increase survivability, the Air
Force explained it its request.
$13 million for ALR-69A radar warning
receiver upgrades on F-16s.
$11.6 million for development and
integration efforts for the F-15 Eagle
Passive/Active Warning Survivability System (EPAWSS). The program
office estimate (POE) called for
$179.5 million and the FY2016 Budget Estimate Submission (BES) only
requested $167.9 million. The UPL request for $11.6 million closes this gap.
$135.1 million for Compass Call aircraft. This includes $60 million for
EC-13OH Compass Call modernization
and Special Purpose Emitter Array
(SPEAR) Generation 3 procurement
for Baseline 2 and Baseline 3 aircraft. That Air force also requested
$75.1 million for EC-130H divestiture

21

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buyback, which would prevent the


planned retirement of seven EC-130H
aircraft in FY2016.
$27.4 million for legacy threat modernization R&D and procurement. This
funding would provide $18.5 million
to develop the Common Electronic Attack Receiver (CEAR) for integration
into legacy threat emitters. It also includes $8.9 million for CEAR procurement for modernization of selected
legacy threat emitters and double
digit threat emitters.
$5 million to provide additional R&D
funding for the Advanced Radar
Threat System (ARTS), versions 1 and
2. The Air Forces FY2016 budget requested $6.9 million for ARTS R&D.
$0.9 million for B-2 simulator radar
and EW concurrency upgrade.

NATIONAL GUARD

The Journal of Electronic Defense | May 2015

22

The National Guard Bureaus UPL


included:
$375 million for procurement and installation of LAIRCM systems on Air
National Guard KC-135, C-130 and EC130J aircraft.
$700.7 million for procurement of sensor, radar warning receiver and defensive system upgrades on F-15 and F-16
aircraft.
In total, the Services requested approximately $17.9 billion in their UPLs.
Secretary of Defense Ashton Carter, in
his cover letter accompanying the UPL
requests, said he did not endorse any
of the unfunded priorities unless enacted funding exceeds the amount requested in the Presidents Budget (PB)
for 2016. The DOD wants to avoid a
scenario in which the Congress funds
some, or all, of the UPL items with offsetting cuts in the Service budgets.
House and Senate appropriators are
expected to begin marking up their respective defense budget bills later this
month. J. Knowles

FUTURE VERTICAL LIFT DRIVES


RFI TO MEET FUTURE AIRCRAFT
SURVIVABILITY GAPS
The US Armys Information Warfare
Directorate (I2WD), (Aberdeen Proving
Ground, MD), has released a Request for
Information (RFI) to address expected
threat-based capability gaps in aircraft

survivability in the 2025-2030 timeframe. The effort is in support of the


multi-service Future Vertical Lift Family
of Systems (FVL FoS).
Noting that most of the Armys current aviation fleet is scheduled for retirement in the mid- to late-2030s, the
RFI observes that, as it develops its nextgeneration aircraft survivability systems, the Army has the opportunity to
cost-effectively leverage advanced commercial electronics and integration technologies, utilizing modular and open
architectures that simplify integration
and enable rapid component upgrades.
The RFI says potential approaches
should include both threat warning and
countermeasure systems with unconstrained requirements (i.e., without the
constraint of user requirements, fielding
feasibility, manufacturing capability, or
affordability) and currently at Technology Readiness Level (TRL) 3 and above.
Among the topics responses should
address are: Aircraft Survivability
Equipment (across RF/UV/EO/IR spectrums); Integrated Aircraft Survivability Solutions; Electronic Warfare
Countermeasure Systems and Techniques; Advanced Threat Detection/
Avoidance Components and Techniques;
and Degraded Visual Environment
(DVE). No solutions already fielded by
any service, or any technologies lower
than TRL2 should be submitted.
The solicitation number is W56KGU15RFASR. The point of contact is Andrew Jacobs, (443) 861-4652 Responses
were due last month. J. Haystead

IN BRIEF
Avarint (Buffalo, NY) has received
an $83.7 million indefinite delivery,
indefinite quantity cost-plus-fixed-fee
and cost reimbursement contract form
the 412th Test Wing, Electronic Warfare
Group (Edwards AFB, CA) for Virtual Integrated Electronic Warfare Simulations
(VIEWS) II. VIEWS II supports continuing efforts under Air Force Digital Integrated Air Defense System (DIADS)
Upgrade program and continues integration efforts under the Advanced Warfare
Test and Evaluation Capability (AWTEC)
program. Together, both programs are
designed to provide an integrated EW
test capability. Under the agreement,

Avarint will develop an integrated,


multi-spectral, virtual battlespace environment for test and evaluation of
advanced sensor, fused system performance. The goal is to improve ground
and open-air test capabilities that focus
on sensor and avionics architectures
that fuse information from multiple
sources, such as the F-22 and F-35, to
keep up with continuous advancements
in survivability technologies. Work will
be performed in Buffalo and at Edwards
Air Force Base and is expected to be
complete by 2020.


The Air Force Research Lab, Directed
Energy Directorate (Kirtland AFB, New
Mexico), has issued a request for information (RFI) seeking capabilities for developing and packaging laser technologies
on supersonic tactical platforms. The
goal is to address or eliminate technical
challenges encountered in the development and demonstration of airborne
laser weapons systems, specifically a
laser pod. Responding companies were
requested to provide a high-level description of capabilities for developing and
packaging laser capabilities in a militarily useful configuration. The solicitation number is RFI-RVKDL-2015-0004.
The points of contact are Deborah
Moyer, (505) 846-2040, e-mail Deborah.
Moyer@us.af.mil and Susan Thorpe,
(505) 846-3404, e-mail susan.thorpe@us.
af.mil. Reponses were due last month.


Naval Air Systems Command (Patuxent River, MD) has announced plans to
award a cost-plus-fixed-fee sole-source
order (an addition to an existing basic ordering agreement) to Lockheed
Martin Mission Systems and Training
(Owego, NY) for non-recurring tasks for
engineering and software development,
logistics, laboratory testing, ground
testing and flight testing of Advanced
Off-Board Electronic Warfare (AOEW)
capabilities integrated into MH-60R/S
aircraft system software. This includes
integration of system software to support the AOEW carried on the left and
right extended weapons stations of the
MH-60S and on the left hand and right
hand extended pylons of the MH-60R. a

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The Journal of Electronic Defense | May 2015

24

UK PLANS NEW EW AND CYBER FRAMEWORK

IN BRIEF

The UK Ministry of Defence (MOD) has set out plans to establish a long-term
framework agreement with industry for Electronic Warfare and Cyber (EW&C)
research and technology.
Managed through the MODs Defence Science and Technology Laboratory (Dstl),
the framework will allow for a rapid response to capability needs, strengthen
links with the wider industry and academia community, and create a collaborative environment to realize the benefits of our collective technology, knowledge
and innovation. The EW&C framework agreement will be established for an initial period of five years, with an option to extend for up to two further years.
According to the MOD, the framework agreement construct has been designed
around four core capability lots intended to deliver the external management
and development of a sustainable EW&C capability in line with MOD and wider UK
government priorities. These four lots comprise: engineering design, manufacture and assessment; cyber, software and modeling; sensors, sensor systems and
signature measurement; and trials and capability operation.
Dstl plans to run an accelerated completion during the middle of 2015, with
the intention to award a contract by the end of September this year. The annual
value of the contract is expected to be in the region of 50 million. In November,
the MOD said Dstl was expected to spend approximately 200 million on EW&C
research over the next four years. R. Scott

The Government of the Islamic


Republic of Afghanistan is seeking up
to 2,000 new mounted Remote Controlled
Improvised explosive Device (RCIED)
jammers from the US Government.
Afghanistans army is currently using
the Symphony RCIED jammer, but it has
determined that it cannot sustain these
systems on its own over the long term.
In order to meet its requirement, the
Afghanistan Army is seeking a new IED
jammer that can be maintained and sustained without support from the original
equipment manufacturer or field support representatives. The systems will
be installed on MaxxPro MRAPs, armored
security vehicles (ASVs) and HMMWVs,
according to a request for information
issued by the US Army. The new jammer
will utilize Symphony antenna mounts
and wiring already installed in these
vehicles, and the jammers dimensions
must not exceed 457.2 x 558.8 x 62mm
or weigh more than 100 lb. The system
cannot use any parts that form part of
an RCIED jammer currently used by the
US government. The US Army plans to
issue a request for proposals in the next
few months (Q4 FY2015), with a contract
award expected in early 2016. Deliveries
will begin in mid-2016. The point of
contact is Mark Conrad (FMS Engineer),
+1 (443) 395-7013, e-mail mark.g.conrad.
civ@mail.mil.
Saab Electronic Defence Systems has
won a follow-on order worth SEK740
million (US$85 million) to deliver
additional units of its multispectral
Integrated Defensive Aids Suite (IDAS)
for use on Indias Joint Service Dhruv
Advanced Light Helicopters. The contract was awarded by Dhruv manufacturer Hindustan Aeronautic Ltd. (HAL).
Saab will manufacture the IDAS systems
at its facility in Centurion, South Africa.
The contract also calls for Saab to provide
ground support and test equipment. a

EXPENDABLE ACTIVE DECOY SUCCESSFULLY DEPLOYED FROM GRIPEN


Saab and Selex ES have conducted the first flight tests of the BriteCloud expendable active decoy (EAD) deployed from a JAS-39 Gripen aircraft.
BriteCloud, first announced by Selex ES in October 2013, is an RF decoy featuring a small receiver and a digital RF memory (DRFM)-based jammer. Ejected
either manually or automatically from an aircrafts chaff/flare dispenser, the
EAD detects signals from a fire control radar or an incoming radar-guided missile,
identifies the threat signals and then transmits a decoy signals that makes the
threat track to the decoy instead of the aircraft.
In the recent flight trials, three BriteCloud EADs were ejected from the Gripens
55-mm countermeasures dispenser to evaluate safe separation from the aircraft.
A Saab official said, These trials successfully validated the in-flight mechanical
compatibility of the BriteCloud EAD with the Gripens countermeasures system.
Future flight trials on the Gripen will validate the decoys performance against
specific RF threats.
While these initial Gripen flight trials used a 55-mm-diameter version of BriteCloud, Selex ES has already begun development of a 218-mm (length), square variant that is compatible with ALE-47 dispensers installed on F-16 aircraft. Selex ES
expects to complete development of this new variant in the next 18-24 months.
In the meantime, the 55-mm version of BriteCloud is in low-rate initial production, with initial deliveries expected in the last quarter of 2015, said a Selex
ES spokesperson. Target customers include Brazil, which inked a contract with
Saab to buy 36 Gripen NG aircraft in October 2014. Selex ES is also working to
fully integrate the BriteCloud with the companys latest generation EW sensors,
the SEER RWR and SAGE ESM, although the self-contained EAD can work with
any system providing a cueing and triggering sensor. L. Peruzzi and J. Knowles

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EUROPES FIGHTER EW PROGRAMS

Upgrading Fast J

Europes Air Arms Look to Pods and Pylons


By Richard Scott and Luca Peruzzi

The Journal of Electronic Defense | May 2015

26

So-called 4.5 generation fighters with


integral, fully integrated electronic
warfare/defensive aids suites are now
proliferating across many European air
arms, with a fifth generation in the
low-observable shape of the F-35 Lightning II fast approaching.
However, there are still going to be
many legacy fourth-generation fast jets
around for years to come, notably Tornados and F-16s. And when it comes to updating the self-protection suites in these
aircraft, there are inherent attractions
to introducing podded or pylon-mounted defensive aids solutions, rather than
embodying fits internal to the airframe.
The list includes the reduced cost, complexity and time associated with the
qualification of an external load on
existing hardpoints; relatively lean
integration with other aircraft systems; interchangeability between aircraft without the need for whole fleet
airframe modifications; and the latent
flexibility to modify pods or pylons to
accept technology insertions so as to
meet future requirements. Pylons bring
the additional advantage that enhanced
platform protection is provided without
loss of weapon stations.
Rapid integration and qualification is
perhaps the key attraction. Recent operations Afghanistan, Libya and Iraq
have reaffirmed the need to be able to
rapidly appraise, and respond to, threat
change as it affects the survivability of
tactical aircraft. For example, the proliferation of more advanced infrared seekers
associated with the latest third-generation MANPADS confers them a capability
to acquire and approach from the frontal
aspect (homing in on airframe radiation

rather than jet exhaust). This has driven


the need to fit IR/UV missile approach
warning systems capable of near-360
degree spherical coverage in order to automatically cue countermeasures, and it
has driven commensurate requirements
to increase magazine capacity for expendable countermeasure devices given
the need to dispense pre-emptive flare
patterns and more complex decoy cocktails (including forward firing flares).
Nor has the RF threat gone away.
NATOs Operation Unified
Protector over Libya in
2011 provided a sharp jolt
to those who assumed that radarguided surface-to-air missile threats
had all but disappeared with the end of
the Cold War. Almost overnight, offensive air elements were required to dust
off the tactics, techniques and procedures required to evade, counter and
exploit in an RF threat environment.
And Libya pales when compared to some
of the advanced integrated air defence
systems now being fielded by various
states of concern.

