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Introduction to the mathematical theory
3 1924 001 599 806
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http://www.archive.org/details/cu31924001599806
ON TO THE MATHEMATICAL THE
:!ONDUCTION OP HEAT IN SOLID
MACMILLAN AND
LONDON
CO., Limited
BOMBAY CALCUTTA
MELBOURNE
MADRAS
THE MACMILLAN COMPANY
NEW YORK
BOSTON CHICAGO
SAN FRANCISCO
DALLAS
THE MACMILLAN
CO.
OF CANADA,
TORONTO
Ltd.
INTRODUCTION TO THE
MATHEMATICAL THEORY
OF THE CONDUCTION OF
HEAT IN SOLIDS
BY
H.
S!
CARSLAW
ScD. (Cambridge), D.Sc. (Glasgow), F.R.S.E.
PROFESSOR OF MATHEMATICS IN THE UNIVERSITY OF SYDNEV
FORMERLY FELLOW OF EMMANUEL COLLEGE, CAMBRIDGE, AND LECTURER IN MATHEMATICS
IN THE UNIVERSITY OF GLASGOW
SECOND EDITION, COMPLETELY REVISED
MACMILLAN AND
ST.
CO.,
LIMITED
MARTIN'S STREET, LONDON
1921
COPYRIGHT
First Published, 1906.
PRINTED IN GREAT BRITAIN
PEEFACE
This volume complekss the new edition
of iny book on Fourier's
and the Mathematical Theory of the Conduction
The original work was first published in 1906 and has now
of Heat.
for some time been out of print.
The first volume of the new
edition appeared towards the middle of this year, and deals with
the Theory of Infinite Series and Integrals, with special reference
to Fourier's Series and Integrals.
This formed a completely new
work with the title Fourier's Series and Integrals. The second
volume is devoted wholly to the Mathematical Theory of the
Conduction of Heat in Solids. This part of the book has also been
completely rewritten and much enlarged. It now includes a discussion of all the important boundary problems associated with the
Equation of Conduction. The treatment of these questions,
Series
and
Integrals
especially in the later chapters, should be of use to those interested
in the application of
modern
analysis to the solution of the differ
mathematical physics.
the Differential Equation of Conduction
ential equations of
In Chapter
I.
and some general theorems
is
obtained
as to its solution are established. Chapter
The next two chapters are devoted
The principal changes made in these chapters are
cpnnected with the more exact treatment of the Infinite Series and
Chapters V. and VI.,
Integrals which enter into the solutions.
which deal with TwoDimensional Problems and Flow of Heat in
II.
deals with Fourier's Eing.
to Linear Flow.
a Kectangular Parallelepiped, differ
chapters in the
little
from the corresponding
first edition.
Chapter VII. deals with the Circular Cylinder, Chapter VIII. with
the Sphere and Cone, Chapter IX. with Sources and Sinks, and
Chapter X. with Green's Functions.
additional matter.
These chapters contain much
PREFACE
VI
Chapters XI. and XII. are quite new.
"
The former
is
entitled
of
Contour Integrals in the Solution of the Equation of
Conduction."
Bromwich's recent work has directed attention
The Use
to the " operational
method
" of Heaviside.
It
is
questions examined in this chapter could be solved
But
to justify the operational
integration,
by me,
and the
method we must
true that
by
rely
all
the
that method.
upon contour
between the method developed
chapter, and the operational method is
chief difference
as illustrated in this
that I prefer in each case to turn to the standard path in the plane
of the
complex variable instead of using ^ kind
of
mathematical
shorthand.
In the
last chapter
Chapter XII.a sketch
is
given of the use
of Integral Equations in the solution of the Equation of Conduction.
This second volume could not have appeared so soon after the first
had I not been privileged to spend this year on leave of absence
from the University of Sydney in my old College at Cambridge.
For the f acihties so fuUy granted to me there I take this opportunity
of expressing
my
heartfelt thanks.
Emmanuel College,
Cambridge,
October, 1921.
CONTENTS
THE MATHEMATICAL THEORY OF THE CONDUCTION OF
HEAT IN SOLIDS
CHAPTER
THE DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION OF THE MATHEMATICAL THEORY
OF THE. CONDUCTION OF HEAT
SECTION
PAGE
1.
Introductory
2.
Conductivity
3.
Flow
of
Heat
across
an Isothermal Surface
4.
Flow
of
Heat
across
any Surface
5.
The Equation
6.
The Transformation
7.
Initial
8.
The Solution
9.
Simplification of the
j

4
g
of Conduction
of Coordinates
jq
and Boundary Conditions is
12
Unique
14
Problem
Ig
CHAPTER
II
FOURIER'S RING
10.
Introductory
11.
The Equation
12. Variable
20
of Conduction in the
Temperature
20
13.
Steady Temperature
14.
Neumann's Ring Method
Emissivity
Ring
22
25
for Determining the Conductivity
'
and
26
CONTENTS
CHAPTER
III
LINEAR FLOW OP HEAT. INFINITE AND SEfflINFINITE
SOLID AND BOD
i'KGE
15.
29
Introductory
1617.
The
Infinite
29
SoUd
18.
The
SemiInfinite
19.
The
Infinite or SemiInfinite
20.
Conductivity Experiments upon Bars.
SoUd
Rod
2122. Conductivity Experiments
23. SemiInfinite Solid.
Initial
of the
at Surface into
Medium
Solid.
Surface into
27. Terrestrial
28.
The Age
Variable Temperature
46
Temperature a Harmonic Function
Initial
...
Temperature Constant.
at Zero
Temperature Zero.
Medium whose Temperature
Time
Radiation
50
Radiation at
is
a Function
53
Temperature
Earth
of the
41
Surface Tempera
47
Initial
of the
39.

25. SemiInfinite Solid.
26. SemiInfinite
Time
Sxirface
Time
Steady Temperature
upon Bars.
33
38
Temperature Zero.
ture a Function of the
24. SemiInfinite Solid.
53
57
CHAPTER
IV
LINEAR FLOW OF HEAT. SOLID BOUNDED BY TWO PARALLEL
PLANES.
29. Introductory
3031. Finite
FINITE ROD.
Rod.
Initial
Temperature
61
Ends at
fix).
Zero.
Radiation
Rod. Ends at Fixed Temperatures.
Temperature

32. Finite
33. Finite
Rod.
f{x).
Radiation
Rod. Ends at Temperatures
Temperature /(.r). No Radiation
Neumann's Bar Method
Emissivity
for
Initial
<t>i{t)

66
Temperature
and
61
Steady

...
34. Finite
35.
Radiation.
Ends at Fixed Temperatures.
No
No
(fiiit).
g^
Initial
.
gS
Determining the Conductivity and
"
70
CONTENTS
ix
SECTION
KAGB
Kod. Radiation at Ends into Medium at Zero.
Temperature f{x). No Radiation at Surface
36. Finite
Initial
74
37. Application of this Solution to the Determination of the Con
ductivity
38.
and Emissivity
79
Equation of Conduction in a Wire heated by a Constant Electric
Current
81
3940. Determination of Blpctrioal
and Thermal Conductivities
83
CHAPTEK V
twodimbnsionaIj problems
41.
Introductory
4243. Infinite Rectangular Solid.
4445.
The Use
88
Steady Temperature
...
...
Conjugate Eunctions in Problems of Steady
.
Temperature
of
and Sinks
46. Sources
47. Variable
91
102
in Steady Temperature
Temperature
89
103
CHAPTER VI
FLOW OF HEAT
A RECTANGULAR PARALLELEPIPED
IN
105
48. Introductory
4950. Steady Temperature
5152. Variable
105
108
Temperature
CHAPTER
FLOW OF HEAT
VII
IN A CIRCULAR CYLINDER
113
53. Introductory
64. Infinite Cylinder.
Steady Temperature
114
55. Infinite Cylinder.
Variable Temperature
114
66.
The
Integrals
["
rJ{ar)J{^r)dr
and
rJ^{ar)dr
117
57. Applications of these Integrals
58. SemiInfinite Cylinder.
Steady Temperature
59. SemiInfinite Cylinder.
Variable Temperature
60. Finite Cylinder.
116
JO
Jo
Initial
Temperature f(r,
0, z).
121
122
Surface at Zero
124
CONTENTS
PAGE

125
62. General Problems on the Cylinder
127
Radiation
61. Finite Cylinder.
131
Determination of the Conductivity from Cylinders
63.
CHAPTER
VIII
FLOW OF HEAT IN A SPHERE AND CONE
Radiation at the Surface of a Sphere into
65.
Initial
135
64. Introductory
Medium
at Zero.
Temperature /(r).
136
Determination of the Conductivity and Emissivity from Spheres
66.
67. Surface of the
68. Solid
Initial
Temperature /(r,
bounded by a Sphere and Cone.
/{', d>
The Cone.
69.
Sphere kept at Zero.
Sizrface at
4>)
Initial
Initial
Zero
Temperature f{r,
140
4>)
141
Temperature
144
6,
d,
Surface at Zero
(j)).
147
CHAPTER IX
THE USE OP SOURCES AND SINKS IN CASES OF VARIABLE
TEMPERATURE
70. Instantaneous Point
Source
71. Spherical Surface Source
72. Instantaneous
Line Source
73. Instantaneous
Plane Source
74.
79.
151
152
153
Doublets
7578.
149
156
The Method
of
Images
158
Sommerfeld's Extension of the Method of Images
166
CHAPTER X
THE USE OF GREEN'S FUNCTIONS IN THE SOLUTION OF
THE EQUATION OF CONDUCTION
80. Introductory
81. Linear
Flow.
Initial
82.
The Same
SemiInfinite Solid
bounded by
Temperature f(x)
at Zero
Source at x' at t=Q.
Solid.

x=0
Radiation into

at
X69
4>{t).
.
172
Medium
.
173
CONTENTS
The Same Solid.
83.
ture
xi
Radiation into Medium at
cjb
Initial
().
Tempera
/(a;)
176
84. Finite Solid.
Source at
=0.
x' at
Boundaries a;=0 and
x^a
at Zero
The Same
85.
I77
Source at x' at =0.
Solid.
Medium
Radiation into
at Zero
180
86.
TwoDimensional Problems
87.
ThreeDimensional Problems
88. Infinite Cylinder.
Medium
The Wedge
90.
Initial
Surface at Zero
f{r, d).
Temperature
184
Radiation into
/(r,, 5).
at Zero
of
187
any Angle
91. Infinite Cylinder.
Initial
183
Temperature
Initial
89. Infinite Cylinder.
182
189
Surface
Planes 6=0, 5 = 00 at Zero.
r=a and
Temperature f{r, d)
194
Extensions of the Previous Results
92.
93. Sphere.
Initial
Temperature
196
J{r, d,
Surface at Zero
<f>).
198
CHAPTER XI
THE USE OP CONTOUR INTEGRALS IN THE SOLUTION OP
THE EQUATION OP CONDUCTION
94.
Introductory
95. SemiInfinite
End
Rod.
at v^
Initial
96.
The Same Rod.
End
97.
The Same Rod.
Radiation at
at a cos
Temperature Zero
Initial
oit.
End
201
into
202
Temperature Zero
Medium
at v
203
Initial
Temperature Zero
98.
The Same Rod.
Initial
205
Radiation at
End
into
Medium
Temperature Zero.
Rod of two Different Materials.
Temperature Zero
Ends
at Zero
and
v.
206
End at
99. SemiInfinite
100101. Pinite Rod.
at a cos at.
Initial
206
Initial
Temperature
Zero
102.
210
The Same Rod.
Zero
103.
Ends
The Same Rod.
at Zero
....
and
Ends at Zero and a cos
Ct.
cui.
Initial
Initial
Zero
104.
One End
at v^.
Initial
at Zero.
211
Temperature

The Same Rod.
Medium
Temperature
212
Radiation at the other into
Temperature Zero
212
CONTENTS
xii
PAGK
SKCTION
Rod
105106. Finite
and
tig.
107. Sphere.
Initial
108109. Sphere
Temperature Zero.
two Different
of
The Ends at Zero
Surface at
Materials.
Initial
Some Problems on
'
217
Temperature

218
222
the Cylinder
CHAPTER
213
Surface at Uo
Zero.
1 10.
two Different Materials.
Initial Temperature Zero
of
XII
INTEGRAL EQUATIONS AND THE EQUATION OP CONDUCTION
225
111. Introductory
112114. Integral Equations
115. Fourier's
and Linear Plow
of
Heat
Ring
227
232
116117. TwoDimensional Problems
118. ThreeDimensional
Problems
234
237
Examples on the Condttction of Heat
238
Appendix
I.
248
Appendix
II.
Note on Bessel's Function
Bibliography
List op Authors
Quoted
General Index
265
267
volume the author's book Fourier's
and Integrals (2nd Ed.), 1921, will be
[In this
Series
250
referred to as F.8.]
CHAPTER
THE DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION OF THE MATHEMATICAL
THEORY OF THE CONDUCTION OF HEAT
^^
1.
Introductory.
When
different parts of
a body are at different temperatures,
heat flows from the hotter to the colder.
rod
Consider the metal
ABCD,
FIG.
1.
and suppose it is heated at the end A from some external source.
For some time the temperature of the rod gradually rises, the parts
near A being heated first, but no change takes place at CD till BC
has had its temperature raised. Ultimately, if the end A is heated
long enough, it is found that a steady state of temperature is reached,
in which, while the temperature may vary from poiat to point,
it
remains the same at each point as the time changes.
This transference of heat from the hotter portions of a body
It must be distinguished
is called Conduction of Heat.
from Convection, on the one hand, and Eadiation, on the other.
In Convection the transference of heat is due to the motion of the
to the colder
heated body
itself,
as, for
example, when the different parts of a
liquid are at different temperatures, currents are
of which a uniform temperature
hotter
body
reached.
produced by means
In Eadiation the
and the colder body gains
some intervening medium.
loses heat
process occurring in
is
it
by means
of a
2. Conductivity.
The Mathematical Theory of the Conduction of Heat may be
said to be founded upon a hypothesis suggested by the following
experiment
THE DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION OF THE
metal plate
an extent
is
given,
bounded by two
parallel planes of
such
that, so far as points well in the centre of the planes
may
are concerned, these bounding surfaces
The two planes
be supposed
infinite.
are kept at different temperatures, the difference
not being so great as to cause any sensible change in the properties
of the soUd.
For example, the upper surface
temperature of melting
upon
it,
by a supply
ice
and the lower at a
may
be kept at the
pounded
of
fixed temperature
packed
ice
by having
a stream
of warm water continually flowing over it. When these conditions
have endured for a sufficient time the temperature of the different
points of the solid settles down towards its steady value, and at
points well removed from the ends the temperature will remain the
same along planes parallel to the surfaces of the plate.
Consider the part of the solid bounded by an imaginary cylinder
of crosssection
This cylinder
is
S whose axis
is
normal to the surface
of the plate.
supposed so far in the centre of the plate that no
flow of heat takes place across
its
generating lines.
Let the tem
perature of the lower surface be o C. and of the upper Vi C. {V(,>V]},
and let the thickness of the plate be d centimetres. The results of
experiments upon different metals suggest that when the steady
been reached, the quantity Q of heat
which flows up thrpugh the plate in t seconds over the surface S
state of temperature has
is
equal to
T;r,
o_.
'
d
where
is
a constant, caUed the Thermal Conductivity of the
substance, depending
upon the material
of
which
it is
made.
other words, the flow of heat between these two surfaces
is
In
pro
portional ta the difference of temperature of the surfaces.
This result must not be regarded as proved by these experiments.
They suggest the law rather than verify it. The more exact verification
is
to be found in the agreement of experiment with calculations
obtained from the mathematical theory based on the assumption
of the truth of this law.
Strictly speaking, the conductivity
is
not constant for the
same substance, but depends upon the temperature.