BOZ
With these challenges to fast-jet survivability emerging, industry has been
quick to respond to front-line needs.
Saab for example, can boast a long pedigree in podded self-defense solutions,
having introduced the ubiquitous BOZ
100 series countermeasures pod to market back in the 1980s. It later developed
the widely sold BOL countermeasures
dispenser, the elongated shape of which
has been designed to facilitate integration with a range of missile launchers.
(See Pre-emptive Countermeasures

Potential Game Changer for Airborne


Self Protection, on p. 46.)
In 2006, Saab introduced an updated
BOZ pod in the shape the BOZ-EC (Enhanced Capability) system. While retaining the aerodynamics of the existing BOZ
shell, this latest instantiation essentially repackages Saabs own CIDAS 100
integrated defence aids suite compris-

et Self Protection
The Journal of Electronic Defense | May 2015

27

ing the MAW-300 ultraviolet (UV) missile


approach warning system, an electronic
warfare controller (EWC) and BOP-L-39
pyrotechnic dispensers to provide an
integrated self-protection capability, including an extended pre-emptive flare
dispensing capacity, missile warning
and flare cocktails). Mass and centre of
gravity remain within the clearance tol-

erances of the baseline BOZ design, and


the existing aircraft interfaces (electrical, mechanical and data) are retained.
The MAW-300 system consists of
four staring optical sensors, mounted
in the aft section, each with a 110 deg
conical field-of-view, plus a processing
card embedded in the EWC. These sensors report the azimuth, elevation and

amplitude characteristics of the most


prominent UV sources for processing
in the EWC; tracks are formed from the
sensor data and are evaluated based on
their temporal irradiance and spatial
modulation characteristics.
The EWC-100 controller performs defensive aids control, missile approach
warning analysis and decoy dispensing

management (the latter consists of


dedicated hardware and software functions that interface to and manage the
BOP dispensers).
BOZ-EC is configured with five
BOP-L-39 countermeasures dispensers,
each accommodating standard 8-inch
payloads. A single BOP-L-39 magazine
is fitted forward, oriented with a depression angle of 40 degrees to fire
downward/forward.
The remaining four BOP-L-39 dispensers, which can be adjusted for 90-degree

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11/3/14 4:24 PM

The Luftwaffe has acquired Saabs BOZ-EC selfprotection pod to fulfill its requirement for a
Future Dispenser/Missile Warner system for
the Tornado. This BOZ-101EC variant is fitted
with the MAW-300 missile warning system.
(Airbus photo)

sideways dispensing related to the downwards reference, are fitted in the midsection of the pod. The two furthest forward
are oriented as a pair to fire sideways or
downwards, with the firing angles set
pre-flight in increments of approximately 7.5 degrees. The rear part of the midsection contains the other two BOP-L-39
units, oriented as a pair to fire sideways
or downwards, again in pre-set increments of approximately 7.5 degrees.
Both the UK Royal Air Force (RAF)
and the Italian Air Force (Aeronautica
Militare) participated in BOZ-EC flight
trials in October 2006. The latter service went on to become the launch customer for the system, contracting Saab
in February 2009 to provide a quantity
of BOZ-EC dispenser pods to equip Tornado Interdictor Strike (IDS) aircraft.
This addressed an urgent operational
requirement to enhance the self-protection capability of an Italian detachment
of reconnaissance-configured IDS Tornados operating over Afghanistan.
Under this contract, Saab re-worked
existing Italian BOZ-102 pods to the
BOZ-102EC standard. Development and
production activities were split between
Saab facilities in Jrflla, Sweden, and
Centurion, South Africa. The first pod
was delivered in late August 2009, with
remaining pods delivered through to the
end of that year.
In late 2013 Saab announced that it
had received three orders, aggregating
to a total value of about SEK 100 million,

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Saab has developed the ESTL pod to provide fixed-wing aircraft with an adaptable
self-protection system interfacing through a standard AIM-9 or AIM-120 missile
interface. The system was flight tested on the Gripen in 2014. (Saab photo)

to supply a Future Dispenser/Missile


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Combat Reconnaissance (ECR) fleet.


Taken together, these orders cover the
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including the MAW-300 missile warning system, as well as development and

The Journal of Electronic Defense | May 2015

30

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Integrity Assurance, Separation and Isolation, Detection and Monitoring,

Non Persistence, Distributed and Moving Target Offense and Defense


Space EW Countermeasures: Initiatives and Opportunities
Protecting the Homeland Infrastructure from Threats: nuclear power plants,
transportation networks, electrical utilities, and government organizations.
Tradeoff analysis between standoff and standing jamming systems against
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qualification of a new cockpit control


unit for the pod.
The Luftwaffe is expected to maintain both the Tornado IDS and ECR variants in service through to at least 2025.
The BOZ-101EC has initially been integrated (to Step 1 and Step 2 level) into
the Tornado aircraft as part of the ASSTA 3.1 avionics software upgrade package. Full Step 3 integration of FDS/MW
functionality into the aircrafts Defensive Aids Sub System is planned under
ASSTA 4.

ENTER ESTL
Building on the legacy of the BOZ and
BOL lines, and leveraging its wider pedigree in aircraft self-protection systems,
Saab has now brought its next-generation ESTL modular self-protection pod to
market. Previously known as BOH, ESTL
has been developed as a private venture
to provide fixed-wing aircraft with an
adaptable self-protection system interfacing through a standard AIM-9 or
AIM-120 missile interface. The system
is configured using a series of mix and

The Journal of Electronic Defense | May 2015

32

FIRST TO KNOW
FIRST TO ACT

match building blocks combining


missile approach warning sensors and
countermeasures dispensers with an
EWC section to suit specific mission
profiles and threat sets, providing covert sustainable pre-emptive dispensing, missile warning, forward firing of
flares, and cocktail dispensing.
In its baseline ESTL-300 version, the
system incorporates a MAW-300 UV missile approach warner (with two sensors
heads fitted in the head of the pod to
provide fore and aft coverage), a forward-firing BOP pyrotechnic dispenser,
and an aft-mounted BOL chaff/flare dispenser. The EWC, located in the centre
of the pod assembly, hosts library and
control functions.
Other configurations can be assembled according to customer needs, with
options to incorporate additional MAW300 sensor heads. Integration of the
LWS-310 laser warning system into ESTL
is a further option offered by Saab.
According to Saab, ESTL can be integrated with aircraft avionics systems
via standard MIL-STD-1553B or RS-485
data links. Mass and aerodynamics
are similar to those of an AIM-9 airto-air missile form factor in order to
simplify integration and certification
requirements.
Saab is initially targeting the ESTL
self-protection pod at Gripen, F-16 and
F/A-18 platforms. The company in June
2014 completed a first flight test of the
ESTL self-protection pod on board a JAS
39 Gripen C fighter aircraft.

FAST JET MCP


Saabs principal rival in the fast jet
self-protection pod market is Denmarks
Terma. Like its Swedish rival, Terma
some years ago recognized the increased
sophistication of the MANPADS threat.
Accordingly, the company began engineering development work on a generic
Modular Countermeasures Pod (MCP)
that integrated missile warning devices
with countermeasures dispensers in a
modular and self-contained installation
controlled through its cockpit-mounted
AN/ALQ-213(V) EW management system.
Termas initial success came in the
provision of add-on self-protection for
large tactical aircraft and helicopters,
but in the mid-2000s it saw opportunities

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developing for fast jets as a number of


air forces raised requirements to replace
existing bulk countermeasures dispensers such as BOZ and Phimat. Seeing the
potential to capture new market share,
with users of the Tornado foremost in
mind, the company decided to re-engineer the MCP so that it was shaped and
stressed for the speeds and loadings associated with carriage on a supersoniccapable platform.
This new variant, generically marketed as MCP-T at the outset, retains
the core modular architecture of earlier
MCP systems but is reconfigured aerodynamically with suitably modified nose
and aft sections (modeled on those in

IDA 2: Dive Deep into


RF Signal Analysis

MCP-8F variant delivered to meet the


ESB SDS requirement featured a total of
eight magazines: two fixed downwardlooking magazines; and a further six
magazines configured as pairs in three
barrel modules able to rotate in 15-degree increments to fire sideways or at
any downwards angle and achieve the
optimum flare pattern according to the
threat conditions.
In the case of the Luftwaffes SDS fit,
the MCP-8F pods were hybrids employing a standard MCP centerbody mated
with nose and aft sections removed
from legacy BOZ pods. Furthermore, although the pod was provisioned for the
integration of missile warning sensors,

The Journal of Electronic Defense | May 2015

34

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Termas MCP-8.5 pod was adopted to meet the needs of the RAFs Tornado Advanced Infra Red
Counter Measures (AIRCM) programme. The system visible here on the Tornado GR.4s port outer
pylon is fitted with six sensor heads for the AN/AAR-57 CMWS, plus eight countermeasures
dispensers. (Terma photo)

the existing BOZ pod) and fitted with a


strongback for the aircrafts structural
interface. It can accommodate up to
eight dispenser magazines and its modular design enables the integration of
other DAS components, such as a multisensor MWS or a towed decoy.
The Luftwaffe had the most urgent
requirement, raising a short-notice requirement for a bulk flare dispenser
to equip a detachment of six Tornado
aircraft from Aufklrungsgeschwader
51 Immelmann being deployed into
Afghanistan to fly reconnaissance missions. In 2007 Terma was contracted to
supply its MCP-8F pod to meet this socalled Einsatzsofortbedarf Special Dispenser System (ESB SDS) requirement.
Controlled via Termas own ALQ213(V) EW management system, the

10/30/14 12:28 PM

there was no requirement in this specific case for a missile warner.


The SDS system was developed and
tested (in cooperation with EADS and
the WTD 61 Bundeswehr Technical Center for Aircraft and Aeronautical Equipment) inside three months during the
second half of 2007. Over 10 pods were
delivered in total.
In late 2007, a UOR was raised to
equip Harrier GR.9 aircraft of the UKs
Joint Force Harrier (JFH) with an automated and fully integrated DAS capability. At this time, eight Harriers from
JFH a combined RAF/Royal Navy force
were deployed to Kandahar as part of
Operation Herrick, primarily to perform
close air support.
With the credentials of Termas MCP
pod already established within the RAF

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(a version having been introduced for


the Nimrod maritime patrol aircraft),
an MCP-H variant tailored specifically
for the Harrier, and known internally
by Terma as MCP-8.2, was conceived in
a very short timeframe to meet the UOR.
As well as having eight Advanced Countermeasures Dispensing System (ACMDS)
magazines (two forward-firing and three
lateral pairs in barrel modules), the MCPH was also to be configured with a BAE
Systems Electronics Systems AN/AAR-57
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incorporating five sensor heads (angled


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BAE Systems would also undertake software development to support pod control
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While Terma took responsibility for
engineering the MCP-H pod and the associated EW management system and
tactical data unit, aircraft integration
(including electrical and mechanical
interfaces and cockpit integration) was
led by BAE Systems (the aircraft design

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authority) in the UK. A first test-flight


was successfully completed in May 2008.
MCP-H capability was delivered to
the front line in two phases. Phase 1,
deployed in theatre from September
2008, comprised a manually-operated
MCP-H without the CMWS installed; the
full Phase 2 configuration, fielded from
early 2009, delivered Phase 1 functionality but additionally incorporated the
AN/AAR-57 CMWS fit and auto-dispensing of countermeasures.
The success of the accelerated MCPH development and fielding laid the
groundwork for a follow-on UOR addressing a podded self-protection fit
for RAF Tornado GR.4 aircraft deployed
into Afghanistan. Terma began work on
this embodiment in the third quarter of
2008; once again, the implementation of
the improved self-protection capability
was led by BAE Systems as aircraft design authority.
In this case, the MCP-8.5 variant
better known as the Tornado Advanced
Infrared Counter Measures (AIRCM) programme adopted an aerodynamic configuration essentially identical to that
of the German SDS pod, but with the addition of six sensor heads for the AN/
AAR-57 CMWS and two forward-firing
countermeasures dispensers.
The complete AIRCM fit for the Tornado GR.4 comprises the MCP-8.5 pod
(featuring two forward-firing and six
radial-dispensing ACMDS magazines,
plus the CMWS), the AN/ALQ-213(V) EW
management system and a tactical data
unit located in the cockpit. Flight-test
and integration activities began in the
first quarter of 2009 from BAE Systems
Warton airfield; an initial three systems
were delivered in just six months, with
the AIRCM capability deployed into theatre with No.12 (Bomber) Squadron in
June 2009.
Although the AIRCM pod was procured specifically for operations in Afghanistan, the system has remained in
RAF service subsequent to the end of
Operation Herrick. Indeed, the system
has been observed on Tornado GR.4 aircraft deployed to RAF Akrotiri, Cyprus,
in support of the UKs contribution to
coalition air operations against ISIL.
Terma believes that the MCP concept
offers further scope for development.

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modifications of the F-16 Standard Wing


Weapon Pylon.
PIDS grew out of a Royal Danish Air
Force (RDAF) requirement to modify
wing weapon pylons to house additional
chaff dispensers and new dispenser
electronics, and was subsequently adopted by the air forces of Denmark, the
Netherlands, Norway, Belgium, Jordan,
Portugal, the United Arab Emirates and
the United States. ECIPS was developed
for the RDAF to accommodate the AN/

Termas PIDS+ pylon integrates the AN/AAR60(V)2 MILDS-F system into the F-16 pylons
on wing stations 3 and 7. Each pylon receives
three missile warning sensors, with sufficient
space remaining for two countermeasures
magazines. (Terma photo)

For example, the company has already


completed engineering studies for
the integration of alternative payloads, such as towed RF decoys and
jammers.

The Journal of Electronic Defense | May 2015

38

PYLON PEDIGREE
The physical and functional integration of a missile warner into the MCP
pod family built on experience previously accrued by Terma over the past three
decades in the design and integration of
pylon-based self-protection systems for

741031_ETIndustries.indd 1

the F-16 community. The companys Pylon Integrated Dispenser System


(PIDS) and Electronic Combat Integrated
Pylon System (ECIPS) families are both

3/31/15 6:41 PM

ALQ-162(V)6 self-protection
jammer, with antennas installed fore and aft; it was
later also purchased by Norway
for its F-16 fleet.
PIDS and ECIPS have subsequently
been brought up to Pylon Integrated
Dispenser System Universal (PIDSU) and
Electronic Combat Integrated Pylon System Universal (ECIPSU) standard. PIDSU
and ECIPSU introduce a MIL-STD-1760
weapons interface.
Work to integrate a Missile Warning
System (MWS) into the PIDSU/ECIPSU
pylon infrastructure can be traced back
to 1998, when European F-16 users and
the US Air National Guard conducted a
feasibility program to evaluate if a pylon-mounted missile warner system installation could perform satisfactorily in
a fast jet environment. The conclusion
was positive from both the perspectives
of performance and cost effectiveness.
In late 2004 the Danish Air Materiel Command contracted Terma for
the integration of the EADS (now Airbus Defence and Space) AN/AAR-60(V)2
MILDS-F system into the PIDSU and

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The ECIPS+ pylon, in service with


the RDAF and RNoAF, hosts both
the AN/ALQ-162(V)6 self-protection
jammer (with antennas installed
fore and aft) and three sensors for
the AN/AAR-60(V)2 MILDS-F missile
warner system. (Terma photo)

ECIPSU pylons so as to confer Royal Danish Air Force (RDAF)


F-16s with improved self-protection against the MANPADS
threat. In these so-called PIDS+ and ECIPS+ configurations,
the pylons on wing stations 3 and 7 are each fitted with three
UV missile warning sensors, giving near 360-degree spherical
coverage. At the same time, sufficient space remains for two
countermeasures magazines in each pylon.
As well as the integration of the MILDS hardware in the pylons, Terma was additionally tasked to develop a countermeasures signals processor for correlation and threat declaration
of signals from the six sensors, and for the control software
for the ALQ-213 EW management system (including the associated advanced threat display and 3D audio warning). The RDAF

The Journal of Electronic Defense | May 2015

40

731165_Steatite.indd 1

began flight testing of the AN/AAR-60(V)2 MILDS F MWS on


PIDS+ in late 2007.
In 2010 Terma was contracted to supply the PIDS+/ECIPS+
pylon system, again incorporating the AAR-60(V)2 MILDS-F
warner system, for installation on Royal Norwegian Air Force
(RNoAF) F-16 fighters. Again, the full embodiment has included
the integration of MWS hardware in the pylons, introduction
of the countermeasures signals processor, new system control
software for the AN/ALQ-213(V) EW management system, and a
new full-color advanced threat display in the cockpit.
Certification of PIDS+/ECIPS+ for F-16 MLU aircraft was
completed by the Seek Eagle Office in 2013, at which point
the pylons were declared operational. F-16s typically carry
two PIDS+ pylons, or one PIDS+ (on station 7) and one ECIPS+
(station 3); both installations have been used on the frontline by the RDAF and RNoAF during recent operational F-16
deployments. While the PIDS was originally designed for chaff
dispense, Terma has developed a Flare-Up field upgrade kit
comprising special magazines and a modified breech plate
for PIDS variants. The Flare-Up kit was developed in late 2009
and was certified by the Seek Eagle Office in 2013; contract
negotiations have commenced with several potential customers, according to Terma.

SON OF SKYSHADOW
A re-awakening to the RF threat has seen the UK Ministry of Defence (MOD) contract Selex ES for the accelerated development, test and qualification of a new Common
Jamming Pod (CJP) to equip the RAFs Tornado GR.4 fleet.
Based on the re-capitalization and re-architecture of existing Skyshadow-2 pods, the CJP program addresses an Urgent Capability Requirement to restore and sustain the RF
self-protection capability of the Tornado GR.4 through to its
planned 2019 out-of-service date.
The requirement for the CJP was first identified in 2012,
with the total approved value of the project put at 50.9 million. The program was one of a number of priority capabilities added to the MODs core Equipment Plan as part of Annual
Budget Cycle 2013.
CJP has grown out of a Skyshadow sustainment feasibility study awarded to Selex ES in 2012, the outputs of which
provided the MOD with the necessary evidence to establish an Initial Gate business case. An initial contract worth
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The Tornado GR.4s current SkyShadow-2 RF self-protection pod (seen on the outer wing station of the aircraft closest to the camera) is to be
superseded with a new Common Jamming Pod. The Tornado GR.4 being carries the AIRCM pod. (UK Ministry of Defence photo)

The Journal of Electronic Defense | May 2015

42

1.6 million was awarded to Selex ES


in May 2013, with a further 4.6 million increment following in August
2013. These two contracts resourced
Assessment Phase activities through
to a Main Gate approval in November
2013. A follow-on 20 million contract,
signed in December 2013, has funded
CJP demonstration and manufacture.
While the CJP retains the shell of
the legacy Skyshadow-2 pod, it is essentially a new system inside. The receiver
chain is replaced in its entirety, the legacy Programmer Electronic Control unit
is superseded by a new digital control
unit, a new Core TG digital techniques
generator has been introduced, TWT
transmitters are removed and updated,
and new waveguides and switching
units have been installed. In addition,
two Towed Radar Decoys (TRDs) identical to those now in service on the Eurofighter Typhoon are incorporated in
the aft part of the pod together with
their associated power supply.
Prototype hardware from a previous
Selex ES demonstrator program, known
as Loki, has been used by QinetiQ to expedite flight clearance. Flight trials of
CJP are ongoing, with delivery and Initial Operating Capability on the frontline planned by the end of 2015.

ELT/568
Italys Elettronica has provided self
protection jammer pods, such as the
ELT/555 with DRFM/TWT technology, for
the Italian Air Forces fighter aircraft.
The equivalent internal installation version was the ELT/553, which saw application on board Italian Tornado strike
bomber aircraft.
The company is currently offering
solutions, such as the new generation
ELT/568 family for airborne jammer applications, based on the Virgilius integrated architecture and featuring the
Digital Receiver and Waveform Generator
(DRAWS) as a core element. In addition
to its traditional high-band coverage, the
system can also deceive low-band radars,
such as search radars, as to interrupt an
adversarys kill chain form the beginning.
Designed for fighter and helicopter
applications, the ELT/568 is based on
Elettronicas Solid-State Transmit/Receive Active Phased Array architecture,
which was originally designed for the
Eurofighter DASS program. The ELT/568
family features a modular architecture
that allows configuring the system for
various pod configurations, allowing
the system to meet specific aircraft
requirements by adapting the number
of RX/TX modules to meet individual

platform requirements implementing


internal or pod configurations. Pylon
installations have also been considered.The system can be designated by
on board RWR/ESM and includes standalone capabilities.

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In todays operations, many air forces
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the high end, there is a need to operate in medium and advanced threat environments. This is primarily the domain
of 5th generation and some 4.5 generation strike aircraft. At the low end are
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KEYNOTE SPEAKERS
Rosemary Wenchel (invited)

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Pre-emptive Countermeasures
Potential Game Changer for
Airborne Self Protection
By John Haystead

The Journal of Electronic Defense | May 2015

46

his month, at the


AOCs EW Europe
show in Stockholm,
Sweden, Saab Electronic
Defense Systems (EDS) is
featuring the latest version
of its BOL countermeasure dispensing
system. Currently in full-scale development, the BOL-700 series marks a major
change in the systems design, with
the entire system now carried internally aboard the host aircraft, making
it stealth compatible and removing any
drag penalty associated with the existing wing-mounted configuration.
While on its face, this may not appear to be an especially earth-shattering event, in fact, it may actually be
the harbinger of a major milestone in
the evolution of airborne self-protection
systems and tactics. Although preemptive countermeasures are indeed
not new, todays increasingly lethal air
threat environments may be elevating
their capabilities to a much more gamechanging role in future airborne countermeasures solutions.
As opposed to reactive expendable
countermeasure dispensing, which as
the name implies, is the dispensing of
chaff or flares in direct response to a
detected missile attack, pre-emptive

dispensing
is performed
cont inuously
throughout the entire time an aircraft
is operating in a known
threat environment or envelope in order to prevent such
targeting in the first place. One example could be a target area where the
perceived threat is known to be primarily Man Portable Air Defense Systems
(MANPADS) with a typical maximum
operating ceiling of 15,000-18,000 feet.
In such a situation, just before entering the threat envelope, a pilot would
activate his pre-emptive countermeasures system, which would immediately
begin to continuously dispense IR decoy material for up to several minutes,

while he is in the threat


envelope. This creates
a cloud-like heat signature trailing behind the
aircraft that prevents
some types of IR seekers on enemy missiles
from calculating a targeting solution, which
it needs in order to
launch.
In
other
types of IR missiles,
the heat from the IR
cloud seduces the missile
away from the aircraft.
According to Christer Zatterqvist,
Saab EDS Head of Product Management,
the use of pre-emptive countermeasures
will significantly reduce losses. If, for
example, we take an aircraft like the F15C operating in the Pacific region, that
aircraft will typically have a couple of
AN/ALE-45 (internal countermeasures
dispensing system built for the F-15 by
Tracor, now BAE Systems) buckets and

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be strictly a reactive capability for some


IR and some RF threats. The only way to
survive in a denser and more advanced
threat environment, which is the case
now, is by adding substantially more
chaff and/or IR decoy capability and
by putting it out on the wings where
you not only have rapid Radar Cross Section (RCS) bloom of the chaff, but also
the added benefit of using the wing
vortex to generate significant Doppler
content which is not possible with fuselage buckets. Such an approach adds
a lot of benefits to the platform many
minutes of pre-emptive protection even
for a big aircraft like the F-15, as well
as protection from a wide range of radar
threats. You can significantly change
the game by just adding dispensers, at
least in terms of what is perceived as a
likely outcome of an engagement if the
capability is not provided.

cense. To date, approximately 2,300 BOL


dispensers have been manufactured,
with two versions of the system still in
use the BOL-300 and BOL-500 series.
Although the UK is the only remaining
user of the BOL-300 on its Tornado aircraft, the newer BOL-500 series is carried on all Eurofighter Typhoon aircraft,
JAS 39 Gripen aircraft of various countries, F-18 Hornet aircraft in Finland
and Australia, and on F-15 aircraft of
the US Air National Guard.
As described by Zatterqvist, the
principle difference between the two
versions of the BOL is that the 500 series uses more modern (faster and much
more modular) technology. While the
late 80s-designed 300 series BOL system required customized hardware for
each aircraft platform carrying it, all
BOL-500 implementations use essentially the same dispenser hardware (98-