However,
when the range
K may be
neglected,
and
of temperature
is
Umited, this change in
in the ordinary mathematical theory
it is
that the conductivity does not vary with the temperature.
assumed
A nearer
MATHEMATICAL THEORY OP CONDUCTION OF HEAT
approximation to the actual state may be obtaiaed by making
a liaear function of the temperature v,
K==K^{l+av),
e.g.,
where a
is
small.
It is important to notice the dimensions
of K, as it is frequently
necessary to change the units of length, mass and time
in terms
which
of
it is
stated.
Z=
Smce
K'^i)
St'
dimensions will depend upon those of QI{voVj}.
The unit of heat is taken as that quantity which will raise unit
mass of water 1 C. The dimensions of Q/{vo~Vj) are then simply
its
[M], since the unit of heat varies jointly as the unit of mass and
the value of the degree.
[K]^^^^
It follows that
On
'mm
the c.G.s. system the unit of heat
which
will raise 1
gramme
of
water
is
the Calory, the quantity
C*
measure heat by the work necessary to prothe dynamical unit in this system would be the erg. The
relation between the calory and this unit is given to a sufficient
If it is desired to
duce
it,
approximation by the equation
1
calory =4'2x 10' ergs,
and the numerical value
be 4'2xl0' times
will
of
K, when heat
its
value
when
is
measured
this
in calories,
dynamical unit
is
employed.!
is the British Thermal Unit (b.t.u.), i.e. the
pound of water at its maximum density (39 P. ) by 1 F.
''Another unit sometimes used
quantitj' required to raise
B.T.U.
=252 '0
oal.
f Experiments show that the amount of heat required to raise 1 gramme of
water 1 are not quite the same at different temperatures, and in an exact definition of the calory the temperature of the water would need to be specified.
It is
usual to take for this specified temperature 15 C, and the calory will then be the
quantity of heat required to raise 1
this 15 calory we have the equation
1
gramme
of
water from 15 C. to 16 C.
For
calory =4184 x 10^ ergs.
See Kaye and Laby, Tables of Physical and Chemical Constants {4th Ed.),
p. 5.
THE DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION OF THE
In the fundamental experiment from which our definition of the
conductivity
and
of
is
derived, the solid
supposed to be homogeneous
is
such a material that, when a point within
hqat spreads out equally well in
all directions.
it is
Such a
heated, the
solid is said
to *be isotropic, as opposed to crystalline and nonisotropic soUds,
in which certain directions are more favourable for the conduction
of heat
than others.
There are also heterogeneous
solids, in
which
the conditions of conduction vary from point to point as well as in
direction at each point.
Theory
3.
of
In this book we shall examine only the
Conduction in Homogeneous Isotropic
The Flow
of
Solids.
Heat across an Isothermal Surface.
Consider an isotropic soUd with a distribution of temperature at
the time
given by
'v=f{x, y,
We may
z, t).
suppose a surface described in the soUd, such that at
every point upon
it
the temperature at this instant
is
the same,
Such a surface is called the Isothermal Surface for the
temperature F, and it may be looked upon as separating the
parts of the body which are hotter than 7 from the parts which
We may imagine the isothermals drawn for
are cooler than F.
this instant for difierent degrees and fractions of a degree.
These
surfaces may be formed in any way, but no two isothermals can
cut each other, since no part of the body can have two temperatures
The solid is thus pictured as divided up into
at the same time.
thin shells by its isothermals. Heat is flowing from one shell to
say F.
another, this flow of heat being along the normals to the surfaces,
as
no transference
of heat takes place along the surfaces of equal
temperature.
GeneraUsing the result of
2 we take as our fundamental hypothesis
for the Mathematical Theory of the Conduction of Heat that the rale
at
which heat crosses from
the inside to the outside of
an
isothermal
surface per unit area per unit time is equal to
dn
where v
is the
temperature of the surface,
K the
Thermal Conductivity
of the substance, and = denotes differentiation along the outward'
drawn normal
to the surface.
MATHEMATICAL THEORY OF CONDUCTION OP HEAT
As a particular case, when the isothermals are planes perpendicular
to the axis of x, the rate of flow of heat per unit area per unit time
's
~^ ^ in the direction of the positive axis of x.
as X increases, this rate wiU be positive.
the rate will be negative,
meamng
If is decreasing
If v increases as
that the
flow' of
x increases,
heat
is
in the
direction of the negative axis of x.
4.
The Flow
o!
Heat across any Surface.
We
have stated in the preceding article that we assume that
4he rate of flow of heat across an isothermal at a point P is
on
per unit area per unit time,
or, in
the language of differentials,
on
dS being an element
of the isothermal surrounding the point P.
We proceed to obtain an
analogous expression for the rate at which
heat flows across any surface, not necessarily isothermal, per unit
area per unit time at any point P.
We shall denote this rate of flow by /. The value of / will
depend upon the position of the point, the direction of the
normal to the surface at that point, and the time. We shall now
show that, if the values of/ are given for three mutually perpendicular
planes meeting at a point, its value for any other plane through
the point may be written down.
Consider the elementary tetrahedron PABC, whose three faces
PBC, PCA,
PAB
are parallel to the coordinate planes, while the
perpendicular to the face
cosines (A,
yu, v),
and
is
ABC from the
of length p.
point
then the
Let the area of ABC be A
PAB are respectively XA, /xA and i^A.
;
P has
the direction
(Fig. 2.)
areas of
PBC, PCA and
we denote the rates of flow for the elementary areas PBC,
PCA, PAB and ABC by f^, fy, /, and /, the rate at which heat
is gained by the tetrahedron is ultimately given by
If
THE DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION OF THE
However,
if
of gain of heat
and p are the
specific
heat and density, this rat
equal to
is
dv
Proceeding to the limit when jj^O, this expression becomes zero
and/a.,/^,/j and/ become the rates of flow at the point P acros
2
Fig. 2.
planes parallel to the coordinate planes
the
perpendicular to which
we have
is
and a plane through JF
Thu
/x, v).
in the direction (A,
x/.+m/. +./.=/
Now, according
to
our fundamental hypothesis, the rate
flow of heat across an isothermal surface per unit area per uni
time
is
equal to the product of the conductivity and the rate
diminution of the temperature in the direction of the normal t
the surface. Let P be a point upon the isothermal, and the nomas
at
the axis of
through P
z,
the axes of x and y being in the tangent plaD
Then /a; and/
are both zero, since
along the surface.
Therefore
/="/
dv
az
V^'"
no flow takes
plac
MATHEMATICAL THEORY OF CONDUCTION OF HEAT
3
where
denotes differentiation in the direction
^
dh
dv
dv
dv
dv
dv
(\,
dv
fx,
v),
since
Thus
the rate of flow of heat at a point across any surface
inside to the outside per unit a/rea per unit time is
from
the
K,
dn
where
^ denotes
differentiation along the
outwarddrawn
nmmal
to
the surface at the point.
5.
The Equation
of Conduction.
Consider the case of a homogeneous isotropic sohd heated in
any way and "then allowed to
point P{x,
the
y, z) will
The temperature v at the
x, y, z and t, and
cool.
be a continuous function of
first differential coefficients of
v will also be continuous.
Consider an element of volume of the sohd at the point P, namely,
the rectangular parallelepiped with this point as centre,
and
being parallel to the coordinate axes,
its
edges
of lengths 2dx, 2dy
and
2dz.
Let
is
ABCD
and A'B'G'D' be the
perpendicular.
Then the
where f^
ABCD(xdx)
is
of
flowing into
will ultimately
is
the rate of flow at
be
is
across the corresponding plane.
flowing out across the face
is
given by
idydz{f,+^^dx).
Thus the
rate of gain of heat
from these two faces
8dx dy
Similarly from the others
we
Sdxdydz^
But
Uydz{f,'^dx
Similarly the rate at which heat
A'B'G'D'
which the axis
rate at which heat
the parallelepiped over the face
gi^^^^y
faces to
this element of
volume
dz
is
equal' to
^.
obtain
and
is
Sdxdydz^.
gaining heat at the rate of
8dx dy dzcp
~r
THE DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION OP THE
Therefore
we have
But we have seen that
and
K is independent of x,
y and
z.
Therefore our equation becomes
/c=
where
cp
The constant k was called by Kelvin the DifEusivity of the suband by ClerkMaxwell its Thermometric Conductivity.
stance,
The dimensions
conductivity A'
of the diffusivity k are obtained at once
(of. p. 3).
Since c above
from those of the
the ratio of the quantity of heat
is
required to raise unit mass of the substance 1 C. to the quantity required
to raise unit mass of water 1C., it is of zero dimensions in mass, length
and time. Also the dimensions of the density p are [Jf]/[i'].
Thus we have
rrii
It follows that
the units of length and time are the foot and year
if
instead of the centimetre and second, the value of k for these units will
have to be multiplied by
system.
(30'48)'''/31557
x 10^ to reduce
it
to the.c.G.s.
(Cf. p. 58.)
By some
of the early writers
who
did not employ the
o.o.s.
system, the
thermal unit was taken as the amount of heat which would raise unit
volume of water 1 C.
Let
of these units
be required to raise unit volume of the substance
1 C.
Then the equation
where
is
the conductivity in terms of the
It is clear that
form
of conduction takes the
Kjc
in
this
system
new
is
unit.
equal to the diffusivity Kjpc
discussed above.
On
the other hand,
when
the thermal unit
is
the amount of heat required
to raise unit volume of water 1C., the numerical value of the. conductivity
with that obtained when the unit is the amount required to
mass of water 1 C, unless the linear unit is the centimetre.
will not agree
raise unit
MATHEMATICAL THEORY OP CONDUCTION OP HEAT
If
the solid
is
isotropic,
but not homogeneous, the equation for
V becomes
In the case of Steady Temperature, when the temperature does
not vary with the time, the equation becomes that of Potential.
Also if at the point P{x, y, z) there exists a source of heat supplying
in the time dt the quantity
Adt
of heat per unit
volume, the
equation becomes
^'^=a^(^aJ+a^(^a^)+a^(^aJ+^Such a condition
is
realised
when conduction
a wire along which an electric current
is
is
takes place along
flowing, since this current
generating heat in accordance with Joule's Law.
These results
that
when
^,
may also
ij,
^,
tinuous functions of
be obtained by the application
of Green's
Theorem,*
as well as their first differential ooefSoients, are conx,
y and
z,
inside
a closed
surface,
j\%+mr, +nC) dS =///(!+! +1) dx dy &,
(I,
m, n) being the directioncosines of the outwarddrawn normal, and the
and throughout its volume.
Suppose any such surface drawn lying wholly inside the given soM.
The rate at which heat flows out across the element dS of the surface is
integrations being taken over the surface,
m+mf,+nf,)dS.
Therefore the total rate of gain of heat within the surface
is
jjilL+rnfy+nf,)dS.
But
this rate of gain of heat
may
also be expressed
by
fff{op^^dxdydz,
the integration being taken through the region bounded by this surface.
Jjjcp'^^dx dy dz + fj{lfj, .+ /; +/.) dS =0.
Thus
Therefore by Green's Theorem
this holds whatever closed surface we consider, provided
within the solid and no source of heat exists within it.
and
* Cf.
Lamb, Hydrodynamics,
42.
it lies
wholly
THE DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION OF THE
10
Apply
this result to the
element surrounding the point P(x,
y, z),
and we
obtain the equation
"'
"Pdt^dx^dy^dz
as before.
6.
The Transformation
These equations
may
of Coordinates.
be easily transformed into other systems
orthogonal coordinates, the most useful being the Spherical
of
Polar System, in which the position of the point
by
its
distance r from the origin,
and the CyUndrical System,
the polar coordinates
and the coordinate
r,
in
Q of
which
its
and
latitude 0,
its
its
position
is
is
determined
its
azimuth 0,
determined by
projection on the plane of x, y,
z.
These are special cases of the general system of orthogonal coordinates, in
which the position of a point
given by the iater
is
section of the three orthogonal surfaces,
^=const.,
We
proceed to show
how
>;=const.,
f=const.
this transformation
may most
easily
be
affected.
Consider the element of volume bounded by the surfaces id^,
and let A'B'C'D' and
be the faces i+d^.
ABCD
ridr,, f eZf,
Let
ds^=X''di^+/ui.''d,,^+v^d^^
be the equation giving the length of the elementary arc joining
(^,
f) and {i+d^, rj+drj, C+d^).
Then the area of the section of the ^ surface through P{^,
cut off by the surfaces ijd>i, ^d^ is given by
the points
ri,
4/xi/ dt]
and the
r/,
d^,
rate at which heat flows across this section per unit time
iflV
dr]
f)
is
d^fi,
across the surface ^.
f{ being the rate of flow of heat at
Therefore the rate at which heat flows into the element across
the face
ABCD is ultimately
4 [/^"/^^(fxvfi) dij
and the
dr,
d^,
rate at which heat flows out across the face A'B'C'D'
^{f^vh+YMh)di)dr,d^.
is
MATHEMATICAL THEORY OF CONDUCTION OF HEAT
Hence the
total rate of gain of heat
The other
faces give respectively
from these two faces
is
8 (XmA) didr, d^.
8 1 (.A/,) didr, dl
Inserting the values of/^,/, and/f, namely,
f__Kdv
^^~
f__Kdv
f__Kdv
J'~
di'
^^~
9'?'
'"
H'
and equating the expression we thus obtain to
SXfiv
d^ d>] d^cp ^,
we have
which reduces to
dv
when
is
constant,
and
as usual
we have
written
k=
cp
Spherical Polar Coordinates.
In this system
=r sin
y=r sin
a;
z=r
61
cos ^,
d sin
(p,
cos 6,
ds^=dr^+rHe^+r'sm^9d<l>^.
and
Therefore the equation for v becomes
dv
K[d (
TrT^ldrV
which
may
dv\.
d (
dr) +ii5^ 30
3d\
V'
dH^
d<t,^J
be written
dv_
where fi=cos
dH.28v,ld(.
Bv\
0.
Cylindrical Coordinates.
In this system
and
doJ "^sin^ 6
x=r
cos 6,
y=r
sin 6,
dsa=rfrH'''c?0'+'^z'
d'vl
11
THE DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION OF THE
12
Therefore the equation for v becomes
dv_K
'dt~r
may
which
drV drr dd\r ddr dz\
be written
dv
j^K
7. Initial
Before
"r..2 Ofl2"r
and Boundary Conditions.
we can proceed
which wiU express the
to the mathematical discussion of the
it is
necessary to determine the fofmulae
Initial
and Boundary Conditions which the
problems of Conduction,
These are partly the direct expression of
the results of experiment and partly the mathematical statement
temperature
of hypotheses
We
I.
satisfies.
founded upon these
assume that
in the interior of the solid v
function of x, y, z and
differential coefficient
difEerential coefficients
results.
and that
and of the
with regard to x, y and z.
with regard to
is
a continuous
this holds also of
t
first
the
first
and second
Initial Conditions.
II.
The temperature throughout the body is supposed given arbitrarily
at the instant which
If this arbitrary
of our
we
problem which
to this value.
take as the origin of the time coordinate i.
function
is
continuous,
shall, as
In other words,
if
we
require to find a solution
converges to zero, also converge
the
initial
temperature
is
given by
our solution of the equation,
must be such that
Lt
()
=f{x,
y, z)
t>0
at all points of the sohd.
If
the
initial distribution is
discontinuous at points or surfaces,
and
in this
must disappear after ever so short a time,
case our solution must converge to the value given by
the
initial
temperature at
these discontinuities
all
points where this distribution
is
continuous.
Boundary or Surface Conditions.
The Surface of Separation of two Media of
ductivities Ki and K^.
III.
(A)
Different Con
MATHEMATICAL THEORY OF CONDUCTION OF HEAT
Let ^1 and v^ denote the temperatures in the two media.
it is
assumed that at the surface
13
Then
of separation the temperatures are
the same.