The original, externally mounted


version of the BOL pre-emptive countermeasure system is currently in use on a
variety of aircraft serving with multiple
nations around the world. It is manufactured by an international team of companies with Saab as prime; Chemring
Countermeasures USA (formerly Alloy
Surfaces) (Chester Township, PA), making the BOL-IR rounds; and Chemring
Countermeasures UK (Salisbury, England) the chaff rounds. In the US, BAE
Systems Electronic Systems (Austin, TX)
has manufactured BOL systems under li-

99% commonality) mixing and matching


various modules for different aircraft
configurations and meeting other individual adaptation requirements through
software.
Both the BOL-300 and BOL-500 dispensers are mounted externally on the
aircraft, either as an extension of a
weapons launcher (missile pylon) or via
some other wing mount, but not requiring replacement of an existing weapons
station. Both series dispensers also use
the same countermeasure rounds, loaded from the aft end of the dispenser, and

The Journal of Electronic Defense | May 2015

48

use air scoops to precisely and quickly


disperse the countermeasures material.
Typically, an aircraft carries multiple
BOL dispensers, with each individual dispenser loaded with either BOL chaff or
BOL-IR packets. A common complement
for a fighter aircraft is four dispensers, with two dispensers loaded with
BOL-Chaff rounds cut to different sizes
to cover different frequencies, together
with two dispensers loaded with BOL-IR
rounds. Both the chaff and IR rounds
are manufactured in a common 2 x 3-in.
flatpack format. In the case of the BOLIR decoy, the sealed airtight MJU-52/B
BOL IR flatpacks hold a special-material
pyrophoric metal. A tear-strip on the
package is attached to a small sail that,
upon dispensing into the airstream,
pulls open the seal to release the metal
which ignites upon contact with oxygen.
Since the IR energy released is virtually
unobservable to the naked eye, no visual
indication of the location, or even the
presence, of the aircraft is given.
The tactic of continually releasing
countermeasures throughout the time
an aircraft is operating in a threat zone
is possible because of the large capacity
of the BOL dispensers. Each BOL dispenser is capable of holding 160 expendable rounds which, in a four-dispenser
configuration, would provide a total of
640 rounds. Though aircraft typically
also carry a separate, conventional reactive countermeasure system, in the
event missile lock-on is in fact successful, the BOL system will also automatically switch to a different, reactive-type
dispensing scheme (more frequent and
specific patterns of dispensing in combination with aircraft maneuvering) to
aid in breaking a missiles lock-on.

STEALTHY BOL
The new, internally-housed BOL-700
system would be expected to be particularly suited to stealth aircraft like
the F-22, and F-35, as well as potentially the B-2 bomber and any follow-on
stealth platforms. In order not to disrupt the stealth characteristics of these
airframes, special design requirements
have had to be accommodated. For example, although the system will use the
same expendable packs as the BOL-300
and -500 series dispensers, because the

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The Journal of Electronic Defense | May 2015

50

dispensers are housed internally, rather


than releasing and dispersing the countermeasure material aft of the aircraft,
it will instead be dispersed sideways
through a patented process through the
boundary layer and into the airstream
to complete the process. As described by
Zatterqvist, the material is ejected from
the airframe through a small toasterslot size opening in the aircraft fuselage which, when not in use, is covered
by a stealth-compatible hatch.
According to Zatterqvist, the BOL700 system is not just targeting low observable platforms, however. It offers
potentially game-changing benefits for
all platforms carrying the system. Besides retaining stealth characteristics
and eliminating drag penalty, the cost
and time for integration will be much reduced thanks to there being no requirement to change the exterior shape of the
aircraft at all. This also means no extensive weapons separation testing, etc.
In particular, Zatterqvist notes that
the internal system will also be suitable
for large transport aircraft, where it
opens up the additional possibility of inflight reloading. Although he says Saab
is not currently actively working on it,
Zatterqvist offers up the V-22 Osprey
as a potential candidate for the system,
where with the BOL 700 mounted in the
aft sponson tank, for example, on either
side of the aircraft, and with an internal

hatch accessible from the crew compartment, you could actually reload during
flight, so you would have a covert, preemptive, virtually inexhaustible capability on this and other large aircraft
which would be totally new.
Saab is in fact putting a lot of emphasis on making the design of the BOL700 flexible enough for both fighter and
transport aircraft, including tilt-rotors
like the V-22. Says Zatterqvist, Weve
come to the stage where were well into
wind-tunnel and other detailed testing. Although theyre first working
to integrate the system on the Gripen
fighter, Zatterqvist says the dispenser
will be available very soon for integration on other platforms.

AT THE RIGHT TIME


Although the new, internal, BOL-700
is helping to generate new interest in
pre-emptive countermeasures in general, and the BOL system in particular,
US interest is also being boosted across
the board by growing recognition of the
very real challenges posed by unprecedentedly dense and deadly air defense
threat environments.
In that regard, Zatterqvist says there
is high interest from various organizations within the US DOD in the BOL
systems capability both on the IR side
but especially with regard to the BOLchaff capabilities, particularly with the

greater emphasis on the RF threat environment in the Pacific theater.


Among the potentially interested parties would be the US Navy for its F-18
aircraft. Although there is currently no
program of record with the US Navy, Saab
did work with Boeing on the BOL system
integration for the Royal Australian Air
Forces A and B model F-18s in 2004.
On the USAF side, Saab has also worked
together with BAE on the adaptation of
the launcher and integration of BOL on
the National Guards F-15A aircraft. That
BOL system was originally designated
the AN/ALE-58, but with the phase-out
and replacement of the Guards F-15As
with the F-15C model, the system went
through a development program called
the Pilot Vehicle Interface (PVI) upgrade
in order to make it compatible with the
later-version aircraft. The upgraded version is designated the AN/ALE-58A, and
according to Zatterqvist, Saab and BAE
are currently working with the Guard
to establish an acquisition upgrade program to retrofit the AN/ALE-58A systems
onto the aircraft.
Relative to the USAFs F-16s, Zatterqvist once again says there is definite
interest but no specific program or activity that can be discussed. He notes,
however, that the BOL system was tested on the F-16 in July of 2001, and the
systems effectiveness was confirmed at
that time. a

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TECHNOLOGY SURVEY
A SAMPLING OF GALLIUM NITRIDE (GAN) TRANSISTORS
By Ollie Holt

others both grow the transistors and apply them as part


of a component. Because GaN transistors are so versatile, they are used in many different EW applications,
such as low noise amplifiers in EW receivers, power amplifiers in RF jammers, and in RF switches used both in
EW receivers and transmitters. In our survey, we tried
to account for these and other defense electronics applications, such as radar and communications.
In the survey table, we first list the operational
frequency range of the transistor or component. For
amplifiers with applications like low noise or power
amplifiers, it also shows the output and gain. This
gain figure is just the input-to-output gain provided
by the device. In the efficiency column, we show Power-Added Efficiency (PAE) (i.e., the output power (RF)
minus the input power (RF) divided by the DC power).
Next, we indicate the GaN transistors reliability in
hours. Note that another advantage of GaNs ability to
operate at high temperature levels is its extended reliability. However, the higher operating temperature
levels are also a disadvantage because that heat also
has to be removed from the EW or radar system. In
the JED March 2015 GaN technology article, a major
section was devoted to discussing different substrate
materials and methods of removing heat from the
GaN component. Operating voltage also separates GaN
from low-band-gap transistors, because GaN can operate with much higher voltages, even into the 30-40
volt range. The survey table also shows the packaging
type and size. Because this survey is relatively broad,
multiple types of packaging were included from simple die, which could be used on a microwave assembly,
to surface mount or a complete Monolithic Microwave
Integrated Circuit (MMIC) assembly. Finally, the survey shows the operational temperature range of the
transistor. This survey includes many of the GaN transistor manufacturers in the market. Some of the larger defense electronics companies, such as Raytheon
and BAE System also manufacture GaN transistors.
But these products, some of which are very advanced,
are primarily used in their own EW, radar and communications systems and are generally not available
on the market. a
Next months survey will cover radar warning receivers (RWRs) and radar electronic support measures (ESM) systems.

The Journal of Electronic Defense | May 2015

ver the last few months, JED has published surveys on power amplifiers and
low noise amplifiers, as well as a feature
story article on gallium nitride (GaN)
technology. In keeping with this theme,
this months technology survey is focusing on GaN transistors. In the surveys on power amplifiers and low noise amplifiers, we did not focus solely
on GaN products, but on a mixture of different silicon
and gallium technologies. This months survey focuses
on GaN transistor components and applications. Why
GaN? Because it offers high power, high operational
frequency range, fast switching rates, and it can handle high temperatures.
Semiconductors (i.e., transistors) have a unique
property in that they lie between conductors and insulators. Insulators have a wide energy gap between the
valence and conduction bands, while conductors have
no gap. Solid-state physics refers to this energy gap
as the band gap. This energy difference between the
valence and conduction bands is measured in electron
volts (eV). Now, most typical transistors have a band
gap of about 1 eV, examples being Silicon (Si) at 1.11 eV,
Germanium (Ge) at 0.67 eV and Gallium Arsenide (GaAs)
at 1.43 eV. Materials with band gaps greater than 1.7 eV
are typically referred to in a class called wide band gap
materials. Gallium Nitride with a band gap of 3.4 eV is
considered a wide band gap material.
This wide band gap gives GaN properties that are
not inherent in materials with lower band gaps. These
properties are higher breakdown field, which allows
GaN to operate at higher voltages, and higher electron
saturation velocities, which translates into higher
power densities. A high power density (where power
density is measured in Watts per millimeter), means
more power can be produced in a smaller semiconductor
area. Also smaller area means lower capacitances (i.e.,
higher operating frequencies). GaN also has very good
thermal characteristics. GaN provides reliable operation at higher temperatures compared with other semiconductor materials, which means longer life. Note
that GaN devices are produced both as GaN on Silicon
Carbide (SiC) and GaN on Silicon (Si). GaN on Si typically costs less, but its thermal conductivity is not as
good as GaN on SiC. GaN on SiC is a better thermal conductor and is more applicable to EW systems.
Some companies just grow the transistors for other
companies to use in their different applications, while

53

JED TECHNOLOGY SURVEY: GALLIUM NITRIDE (GAN) TRANSISTORS


Product or Model Number

Function/Technology

Operating Freq.

Output/Gain

Efficiency

Reliability

Cree, Inc; Durham, NC, USA; +1 (919) 313-5300; www.cree.com/RF


CMPA601C025F

power amplifier, MMIC

6.0-12.0 GHz

35W (CW) / 33dB

30% PAE

2.6e7 hrs at
Tj = 225C

CGHV96100F2

power amplifier, IM FET

7.9-9.6 GHz

145W (100uSec, 10%)


/ 12dB

45% PAE

2.6e7 hrs at
Tj = 225C

CGHV40100F

power amplifier, transistor

0.02-4.0 GHz

125W (CW) / 17dB

65% Drain Eff.

2.6e7 hrs at
Tj = 225C

CMPA5585025F

Power Amplifier, MMIC

5.5-8.5 GHz

35W (CW) / 25dB

25% PAE

2.6e7 hrs at
Tj = 225C

CGHV35400F

power amplifier, IM FET

2.9-3.5 GHz

400W (Tcase = 85C)


/ 11dB

60% Drain Eff @


Tcase = 85C

2.6e7 hrs at
Tj = 225C

Freescale Semiconductor; Tempe, AZ, USA; +1 (480) 413-4076; www.freescale.com


MMRF5015N

power amplifier

1-2690 MHz

125 W CW / 16 dB

58% PAE

MMRF5014H

power amplifier

1-2690 MHz

125 W CW / 16 dB

58% PAE

Hittite Microwave Products (Analog Devices Inc.); Chelmsford, MA, USA; +1 (978) 250-3343; www.hittite.com
HMC1086

power amplifier, MMIC

2-6 GHz

25W / 22 dB

34-42%

HMC1087

power amplifier, MMIC

2-20 GHz

8W / 11 dB

20-24%

HMC1087F10

power amplifier, MMIC

2-20 GHz

8W / 11 dB

15-30%

HMC1099LP5DE

power amplifier, MMIC

0.01-1.1 GHz

10W / 18.5

69-73%

HMC7149

power amplifier, MMIC

6-18 GHz

10W / 20 dB

The Journal of Electronic Defense | May 2015

54

M/A-COM Technology Solutions; Lowell, MA, USA; +1 (978) 656-2500; www.macom.com


NPT2010

GaN on silicon HEMT

1-2200 MHz

100W / 15dB

61% PAE

MAGX-011086

GaN on silicon HEMT

1-6000 MHz

4W / 9.5dB

45% PAE

NPA1006

GaN on silicon power


ampliier

20-1000 MHz

12.5W / 10dB

62% PAE

NPA1007

GaN on silicon power


ampliier

20-2500 MHz

10W / 12dB

42% PAE

NPT2022

GaN on silicon HEMT

1-2000 MHz

100W / 20dB

62% PAE

Microsemi Corp.; Santa Clara, CA, USA; +1 (408) 986-8031; www.microsemi.com


DC35GN-15-Q4

driver

DC-3.5 GHz

15W / 10-18dB

50-70% PAE

1011GN-1200V

L-Band avionics

1030-1090 MHz

1200W / 18.5dB

75% PAE

1214GN-600VHE

L-Band radar

1.2-1.4 GHz

600W / 17dB

65% PAE

3135GN-280LV

S-Band radar

3.1-3.5 GHz

280W / 13.8 dB

60% PAE

1214GN-120E/EL

phased array radar

1.2-1.4 GHz

120W / 18.4dB

65% PAE

Power
Dissipated

Package/Size

Operating Temp.