Suppose an element
tion,
off
of area
and that an element
lengths
quantity
of
dS taken upon the surface of separavolume is constructed by measuring
along the normals over this area into both media, the
being an infinitesimal of a lower order than the linear
dimensions of dS.
FIG.
Then the
rate at
which heat
is
3.
gained by this element of volume
from the flow over the surface will ultimately be
the differentiations being taken along the normals from the common surface into each medium, the contribution from the ends
being negligible.
Equating
Ci,
Cg
this to the expression
being the specific heats and
media, and proceeding to the Hmit
and
pi,
p^ the densities of the two
when
vanishes,
we have
'yi=2.
as the conditions at the surface of separation of the two substances.
(B) When radiation takes place at the surface of the soUd iato
a gas at the temperature
v^^,
it
is
assumed, and the assumption
THE DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION OF THE
is
suggested by experiment, that the loss of heat per unit area per
unit time
is
proportional to the difference of the temperatures
of the surface
and the
H{vVq), where
and
solid
its
is
In other words this
gas.
This quantity
surface.
loss of
heat
is
constant associated with the state of the
a,
Exterior Conductivity, and
is
called the Bmissivity or
foimd to vary considerably with
it is
the temperature and the state of the surface, so that in experiments
on conduction
it is
best, as far as possible,
always to reduce the
heat by radiation at the surface to the magnitude of a small
loss of
by treating the surface with a suitable material.
The conditions at the surface follow in the same way as above,
and we have
g^
correction
^+h{vVo)=0,
H/K=h, and
where
the differentiation
is
taken along the outward
drawn normal.
(C)
There are other possible surface conditions.
may be
The boundary
kept at a constant temperature, or at a temperature which
and with the time or the
boundary may be rendered impervious to heat. The analytical
varies with the position of the point
expressions for these cases are obvious.
In the mathematical treatment of the question these surface and
conditions are not regarded as conditions which v
itself
is
They
or at the instant t=0.
must
satisfy
on
ttie
initial
surface
are taken as limiting conditions, and
it
required in the one case that our solution shall converge to the given surface
or initial value, and in the other case that the differential coefficients in the
limit as
8.
we approach the
The Solution
We
shall
surface shall satisfy the corresponding conditions.
Problem
of the
now show
is
Unique.
that the general problem of conduction,
based upon the equation of conduction and these
conditions, admits of only one solution.
If possible, let there
initial
be two independent solutions
equations
~,=kVH
v=f(x,
v=(p{x,
Let
in the solid,
y, z) for
y, z,
V=ViV2.
t)
t=0
in the solid,
at the surface.
and surface
v^, v^ of
the
MATHEMATICAL THEORY OF CONDUCTION OP HEAT
Then
15
satisfies
dV
^=kV^V in
the solid,
F=0 for t=0 in the solid,
F=0 at the surface.
We shall prove that V must be zero everywhere
in the solid.
Consider the volume integral
the integration being taken through the
solid.
=k{{{vWW dx dy dz.
But by Green's Theorem,
\\v ~^dS={{{vVWdx dy dz
the integrals being taken over the surface and through the volume
of the solid.
Therefore
Since
is
zero
over the surface, the
first
integral vanishes,
and we obtain
'M()"f)"+>*Therefore
THE DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION OF THE
16
shows that there can be only one solution
similar discussion
for the
problem with the other Boundary Conditions and for the
case of Steady Temperature. To prove that the equations must
have a solution is another matter. Their physical interpretation
requires that this be true
the mathematical demonstration of
:
such Existence Theorems belongs to Pure Analysis.
9. Simplification of the
When
General Problem of Conduction.
the surface conditions do not vary with the time,
we may
reduce the general problem to depend upon two simpler cases,
one of these being a case of Steady Temperature.
For example, when we have to
satisfy
=k:V^, through the soUd,
3v
'"=fi^> y> 2) initially,
and
=c/)(a;, y, z)
we may put
v=u\w,
where m
is
a function of
at the surface,
x, y, z only,
\I^u=Q through the
and
and
u=(j>{x, y,
is
a function of
x, y, z
z)
and
and
at the surface
t,
z)u
solid,
initially,
w=0 at the surface.
and
The
y,
such that
=k'W^w through the
wf{x,
satisfies
solid,
first
is
a case of Steady Temperature, and the second
is
case of Variable Temperature with zero surface temperature.
The case
medium whose temperature does
be treated in the same way.
the surface temperature varies with the time, or when
of
Radiation into a
not vary with the time
When
may
radiation takes place at the surface into a
medium whose tem
perature varies with the time, three different methods
employed.
two
The
first is
may
be
due to Duhamel, who showed that these
cases could be reduced to those of constant surface temperature
or radiation into a
medium
method corresponds
at constant temperature.
The second
to the use of Green's Function in the Theory
MATHEMATICAL THEORY OF CONDUCTION OF HEAT
of Potential.
integrals.
At
we
I.
z,
in which the initial temperature
is <f>{x, y, z,
t),
is
When
X), then the solution of the
problem
the surface temperature
Q^F{x,y,z, X, t\)d\.
is zero from t=ao
to t=0,
from
t=0
X)
to t=t, we may say that the initial
zero and the surface temperature is 0(a;, y, z, X),
the surface temperature
<p{x, y, z,
temperature
is
so that the temperature at the time
v=F{x,
when
Therefore
t=X and
and
is zero,
given by
^=J
(p(x, y, z,
Also when the
t=\^d\ and 0(a;,
<=X
X) from
X,
given by
t is
when t>0.
t),
y,z, X,
to t=t,
is
zero from
i= oo
X)
z,
< X), when t>\.
is zero from = oo
from t=\\d\ to t=t, we have
y, z, X,
Hence when the
to
we have
surface temperature
y,
v=F{x,
<p(x, y, z,
y,
z,
the surface temperature
v=F{x,
tX,
If v=F{x, y, z, \, t) represents the temferature at {x, y, z) at the
t
a solid in which the initial temperature is zero, while its
surface temperature is <p{x, y,
and
Duhamel's method, which
shall refer only to
depends upon the following theorem
time
involves the use of contour
tliird
XL)
Ch.
this stage
The
Ch. X.)
(Cf.
(Cf.
17
to
t~\~dX), when t>X+dX.
surface temperature
zero from
is
t=co
to
X)from i!=X to t=X\dX, and zero from tX\dX
we have
to t=t,
v=F{x,
y, z, X,
tX)F{x,
y, z, X,
tX~dX),
or ultimately
v=^F(x,
y,
z,X, tX)dX.
{t>X)
In this way, by breaking up the interval t0 to t=t into these
small intervals, and then
find the
solution
^(a;, y, z, t) in
of
results thus obtained,
the form
v^j
* Cf. J.
C.C.H.
summing the
ec.
we
the problem for the surface temperature
^^F{x, y,
z,
polytech., Paris, 14,
X,
tX)dX.
Cah. 22,
p. 20, 1833.
THE DIFFERENTIAL EQUATION OF THE
18
The corresponding theorem
follows
If v=F(x,
II.
the
for
case
radiation
of
is
the time
y,
z,
\,
t)
represents the temperature at {x, y, z) at
in a solid in which the initial temperature is zero, while
radiation takes place at
surface into a
its
medium
at (p{x, y,
z, \),
then the solution of the problem in which the initial temperature
and
zero,
as
the temperature of the
medium
is
^{x, y,
is
z, t),
is
given by
j^F(x,y,z,\,tX)d\.
=J
When
into
the surface temperature, or the temperature of the
which radiation takes
place, does
but changes only with the time, these results
slightly simpler
III.
time
is
form as follows
medium
not vary from point to pointi
may
be stated in a
If v=F(x, y, z, t) represents the temperature at (x, y, z) at the
in a solid in which the initial temperature is zero, while its surface
kept at temperature unity [or, in the case of radiation, while radiation
takes place into
a medium
at temperature unity],
then the solution
of the problem when the surface is kept at temperature
the case of radiation, while radiation takes place into
temperature
(j>{t)],
is
[or, in
at
given by
=!' 4,{X)j^F{x,
Now
(p(t)
a medium
y, z,
t\)d\.
the general problem with varying surface temperature
requires the solution of the equations
dv
=kVH through the solid,
=/(;, y,
z) initially,
v=(j){x, y,
z, t)
""^
at the surface.
Put v=u{w, where
=/cV% through the
M=0
solid,
initially,
u=(p(x,
y, z, t)
at the surface
MATHEMATICAL THEORY OF CONDUCTION OF HEAT
and
^=(cV%
w=f{x,
w=0
The equations
for
through the
solid,
y, z) initially,
at the surface.
u we have
in their simplest form.
19
just discussed.
Those for
Hence Duhamel's Theorem
are
simplifies this
problem and reduces it to the case of surface temperature independent
of the time.
CHAPTER
II
FOURIER'S RING
10. Introductory.
From
symmetry
reasons of
ture or the form of the soUd,
for the temperature
may
be simplified,
in the initial distribution of tempera
it will
often
happen that the equations
which we have obtained in the previous chapter
and that one, and sometimes two, of the co
ordinates disappear from these equations.
For example,
dealing with a sphere in which the initial temperature
is
if
we
are
a function
only of the distance r from the centre, and the surface conditions
same
are the
over the sphere, the temperature will depend
all
Similarly, if the soUd is bounded by two parallel
and x=a, and if the initial temperature is a function
of X only, and the surfaces are kept at constant temperatures, the
isothermals will remain planes parallel to the bounding planes,
and the teniperature will depend only upon x and t. Further,
in the case of an infinite cylinder whose generating hues are
only upon r and
planes,
t.
x=0
the axis
parallel
to
same
aU points on
at
of
z,
when the
initial
distribution
lines parallel to this axis,
is
the
and the boundary
same nature, the temperature will depend
and wiU be the same at points in the cylinder
conditions are of the
only upon
which
11.
One
lie
x,
y and
on hues
t,
parallel to the axis.
The Equation
of Conduction in Fourier's Ring.
of the simplest
duction of Heat,
and most suggestive problems
in the Con
when the temperature depends only upon
coordinate and the time,
one
Problem of the Ring. This
problem is also of special interest, as it was the first to which
Fourier applied his mathematical theory, and for which the results
of his mathematical iavestigation were compared with the facts of
is
Fourier's
experiment.*
* Fourier,
TMorie analytique de
20
la chuleur, Ch. II.
and IV.
FOURIER'S RING
For simplicity we shall suppose the ring to be formed by tt
its normal crosssection, a circle of small radiu!
about an axis perpendicular to the plane of the ring, though th
revolution of
investigation will also apply to
any curved bar of small cross
which forms a closed curve with no loops.
The crosssection is supposed so small that the temperatui
may be regarded as the same at all points of the section. Th
section, the axis of
and the problem
temperature at any point in the ring when
initial distribution is given,
by
to cool
radiation and conduction, or
the surface
We
is
is
it
to determine th
has been allowe
by conduction
alone,
whe
impervious to heat.
choose the length x from a fixed point on the
circle passin
through the centres of the normal sections as the coordinate definin
circle.
We examine the movemen
volume contained between the sectior
ah and a '6' at distances x and x\dx from the origin, the area of th
crosssection being o) and the perimeter p.
The rate at which heat flows into this element over the face a
the position of a point on this
of heat in
is
an element
of
equal to
dv
rate at which
and the
Hence ultimately the
given by
it
flows out over a '6'
is
rate of gain of heat due to the
two ends
92^
K^^codx.,
The
rate at which heat
of the element
where
is
is
is
being lost by radiation at the surfac
H{vVf,)pdx,.
the emissivity
and the
total rate of gain of heat
therefore ultimately
(K^o,j)H{vVoy)dx.
But,
if
c is the specific heat
this rate of gain of heat is
and p the density
also ultimately equal to
dv
cp^.w dx.
,,
Therefore
dv
dH
a",
a7=
cp dx^
dt
Hp.
^(^'"o)
cpw
of the substance
FOURIER'S RING
22
^=X
Writine;
~=k,
and
cp
cpuj
we have
^^\{vVa).
g=/c
Wlieii the surface
and
form by substituting
be reduced to
this
is
g^^
g^
Also the case in which there
zero,
rendered impervious to heat
is
the equation becomes
radiation
is
^^^
may
\ue>'K
the external temperature o being constant.
is not constant, a similar discussioD
It win be noticed that when
leads to the equation
dv
12.
d(dv\
Cp ax\
at
0x1
The Variable Temperature
Hp,
cpoo
of the Ring.
Consider the distribution of temperature in such a homogeneous
isotropic ring of unit radius,
when there is no radiation at the surface,
and the
is
initial
temperature
an arbitrary continuous
satisfying Dirichlet's Conditions
In this problem
we
shall
(cf.
fimction/(a;),
F.S., 93),* while /(7r)=/(7r).
suppose this arbitrary function continuous.
In the other cases of Linear
Flow
of
Heat the
difficulties
introduced
by discontinuities in the initial temperature will be examined, f
The equations for the temperature are the following
:
dv
,^
d^v
(2)
(3)
(?)
\dx/x= =(?)
\dxJx
the third condition simply expressing the fact that the temperature
and the flow
of heat
must be continuous at the point given by
a;=7r, or the opposite end of the diameter through the
origin.
Let the Fourier's Series for /(a;) be
o+(%
* In this
''OS
a;+6i sin x)\{a^ cos Ix^h^ sin
2a3)
...
volume the author's hook Fourier's Series and Integrals (2nd
1921, will he referred to as F.8.
t Cf. e.g. 17. 30, 31.
Ed.),
FOURIER'S RING
23
so that
1 C"
0'n=1
and
hn= 
fix')
COS nx' dx',
/(a;')
sin nx' dx'.
Consider the function v defined
ao+(ai cos x\\
by the
infinite series
sin a;)e'"+(a2 cos 2a;+62 sin 2a;)e''2'+
...
00
2(*flCos?ia;+6sinwa;)e'"'^'rt=0
It
is
clear that each
equation
term
of this series satisfies the difierential
and the conditions (3), and that if we were deaUng
with the sum of a finite number of terms, the sum would also satisfy
these conditions. In the case of an infinite series we have seen *
that we must proceed with more caution.
Since f{x) is bounded,! there is a positive number
such that
/(a;)<il4' in (x, k).
It follows that aoi<'^= k<2M and
(1)
6
<2M for all values of n.
Therefore
(a cos
nx +6
where
But the
is
sin
series
wa;)e'"'^'
<4Me'"'^',
= o<0.
<
^e"""^'"
convergent, and
its
terms are independent both of x and
therefore the series
00
2(n cos nx\bn sLQ nx)e''^^'^
=o
is
uniformly convergent for any interval of
regarded as a function of
tg
t,
it is
x,
when t>0, and
uniformly convergent when t^tf)>0,
being any positive number.
The function v defined by this series is thus a continuous function
X and a contiauous function of i in these intervals. (Of. F.S., 68.)
It is easy to show that the series we obtain by term by term
differentiation of v with respect to x and t are also uniformly convergent in these intervals of x and t respectively. Thus these series
of
represent the diSerential coefficients of the function
71.)
* Cf. F.S., Ch. V.
t Of P'S'. 24, 31.
v.
(Of.
F.8.,
FOURIER'S RING
24
^
= V)cw^(a cos nx\b sin a;)e~''"^',
^"2
= 2'f'*^(*n COS nx+b sin wx)e""^',
Hence
/(
''^
n=0
dv_
and
Thus
satisfies
i;
Now
d^v
the differential equation
(1).
the series which defines v has been shown to be uniformly
convergent for any interval of x, when t>0, and thus to be continuous
m such an interval,
and the same holds
But the values we obtain
the same.
and
Therefore.
^t
similarly
It
when we
for v
^^ (^)_
jj.
^
dv
of the series for
substitute
xir
are
(^^^
()= i*^(S)
would have been more correct to state the conditions
our problem in this form, since
we
the value of these functions for
a;=7r
are not so
much
(3) of
concerned with
as with their limits
when
tends to 7r.