Additional Features

28 V

116W

Flange / 0.004 x 0.17 x 0.24


in.

-40C to +85C

Full CW operation for EW & radar.

40 V

173W

Flange / 0.19 x 0.94 x 0.68 in.

-40C to +85C

Pulse and CW operation for X-Band radar.

50 V

83W

Flange / 0.15 x 0.23 x 0.80 in.

-40C to +85C

Transistor for comms, radar, & CW operation.

28 V

55W

Flange / 0.004 x 0.17 x 0.24


in.

-40C to +85C

Linear operation for C & X Band SATCOM.

50 V

418W

Flange / 0.19 x 0.94 x 0.68 in.

-40C to +85C

Pulse and CW operation for S-Band radar.

50 V

250 W

OM270-2 / 6 x 10 x 2 mm

-55 to +150 C

50 V

232 W

NI360H-2SB / 6 x 20 x 4 mm

-55 to +150 C

28V @
1.1 A

25-60W

3.4 x 4 mm, chip

-40C to +85C

Applications: radar, communications, test.

28V @
850mA

20-25W

2 x 4 mm, chip

-40C to +85C

Applications: radar, communications, test.

28V @
850mA

18-27W

F10

-55C to +85C

Applications: RF jammer, radar, communications, test.

28V @
100mA

3-7W

LP5D

-40C to +85C

Applications: radar, test.

28VDC @
680mA

3.4 x 4.5 mm, chip

Applications: radar, communications, test.

48V

Metal-Ceramic with Bolt Down


Flange

-40C to +85C

Designed for CW, pulsed and linear operation.

28V

Lead-Free 4 mm, 24-Lead,


Surface Mount PQFN

-40C to +85C

Linear and saturated operation.

28V

Lead-Free 6 x 5 mm, 8-lead


PDFN Plastic Package

-40C to +85C

Linear and saturated operation.

28V

Lead-Free 6 x 5 mm, 8-lead


PDFN Plastic Package

-40C to +85C

Linear and saturated operation.

48V

TO272-2 Plastic Package


meeting MSL-3

-40C to +85C

Linear and saturated operation.

50V

30W

QFN/4 x 4mm

-40C to +85C

CW & 1ms, 10% pulsing.

50V

1600W

Metal Flange/0.385 x 1.34 in.

-40C to +85C

32s, 2% pulsing

50V

923W

Metal Flange/0.385 x 1.03 in.

-40C to +85C

300s, 10% pulsing

50V

467W

Metal Flange/0.385 x 1.03 in.

-40C to +85C

200s, 20% pulsing

50V

185W

Metal Flange/0.16 x 0.23 in.

-40C to +85C

300s, 10% pulsing

The Journal of Electronic Defense | May 2015

Voltage

55

JED TECHNOLOGY SURVEY: GALLIUM NITRIDE (GAN) TRANSISTORS


Product or Model Number

Function/Technology

Operating Freq.

Output/Gain

Efficiency

Reliability

Northrop Grumman Microelectronics Products and Services; Redondo Beach, CA, USA; +1 (310) 814-5000; www.as.northropgrumman.com/m
APN-149

power amplifier

18-23 GHz

20dB

30% PAE

100k hrs @
200C

APN180

power amplifier

27-31 GHz

21dB

28% PAE

100k hrs @
200C

APN-180FP

power amplifier

27-31 GHz

20dB

26% PAE

APN-226

power amplifier

13.5-15.5 GHz

20dB

27% PAE

100k hrs @
200C

APN-229

power amplifier

27-31 GHz

20dB

30% PAE

100k hrs @
200C

NXP Semiconductors N.V.; Eindhoven, The Netherlands; +31 40 27 29960; www.nxp.com


CLF1G0035-50

power amplifier

DC-3.5 GHz

50W(CW) / 12dB

54% drain efficiency


@ Tcase = 25C

CLF1G0035-100

power amplifier

DC-3.5 GHz

100W / 14.2dB

53% drain efficiency


@ Tcase = 25C

CLF1G0035S-50

power amplifier

DC-3.5 GHz

50W / 12dB

54% drain efficiency


@ Tcase = 25C

CLF1G0035S-100

power amplifier

DC-3.5 GHz

100W / 14.2dB

53% drain efficiency


@ Tcase = 25C

CLF1G0060-30

power amplifier

DC-6 GHz

30W / 15.6 dB

50% drain efficiency


@ Tcase = 25C

56
The Journal of Electronic Defense | May 2015

Qorvo; Richardson, TX, USA; +1 (972) 994-8200; www.qorvo.com


TGF2929-FL

power amplifier

DC-3.5 GHz

100W / 14dB

50% PAE @ 3.5 GHz

6.38e11 hrs

TGF2929-FS

power amplifier

DC-3.5 GHz

100W / 14dB

50% PAE @ 3.5 GHz

6.38e11 hrs

TGF2965-SM

input matched transistor

0.3-3 GHz

6W (P3dB) @ 2GHz /
18dB

63% (PAE3dB) @
2 GHz

3.23e65.56e11 Hrs

TGF3021-SM

RF transistor

0.03-4 GHz

36W (P3dB) @ 2 GHz /


19.3 dB

72.7% (PAE3dB) @
2 GHz

1.02e101.38e5 Hrs.

United Monolithic Semiconductor; Villebon-sur-Yvette, France; +33 (0) 1 69 86 32 00; www.ums-gaas.com


CH025A-SOA

power amplifier

0.25-5 GHz

25W / 17dB

60% PAE

1000k Hrs

CHK040A-SOA

power amplifier

0.25-3.5 GHz

50W / 15dB

55% PAE

1000k Hrs

CHK080A-SRA

power amplifier

0.25-3.5 GHz

80W / 17dB

65% PAE

1000k Hrs

CHZ050A-SEA

power amplifier

5.2-5.8 GHz

50W / 15dB

45% PAE

1000k Hrs

CHZ180A-SEB

power amplifier

1.2-1.4 GHz

180W / 20dB

52% PAE

1000k Hrs

Voltage

Power
Dissipated

Package/Size

Operating Temp.

Additional Features

28 VDC

4.4 x 2.28 mm

Applications: military SATCOM, phased array radar, point-topoint and multipoint communications and terminal amplifiers.

28 VDC

4.8 x 3.6 mm

Applications: point-to-point and multipoint digital radios,


SATCOM terminals.

28VDC

Applications: point-to-point and multipoint digital radios,


SATCOM terminals.

24VDC

2.6 x 2.5 mm

Applications: point-to-point and multipoint digital radios,


SATCOM terminals.

28VDC

3.65 x 2.03 mm

Applications: point-to-point and multipoint digital radios,


SATCOM terminals.

50V

0.73 x 0.8 in.

Applications: RF jammer, radar, communications.

50V

0.73 x 0.8 in.

Applications: RF jammer, radar, communications.

50V

0.72 x 0.38 in.

Applications: RF jammer, radar, communications.

50V

0.72 x 0.38 in.

Applications: RF jammer, radar, communications.

50V

0.34 x 0.2 in.

Applications: RF jammer, radar, communications.

mps

The Journal of Electronic Defense | May 2015

57
28V

82W (CW), 144W


(max)

0.8 x 0.43 in.

-40C to +85C

Applications: RF jammers, wideband or narrowband


amplifiers, radar, communications.

28 V

82W (CW), 144W


(max)

0.38 x 0.43 in.

-40C to +85C

Applications: RF jammers, wideband or narrowband


amplifiers, radar, communications.

32V

7.05W (CW), 9.1


(max) (pulse)

3 x 3 mm surface-mount QFN
package

-40C to +85C

Applications: RF jammers, wideband or narrowband


amplifiers, radar, communications.

32V

11.3-30.2W (CW)

3 x 4 mm surface-mount QFN
package

-40C to +85C

Applications: RF jammers, wideband or narrowband


amplifiers, test instrumentation, radar, communications.

50V

20 x 8.25 mm

Max junction temp 200C

Applications: radar, communications. Ceramic-metal flange.

50V

20 x 7 mm

Max junction temp 220C

Applications: radar, communications. Ceramic-metal flange.

50V

20 x 8.25 mm

Max junction temp 220C

Applications: radar, communications. Ceramic-metal flange.

50V

17.4 x 24 mm

Max junction temp 220C

Applications: pulsed radar and SATCOM.

50V

17.4 x 24 mm

Max junction temp 200C

Application: pulsed radar.

Survey Key Gallium Nitride (GaN)


Transistors
PRODUCT OR MODEL NUMBER
Product name or model number
FUNCTION/TECHNOLOGY
Describes the transistor in terms of which technology it uses and
its function
OPERATING FREQ.
Operating frequency range in kHz, MHz or GHz
OUTPUT/GAIN
Transistor output in Watts and gain in dB
EFFICIENCY
Power added efficiency (PAE) or drain efficiency
RELIABILITY

OPERATING TEMP
Operating temperature range
FEATURES
Additional features
OTHER ABBREVIATIONS USED
CW = continuous wave
min = minimum
max = maximum
nom = nominal
SATCOM = satellite communications
typ = typical
* Indicates answer is classified, not releasable or no answer was
given.

In thousands (k) of hours


Tj = junction temperature
VOLTAGE
Operating voltage (in VDC) and current (in mA)
POWER DISSIPATED
Power dissipated in Watts
SIZE/PACKAGE
Transistor size in millimeters or inches and package type

JUNE 2015 SURVEY: RADAR WARNING


RECEIVERS (RWRS) AND RADAR ELECTRONIC
SUPPORT MEASURES (ESM) SYSTEMS
This survey will cover complete RWR and radar ESM systems
for air, space, naval and ground applications. Please e-mail
the editor, John Knowles, jknowles@naylor.com, to request
a survey questionnaire.

The Journal of Electronic Defense | May 2015

58

The AOCs EW/SIGINT Online Resource Guide is a user-friendly tool for defense
professionals that serves as an online marketplace for the products and services you
need. Our EW/SIGINT Resource guide will help you find vendors for the operational EW
equipment you need, from EW systems and subsystems to training services, database
development, system design and more.
Features of the Online Resource Guide include:

EASY TO USE INTERFACE Makes it easy for you to find what your looking for with quickness
and ease.

MOBILE FRIENDLY You can take the EW/SIGINT Online Resource Guide with you via a
mobile device.

PRODUCT SHOWCASE Visual representation of the most popular products and services
REQUEST FOR INFORMATION FUNCTION Request information from multiple vendors at once.

Find alll the prooducts and servvicces you neeed in onne place! Use thhe
EW/SIGGINT Onlinee Reesources Guide tooday by vissiting htttpp://www
w.ewsiggint.nnet/
JED-M0415 HalfPg_OBG_MKG.indd 1

16/03/15 8:34 PM

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Learn more about all we have to offer by visiting our website at nardamiteq.com, or call us at (631) 231-1700.

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new

products
RADIATION-TOLERANT
FPGAS FOR SIGNAL
PROCESSING APPLICATIONS

RF SPECTRAL SURVEY AND SIGNAL


RECOGNITION SYSTEM

The Journal of Electronic Defense | May 2015

60

D-TA Systems has released the RFvision-Broadview,


an open architecture system for COMINT applications.
The system is based on the DTA-3290 tunable software
radio transceiver and the DTA-1000ER RAID server, and
features the DTA-500 notebook computer, with a base
configuration that uses 2U of rack space. The DTA-1000ER
features the companys SigInspector advanced software,
which provides RF
spectrum scanning
from 20 MHz to 6
GHz, extendable
to high frequency, and a scan
bandwidth of 40
MHz. Any frequency band up to 40 MHz can be selected from a waterfall
display for wideband recording and/or real-time narrowband channelization. The system also can support
scan and set on operations by using a second DTA-3290
receiver to continuously scan while the first is set-on
to a specific frequency band for analysis. D-TA Systems,
Ottawa, ON, Canada,+1 (613) 745-8713, www.d-ta.com

DIRECTIONAL COUPLER
Krytar has introduced a new
compact directional coupler,
model 106026506, operating
in the 6- to 26.5-GHz frequency
range and offering nominal coupling of 6 dB. The coupler uses stripline design for low
insertion loss, high directivity and tight coupling, and is
designed for use in ultra-broadband designs and test and
measurement. The couplers can be manufactured to military specifications for use in electronic warfare systems
and complex switch-matrix applications. The coupler offers frequency sensitivity of 0.50 dB, directivity is >14
dB and insertion loss is <1.6 dB across the full frequency
range. The connectors weigh 1.1 ounces and measure
1.12 (L) x 0.53 (W) x 0.64 (H) inches. Krytar, Sunnyvale,
CA, USA, +1-408-734-5999, www.krytar.com

Microsemi has introduced the


RTG4 family of radiation-tolerant field
programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) for high-speed signal
processing. Featuring reprogrammable flash technology,
the FPGAs offer immunity to radiation-induced configuration upsets in harsh radiation environments with no
requirement for configuration scrubbing. Well suited to
space platforms used for SIGINT, remote sensing, mobile satellite services and other communications, these
FPGAs feature 150,000 logic elements and 300 MHz of
system performance. The RTG4 FPGAs feature 24 serial
transceivers with operation from 1 Gb/sec to 3.125 Gb/
sec. The product is already shipping to lead customers,
and flight units qualified to MIL-STD-833 Class B are
expected to be available in early 2016. Microsemi, Aliso
Viejo, CA, USA, +1 (949) 380-6100 www.microsemi.com

ADVANCED RADAR TARGET GENERATOR SYSTEM


Radio Frequency Simulation Systems (RFSS) has introduced the Advanced Radar Target Generator (ARTG)
system, an advanced Radar Environment Simulator
(RES) designed for testing Active Electronically Scanned Array (AESA) radar systems.
The ARTG features ultrawideband coverage
>1 GHz instantaneous bandwidth and is
an X-Band, four-channel, 12/12-Bit digital
RF memory (DRFM)-based RES. The system
includes four DRFM channels, four RF output
ports (expandable to six) and four RF DI ports.
Each DRFM channel can provide up to 16 independent targets or 16 scatters. Designed with
open standards and commercial-off-the-shelf
hardware, the ARTG has an interface for up to
four external jammers and features a Windowsbased graphical interface with target mapping
and the ability to generate target scenarios,
including coherent and non-coherent electronic countermeasures, jet engine modulation, clutter and other target phenomena. RFSS, Orange, CA, USA,
+1 (714) 974-7377, www.rfss-inc.com

Amplifiers
Attenuators - Variable
DLVA & ERDLVA &
SDLVAs
DTOs & Frequency
Synthesizers
Filters
Form, Fit & Function
Products
IFMs & Frequency
Discriminators
Integrated MIC/MMIC
Modules
I/Q Vector Modulators
Limiters & Detectors
Log Amplifiers
Pulse & Bi-Phase
Modulators
Phase Shifters
Rack & Chassis Mount
Products
Receiver Front Ends &
Transceivers
Single Sideband
Modulators
SMT & QFN Products
Solid-State Switches
Switch Matrices
Switch Filter Banks
Threshold Detectors
USB Products

West Coast Operation:


4921 Robert J. Mathews Pkwy, Suite 1
El Dorado Hills, CA 95762 USA
Tel: 916-542-1401 Fax: 916-265-2597

East Coast Operation:


7311-F Grove Road
Frederick, MD 21704 USA
Tel: 301-662-5019 Fax: 301-662-1731

new

products

VECTOR SIGNAL GENERATOR OPTIONS


Rohde & Schwarz has introduced three new options for its SMW200A high-end vector signal generator with microwave frequency ranges from 100 kHz to
12.75 GHz, 100 kHz to 31.8 GHz and 100 kHz to 40 GHz.
The SMW200A combines a baseband generator and RF

The Journal of Electronic Defense | May 2015

62

generator with fading, Additive White Gaussian Noise


(AWGN) and multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO)
capabilities in a single box, supporting complex aerospace, defense and wireless communications applications, as well as future 5G wireless network technology
development. The 40-GHz version of the SMW200A allows users to cover the complete K and Ka bands, featuring RF modulation bandwidth of 160 MHz and the
ability to generate signals of high modulation quality
in the microwave range. The system can also generate continuous wave signals with multiple carriers for
component tests and QAM-modulated carriers for satellite receiver tests. Rohde & Schwarz, Munich, Germany,
+49 89 4129 12345, www.rohde-schwarz.com

5-BIT DIGITAL ATTENUATOR


Qorvo has introduced a 5-bit digital attenuator that spans the 1- to 31-GHz frequency range.
The TGL2223-SM offers a 0.5 dB Least Significant Bit
(LSB), providing an overall attenuation range of 15.5
dB. Provided in a ceramic, air-cavity Quad-Flat No-lead
(QFN) package measuring 3x3x1.45mm, the attenuator
is designed for applications such as point-to-point radio,
satellite communications, electronic warfare and radar.
The TGL2223-SM has low step and attenuation errors
the RMS step attenuator error is <0.5dB while the RMS
attenuator error is <0.9dB. Qorvo (via RFMW), San Jose,
CA, USA, +1 (408) 414-1450 www.rfmw.com

25W GAN MMIC


Cree has introduced new 25-Watt
gallium nitride (GaN) Monolithic Microwave Integrated Circuits (MMICs)
featuring performance from 6-12 GHz.
Based on the companys GaN High Electron Mobility
Transistors (HEMTs), the new MMIC is built on a SiC
substrate. The MMIC enables wide bandwidths and instantaneous broadband performance and is designed to
replace traveling wave tube amplifiers in applications
such as radar, jamming, test equipment and broadband
amplifiers. Providing 35W of continuous-wave output
power, the MMIC power amplifier is available as a bare
die or in a thermally enhanced, 10-lead ceramic flange
package and rated for operation up to 28V. Both versions
measure 0.172 x 0.239 x 0.004 in. The die version features 32dB small signal gain and 30W Typical Saturation
Power (PSAT), while the packaged version features 33dB
small signal gain and 35W PSAT. Cree, Durham, NC, USA,
+1 (919) 287-7888, www.cree.com/RF

ADVANCED PULSE ANALYSIS SOFTWARE


Keysight Technologies has introduced the 89600 VSA
software with pulse analysis option (BHQ). Designed for
use in radar and electronic warfare applications for capturing and analyzing threats and jamming responses,
the software offers advanced tools for signal demodulation and vector signal analysis. The new software offers
the ability to define unique pulse characteristics and
analyze them in time and frequency domains. Used in
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the M9703A wideband digitizer. At the same time, Keysight has updated the N9051A X-Series pulse measurement software to N9051B, now offering pulse analysis up
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EW 101

Radio Propagation

Diffraction by a Knife Edge vs. Rounded Obstacle


By Dave Adamy

Knife Edge Representation


of Ridge Line

Actual Ridge Line Contour

Figure 1: A ridge line can be represented by a knife edge if there is not enough horizontal geometry to cause significant additional attenuation.

The Journal of Electronic Defense | May 2015

64

e have previously considered propagation


KNIFE EDGE DIFFRACTION
over a ridge line to be properly modeled as
Since it has been some time since we covered knife edge difpropagation
a knife
assumes
fraction
in the
EW 101
series, it
repeated
this month.
Figure 1:
A ridgeover
line
canedge.
beThis
represented
by a(KED)
knife
edge
if there
isisnot
enough
that
the
top
of
the
ridge
line
has
too
little
Figure
1
shows
a
ridge
line
represented
as
a
knife edge.
horizontal geometry to cause significant additional attenuation.
area to add significant loss, and is a widely
Figure 2 is a model of the propagation path over that ideal
used assumption. The knife-edge assumpknife edge. The distance d1 is the horizontal distance from
tion is accurate enough for most applications.
the transmitter to the knife edge, and d2 is the horizontal
This month and next month, we consider the case in which
distance from the knife edge to the receiver. In order to use
the obstacle (for example a ridge line) has significant breadth.
the nomograph of Figure 4 most accurately, an intermediate
function d can be calculated from the formula:
The approach here is to model the obstacle as part of a cylinder,
which increases the diffraction loss relative to the knife edge
--- / (1 + d /d )]d
diffraction loss.
d = [ 2
1
2
1

d2

Note: Blind Zone


d1 > d2

d1
H

R
d1

d2

Figure 2: A propagation link that has diffraction loss from an object represented by a knife edge is modeled as shown here. H is the vertical distance
between the line-of-sight path from the transmitter to the receiver and the top of the knife edge.

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The Journal of Electronic Defense | May 2015

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742082_CurtissW.indd 1
jed-board-set.indd 1

2015-04-22 11:11
AM
743422_XCom.indd
1
01/04/2015 14:23:13

4/12/15 11:49 AM

E W101

H
XMTR

Line of Sight

RCVR

XMTR

Line of Sight

RCVR

Figure 3: Diffraction loss will occur if the knife edge rises above the line-of-sight loss, or if it is below but fairly close to the line-of-sight path.

The Journal of Electronic Defense | May 2015

66

However, the distance d1 can be used in place of this calculated value if the loss of about 1.5 dB of accuracy is acceptable. H is the vertical height difference between the top of
the knife edge and the line-of-sight- path from the transmitter to the receiver. Note that the knife edge can be completely
below the line of sight path or can extend above it as shown
in Figure 3.
An important consideration for the propagation model is
that the distance d2 must be equal to or greater than the distance d1. Otherwise, knife edge diffraction will not take place.

If the receiver is in this blind zone, the propagation loss is


significantly higher.
Figure 4 is a nomograph from which the loss caused by
the knife edge (in addition to line-of-sight loss) can be determined. Draw a line from the distance term d, (either the
calculated value from the formula above or just d1) through
the H value to the center index line. At this point, H can be
either above or below the line of sight path. Then draw a line
from that point on the center index line through the signal
frequency to the right hand scale.

Revision 1 created on Mar 31 2015 3:39PM CST


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24 Hour Turnaround Time for Applications & Technical Support

732385_FEI.indd 1

4/1/15 10:42 PM

E W101
If H is the distance below the line-of-sight
path to the knife edge, read the KED loss (in
dB) on the left side of the right hand scale. If
the knife edge extends above the line-of-sight
path, read the KED loss on the right side of
the scale.
The total link loss is the sum of the line-ofsight loss plus the KED loss. The line-of-sight
loss (in dB) is determined from the formula:
LLOS = 32.4 + 20 log10(dT) + 20 log10(F)
Where: LLOS is the line of sight loss in dB,
dT is the total path length d1 + d2 in km,
F is the transmission frequency in MHz.

Figure4:4:The
Theknife
knife edge
edgediffraction
diffraction loss
loss
can
bebe
Figure
losswhich
whichisisadded
addedtotoline-of-sight
line-of-sight
loss
can

determinedfrom
fromthe
the variable
variable d,
edge
and
thethe
line-of-sight
In the example shown in Figure 4, d1 is 20
determined
d,the
thedistance
distancebetween
betweenthe
theknife
knife
edge
and
line-ofpath, and the signal frequency.
sight path, and the signal
frequency.
km, and d2 is 28.3 km, so d is 20 km, H is
The total link loss is the sum of the KED and LOS losses. Thus,
about 62 meters and F is 150 MHz. These values
the total link loss is 111.6 dB if the knife edge is below line-ofare drawn onto the nomograph of Figure 4 in red. If the knife
sight, or 119.6 dB if the knife edge extends above line-of-sight.
edge is below the line-of-sight path, the KED loss is 2 dB (from
the left side of the right hand scale). If the knife edge extends
above the line-of-sight path, the KED loss is 10 dB (from the
WHATS NEXT
right side of the right hand scale).
Next month, we will discuss cylindrical propagation over a
The LOS loss is 32.4 + 20 log(48.3) + 20 LOG (150) = 32.4 + 33.7
ridge line. For your comments and suggestions, Dave Adamy
+ 43.5 = 109.6 dB.
can be reached at dave@lynxpub.com. a

The Journal of Electronic Defense | May 2015

Note: the distance term in this formula is normally stated just as d. We use dT here just
to avoid confusion with the value that is input
to the nomograph of Figure 4.