We
initial
have now to examine whether the function v satisfies the
conditions (2). For this purpose we must use the extension
of Abel's
Theorem
(cf.
that the series for v
F.S., 73,
is
since
we have only proved
when i5i<o>0, and
uniformly convergent
without further examination
when t=0
I.),
we could not
use the fact that v=f{x)
as equivalent to the initial condition (2), which
t^a*
is
reaUy
Lt {v)=f{x).
tsO
In the extension of Abel's Theorem above referred
that
is
when
a convergent series whose
sum
is
to,
we saw
A, then the
series
0(O=aoe'+aie''i*+...,
where
= ao<ai<... and 0<t,
is
also a convergent series,
Lt <p(t)=ao+ai+ ...=A.
(>0
Let us apply this theorem to the
series
v=ao\(aiCos x{bj^sia.x)e~''^+ ...
and
FOURIER'S RING
Since
fies
we have assumed
Dirichlet's
25
that the continuous function f{x) satistt^k^tt, and that
Conditions in the interval
fM=f{T!), we know that the
cos
<'So+('fi
converges to the value f{x)
series
x+bi
sin
a;)
..;
m the whole iaterval
tt
= ^ x.
a;
(Of.
F.S., 95.)
Thus our
series
converges
when t=0, and our theorem
tells
us that
U{v)=f(x).
Therefore
=2(^ ^'^^ nx+b sia wa;)e''"^'
11=0
satisfies all
the conditions of the problem.
13. The Steady Temperature of the Ring.
Let the section of the ring at a;=7r be maintained at a constant
temperature V until the flow of heat has become stationary along
the ring, radiation taking place into a
perature, which
we take
The equations
and
medium
at a constant tem
as the zero of our scale.
for v are
(1)
^ju^v=0, where iJ.^^,'{ir<x<ir)
(2)
v=F
at a;=7r,
(3)
j=0
at
x=0,
the last equation being required by the symmetry of the distribution
of temperature.
The general
solution of (1)
is
v=A cosh(/;ia;a),
A
and a being arbitrary constants, and
by the solution
it is
clear that all the con
ditions are satisfied
cosh ax
v=VTT cosnxr^'
/uTT
which thus expresses the
method
final state of
temperature in the
of determining the conductivity
result.*
* Of. 32.
is
ring.
founded upon
this
FOURIER'S RING
26
Let the temperatures be
and
and
in the ring,
ajj
any three points
v^ at
^rH,=^^+^l^_^^_3=2
Then
cosh
and
and
Vi, v^
cCi,
x^
This result
is
let
for three such points this ratio
confirmed by experiment, and was
Putting {VijV3)/v2='2n, say,
cosh^uZ,
fix^
is
first
constant.
pointed out by
we have
Fourier.*
e'^=ni'\/(n^l),
lJ^=log(n+^/{n^l)).
and thus
we have two rings of equal' perimeter, crosssection and
and temperature observations are taken at three points,
as described above, we would obtain the ratio of their conductivities
in the form
_ logKf VK^1
If,
then,
emissivity,
))Y
2%
and 2w2 being the values of (Vi+Vsj/v^ in the two substances.
The disadvantage of this method is the uncertain character
of
the emissivity.
14.
Neumann's King Method
and Emissivity.
of obtaining the Values of the Con
ductivity
Suppose the
ring, as in 13,
heat has become steady.
the ring
is
heated at a;=7r until the flow
The source
of heat is
allowed to cool, radiation taking place into a
constant temperature, which
we
shall take as zero.
time from the instant at which the source of heat
equations for v are as follows
(1)
cosh yUX
.
/'dv\
Fourier,
loc. cit,
is
_(dv\
107110.
\,
=o..a.s
{t>0)
and
u=a/.
\/c
at
removed, the
Tr<x<ir)
/ULTT
X=
^, k=
cpw
cp
where
(*>^'
"S^
<^)
medium
Measuring the
Jt"^" dx^"^'"'
of
then removed, and
FOUBIER'S RING
27
Putting v=e''% these equations give
(4)
(5)
(6)
(>0)
But, using the Cosine Series for
5?^^
namely,
cosh /xx
cosh
/xa;
_ 2 tanh
cosh ^TT
/^tt
"
our solution for v f oUows at once, and
^tanh
cos MTT
TT
7re'^'
TT
is
given by
^COSWtt
os+Zj
Vm
L2/x2
+*g
coswxe
icn'^f
After a considerable time has passed, the convergency of this
becomes very rapid owing to the presence of the factor e ''''""''.
Neglecting the terms after the first two, we have the equations,
series
Vq+i>^=
tanh
mtt
e"'^',
fjLTT
iVfX
Vo+V^=f
tanhyU7re<''+^^',
(M^+l)7r"
connecting the temperatures at
x=0
and
a;=7r.
This method requires the observations of the temperature
the ring
is
cooling at the points x='0
and x=ir.
when
These observations
should be taken at equidistant intervals after a sufl&cient time has
passed to allow our approximations to hold.
the observed values of
are satisfied,
If these conditions
log(t;,d='yo) will
he on two
straight lines.
Let
Vo\v^=ai
Vf,\v^=a2
when
when
t=ti,
i=<2.
Then
and
The mean
of X.
of a set of such observations
wiU thus give the value
FOURIER'S RING
2$
In the
CHAPTER
III
THE LINEAR FLOW OF HEAT.
THE INFINITE AND SEMIINFINITE SOLID AND EOD
15. Introductory.
In this chapter we shall examine the different problems where
the isothermal surfaces are planes parallel to a;=0 and the, flow
of heat
X.
is
linear, the
lines
of flow being parallel to the axis of
It will be seen that the results
we
obtain in this
way
also
serve for the flow of heat along straight rods of small crosssection
when
there
is
no radiation at the
surface.
After obtaining the solution for the Infinite SoUd,
to examine, in detail, the
many
we proceed
important problems of Linear Flow
of Heat in the SemiInfinite Solid, or the solid which is bounded
by the plane a;=0 and extends to infinity in the direction of x
positive.
Various applications of these results in obtaining the
values of the Conductivity will be noticed.
The corresponding
problems in the case of the Finite Solid bounded by the planes
a;=0 and x=a will be treated in the next chapter.
16.
The
Infinite Solid.
In the theoretical case where the solid
initial
temperature
is
given by the equation
i)=/(aj),
the equation of conduction reduces to
is
unbounded and the
THE LINEAR FLOW OF HEAT
30
du
Since
^57=
also
an
 fi
4'H
2rf^
a;2
tB
^rr,
i*'
integral.
particular integrals
also
is
an
integral,
sum
v=^
which
is
of
is
convergent.
f{x+2V{Kt)i)e^'di.
In the limit when t^>0,f{x\2\/(Kt)^)=f{x),
and it
given by
continuous
is
any number
a;'=aj+2V(rf)f>
find that
integral
of
and thus
the equation, assuming that this integral
Putting
we
^
<,
4:k2*
Further, the equation being linear, the
satisfies
*'
a particular integral of the differential equation.
is
Therefore
is
:^
je
4/ci
tC
;^s=
2
9a;'
this expression
X^
92jf
^
4'
2P
and
=6
is
assumed that the
if
this function
is
Uniiting value of this
equal tof(x).
Therefore the temperature in the Infinite Solid at time
t,
due
to the initial temperature
v=f(x),
''
^^^'^ ^^
"=2vfe^)E/(^')
The corresponding
CO
*^*^
^=
results for
^''"^dx'.
two and three dimensions are
00
(2^(TKf)) j
] f^'^'V''^')^
*"'
dx'dy'dz'.
00 CO CO
Since
Jo
e"'''cos26a;(ia;=^e'^,*
2a
* Cf. J./S., p. 195, Ex. 13,
and Gibson, Treatise on
the Calculus (2nd. Ed.), p. 469.
AND
INFINITE
and therefore
AND EOD
SEMIINFINITE SOLID
*^<
cos a {x' x) da =ir7r7K
''''
Jo
i>J\Kt)
we may transform
expression for
tlie
poo
i)
into
poo
dx'\
TtJ 00
f{x') cos
a(a;'
x)
""''
(?a,
Jo
a form which would be suggested by Fourier's Integral for
(<
j";"
namely,
.]^
^1 ^<^\ f{x')cosa(x'x)dx'.
TT Jo
J m
The above
17.
Solid
is
/(.t),
the form in which Laplace's solution for the Infinite
There are several points in the argument which
if the discussion is to be at all rigorous.*
usually presented.
is
31
obviously require fuUer treatment
I.
We
shall assume, in the first place, that the arbitrary function f{x)
bounded for aU values
in any given interval.
is
Let
of
v{x,
This integral
is
/(ir)l<Jf, forallvaluesof
a; {e.gr.
t)
=iriTT\
r fi^'W^^
convergent when <>0, and
a;
Then
t.
be a point at which the arbitrary function
to the positive
number
sponds a positive number
e,
dx'.
is
(Cf. F.8., 86).
continuous.
chosen as small as we please, there corre
such that
ij
\f(x')f(x)\<l, when
1
and integrable
can be differentiated under
it
the sign of integration, both with regard to x and
Let
a;}
Denote these integrals by
/j, I^
r"
fx+T)
/"^i?
and
x\^7].
\x'
\
_(x'xf
I^.
yi7
JTTJcc
Therefore
Now
7]
is
/i)/2v(')
'""" ""'
\Ii\<^f
known
since the integral
it
follows that
we can
""'
du.
choose, t^ so that
e"'dM<jTjje, when 0<i^i,
e"
du converges.
* For the bearing of this work on the representation of continuous functions
series of polynomials, reference may be made to Borel, Lemons sur lea fonctiona
by a
de va/riables redles, p. 50, Paris, 1905.
THE LINEAR FLOW OF HEAT
32
Thus
0<t^ti.
^liei
\h\<h'
we can choose
Similarly,
so that
t^
^sl<ie.
when 0<t^ta.
Further,
fl
i^x)''
4
^TT
a:)'
(a:'
Z^(TrKt) Jx  7)
sJtt J  7)/2^/((cO
=?IM (
/J..
e"'
du 
\Jo
e"' dji)
'W(0
'
Therefore
But we can choose
i^
so that
^14^
Vtt
_J_
Also
^VM /We
Therefore
But
if
is
fix)
t)
the smallest of
\v(x,
I)
ty,
t^
^a''<jV/
''''
e"'(i
<^e, when >0.
when 0^^2.
^2 /(a;)<ij
v{x,
Thus,
e''du<y, when 0<<^/2.
J7,/V(<0
=h+(h m) + hand
ig,
we have
when 0<<^t.
f{x)\<e,
In other words, we have shown that
Uv{x,t)=fix),
when X
is
any point at which f{x) is continuoiis,and the function has been assumed
all valves qfx and integrable in any given interval.
bounded for
n.
It will be found
by a
similar
argument that
Lt v{x,t)=l{f(x+Q)+f(xQi)},
when the
limits /{a;
+0) and/(a;0)
exist,
and the function
is
subject to
the same conditions as before.
III.
Let /(a;) be continuous in the interval
interval.
Then the number
X such that
a^x^fi.
q
referred to
(Of. F.S., 31,
With some obvious verbal changes
uniformly to /(a;) in the interval
(o, y8)
(a, (3)
above
and
also at the ends of this
will serve for all values of
Theorem L)
in
as
(I.) it will
i>0.
be seen that
v{x,
t)
tends
INFINITE
AND SEMIINFINITE SOLID AND ROD
33
In other words, we have
when 0<i^T,
\v{x,t)f{x)\<e,
the same t serving for
The theorem
IV.
all
values of x in
established in
(I.) is
(a, /8).
also true,
when
f{x) does not satisfy all the conditions there imposed
For example, itf{x) =x%
B"*
07?
it is
:'^e
JV
not bounded for
^'=^1
*'"
all
the arbitrary function
upon
it.
values of
x.
{x+2^{Kt)u)H^du
u'e"''du.
JttJp:'x)''
It follows that
when
<>0, =7;
*"'
x'^e
dx' has the
hmit
x^.
l^JyKKt) J_
Further,
it
will
be seen that when
fix) =af,+aix
we
have
also
Lt
may
V. It
that
+ ... +ax",
v{x,
t)
=f{x).*
be noted that in the above discussion
f(x')dx' converges.
It
is
not
difficult to
f{x)
is
hounded and integrable in any given
verges, v{x,
function
18.
is
has not been assumed
show, as in (L), that when
interval,
and
\f{x')\dx' con
t) has the limit f(x) (or J[/(a;+0)+/(a;0)]) as i^0, when
the
continuous at x or has an ordinary discontinuity there.
The
Let the
it
SemiInfinite Solid.
solid
be bounded by the plane a;=0 and extend to
in the direction of
x positive, the
initial
infinity
temperature being given
by v=f{x), and the plane x=0 being kept at zero temperature.
The solution of this problem may be deduced from that of the
Infinite Solid.
We
suppose the solid continued on the negative side of the plane
35=0, and the initial temperature at x' (a;'>0) to be ~f{x'), the
initial
plane
temperature at
x=0
will
x'
remain at
being
/(aj').
With
this distribution the
zero.
Then we have
1
/f"
Ux'p
':=27M (Jo^(^>"^
fO
(xx')2
dx'+\jfix'))e^dx'),
this reduces to
If"/
'
Per a more general discussion
C.C.H.
(x+xT \
i':^')^
see Goursat, Oours d' Analyse, T. III., 543, 1915.
THE LINEAR FLOW OF HEAT
34
It
is
clear that this value of v satisfies all the conditions of the
problem
whose bounding plane
of the SemiInfinite Solid
is
kept
at zero temperature.
When
may be
and
x'
the
initial
simplified
temperature
by
= x+2y^(Kt)^
a constant, V, this expression
is
substituting
x'=x+2y^(Kt)^
We thus obtain
in the first part,
in the second.
e'^dP
yTTJo
The definite
we write
integrals of this type
have been tabulated,* and
if
rx
yTT Jo
the solution of the problem of the SemiInfinite Solid, whose surface
is
kept at zero temperature, the
initial
temperature being V,
is
With the aid of the tables for these functions we can find the
time which must elapse before the temperature at a depth x has
fallen to
Since,
a given fraction
if
and from the
tables for 0{x)
From
say ^of
its original
value.
v=^V, we must have
..
it
follows that
=477 approximately.
calculations based
upon the values of k for silver and
it would take J second for the temat a depth of 1 cm. in silver, and that
bismuth, Weber f states that
peratures to
fall
by one
half
* The first table of these integrals was published by Enoke in a paper on the
Method of Least Squares " in the Berlin Astronomisches Jahrbiich for 1834,
giving the values of 6 (a;) for x=Q to x=2 at intervals of 01 computed to seven
"
decimal places. De Morgan extended this to a; = 3 in his " Essay on Probabilities
has
fifteen
A
new
table,
to
places,
from
of
0001
x=0 to a; =3 at intervals
(1838).
"
been published by Burgess in his paper "
On
the Definite Integrals r
with extended Tables of Values," Edinburgh, Trans. R. Soc, 39,
j
WeberBiemann, Die partidlen
Phyaik, Bd.
II. (2
Aufl
),
37,
DifferentialgleicJmngen
Braunschweig, 1912.
e~''dt
p. 257, 1899.
der
mathematischcn
AND
INFINITE
SEMIINFINITE SOLID
AND ROD
35
it would take 8 minutes
wMle the times required for'
change at a depth of 1 metre would be about 1 hour and 1
in bismutli
siich a
months respectively
It will
two substances.
in the
be noticed that the expression for the temperature may
be transformed as in
v= TT
=
16 into
f{x') [cos a {x'
dx''
Jo
dx'\
x) cos a {x' + x)]
e""'"
da
Jo
ttJo
ax e~'"^'' da,
f{x') sin ax' sin
Jo'
a form suggested by Fourier's Integral
f{x)=
TT
da\ f(x') sin ax' sin ax dx'.
Jo
Jo
Prove that when the boundary
and the initial temperature is zero,
Es. 1.
= l r
x=0
rxl2V(Kt)
e i^d^.
n/tJo
Ex.
8.
kept at temperature unity
is
Prove that when the boundary a;=0
is
impervious to heat, the
solution takes the form
=
1"
dx'
Jo
The curves
for different values of
and approach the
line
may
Aa
eS^'dP
As
increases these curves get flatter
gets smaller
and smaller they approach
^j^en a;>0,
of the curve for
x=Oj
=0
and the
is
line
the origin
I.
x>0j
case in which the semiinflnite solid
perature and the surface a;=0
given by
and
^^y^
and the limiting form
we take the
= i
be drawn.
v=0.
theline
If
f(x')oosax' coH axe'^'^'da.
Jo
is
is initially at zero temkept at unit temperature, the solution is
r^lWM
,.
m this case
We
are indebted to Professor A. Stanley Mackenzie for permission to
reproduce the curves, Figs.
4, 6, 9,
and
10, given in his
Equations pertaining to the Propagation of Heat in an
Philadelphia, Pa., Proc. Amer. Phil. Soc, 41, 1902).
On Some
Medium "
paper "
Infinite
36
THE LINEAR FLOW OF HEAT
INFINITE
AND SEMIINFINITE SOLID AND ROD
37
THE LINEAR FLOW OF HEAT
38
19.
The
Bod.
Infinite or SemiInfinite
The problems
crosssection
may
Fourier's Ring, the crosssection, of the rod
the same as that at
of
all
is
points of the section
of small
in the case of
supposed so small
may
be considered
its centre.
Suppose the rod to lie along the axis of x, and consider the element
volume bounded by the sections at P{x) and P' {x\dx).
The
As
be solved in the same way.
that the temperature at
Eod
Infinite or SemiInfinite
for the
rate at which heat flows into this element over the face at
is
dv
,,
where
oo is
the area of the crosssection of the rod.
Similarly, the rate at
Hence ultimately the
two faces is
which heat flows across the face at P'
is
rate of gain of heat in the element from these
32^
ooK ^z^x.
The
rate at which heat
is lost
by
radiation at the surface
is
H{vVg)pdx,
where p is the perimeter of the crosssection and
of the medium.
Vg is the temperature
Also the total rate of gain of heat in the element
dv
is
ultimately
(ccp  ax.
Ihus we have
which becomes
on putting
dv
dt
cp ox^
^,=
3/
Hp ('"
dH
59
cpu)
~'^ 3~2
=X
~^
('"
and
the surface of the rod
~''^o)
=:.
Cp
Cpu)
When
^n);
is
rendered impervious to heat, so
that no radiation takes place, the equation for the temperature
takes the form
g^
32^
dt^^dx^'
and the problems on the
distribution of temperature in
an
Infinite
AND
INFINITE
or SemiInfinite
Rod
AND ROD
SEMIINFINITE SOLID
are reduced to those of Linear
Flow
39
in
an
Infinite or SemiInfinite Solid.
When
radiation takes place into a
ture, this
may be
medium
taken as the zero of our
becomes
a,t
constant tempera
scale,
and the equation
ga^
g^
^=k^,
at
dx^
which reduces to
on substituting v=ue'^K
Thus the problem
is
reduced to that of Linear Plow already
examined.
If the material of the
rod
not homogeneous,
is
it is
clear that
the temperature equation becomes
dt
cp dx V
dx)
30. Conductivity Experiments
"''
cpoo
upon Bars.
The fundamental experiment described
our definition of conductivity
is
derived,
Steady Temperature.
in
2,
from
determination of the conductivities of different substances.
mathematical theory
Rod
of the
which
has been used in the
The
Conduction of Heat in a SemiInfinite
has also been employed in finding the conductivity and
emissivity.
We
shall
refer
in
this
article
to
experiments in
which the Steady Temperature is used.
A straight bar of small crosssection of the material to be tested
is taken and heated at one end till the temperature becomes steady.
If the bar is long enough, the temperature of the further end is
practically unaffected by the source of heat and remains the same
The
as that of the surrounding medium, which is taken as zero.
circumstances of the experiment are thus represented by the
equations
/c=^ Xu=0,
and
= Fata;=0,
v=Oata;=co,
v^ygvWK)x
gives the temperature at the distance x from the end which
kept at the temperature
is
long enough for the steady state of
temperature to be reached. It will be noticed that this requires
that the rod should be of such a length I that VCVf ) ^ is very large.
THE LINEAR FLOW OF HEAT
40
Bars of different metals of the same dimensions are used and
the surfaces are varnished in the same way, so that the value of
the emissivity will be the same for each.
In this case temperature
observations in the rods give the values of X/k, and thus the ratios
of the conductivities are obtained.
Despretz,
Wiedemann and Franz,
The experiments of Ingenhausen,
upon this method, and
are based
work may be found in Textbooks of Physics.*
However the power to radiate heat is one which it is hard to
regulate, and for this reason these experiments are not of such value
as others which we shall discuss later, in which the conductivity
descriptions of their
found directly and without reference to the value of the emissivity.
is
It
is
to be noticed also that these experiments only give the relative
values of the conductivities.
The classical experiments of Forbes f afford a method of obtaining
the absolute value of the conductivity of metals. Forbes also
employed the Bar Method and used the SteadyState
of Temperature.
His method consists of two essentially distinct sets of observations.
In the
first,
the steady state of temperature of a long bar of wrought
long and IJ sq. in. in crosssection) was considered.
The bar was heated at one end till the temperature had become
steady, and it was of sufficient length to allow the end furthest
iron (8
ft.
from the source of heat to keep the temperature
medium.
The
the heated end
of the surrounding
rate of flow of heat across the section distant x from
is
given by
dv
OX
uo
being the area of the crosssection.
This must be the same as the rate at which heat is being lost
by radiation at the surface of the bar from this section to the end.
Forbes determined the value of
mometers placed at
dv
from the readings
different points along the bar,
and
of ther
his
work
is
thus independent of the mathematical solution which the other
experimenters employed.
* Cf. Poynting and Thomson, Textbook of Physics
Heat (6th Ed.), p. 96 et seq.
Preston, Theory of Heat (3rd Ed.), 296299; Winkelmann, Handbuch der Physik
(2. Aufl.),
Bd.
III., p.
450
et seq.
Edinburgh, Trans. S. Soc., 28,
p. 133, 1864.
INFINITE
AND
SEMIINFINITE SOLID
AND ROD
41
The second
set of observations was designed to give the rate
was being lost at the surface.
For this purpose he employed another bar of the same material,
and exactly similar to the first, except that its length was only
20 inches. This bar he heated uniformly and placed to cool alongside the other, which had now cooled, so that the circumstances
of the radiation might be the same.
The rate at which heat was
at which heat
radiated
by
since for
any element dx
this bar at different temperatures could
it
be obtained,
would be equal to
dv
wcp ax ^
But the value
is
of = corresponding to
any
definite
temperature
given by continued observations of the temperature at any point.
Thus the quantity
of
heat lost per second by every part of the
larger bar in the first part of the experiment could be determined.
Therefore
is
given
by the equation
dv
dv J
Bv
In this work Forbes employed graphical methods, 3 on the
lefthand side of this equation being obtained from the curve of
the temperature given
by the observations on the long
bar,
and
the integral on the righthand side being obtained as the area of
a curve plotted from the temperature observations on the second
bar.
By these means he found the
value of the conductivity at different
bar at different temperatures, and he showed that
the conductivity of iron decreases with rise of temperature. His
observations have been repeated by different physicists, and they
occupy an important position among the methods for determining
sections of the
the value of the conductivity of metals.*
21. Conductivity Experiments
Variable Temperature.
upon Bars
{continued).
Angstrom's Method.t
In the preceding article we have shown
how the Steady Tempera
ture of a long metal rod of small crosssection
* Cf.
Poynting and Thomson,
t Ann.
loc. cit., p.
Physih, Leipzig, 114, p. 513, 1861
may
be employed
98; Winkelmann, he. dt,
;
123, p. 628, 1864.
p. 454.
THE LINEAR FLOW OF HEAT
42
obtaining the conductivity of the substance.
in
The
variable
temperature has also been used, in the case in which one end of the
bar is subjected to periodic variations of temperature, which cause
heat waves to travel
down the
The conductivity is
bar.
calculated
from the march of these waves. Angstrom was the first to employ
this method, and his work is of exceptional interest both from the
neatness of the mathematical discussion and the novelty of his
experimental method.
Hagstrom *
same
later discussed the
prp
blem, assuming that the conductivity and emissivity vary with the
temperature
Neumann and Weber f extended
the method to the
case of a short bar, both ends of which undergo periodic changes
of temperature.
.
Angstrom employed long bars
x=0 was
subjected to
alternately heated
of cold
of small crosssection.
by a current
of
steam and cooled by a current
this has gone on for some
When
water for equal intervals.
down
time, the temperature in the bar will ultimately settle
periodic state, independent of the initial distribution.
periodic state which
results depend.
Angstrom
The bar
is
The end
temperature, being
periodic changes of
investigates
It is this
and upon which
allowed to radiate into a
medium
a constant temperature, taken as the zero of the experiment.
before,
it is
to a
his
at
As
supposed of such small crosssection that the temperature
over the section
may
be taken as that at the centre, and
of such
length that the temperature at the further end remains unafEected
by the
alterations at x=0, so that in the mathematical treatment
supposed unlimited in this direction.
The equation for the temperature we have already obtained in
the form
,
,
it is
The
solution will be periodic with the
of the
up
^
temperature at x=0, and
terms
of
it
may
same
F COS n(et{Q Bin nwt,
^
/>
0==.
wnere
* Hagstrom, Stockholm, Vet.Ah. Ofvera., 48, 1891.
t See
35.
period.
as that
thus be supposed built
AND
INFINITE
The
quantities
and
SEMIINFINITE SOLID
will
AND ROD
43
be functions of x which satisfy
d^ X ^_ nu) p
dx^~K^~~ K ^'
since these results follow
and cos nait to zero
from equating the
Thus we have
(^^_a2yp^^4p=0,
where
a^=
and
R^=
K
Therefore
coefficients of sinwoii
in the temperature equation.
P=24e
V cos
(gr/a; e)+^V^ cos (,g'x~e'),
where
and A, A',
Since
e, e'
are arbitrary constants.
vanishes
when a;=oo
equation becomes
it
follows that
A'=0, and our
p=AeV cos (gn'xe),
from which we obtain
Q=AeV sin (g^'xe).
P cos nwt\Q sin ntoi
Ae~V cos (wcoi g'/a; +e),
Thus the term
becomes
and
v=Aoe!'^+AieSi'' cos (t? 5'i'a;+ei)
f^a^"*^ cos (^ojtg^'x+e^),
with the same notation as above.
It is clear that
9oV{^/i^)
and that the mean temperature
while
is
given by
^"=V{^+V&+1?
THE LINEAR FLOW OF HEAT
44
In Angstrom's experiments the heating and cooling effects were
The period
carried out for intervals of 12 minutes each.
of the
temperature in the rod was thus 24 minutes.
oscillations of the
The temperature
at a fixed point was then taken after the lapse
of a considerable
time from the beginning of the experiment, at
way
the temperature curve for
intervals of 1 minute,
and
that point obtained.
This curve should be periodic and of the
in this
same period.
By
analysing this curve
we may obtain the
coefficients in the
expression for the temperature, written in the form,
5o+5iCos(co+/3j)+2Cos(2(<+^2)+....
Similar observations for another point give the coefficients in the
expression
Co +6'i cos
for the
(ftjf
+yi) +C2 cos(2a)f +72) +
temperature there.
Comparing these with the expression for
v,
namely,
v=Age!'"+Aie''^^ C0& {ootgj'x\ei)
we
. .
= eP^
,r= i^
^icfi^'^
see that
("^j
...
 ^i >
Ci
and that
If
^iyi^^Oxi^i^i)
the distance between the points be
I,
we obtain from
the
formula.
,_W7r
9n9n
the result
log^ilogC'i //3iyA _ 7^
I
Therefore
By
)~Kr
'T{(3,y,){\ogB,\ogC,y
The conductivity
vity.
ji'
is
thus determined independently of the emissi
changes, the values obtained for k should not vary.
made such changes, and his results confirmed
by his earlier experiments.
When is known, X can be found at once.
IT
X
Angstrom
altering the nature of the surface of the bar so that
the values given
INFINITE
AND SEMIINFINITE SOLID AND ROD
22. Conductivity Experiments
upon Bars
45
(continued).
Variable Temperature.
In the mathematical problem, where the semiinfinite rod is
initially at zero temperature and the end a;=0 is kept at temperature
unity, the temperature at time t is given by
e^'di
=1_It
(xjis/lKt)
ePdi.
(Cf. 18,
Ex.
1.)
might appear that this solution would afford a means of deterK, since from the observed temperature at any point x^ at
mining
the time
if,
the table of values of the function
Q(x)=^[\^'dE
would give the value
and thus
of
T^I2\/(Ktj),
would be known. The difficulty in using this method
depends upon the fact that the end of the bar, in this case x=0,
is
generally heated
Now
perature.
end
of the
by
a current of water at the given constant tem
experiment has shown that
it is
not true that the
bar immediately attains the temperature of the
fluid
and thus the mathematical statement of the conditions of the
experiment can only be accepted as an approximation. However
it has been shown to be a fair approximation, and is still accepted
as a means of determining the thermal constants.*
Kirchhoff and Hansemann,f who first discussed this case, made
the assumption that the temperature at x=0 would be given by
C\(p{t), where C was a constant and <p(t) a function of the time
which was to be taken indefinitely small. The value of C was
to be determined by temperature observations in the immediate
neighbourhood of the heated end, and was not assumed to be equal
to the temperature of the fluid by means of which the heat was
suppHed.
Another method of treating the same problem has been developed,
and a series of experiments devised and carried out in the Berlin
Physikalische Institut has proved its power. The assumption of
* Cf.
Cf.
Ann. Physih, Leipzig
Ann.Physih, Leipzig
(N.F.), 66, p. 207, 1898.
(N.F.), 9, p. 1, 1880
(N.F.), 13, p. 406, 1881.
THE LINEAR FLOW OF HEAT
46
a sudden change at
is
x=0
to the temperature of the heating hquid
avoided by considering the alteration of the temperature with
the time at two points Xj and
in the bar.
a; 2
may be
solution of the equation of conduction
It
is
shown that
obtained which
give the observed temperatures at these two points.
is
x=0 are
followed.
Two
make
it
mate
solution
This
is
suit the
is
x=0, v=l
actual
distinct hues of treatment are
In one the approximate solution
condition that at
The
only used to obtain a suitable mathe
matical form for the solution.
is
This solution
then available for the evaluation of the conductivity.
conditions at the end
and then
is
derived from the
this solution is
changed to
In the second the approxi
observed temperatures.
derived from the condition that at
x=0,
ov
ir
ox
= ~C.
taken to represent the facts of the case when the end
heated, not
by the flow
will
of water,
x=0
but by radiation from a plate
platinum kept at white heat and supposed to convey to the
end of the bar a constant supply of heat. For the details of these
methods we must refer to the'papers noted below.*
of
23. SemiInfinite
Temperature
We
Solid.
Temperature Zero.
Initial
have seen in
9 that,
with the time, the solution
when the
surface temperature varies
may be deduced, by Duhamel's
from the case in which this temperature
Now,
Surface at
^(t).
in the SemiInfinite Solid,
is
Theorem,
constant.
where v has to
satisfy
dv_ dH
v=0 when
!;=1
and>
the solution
is
t=0,
x=0,
at
given by
2
C'l''
VttJo
V'
Ann. Physik, Leipzig (4. F.), 3, p. 43, 1900; Giebe, Diss., Berlin,
D. physik. Ges., p. 60, 1903
Hobaon and Diesselhorst, " Warmeleitung," Enc. d. math. Wiss., Bd. V., Tl. I., pp. 224227, 1905.