67

AOC Professional
s
e
s
r
u
o
C
t
n
e
m
p
o
l
e
v
De
Plan now to attend upcoming AOC courses conveniently
eniently
located in the Washington, DC area.
MAY 12-15

JUNE 23-26

Essentials of 21st
Century Electronic
Warfare

Advanced
Electronic
Warfare

Location: Alexandria, VA
Instructor: Mr. Robert Samuel

Location: Alexandria, VA
Instructor: Mr. Dave Adamy

Visit www.crows.org for more information

JED-M0515 AOC Course Ad HP_MKG.indd 1

13/04/15 8:10 PM

news
OBITUARY: DR. JOHN L. GRIGSBY, WILD WEASEL #231, PASSES

The Journal of Electronic Defense | May 2015

68

15th Annual AOC Electronic


Warfare Europe
Future EW - Innovation, Information & Interoperability
M AY 2 6 - 2 8 , 2 0 1 5

STOCKHOLM, SWEDEN

DAY ONE
KEYNOTE ADDRESS CAPABILITY DEVELOPMENT IN THE SWEDISH AIRFORCE
Brigadier General Gabor Nagy Swedish Air Force, Commander Air Component Command, Sweden
OPENING ADDRESS OVERVIEW OF SWEDENS EW CAPABILITY DEVELOPMENT
Johan Falk Head of EW Systems Department, Sensor and EW Systems Division, Swedish Defence Research
Agency (FOI), Sweden

KEYNOTE ADDRESS THE BALTIC REGION FROM A SWEDISH PERSPECTIVE


Rear Admiral Anders Grensted Deputy Director Joint Operations, Sweden
EXERCISE LISTENING LION 2014
Captain Christopher A. Passerella USMC, Charlie Company Commander, II MEF, 2nd Radio Battalion, US
Colour Sergeant Chris McGonnell RM, 30 Cd0, Y Sqn RM, UK
NATO JOINT ISR TRIAL UNIFIED VISION 2014 & EW CONTEXT, OUTCOMES & EW FOCUS
Wg Cdr Rob Munday RAF (Retd) UV14 Assessment Director, UK
Alasdair Gilchrist MBE Head of UK Delegation NATO EW Advisory Committee & Working Group
ELECTRONIC WARFARE MARKET OUTLOOK AND TECHNOLOGY TRENDS
Asif Anwar, Director Strategy Analytics, UK

DAY TWO
KEYNOTE ADDRESS MODERN EW TRANSFORMING THE NATURE OF WAR / INNOVATION,
INFORMATION & INTEROPERABILITY AS CRITICAL INVESTMENTS FOR SUPERIORITY
Maj Gen Ken Israel USAF (Retd) International AOC President, United States

REGIS
TER

NOW!

CLOSING ADDRESS UNDERSTANDING OPERATIONAL CHALLENGES: THE FUTURE


LITTORAL & LAND ENVIRONMENTS AND EW SUPPORT
Major General David Hook CBE RM (Retd) EW Business Development Executive, L3 TRL Technology, UK
PMA 272 - ADVANCED TACTICAL AIRCRAFT PROTECTION SYSTEMS PROGRAM OFFICE BRIEF
CAPT Scott Porter USN, Director PMA-272, United States TBC
EW AN EQUATION WITH MANY VARIABLES
Cdr Gunnar Marcusson C4ISR Department, EW, Swedish Armed Forces HQ, Sweden
INFORMATION OPERATIONS FIGHTING THE NEXT WAR
LCDR Francisco Vega USN, Information Operations Officer, US

A global EW networking, exhibition, seminar and conference not to be missed!

For more information visit www.crows.org.

AO C

as sociation

news

OBITUARY: LONG-TIME
MEMBER JOHN EDWARD
JACK DONOVAN, SR.

KITTYHAWK CHAPTER PRESENTS


US AIR FORCE INSTITUTE OF
TECHNOLOGY (AFIT)
PROGRAM AWARDS

The Journal of Electronic Defense | May 2015

70

RED BARON ROOST HOSTS


LUNCHEONS ON HFI

International & Foreign Military Sales (FMS) Electronic Warfare (EW) Symposium & Workshop

MPOS

IU

OL

PEACH
ROO T
S

TL

AN

SY

E
RET

W
CRO S

15

F
NO
IO

20

ASSOCIAT

AT IONAL &

I NT

RN

FM

Navigating the International EW Market

TA C H A P

TE

Free for U.S. &


international government
civilians and military;
$200 for AOC members
$250 for non-members

June 8-12, 2015 at the GTRI Conference Center, 250 14th St., Atlanta, GA 30318
AGENDA

Symposium Chairman: Lt Gen Robert J. "Bob" Elder Jr., USAF (Retired)


(Please note: Topics and times subject to change)

Monday, June 8 (8:00 a.m.-4:00 p.m.): One-day Workshops


1. Defense Acquisition University (DAU)- "Exportability Considerations through Design"
2. State Department-Directorate of Defense Trade Controls (DDTC) Seminar
3. Defense Institute of Security Assistance Management (DISAM)- "FMS Executive Overview"
4. EW 101: Introduction to Electronic Warfare

Optional Evening Social Event: Welcome Reception & Early Registration at Ormsby's 6:00 p.m.- 9:00 p.m.
Tuesday, June 9 (8:00 a.m.-4:00 p.m.):
MORNING SESSION: National Security Aspects of International Sales
AFTERNOON SESSION: Understanding ITAR and Export Processes

Optional Evening Social Event: Atlanta Braves Baseball Game and Dinner 7:00 p.m.
Wednesday, June 10 (8:00 a.m.-4:00 p.m.):
MORNING SESSION: FMS EW Programs & Security Cooperation
U.S. Military International FMS EW Life Cycle Support Panel Discussion (Service Representatives)
Industry Panel Perspective on EW Life Cycle Management
AFTERNOON SESSION: U.S. EW Mission Data File Support & Future EW Software Architectures

Optional Evening Social Event: Georgia Tech Hosted Reception for International Guests and International
Georgia Tech Students 6:00 p.m.
Thursday, June 11 (8:00 a.m.-4:00 p.m.):
MORNING SESSION: 2 tracks available
TRACK ONE: The Future of International EW (Unclassified-open to all international and U.S.
Symposium attendees)
TRACK TWO: (U.S. SECRET ONLY*) U.S. DOD Disclosure Guidelines & Policy
AFTERNOON SESSION: International EW Training Opportunities
OPTIONAL AFTERNOON WORKSHOP: (U.S. SECRET ONLY*) Department of Defense (DOD)
Anti-Tamper (AT) Short Course (1.5-day workshop continues on Friday, June 12)

Friday, June 12 (8:00 a.m.-3:00 p.m.): GTRI Defense Technology Condensed Short Courses will be available
1. Introduction to Radar Warning Receivers- Georgia Tech Professional Education (GTRI)
2. Introduction to MIL-STD-1553 Serial Communication Data Bus Standard (GTRI)
3. (U.S. SECRET ONLY*) Department of Defense (DOD) Anti-Tamper (AT) Short Course (Continued)
*To attend any U.S. SECRET ONLY session or course, you must send a
visit request to GTRI Research Security. Please contact Ashley Pecks at
ashley.pecks@gtri.gatech.edu or 404.407.8658 regarding instructions to send
your visit request. You may also contact the Research Security Help Desk at
404.407.6661 if Ashley is unavailable.

Register at: http://www.planetreg.com/E3212293519673


Registration information: kristi.campbell@gtri.gatech.edu Program information: stephen.miller@gtri.gatech.edu

AOC Industry and Institute/University Members


SUSTAINING

Allen-Vanguard

Electro-Metrics

Micro Systems

SRC, Inc.

Alpha Design Technologies


Pvt. Ltd.

Elektrobit Wireless
Communications Ltd.

Microsemi Corporation

SRCTec, Inc.
SRI International

AMPEX Data Systems

ELTA Systems Ltd

MiKES Microwave Electronic


Systems Inc.

Amplifier Technology Limited

EM Research Inc.

Miles Industrial Electronics Ltd.

Stay On-Line

Anaren Microwave, Inc.

Empower RF Systems

Milso AB

Sunshine Aero Industries

Annapolis Micro
Systems, Inc.

ESL Defence Limited

MITEQ, Inc.

SURVICE Engineering Co.

ESROE Limited

The MITRE Corporation

Anritsu

Symetrics Industries, LLC

Esterline Defense Group

ApisSys SAS

Sypris Data Systems

ETM Electromatic Inc.

Modern Technology
Solutions, Inc.

ARINC, Inc.

e2v Aerospace and Defense, Inc.

Mountain RF Sensors Inc.

Aselsan A.S.

EW Simulation
Technology Ltd

Multiconsult Srl

ATGI

My-konsult

Systems & Processes


Engineering Corp.

ATK Defense Electronic Systems

EWTW LLC

New World Solutions, Inc.

SystemWare Inc.

Atkinson Aeronautics &


Technology, Inc.

FEI-Elcom Tech, Inc.

Nova Defence

Tactical Technologies Inc.

Gigatronics Inc.

OPAL-RT Technologies Inc.

Rohde & Schwarz USA

Atos IT Solutions and


Services AG

GMRE Inc.

Overlook Systems Technology

Tadiran Electronic
Systems Ltd.

Saab Electronic Defense


Systems

Hittite Microwave

Parker Aerospace (SprayCool)

Tech Comm Inc.

Auriga Microwave

Honeywell International

Peralex

Tech Resources, Inc.

Hunter Technology Corp.

Technology Security Associates

Impact Science & Technology

Phoenix International
Systems, Inc.

Impulse Technologies Inc.

Plath, GmbH

TEK Microsystems, Inc.

Information Warfare
Technologies

Q-Microwave

Tektronix Component Solutions

Q-Par Angus

Tektronix, Inc.

Innovationszentrum Fur
Telekommunikation
-stechnik GmbH (IZT)

Queued Solutions, L.L.C.

Teledyne Technologies

Radio Frequency
Simulation Systems

Teleplan AS

Radixon

Colorado Engineering Inc.

Integrated Microwave
Technologies, LLC

Ten-Tec Inc.

COMINT Consulting

Intelligent RF Solutions

Research Associates
of Syracuse, Inc.

TERASYS Technologies, LLC

Comtech PST

ISPAS as

Concord Components Inc.

IW Mircowave Products Division

Rohde & Schwarz


GmbH & Co. KG

Textron Systems

CPI

JP Morgan Chase

Roschi Rohde & Schwarz AG

Crane Aerospace & Electronics

JT3, LLC

Georgia Tech Research Institute

CRFS Limited

Keragis Corporation

Rotating Precision
Mechanisms Inc.

Mercer Engineering
Research Center

CSIR

KRYTAR, Inc.

RUAG Holding

CSP Associates

Kudelski Security

SAT Corporation

CyberVillage
Networkers Inc.

L-3 Communications

SAZE Technologies

L-3 Communications-Applied
Signal & Image Technology

Science Applications
International Corporation

L-3 Communications
Cincinnati Electronics

Scientific Research Corporation

TriaSys Technologies Corp.

SELEX Galileo Inc.

TriQuint Inc.

L-3 Communications/
Randtron Antenna Systems

Sematron

TRU Corporation

LS telcom AG

Siemens IT Solutions and


Services

Ultra Electronics
Avalon Systems

BAE Systems
Ball Aerospace Technologies
The Boeing Company
Chemring Group Plc
DRS Defense Solutions
Electronic Warfare Associates
Exelis
General Atomics
General Dynamics
Keysight Technologies
Lockheed Martin
Mercury Computer Systems
Northrop Grumman
Raytheon Company
Rockwell Collins

TASC
Thales Communications

Azure Summit
Technologies, Inc.

MILITARY UNITS

Battlespace Simulations, Inc.

453 EWS/EWD Research


51 Sqn, Royal Air Force
Japan Air Self-Defense Force

72

JEWOSU
VMAQ-1
VMAQ-2

The Journal of Electronic Defense | May 2015

Avalon Electronics, Inc.