* Gruneisen,
1903
Verh.
AND
INFINITE
SEMIINFINITE SOLID
v=0
and
is
47
for t=0,
x=0,
v=<p(t) at
the solution
AND ROD
given by
where
^(a;,
<_x) =_?_["
g^di.
V''''Ja:/2v'(it(<A))
In this case
^) =
I^F^ix,
y^'')2V(.(^X))
e
*(A).
2v/(7r/c(iX)8)
Therefore the solution of our problem
is
x2
4ic(( A)
<p{X)~^d\.
< X=^
we have
Kf/.
*'=^
and
In this form
x^2 \
,
'
e''^<^u.
clear that our solution satisfies the differential
it is
equation and the
0U 1
/
initial
and boundary
34. SemiInfinite Solid.
conditions.
Surface Temperature a Harmonic Func
tion of the Time.
If
the surface temperature in the SemiInfinite SoHd bounded
by the plane
x=0
is
given
by
v=A
cos{oDte),
an arbitrary function v=f(x), we
problem by putting v=u+w, where
temperature
is
du_
dhi
M=0 initially,
u=A cos {wte)
and
* Cf.
9,
III.
at
x=0
and the
may
initial
solve the
THE LINEAR FLOW OF HEAT
48
dw
w=/(a;)
The value
of
d^w
u we have found
=^r
in 23 to be
Lit ^\e)e>^'d^,
cos
=^cos(ft)< e)
1
But
it is
yx
se
i^dix
2^"
sin;j
JxIUkI)
(1)
'^M
* that
r cos .^
=
*Let
cos
^sin(ft)< e)
known
2
w;=Oata;=0
and
initially,
J{l>j^^o.U.y
.^
d=
and
f.'^oos^jcia;
e*'sin
=, da;.
and
TTi'^'^l
2a;2
C"
Thus
sin x^da;
a?
^!=2i>.
da?
Similarly
it
can be shown that
Therefore
T~i~ ~2m.
jn
dor
tt=e~''(4 cos a +
and
Now m<
7}
+ 4M=0,
sin a)
+ e''(^ 'cos a + 5' sin a).
c~''fZx<i;^7r for every real
a.
Jo
Therefore A' and B' must vanish.
M = e~''(j4 cosa + 5sina)
Thus
i)=e~''(^ sino Booaa).
a0, 2i = JV"" and v=().
A^^^lw and B = 0.
and
But when
Therefore
Thus we have shown that
I
c""^oos=2^^ = J/^yTre'^coBa
^^sin^2(Zx = J;v'7re
"sin
a.
u and are continuous functions of a, and the
the above argument are justifiable. (Cf. F.8., 84, 86.)
The
integrals
?'
differentiations in
AND
INFINITE
when
Therefore
by those
(1)
t is
of (2),
so great that
is
AND ROD
SEMIINFINITE SOLID
we can
49
replace the integrals of
given by the equation
u=Ae~ J i^^'' COS, (<^tJ{^yFurther,
we know from
'^=d~77
=TTJO
and, as
when a
sufficient
;\
18 that
*'
fix')[B
ix' \j{x') sin
4t
]dx'
ax sin ax' e'"^^'da,
increases, this expression gets smaller
and
smaller.
Thus
time has passed to allow the distribution of tem
perature to become purely periodic, and the influence of the
distribution has passed away, the temperature
is
initial
given by
l;=4e^/(ii)^ cos(c^(g)cce).
This result might have been obtained directly, as in the discussion of
Angstrom's method. If we assume that suflSoient time has passed to allow
the temperature throughout the solid to become periodic, it must be given
by terms
where
of the type
P and Q are
functions of x only.
Then, substituting
we
v=P cos (ot+Q sin
'dv
m the equation
,,
p cos at+Q sin at,
,.
37
~"
'S~2'
have, on equating the coefficients of cos
das'
(ut
and
sin
(at,
w/k =j.^
Put
d*P
and we have
which gives
oyt
.d'v
+/x*P =0,
P=A'e i^lV^ cos (/xa;/V2 + e') + ^'V'^/'/z cos
((ua;/^2
+ "),
where A', A", e', and e'' are arbitrary constants to be determined by the
and boundary conditions.
But when k^oo P must not be infinite.
initial
Therefore
and
Also since
THE LINEAR FLOW OF HEAT
50
The
conditions at
a;
=0 show
that
A'=A,
c'=,
v = Ae''^^^''
and
(wt^J( ~jx
cos
as before.
When
the surface temperature
of period 27r/a),
(j>{t),
Series for
is
a periodic function of the time
we can obtain the
solution
by using the Fourier's
<p(t)
(j){t)
=ao+(ai cos wt\bi sin wt)\(a^ cos toi+ftg ^i^^ wt)\...
=Aq\Ai cos (a) ei)+^2 cos (2a)< 2) + ...
With
this value of ^(i)
we
+^26 " V(s
25. SemiInfinite Solid.
at
Zero Temperature.
When
the
initial
"
have, from the above discussion,
cos
(2cotJ(^^ xe^ +etc.
Radiation at the Surface into a Medium
Temperature Constant.*
Initial
temperature
equations for v are as follows
is
constant and equal to
Vg,
dv
d^v
v=Vg when <=0,
dv
^+hv=0
T
when x=0.
1
Let
(p=v
Then we have
dv
h dx
^=kj^,
(p=VQ when t=0,
0=0 when x=0.
Therefore, from 18,
yTTJo
and
it
will
*
be noticed that, when
The
a;>oo
case of initial temperature f(x)
^{x,
is
t)
has the limit
treated in
83.
Vg.
the
INFINITE
To determine
Thus
AND
SEMIINFINITE SOLID
we have
51
the equation
=Ce''^Ae''*f
J
on integrating
AND ROD
(/)(^,
t)e''^d^,
00
this equation in the usual
way.
/OO
v=Ce''^+h\
Therefore
rf)(a;+^, i)e'"'rf,
Jo
on putting f =a;+>;.
But
as a;oo
^{x,
t)
C must be
follows that
Hence the
has the limit
solution of our problem
v=h\
o,
and
as v
must be
finite, it
zero.
is
given by
(j>{x+ri,t)e^^dri
2vJi
f(*+i)/2v'(ico
e^'^du
LJo
V'^rJo
Therefore
2v^
s/tt
Jo
Jo
VttJo
VlTTKfjJo
VttJo
ViTrKt)
Jo
In the second integral put
x+,,+2hKt=2'^/{Kt)u.
Then
V"J
V 'T
J (x+2kKt)l2^(.Kt)
VttJo
Vtt
VJo
Olx)
=^ f e'^^du*
Jo
'
Therefore
where, as in
18,
V'^Jo
^___
* Cf. Kirohhoff,
Bd. IV., pp. 2527
Bouaainesq, Theorie analytique de
165167, Paria, 1903; WeberRiemaim, loc. cit., Bd. JI., 38.
toe. cit.,
la chaleur, T. 11.,
THE LINEAR FLOW OF HEAT
52
Put x=0, and we have
V
=e'^"'''{lQ(hV{Kt))}
o
z
_2_
f"
\/K
We
proceed to find
tlie
surface temperature after a considerable
time has passed since coohng began.
It can easily
be proved, by repeated integration by parts, that
This series does not converge, since the ratio of the w"' term to
the
(n
does not remain less than unity, as n increases. Howif we take n terms of the series
the remainder namely,
l)*"''
ever,
1.3...2wire'=
is
less
than the
w"'
term, since
P
We
up
_ ^ f" ix
_^idx
can thus stop at any term, and take the sum
of the terms
to this term as an approximation for the function, the error being
less in
absolute value than the last term
If in this
way we
VrryhViKt)
and choose
where
e is
we have
retained.
take
2{hV(d)f
so great that
any
error in taking
positive quantity taken as small as
we
please, the
for the temperature at the surface will be less in value than
e.
INFINITE
AND SEMIINFINITE SOLID AND ROD
26. SemiInfinite Solid.
at Temperature f (t).
In
this
Radiation at the Surface into a
Initial
53
Medium
Temperature Zero.
problem the temperature v has to satisfy
dv_
d^v
dv
^\hv=hf{t)
at a;=0,
v=0 when
Proceeding as in the
last article,
Then we have the
i=0.
put
dv
following equations to determine
Tl^"
dx^'
c/)=f{t)
^=0
(j>
x=0,
at
when
i!=0.
These equations have already been discussed in 23, and we
have seen that
2
Hence, as in
x^ \
25,
27. Terrestrial Temperature.
Observations of the temperature at points near the surface of the
earth have been carried out at a large
number
stations in difierent parts of the world for
have estabHshed the existence
results
of
of meteorological
many
two
years.
distinct
These
phenomena
of terrestrial temperature.
The
first is
the heat
tures
of
that the variations of the surface temperature from
by day
points
to the cold
at
by night do not
affect the
a depth of more than 34
feet,
tempera
while
the
yearly changes from the cold of winter to the heat of summer
may be observed up to a depth of 6070 feet. Below that depth
the temperature remains practically constant from day to day
and
is
surface.
not
subject to alterations
due to the changes at the
In other words, the heat waves due to the changes of
THE LINEAR FLOW OF HEAT
54
the temperature at the surface die
to a depth of
more than 6070
ferred to the earth oscillates in
away
before they penetrate
and the heat which is thus transthe upper crust, and while it proceeds
feet,
inwards at certain seasons of the year, at others
it
ascends and
radiates into space at the surface.
However,
we
after
pass the limit at which the temperature
is
and reach the depths at which
it remains constant from day to day and year to year, there is
a marked increase in the temperature as we descend. The temperatures observed at a great number of points at considerable depth
and at many different stations leave no doubt upon this phenomenon.
affected
surface changes,
been observed near the equator as well as in the temperate
rate of increase varies with different places
It has
and although the
zone,
and
by these
much
is
greater in the neighbourhood of active volcanoes or
thermal springs,
it
may
roughly be taken as about 1 F. for every
50 feet of descent at depths up to about one mile.* This rise of
temperature was ascribed, both by Fourier and Laplace, to the
high
temperature of the earth, this supply of heat being
initial
gradually diffused outwards, and
at the centre of the earth.
still
to a great extent preserved
Such an assumption does not require
that the rate of increase of temperature should be uniform as
we continue to descend, and other physical phenomena show
that
the
interior
of
the
earth cannot be a
mass
of
molten
rock.
periodic changes in the temperature near the surface have
The
been used by writers from Fourier and Poisson onwards
in the
determination of the conductivity of the Earth, these determinations
becoming
in the
owing to the growth
which thermometric observations have
of increasing value in recent years
number
of stations at
been made.
Since these daily and annual variations of surface temperature
are noticeable only at points comparatively near the Earth's surface,
the problem
may
be simplified by neglecting the curvature of the
Earth and supposing the surface to be the plane x=0, which is
subjected to a periodic change of temperature. This problem has
Some
now regard the average as more nearly 1 F. for every 60 feet
even 1F. for every 70 feet.
Cf. Sollas, The Age of the Earth and
authorities
of descent, or
other Geological Studies, 1905.
INFINITE AND SEMIINFINITE SOLID AND ROD
been discussed in
24,*
and the temperature
55
at the depth x below
the surface was found to be
A^+A^e^iT>
cos
(c^() *ei)
+^2e~^^(^)'' cos (^2toi
when the
surface temperature
V
It
is
JQcceajf
...
is
=^0+^1 cos (mi ei) \A^ COS (2&)i ea) +
. .
true that the temperature at the surface of the Earth depends
not only upon the time, but upon the position of the place of observation,
and that the constants
tion of these points
but,
A^^,
if
Ai,
...
will
be functions
of
the posi
a comparatively small portion of the
is considered, the temperature over this may still be supposed
dependent only on the time, and the general principles under which
the periodical surface changes are transmitted into the interior and
surface
there die
away
will
be fully illustrated by the solution in this form.
partial wave is propagated
Thus the theory shows that each
that the amplitudes. of the waves
more rapidly than those of greater
have a more rapid alteration of phase
with unaltered period inwards
of
shorter period diminish
period
while,
and that they also
on the other hand, the velocity
;
of their propagation is sinaller
in the ratio of the square roots of the periodic times.
that the periodical variation takes a simpler form as
where the partial waves
negligible, so that after
It follows
we
descend,
become more rapidly
a certain depth the principal wave with
of smaller period
the largest period and greatest amplitude will alone be found
become negligible
have become constant. The depth at
which the amplitude of the yearly variation is e.g. 01 will be about
19 times greater than that at which the corresponding amplitude
while at a
still
greater depth this will also have
and the temperature
will
for the daily variation will occur, since
'V(5)~'''VCr,
gives the ratio of the depths
and T'=365T.
This result,
it will
be seen, agrees with the temperature observations which have
shown that while the daily variation is not noticeable after a depth
*See
also Bousainesq,
Paris (Ser.
2), 39,
1915.
loc. cit,
T.
I.,
pp. 210228
and papers
in Bui.
sci.
math.,
THE LINEAR FLOW OF HEAT
56
of 3 or 4 feet, the annual variation
60 or 70
may
be traced to a depth
of
feet.
These features of the problem were
whom
Poisson, to
all
this discussion is due.
noticed by Fourier and
The simplest application
of the solution to the determination of the Conductivity of the
at different places on
its
Earth
surface will be found in Kelvin's paper on
The Reduction of Observations of Underground Temperature." *
The substance of the Earth is taken to be a homogeneous mass of
such rock as we have on the surface at the place of observation, and
the values obtained for the conductivity are to a very considerable
extent affected by the nature of the soil or rock in which the thermometers are imbedded. The data are the temperature observations
at places on the same vertical and at different depths, these observations extending over a considerable
number
of years.
memoir, Forbes' Edinburgh Observations for a period
In Kelvin's
of 18 years
were employed.
These observations allow the mean temperature curve for a
year to be drawn, and
harmonic components to be obtained.
its
In this way we find for the depths at x^ and
Vi
and
V2 in
X2,
the temperatures
the form,
v,=A^'+AC cos(^ te{)+A^' cos(^  e,") + ...
But according to the solution
of 24,
v=A,+A,e^i^)^'ooB
we have
(^ t~^[^) xe)
+A2eM>oos{';t^(^)x.:)
Therefore
we should have
4
'
"
A:=A^el^>\
A"=A,e^(!^)^
Edinburgh, Trans. R. Soc.
AND SEMIINFINITE SOLID AND ROD
INFINITE
lo
Thus
The
g^'log^/ _e/e'_
results of the calculations of the
57
l/riTA
mean temperature
curves
at different depths give values for Aq, Aq", ... , which vary only
to a very slight extent.
These agree with the theoretical result
mean temperature due to the surface changes should not
vary as we descend.
that the
The first harmonic term, or the annual variation, is the largest,
and observations based upon it will therefore be most trustworthy.
Kelvin found that there was almost complete agreement between
the values of
log
^/ log ^/'
!l!z:^',
and
the two expressions which should each be equal to
^/{^rK),
the
unit of time being the year.
From
these results the value of
k,
or Kjcp, was obtained for the
material at the place of observation.
Calculations were also made of the second harmonic amplitude and epoch.
In this case the different temperature curves for the different years gave fundamental differences in the coefficients for the semiannual period. These
discrepancies and others in the case of the higher harmonics are not to be
wondered at, as the actual state of affairs is not the ideal one which has been
postulated with regard to the periodical variation of the temperature and
the material of the Earth.
28.
The Age
of the Earth.
We have seen in 27 that after the limits at which the temperature
is
is
by the
affected
surface changes are passed, a
marked
increase
observed as the depth increases, and that this temperature gradient
has been taken, in ordinary circumstances, as about 1 F. for every
50 feet of descent up to a depth of about one mile. That this
gradient might be used to obtain a rough estimate of the time that
has elapsed since the Earth i^egan to cool from
was remarked by Fourier himseK.*
its
molten
state,
In the problem, as simplified by him for mathematical treatment.
* "Extrait d'un Memoire sur le refroidisaement seoulaire du globe terrestre,''
Also (Euvres de
BvM. des sciences par la Societe philoma&ique de Paris, 1820.
Fourier, T. II.
(cf.
p.
284).
THE LINEAR FLOW OF HEAT
58
the curvature of the Earth
supposed constant.
The
neglected and the conductivity
is
surface
medium
radiation takes place into a
at temperature zero
taken
temperature when cooling began
constant and equal to
v^,.
that for large values of
is
approximately
He
(k)
taken as the plane x=0, and
is
as
the
time
the
t=0
obtained the result given in
is
25
the temperature gradient near the surface
VQl'\/{TrKt).
Kelvin * took the simpler problem of the semiinfinite sohd
bounded by x=0, the boundary being kept at zero temperature, the
initial temperature being constant and equal to Vq.
We have seen
in 18 that the temperature at the depth x at the time t is given by
fJ;/2^/(()'
v=f\
3v
^=
Hence
When
ax
is
small and
V
,," ^.
^/(TrKt)
t is
c'm.
becomes approximately
large, this
S/ilTKt)'
as in Fourier's problem.
With the value of k used in Kelvin's paper (cf. loc. cit., 15)
namely 400 the units of length and time being the foot and year,f
we have
9^
__^
""
dxdivt'
Taking =7000F.
and <=10^ we have
as a suitable temperature for melting rock,
g^
ax
506
Thus at x=Q, the rate of increase of temperature is 1 in
and this temperature gradient will hold for about the first 10^
At a depth of 4 x 10^ feet, we obtain
9v_J_
_^
aa;~506^
or about ^rs
o^
^ degree per foot
dv
506,
feet.
'
while at 8
x 10^
feet
we have
_^
9x^50^^
'
or about j^Vxr "^ ^ degree per foot.
Since the temperature gradients are inversely proportional to
*
j
The Secular Cooling of the Earth," Edinburgh,
With c.G.s. units this value of k will be 0118.
'
'
Trans. R. Soc, 28,
Cf. p. 8.
p. 157, 1864.
INFINITE
AND
the square roots of the times,
if
will
be
I, 1,
and 2 per foot correspond
Jjy
at the
respectively.
AND ROD
SEMIINFINITE SOLID
the gradient
same depth at 4 x 10* years
is yV
;
59
at 10^ years,
it
while gradients of
to 160,000, 40,000,
and 10,000 years
"We are thus led to the result that, with the approxi
mation which our statement
problem
of the
affords, for the last
96,000,000 years the rate of increase of temperature underground
has gradually diminished from about J^ of a degree Fahrenheit
per foot to about J^, and that the time which has been required
for the transition from a melting state to that in which the present
gradient holds will be 10^ years.
The assumption
of a higher initial
temperature, 10,000 F., an extremely high estimate, would increase
the term required to 200,000,000 years.
Even
allowing for effects
of higher temperature in altering the conductivities
and
specific
heats of rocks, Kelvin held that this investigation justified the
statement that the consolidation of the Earth, and the time from
which coohng commenced, could not have taken place less than
20 million of years ago, or we should now have a more rapid increase
of temperature as we descend, nor could it have taken place more
than 400 milUon years ago, or we should not have so much as is
required for the smallest value obtained at present from the temperature observations.
This assumption of temperatures of from 7000 F. to 10,000 F.
he recognised* to be a high estimate for the tempetature of molten
rock, but he adopted it, as he was most anxious not to underestimate
the Age of the Earth, and his wish was to give the largest possible
limits
rather
than the smallest.
Lat6r experiments upon the
behaviour of rocks under high temperatures led him to believe that
these temperatures are much higher than those required for a
typical basalt of the primitive character,
be
a fairer estimate.
and that 1200
C.
would
This change from 7000 F. to 1200 C. would
and he seems
to have been somewhat of the opinion of Kingf that we have no
warrant in this argument for extending the Earth's age beyond
reduce his estimate of 10^ years to a little less than
10^,
24 million of years.
The
limits of the
attracted
much
Age
* Cf. Nature, 59, p. 438, 1895
I Amer.
J. Sci.,
of the
Earth given by Kelvin in 1864
attention, for the geologists then, as now,
;
also Phil.
Newhaven, Conn.,
Mag., London
45, 1893.
demanded
(Ser. 5), 47, p. 66, 1899.
THE LINEAR PLOW OF HEAT
60
a
much
longer period of time for the coohng from the molten state,
arguments being based on the
their
and
visible processes
Since Kelvin's pronouncement
of stratification.
much
effects
discussion
has taken place between the physicists on the one hand, with the
estimates based on the temperature gradient as only one of their
methods
of attacldng the problem,
and the
geologists
on the other *
And
as Kelvin continued to attach much weight to the estimates
from the observed temperature gradient, the simple mathematical
problem treated above has become
classical.
However the
dis
covery of radioactivity towards the beginning of the twentieth
century has not only afforded
of the
Age
of the
Earth
it
new methods
of attacking the
may be said to have
problem
definitely closed the
controversy as to the reliability or otherwise of the results obtained
by Kelvin's and other allied methods. [ His paper " On the Secular
Cooling of the Earth " has
But
it is
somewhat
now
only a historical interest.
surprising that physicists attached so
much
importance to conclusions where the assumptions made were so
reaching and significant.
tical solution of the
far
There can be no doubt that the mathema
heat problems involved, based on hypotheses just
as credible, even before the discovery of radioactivity,
would have
given results widely different from those which the geologists were
urged to accept as the only answer to the question at
issue. J
* Cf Woodward (i) "The Mathematical Theories of the Earth," American
Association for the Advancement of Science {Toronto), 1889; (ii) "The Century's
Progress in Applied Mathematics," Bull. Amer. Math. Soc, 6, p. 147, 1900.
.
t See Rutherford's works, Radio Activity (2nd Ed.), 271, 1905, and Radioactive
Substances and their Radiations, 258260, 1913 ; also a little volume in Harper's
Library of Living Thought, entitled The Age of the Earth by A. Holmes (1913).
At the British Association Meeting in Edinburgh in 1921 a discussion on " The
Age of the Earth " was opened by Lord Bayleigh, who, as R. J. Strutt, did most
important work on the amount of radium in the earth's crust and its internal
heat.
The abstract of his address and the contributions by J. W. Gregory and
Eddington to the discussion will be found in the British Association Reports (Edinburgh), 1921. Bayleigh's conclusion is that " radioactive methods of estimation
indicate a moderate multiple of 1,000 million years as the possible and probable
duration of the earth's crust as suitable for the habitation of living beings, and
that no other considerations from the side of physios or astronomy afford any
definite presumption against this estimate."
His address in full appears in Nature,
No. 2713, October 27th, 1921.
t There is an interesting series of papers by Perry in Nature, 51, 1895, the aim
of which was to show that other possible internal conditions would give enormously
greater ages than physicists had been inclined to alldw.
This was before the
radioactive properties of minerals entered into the discussion.
made important
contributions to the discussion.
Vol. IL, Ch. v., entitled.
these questions
we
Mathematics and
Chapter
shall return in
the
Age of
XL
(Cf.
(Cf.
Heaviside
also
Electromagnetic Theory,
the Earth, 1899.
99, 109.)
To some
of
CHAPTER IV
THE LINEAR FLOW OF HEAT. SOLID BOUNDED BY
TWO PARALLEL PLANES. FINITE ROD
S9. Introductory.
In the
last chapter
we have examined the
Linear Flow of Heat when the solid
and
is
unbounded
different cases of
bounded by the plane, a; =0
x positive, and we have seen
is
in the direction of
that the problems of the SemiInfinite
Rod
are reduced to the
same fundamental differential equation. In this
chapter we shall examine the corresponding problems when the
range of x is limited to the interval Q = x=l, and we shall also see
integration of the
that the mathematical discussion of these problems
in the evaluation of the Conductivity
may
be used
and Emissivity.
In the
have the
rods of so great a length that, when they are heated at one end only,
the other end remains unaffected by the change of temperature
due to the application of the source of heat, and the rod may be
treated in the mathematical statement of the problem as unlimited
practical
work
of the laboratory it is always possible to
Yet some
in that direction.
of the
most trustworthy methods
of
obtaining the conductivity are founded upon the mathematical
discussion of the flow of heat in a bar of short length, both ends
being subjected to definite conditions of temperature.
Ends
30. Finite Bod.
ture f(x).
No
at Zero Temperature.
Let the origin be taken at one end
of the rod be
Tempera
of the rod,
and
let
the length
I.
Then the problem
dv
is
reduced to the solution of the equations
d^v
,.
,_,
,,
m=^B^' (^<^<^)
v
and
Initial
Radiation at the Surface.
= 0, when x =
v=f{x), when
anda;
t=0
61
(1)
Z,
(2)
(3)
THE LINEAR FLOW OF HEAT
62
If
the
initial distribution
were
v=An&va.~Yx,
it is
v=^sin5a;e"''"ia~'
clear that
would
satisfy all the conditions of the problem.
Let us suppose that the
temperature, /(x),
initial
is
a bounded
function satisfying Dirichlet's Conditions {F.S., 93) in the interval
(0,0
by the
Consider the function v defined
.A
infinite series
=Vasm^a;e r^.
.
nw
la
where
This
e"
I
series,
is
=y
Its
(4)
*<
f{x') sin ^ x' dx!.
owing to the presence
of the
convergency factor
uniformly convergent for any interval of
and, regarded as a function of
t,
it is
x,
when <>
uniformly convergent when
^^0 > 0) 'o being any positive number. (Cf. 12.)
Thus the function v, defined by the series (4), is a continuous
function of x, and a continuous function of t, in these intervals.*
It is easy to show that the series obtained by term by term
differentiation of (4) with respect to x and t are also uniformly
convergent in these intervals of x and t respectively. Thus they
f
are equal to the differential coefficients of the function
Hence
v.
BOUNDED BY TWO PARALLEL PLANES
SOLID
Since the series
interval
of
a;
63
imiformly convergent with respect to x in the
is
O^x^l, when i>0,
represents a continuous function
it
iQ this interval.
Thus
Lt i;=the value
of the
sum
of the series
when a;=0
of the
sum
of the series
when x = l
= 0,
and
Lt 'y=the value
=0.
Hence the Boundary. Conditions are satisfied.
With regard to the Initial Conditions, we may again use the
extension of Abel's Theorem contained in F.S., 73 I.
We have assumed that f{x) is bounded and satisfies Dirichlet's
Conditions in
(0, I).
Therefore the Sine Series for f(x),
2x3;
+ a2smT
ttx
ffljSm=.
converges, and
f(x)
is
its
sum
\
...
f(x) at every point between
is
continuous, and {/(a;+0)+/(a;
0)}
at
all
aad I where
other points.*
(Cf. F.S., 98.)
It follows
that
when
Lt
v=
(>0
from the extension
defined
is
Lt 2j"'n
I>0
by
sm^
(i),
xe
'
of Abel's
Theorem
referred to
above
we have
12'
"
=f{x) at a poiat of continuity
=i{/(a'+0)+/(a'0)} at
all
other points.
Thus we have shown that if the initial temperature satisfies
and is continuous from a; = to x=l, while
=
the
function
defined by (4) t satisfies all the conditions
0,
(0)
=f{l)
y
Dirichlet's Conditions,
of the problem.
If
by
the
initial
temperature has discontinuities, the function defined
(4) at these points tends to \{f{x{0)\f{x0)} as <>0.
*lt f(x) is bounded and satisfies Dirichlet's Conditions,
93 that it can only have ordinary discontinuities.
f
it
follows from F.8.
This can be written as
v=yj
since the series
/( )j
under the integral
sm^^c
smpxe
ii
\dx,
uniformly convergent.
If
(F.S.,
70.)
THE LINEAR FLOW OF HEAT
64
is
taken small enough, v
/(x
+ O),
from f{x0)
bridge the gap
will
and the temperature curve
^{f(x+0)+f{x~0)}.
It must be remembered that the physical problem,
stated
rod
it
to
will pass close to the point
as
we have
for discontinuity, either at the ends of the rod or in the
itself, is
an ideal one.
In nature there cannot be a discontinuity
in the temperature in the rod initially.
we must assume that
In the physical problem
a sudden change of temperature takes place
at the instant from which our observations are measured, in the
immediate neighbourhood of the point of discontinuity or the ends,
if
they are points of discontinuity.
is
thus smoothed over.
we have obtained
The
The gap
in the temperature
solution of the mathematical problem
these conditions, and
satisfies
it
may
be taken
as
representing the physical problem in this modified aspect.
Some
31.
may
further remarks
made
be
as to the Lt
v,
and the way
in
f<0
which the fmiction v
I.
defined
(x, t)
by
We know that the Sine Series for f{x),
previous section,
is
the Initial Conditions.
(4) satisfies
under the conditions stated in the
uniformly convergent in an interval
tinuous in that interval and at
its
ends.
(a, ji), if
f(x)
is
con
{F.8., 107.)
from F.8., 73, L, that v(x,t) converges uniformly to /(a;) as i>0
In other words, given the arbitrary positive number e, there
a positive number x such that
It follows
in that interval.
exists
\v(x,t) f{x)\
the
same t serving
Let x be a point within
(a, /3).
Then there
number
is
a positive
<
\f{x) /(a:)
Take the rectangle
in the {x,
t)
< <V,
when
/3).
ij
such that
when
\x Xo\
rj.
xr]'^x^x+ri,
a'^T7j< x^+7]^(3.
where
(a, t)
be any point of this rectangle.
Then
v{x,
Therefore
t)
\v{x,t)
f(x,) ={v(x,t) f(x)] +{f{x) /(a;)}.
f(x,)\^\v{x,t) f(x)\ +
<
<
Thus
tends to f{x),
this rectangle towards (x, 0).
On
e,
plane given by
0<iT,
Let
<
for all points in (a,
v{x,
t)
the oth^r hand,
if
2e,
\f(x) f(x,)\
when
when the point
x is a point in
/(x 0) exist, and are different from f{xa),
0< ifrr.
(x,
t)
moves along any path
(i<x<l
ill
at which
that can be said
/(aj^
is
in
+ 0) and
that v(x,t)
SOLID BOUNDED
BY TWO PARALLEL PLANES
tends t@ jy(ir + 0) +f{x ,0)} as
the lijtifc x=Xa towards the point
t^O, when the point
65
moves along
{x,t)
{Xo,t).
II. /n the argument of
30 it is assumed that f{x) is bounded and satisfies
DiricJ iet's Conditions in
(0, I), so that we can replace it by. the Sine Series.
But ' jur physical jjituition tells us that there must be a solution for our problem
confespondiiMg to any conceivable initial distribution of temperature in the
roc 1, and, in particular, for
any
a (continuous fumction need not
distribution which
However
continuous.
is
satisfy Dirichlet's Conditions,
and
in fact it
known that there are continuous functions whose Fourier's Series diverge
at an! infinite number of points of the given interval.*
I'i
Fej6r's T%Boiem{F.8.,
101)
and Bromwich's Theorem
the i^athematioal demonstration that the series
proHlem, when all that is assumed as to the
is bibunded and integrable in the interval
'V'he
a;
that
it
much from that given above.
bounded and integrable and
2
r'
/.,/,.
mr
is clear that a<
for every positive integer
jhumber independent of x and n.
if J
^anSm^xe'"
Also the series
and the various
or
series
if
w,
M being some positive
',
a;
is
i.f
proof does not differ
?5ince f{x) is
to
the solution of our
temperature f{x)
initial
(J.S., 73,11.) furnish
(4) is
obtained
by term by term
differentiation with regard
converge uniformly through the region O'^x'Sl,
t^t>0, when
an arbitrary positive number.