VMAQ-3
VMAQ-4

INSTITUTE/
UNIVERSITY

MIT Lincoln Laboratory


National EW Research and
Simulation Center

GOVERNMENT GROUP
Defence Science & Technology
Agency (DSTA)
Naval Research Center,
Dahlgren Division

BJG
Blue Ridge Envisioneering, Inc.
Booz & Allen Hamilton
Cobham DES M/A-Com
Cobham Sensor Systems

Dayton-Granger, Inc.
dB Control
Defence R&D Canada
Defense Engineering
Corporation
Defense Research
Associates Inc.

STI Electronics, Inc.

Systematic Software
Engineering

TECOM Industries

Teligy

TERMA A/S
Thales Components Corp.
Thales Homeland Security
Times Microwave Systems
TINEX AS
TMD Technologies
TRAK Microwave
Transformational Security, LLC
Tri Star Engineering

MacAulay-Brown

Sierra Nevada Corporation

Ultra Electronics TCS Inc.

GROUP

Delcross Technologies LLC

Mass Consultants

Sivers IMA AB

VMR Electronics LLC

3dB Labs Inc.

Delta Microwave

MBDA France

Soneticom, Inc.

W.L. Gore & Associates

ACI Technologies

DHPC Technologies, Inc.

MC Countermeasures, Inc.

SOS International

W5 Technologies, Inc.

Aeronix

DRS Tactical Systems

MDA Systems

SOURIAU PA&E

Wavepoint Research, Inc.

Aethercomm, Inc.

D-TA Systems, Inc.

MEDAV GmbH

SpecPro-Inc.

Werlatone Inc.

A.G. Franz, LLC

Dynetics, Inc.

MegaPhase

Spectranetix, Inc.

Wideband Systems, Inc.

Airbus Defence and Space GmbH

EADS North America

Mercury Defense Systems

X-Com Systems

Alion Science and Technology

Elbit Systems EW and


SIGINT Elisra

Micro-Coax, Inc.

Spectrum Signal Processing


by Vecima

Micro Communications Inc.

SR Technologies

Zodiac Data Systems

Index

of ad ve r tise r s

JED, The Journal of Electronic Defense


(ISSN 0192-429X), is published monthly
by Naylor, LLC, for the Association of
Old Crows, 1000 N. Payne St., Ste. 200,
Alexandria, VA 22314-1652.

POSTMASTER:
Send address changes to
JED, The Journal of Electronic Defense,
c/o Association of Old Crows,
1000 N. Payne St., Ste. 200,
Alexandria, VA 22314-1652.
Subscription Information:
Glorianne ONeilin
(703) 549-1600
oneilin@crows.org

Aethercomm ........................................... www.aethercomm.com ......................................43


ApisSys SAS ............................................ www.apissys.com ..............................................16
AR Worldwide ......................................... www.arworld.us/dualband .................................13
Battlespace Simulations, Inc. ................... www.bssim.com ................................................23
Berkeley Nucleonics Corporation............... www.berkeleynucleonics.com ............................36
Chemring North America.......................... www.chemringnorthamerica.com .......................29
Ciao Wireless, Inc. ................................... www.ciaowireless.com.......................................14
Comtech PST Corp. ................................... www.comtechpst.com......................................... 7
Curtiss-Wright Controls
Defense Solutions ................................. www.cwcdefense.com ........................................65
dB Control .............................................. www.dbcontrol.com ..........................................18
Dow Key Microwave Corporation ............... www.dowkey.com .............................................37
E2V ....................................................... e2v-us.com .......................................................19
Elbit Systems EW and SIGINT-Elisra Ltd. .... www.elbitsystems.com ......................................31
ET Industries .......................................... www.etiworld.com ............................................38
EW Simulation Technology LTD ................. www.ewst.co.uk................................................. 3
FEI-Elcom Tech, Inc. ................................ www.fei-elcomtech.com ....................................66
GEW Technologies (PTY) Ltd ..................... www.gew.co.za .................................................. 8
Giga-tronics Incorporated ........................ www.gigatronics.com ........................................ 76

The Journal of Electronic Defense | May 2015

Periodicals postage paid at Alexandria,


VA, and additional mailing offices.
Subscriptions: JED, The Journal of
Electronic Defense, is sent to AOC
members and subscribers only.
Subscription rates for paid subscribers
are $160 per year in the US, $240 per
year elsewhere; single copies and back
issues (if available) $12 each in the US;
$25 elsewhere.

A.G Franz, LLC. ....................................... www.agfranz.com/nardaew ...............................34

IW Microwave ......................................... www.iw-microwave.com ....................................63

JED Sales

Offices

Krytar, Inc. ............................................ www.krytar.com ...............................................10


L-3 Narda Microwave East......................... www.L-3com.com ..............................................59
MACOM ................................................... www.macom.com/ad ............................................39
Mercury Systems ................................... www.mrcy.com/OpenRFM ......................................21
NI Microwave Components........................ www.ni-microwavecomponents.com/quicksyn ....28

5950 NW 1st Place


Gainesville, FL 32607
Toll Free (US): (800) 369-6220
Fax: +1 (352) 331-3525

Northrop Grumman Electronic Systems


Amherst Systems ............................... www.northropgrumman.com/msts .....................17
Northrop Grumman ES/DSD
(Rolling Meadows, IL)............................ www.northropgrumman.com ...... Inside Back Cover

Project Manager:
James Ream
Direct: +1 (352) 333-3375
jream@naylor.com

Planar Monolithics Industries, Inc. ........... www.pmi-rf.com ............................................... 61

Advertising Sales Representatives:


Shaun Greyling
Direct: +1 (352) 333-3385
sgreylin@naylor.com

RF Simulation Systems ............................ www.rfss-inc.com .............................................47

Qorvo ..................................................... www.qorvo.com ................................................52


Raytheon Company.................................. www.Raytheon.com/spectrum ....Inside Front Cover
Rohde & Schwarz..................................... www.rohde-schwarz.com/ad/sat/pow........................ 5
Rohde & Schwarz..................................... www.rohde-schwarz.com/ad/
Operational_theater...................................... 9, 11

Erik Henson
Direct: +1 (352) 333-3443
ehenson@naylor.com

Saab AB, Electronic Defense Systems ........ www.saabgroup.com .........................................32

Chris Zabel
Direct: +1 (352) 333-3420
czabel@naylor.com

TEK Microsystems, Inc. ............................ www.tekmicro.com ...........................................20

NAYLOR (Canada) Inc.


300 1630 Ness Ave.
Winnipeg, MB Canada R3J 3X1
Toll Free (US): (800) 665-2456
Fax: +1 (204) 947-2047

Steatite Q-par Antennas .......................... www.steatiteqpar-antennas.co.uk ......................40


Teledyne Microwave Solutions .................. www.teledvnemicrowave.com ............................ 41
Textron Systems...................................... TextronSystems.com/electronicsystems..............35
Thales Electron Devices ........................... www.thalesgroup.com/mis ................................25
Times Microwave Systems ........................ www.timesmicrowave.com .................................49
TMD Technologies Ltd .............................. www.tmd.co.uk ................................................ 51
W. L. Gore & Associates ............................ www.gore.com ..................................................33
X-Com Systems ........................................ www.xcomsystems.com/DataCapture..................65

73

JED

quick look

Details

Page #

Keysight, pulse analysis software ...................................................... 62

Afghanistan, seeking new RCIED jammers .......................................... 24

Large Aircraft IR Countermeasures for Air National Guard aircraft,


National Guard unfunded priorities list ........................................ 22

Krytar, directional coupler................................................................ 60

ALE-58A, BOL dispenser on F-15C....................................................... 50

Large Aircraft IR Countermeasures for USAF KC-135 aircraft,


US Air Force unfunded priorities list ............................................ 21

ALE-70 for F-35, US Air Force unfunded priorities list ......................... 20

Laser pod, RFI from Air Force Research Lab ........................................ 22

ALR-69A upgrade for F-16s, Air Force unfunded priorities list.............. 21

Lockheed Martin, integration of Advanced Offboard Electronic


Warfare (AOEW) into MH-60R/S system software ........................... 22

Avarint, Virtual Integrated Electronic Warfare Simulations


(VIEWS) II contract ..................................................................... 22
B-2 simulator radar and EW concurrency upgrade,
Air Force unfunded priorities list ................................................. 22
BAE Systems, BOL dispenser manufacturing in the US ........................ 48
Bob Work, speech on Third Offset Strategy ......................................... 16

The Journal of Electronic Defense | May 2015

Page #

Advanced Radar Threat System (ARTS), Air Force unfunded


priorities list .............................................................................. 22
Air Force Research Lab, Reconfigurable Electronics
for Multifunction Agile RF (REMAR) ............................................. 15

74

Details

Long Range Research and Development Planning Program (LRRDPP) .... 18


M/A-COM, GaN transistors ................................................................. 54
Microsemi, GaN transistors................................................................ 54
Microsemi, RTG4 FPGA family ............................................................ 60

BriteCloud RF decoy, testing on JAS-39 Gripen ................................... 24

Miniature Air Launched Decoy-Jammer (MALD-J),


US Air Force unfunded priorities list ............................................ 20

Capt Ronald M. Aung, USAF............................................................... 70

Northrop Grumman, GaN transistors .................................................. 56

Chemring Countermeasures UK, BOL chaff rounds ...............................48

NXP Semiconductors, GaN transistors................................................. 56

Chemring Countermeasures USA, BOL-IR rounds ................................. 48

Qorvo, digital attenuator .................................................................. 62

Common Electronic Attack Receiver (CEAR), Air Force


unfunded priorities list ............................................................... 22

Qorvo, GaN transistors ...................................................................... 56

Common IR Countermeasures (CIRCM) program,


US Army unfunded priorities list ................................................. 20

Radio Frequency Simulation Systems (RFSS),


Advanced Radar Target Generator ................................................ 60

Counter Radio-Controlled Improvised Explosive Device Electronic


Warfare (CREW) systems, USMC unfunded priorities list ................. 20
Counter-Electronic Attack-2 Kits, US Navy unfunded priorities list ...... 20
Cree, GaN MMIC ................................................................................ 62
Cree, GaN transistors ........................................................................ 54

Quadrennial Defense Review, strategic priorities ................................ 16

Radio Propagation, EW 101................................................................ 64


Reconfigurable Electronics for Multifunction Agile RF
(REMAR) BAA ............................................................................. 15
Rohde & Schwarz, new options for vector signal generator .................. 62

Defense Innovation Initiative (DII) ................................................... 18

Saab, additional Integrated Defensive Aids Suites (IDAS)


for Indian Dhruv helicopters ........................................................ 24

Dr. John L. Grigsby, obituary............................................................. 68

Saab, BOL-700 series dispenser .......................................................... 46

D-TA Systems, Rfvision-Broadview ..................................................... 60

Saab, BOZ-EC pod.............................................................................. 26

Electronic Warfare and Cyber Framework, Dstl .................................... 24

Saab, ESTL modular self-protection pod.............................................. 32

Electronic Warfare Avionics Integration Support Facility (EWAISF),


US Air Force unfunded priorities list ............................................ 21

Selex ES, BriteCloud RF decoy ........................................................... 24

Electronic warfare, at the forefront of conflict ................................... 18


Elettronica, ELT/568 airborne jammer ................................................ 42
F/A-18E/F Super Hornet aircraft, US Navy unfunded priorities list ....... 20
F-15 Eagle Passive/Active Warning Survivability System (EPAWSS),
Air Force unfunded priorities list ................................................. 21
F-16 missile warning upgrade, US Air Force unfunded priorities list..... 21
Freescale, GaN transistors ................................................................. 54
Future Vertical Lift, aircraft survivability equipment (ASE) ................ 22

Selex ES, Common Jamming Pod ........................................................ 40


Special Purpose Emitter Array (SPEAR) Generation 3
for EC-130H Compass Call, Air Force unfunded priorities list........... 21
Surface Electronic Warfare Improvement Program (SEWIP) Block II,
US Navy unfunded priorities list .................................................. 20
SUTER cyber warfare modifications, US Air Force
unfunded priorities list ............................................................... 21
Symphony RCIED jammers ................................................................. 24
Terma, Modular Countermeasures Pod ................................................ 32

Hittite Microwave Products, GaN transistors....................................... 54

Terma, Pylon Integrated Dispenser System (PIDS)............................... 38

Integrated Aircraft Survivability Equipment (IASE)


for MV-22 aircraft, USMC unfunded priorities list .......................... 20

Unfunded Priority List, sent to Congress ............................................ 18

Jack Donovan, obituary .................................................................... 70

United Monolithic Semiconductor, GaN transistors.............................. 56

Tornado Advanced IR Countermeasures (AIRCM) Pod ........................... 36

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