Thus the differential equation and the boundary conditions are
t is
satisfied,
as before.
Further,
by
Fej6r's
Theorem, the
Series for f{x) converges to f{x),
if
series of Arithmetic
the function
is
Means
the Sine
for
continuous at that point.
Then, by Bromwich's Theorem, with the theorem given in F.S.,
73, V.,
Lt v(x,t)=f(x),
>o
and
v{x,t) approaches the limit /(*) uniformly as i>0,
interval in
If
is
differing
which f{x)
is
when x
lies
in
an
continuous.
/(a;), /(a;, 0) existing but
Theorem and Bromwich's Theorem, show that
an ordinary point of discontinuity of
from
f{x), Fej^r's
Uvix,t) = i{f{x + 0)+f{xQ)}.
The remarks
in
I.
as to the
way
in which v{z,
t)
tends to
its
Umit, apply
also to these cases.
*Cf. Pej6r, Ann.
t Of.
aci.
Ec. norm., Paris (S6r. 3), 28, p. 63, 1911.
Moore, Bull. Amer. Math. Soc, 85, p. 269, 1919.
THE LINEAR FLOW OF HEAT
66
32.
Finite
Rod.
Radiation
at
the
Surface.
Ends at Fixed
Temperatures.
Steady Temperature.
Wlien the surface is not impervious to heat and the tempers ,ture
medium is taken as zero, the equation for the temperatuiip is
of the
dv_K
dt
dH>
Hp
cp dx^
cpw
with the notation of 19.
The observation
Steady Temperature in such a bar, when
of the
ends are kept at constant temperatures Vi and V^, is oiie of
the earliest methods of obtaining the relative values of the con
its
ductivities of different solids.
If
we put fx,^=HplKo}, we have the equations
and our
solution
is
v=Vi,
when a;=0,
v=Vfi,
when x=l,
given by
+5
where
Vi=A
and
72=^6''' +6"'.
FisinhM(?a;)+Fasinh/^a;
^.
Ti^^g
sinh fjd
Let the temperatures be
Xg,
v^, 2
where
"^3
nj
"^2
and
"^2
v^ at
the points
x^, x^
and
111
j
Then
i31_?=2cosh/xa=2M, say.
"2
Hence
e'^n+'\/{n^l),
a result independent of Vi and Fg.
perimeter, crosssection,
and
y\Kj
Ml
*Cf. 13; also Preston,
For two bars
emissivity,
it
logCwi+VK"!))'
loc. cit.,
of the
follows that
296299.
same
SOLID
BOUNDED BY TWO PARALLEL PLANES
Ends
Rod.
33. Finite
No
perature (x).
at
Fixed
Temperatures.
Initial
67
Tem
Radiation at the Surface.
In this case we have the equations
dH
dv
,.
,,
Tr^w^' (o<^<o.
v = V2,
when x=0,
v=f{x),
when t=0.
and
As
in 9,
we reduce
vi^,
when x =
l,
this to a case of steady temperature,
a case where the ends are kept at zero temperature.
Put
v^u4w.
'
where u and
satisfy the following equations
g=0,
(0<x<l)
u=Vi, when 33=0,
u=V2, when x=l,
dw
d^w
',,
,_
Tt^'W^' (<*<^)
and
w=0, when x=0 and x=l,
w=f(x)u, when t=0.
"We find at once that ru^Vif{v2Vi)xll,
and
it
follows from 30 that
nir
w=>,asmja!e
where
^%
i^
[/(')(^i+(^2"i) j)
=7:J
sm ^x
ax.
Thus
v^;,
V =i'i+Ki)
S.^UaCoswTT
!;,
^
J+^ S
"
^^"^
+j^sinjoi;e
'
nv
^'^t
"^^
f(x)Bmjx ax.
and
THE LINEAR FLOW OF HEAT
68
When
radiation takes place at the surface, the equations
55
~T=
at
cp ox'
=,
v=V2,
and
are solved
{0<x<l)
V,
cpfii
when
.5^
= 0,
when x = l,
v=f{x),when
= 0,
v=e''''\
by substituting
v=Hpjcpio,
where
and then using the
results of this
34. Finite Rod.
Temperature
f (x).
Ends
No
and the next
section.
at Temperatures ^^(t)
and
(i>^{i).
In
Radiation at the Surface.
In this case we have the equations
('<"<^)
=^B^^'
and
v=(j)i{t),
when
v=(p2{t),
when x=l,
v=f{x),
when t=0.
a;=0,
Following the general method given at the close of
9,
put
v=u4w,
u=0, when x=0 and x=l,
uf(x), when t=0,
and
(^<^<^)
ar='^a^'
w=^i(t), when x=0,
w=02(f), when xl,
w=0, when t~0.
The value
of
follows from 30,
u = j2^6
I'
and
is
given by
sinjx\ f{x)sinjx ax.
To obtain w we may use Duhamel's Theorem
solution for the surface temperatures
<Pj{t)
that for the surface temperatures v^ and
Vj.
and
(9),
tp^it) is
where
derived
BOUNDED BY TWO PARALLEL M^ANES
SOLID
69
In this case the temperature at time t, when the temperature
through the rod at t=\ is zero, and the ends are kept at ^i(A) and
02(A) from t=\ to t=t, is given by
+ 0,(X) [I + ^ 2 ^ COS ^Tre''^^''' sin '^
Hence, when the surface temperatures are
(p^if)
!^].
and 02 (i), we
obtain
[0i(X)ji(a;, X)+02(A)^2(, t\)]d\,
">=
F^{x,
iX)=lf Ve"^<'^>sin^a;,
^^(cc,
t~\)=%+y]~ cos WTre''^'^'"^ sin '^ x.
where
Thus
^^P
ie''i^sin^a;] e''^^(0i(A)(l)"02(X))c?X.
Therefore, finally,
i>=j2je
.^"^t
i"
JiTT
smja;
f'
1
,,
/(oc)
?l7r
smja;
aas
+Tfo e''^^'(<^i(X)(l)"02(X))iX
This solution
may also be obtained by the method used by Stokes in different
Potential Problems.
If
we assume
that v can be expanded in Fourier's Sine Series,
Z, a>n sin ',
is
a function of
given by
where
7'(a;, t)
is
X,
'
vlnf,
t)
sm = a;
JO
aa;
the temperature at x at the time
Then, integrating by parts twice,
/
vh;', i)8iE
) sin y
y dx"
JO
=^[^0,
t)(irvil,
0]^J' l^in^f .'d.'.
THE LINEAR PLOW OF HEAT
70
But by our hypothesis,
and thus the
is
_!!LE!a,.
Therefore
we have
Therefore
we have
nV.
')>
expansion of
^r^,
which
is
equal to
+ ?^(0,(O(l)"<^,(O).
to determine o
from the equation
nV, ""',
= Ge'~p' + ^e''ir' f^e'lF\4,,{X){l)H,{X))dX,
where 0
But,
="(0)
= v{l,t),
coefficient of sin =a; in. the
given by
4>i(f)
4>,{t)
is
(,
a constant yet to be determined.
vf{x).
initially,
C = f
Thus we must have
f(x')sia^x'dx'.
Jo
tr
Hence
,
TiTT
" =  2sm5a:e
t
1
",8
'
nir
f /(a;')
J.,
sm
a;'
,,
./o
'
'
+ ?^ I sm^a; e "T^
Neumann's Bar Method
35.
^f
da;
"
J^ e
T^ N<^i(A)
1)<^,( A))
dA/
of obtaining the Conductivity and
Emissivity.
In
Ms
paper, Tiber das Wdrmeleitungsvermngen von Eisen und
Neusilber,'\
Weber
describes a series of experiments which he con
ducted on a method suggested by
idea of this
method
is
Neumann
in his lectures.
The
the same as in that of Angstrom, but in this
case both ends of the rod are subjected to periodical changes of
temperature, so that the mathematical solution required
The end
the preceding article.
perature
4=0
'
to
t=2T
Vi,
t=T.
and
is
Then
while
of the rod
AB
is
is
that of
kept at tem
kept at temperature v^ for the interval
is
kept at
V2
and
this is repeated indefinitely.
at
v^
When
from
this
t=T
surface temperatures has gone on for a sufficient time, the
tribution of temperature in the bar approaches
two
to
series of
dis
limiting states,
which continually repeat themselves, the one belonging to the even,
* Cf. Mollison, Mess. Math., Cambridge, 10, p. 170, 1881.
f Ann. PJiysik, Leipzig, 146,
p. 257, 1872.
SOLID BOUNDED BY
TWO PARALLEL PLANES
71
and the other to the odd period.
Both
of these are independent of
initial distribution of temperature, and this may be
taken as zero throughout the rod.
In 33, 34 we have seen that the temperature at time i in a
rod of length I whose ends are kept at ^^(i) and (f>2,{t), while the initial
the arbitrary
temperature of the rod
medium
is zero,
at zero temperature,
K=K/cp
where
is
and radiation takes place
into a
given by
and
= Hplcpa},
In Neumann's Problem
and
r being zero or
^i{t)=vi
when 2rT<t<{2r+l)T,
<l>i{t)=v^
when {2r+l)T<t<{2r+2)T,
4>2{t)=V2
when 2rT<t<{2r+l)T,
^j(j)=i,i
when (2r+l)2'<<(2r+2)r,
any
positive integer.
Thus at the time t=2rT+t',
{0<t'
Jr
\Jo
where
i'n='c /a
Therefore
<T)
JzrT
V.
=^S e"^"* (i(l)"^2) sin^a;
{l + (Hh(l)")(}q:S)+^"^'^^^'j
and
the value of
v=
when
becomes very great, this expression
v at the time i! in the even period becomes
in the Hmit,
for
S^K(i^'2)sin'^^[i(i+(i)")j:g^].
THE LINEAR FLOW OF HEAT
72
In the odd period we obtain, in the same way, for the approxii
value of
V,
Thus at the time
from the commencement
one of the
of
periods,
'"=72
K X Sin
^2)
2K7r,
.^^Sw+l
'
and at the time
^=
(2i
4K7r,
72
x^
(i '"2) Zj
2K7r,
+ l)7r
^
/'2n+l
from the commencement
jcc
one of the odd
of
peri
sin^ X
*
2}l7r
,^2n+l
'
(2w+l)7r
Fin+l
''
+ l^K^2)S^'^r^Tq:i=^^'
where we have dropped the accent from t' and simplified the
These two expressions may be stiU further simplified, since
sinh yua; sinh
fj.
n
P 2^ ^.00
(lx)
47r^
"
2 sinh ^i
"Inir
V4mV +M
sin
se
72
and
sinh//x+sinh//(; a;) 27r^
2w + l
2sinh^Z
"P"4>(2w+l)V
ij.^=vIk,
we have
sinh/icc+sinhufi!
r^
o
u
2sinh/.Z
siDh/ja;+Binh
smce
/jl
a;)
^kit^ n
2w7r
sm ^x=U,
^=T22j
?2
I
^^^^^
(lx)
2K7r^2w+l
P2='<^j2
i'2n+i=f
say,
J'
(2i+l)7r
+"
(2w+l)V
and
+'^
P
Putting
(2wfl)7r
'''
,
1"
"^
SOLID BOUNDED BY
TWO PARALLEL PLANES
we have
Therefore, for the even period,
and
73
for the odd period,
(2)
We
shall
now show how from
obtain the values of
C7=0
Since
the equations
(1)
and
(2)
we can
H and K.
at
x=U
"^
F=s2 coshin 7'
and
fjul
and the other terms vanish, the temperature
v^i,
at the middle
point of the bar, remains constant and equal to
V1+V2
2cosh^r
V =
Therefore
where
]^g (+V(''l)>
2a
simple
unknown
way
^

of obtaining another relation
quantities
is
is
between the two
to take the difference of the temperatures
at x=l/6 and x~2l/3 at any instant.
which w
(3)
For these points the terms
in
a multiple of 2 or 3 disappear from the series in the
expression for the difference of the temperatures, and this series
is
so rapidly convergent that
we may
neglect the term for
n=5
and
those which follow.
Thus, with this approximation, the difference of the temperatures
at these two points at the time
after the beginning of
one of the
periods takes the form
MNerPi,
P ='^72' +
where
and M,
"^^
do not vary with t during the interval.
Let the differences of the temperatures at these points at the
times <i, 2, i+)8, and i2+/3 be d^, d^, dl, and d^.
Then
d^d^ =N{eP^e'^^),
d^ d^ =N{eP<^ePi')ei'^.
THE LINEAR FLOW OF HEAT
74
d.
dy
Therefore
e^P
di'd^"
and
(^^+.)^=logKd,)logK'ci,')
These two equations
Rod.
36. Finite
Temperature.
(3)
and
are sufficient to determine
K and H.
Medium
at Zero
(4)
Radiation .at Ends into
Temperature
Initial
(4)
No
f(x).
Radiation
at
the
Surface.
In this case the equations for the temperature are
Jt=^W ("<^<^)'
fit)
~^^+hv =
^+hv=0
md
at
x=0,
(2)
at
x=l,
(3)
v=f{x),wh.ent=0
The expression
e""" *{A cos
(4)
aa;+B sin ax)
latisfies (1).
It also satisfies (2)
and
(3),
provided that
aB+hA=Q,
md
a{B cos alA
From
these
sin
al)+h(B sin al\A
cos aZ)=0.
A B
=t
n
a
we obtain
*^i^^=^^
^nd
(5)
Hence the expression
(cosax+
feaH
sin aic)e~
and (3), where A is an arbitrary constant and a
any root other than zero of the equation
2ha
,
satisfies (1), (2),
tan OS =5
To form an
is
rb
idea of the distribution of the real roots of
(5); it
only necessary to note that they correspond to the abscissae
the
common
points of the curves
''=t^
where we have put al=^.
^'^'^
is
^ hi
''=M:r'
of
SOLID BOUNDED
The second
centre
of these curves
at the origin
is
BY TWO PARALLEL PLANES
a rectangular hyperbola, whose
is
and whose asymptotes are
^=0
and
,=l^:
hyperbola and the cotangent curve are drawn,
If this
from the
figure that the positive roots lie one in
intervals (0,
tt),
27r),
(tt,
75
...
and the negative
it is
clear
each of the
roots are equal in
absolute value to the positive ones. Also there are no repeated roots.
Further,
Since
it is
clear that (5) cannot
have a pure imaginary root
ib.
we would have
tanh?&+pqp=0,
which
is
impossible as both terms are of the same sign.
Also we shall see later* that
cannot have an imaginary root
it
form aib therefore its roots are all real.
Let us assume that /(a;) can be developed in an
of the
f(x)=A,X,+l,X,+...
where
Z=cosaa;H
infinite series
(6)
sin aa;,
On
a being the
Then the
nth. positive root of (5).
solution of our problem
is
=i;4^e^'
(7)
and the question of the
validity of this solution will be referred to again on p. 182, but
if we assume that such an expansion exists, and that we may
integrate the series term by term, the value of the coefficients may
be obtained in a similar way to that in which the coefficients in
The
possibility of the expansion (6)
Fourier's Series, with similar assimiptions,
may
This depends upon the fact that
X,J[dx=0,
Jo
which we
shall
now
* Cf. p. 78.
prove.
{m=\=n)
be found.
THE LINEAR FLOW OF HEAT
76
Since
and
{<Mr?an^)'^X^Jx=^\[{x,>" A^i
dx'
1^ dx
dx^
(ice
Jo"
dXr
+hXr=0, when x=0,
dx
But
dX,
'rhXr=0, when x=l,
dx
and
may
whatever positive integer r
Thus
and,
d^X
when
{a
be.
J a2) X^ndx=
[
0,
m is not equal to n,
Jo
To obtain the value
of
X^dx, we note that
Jo
Thus
...>...=[x.t]>(tr
But
aXn=an cos anX\h sin a,ja;,
and
j^=^an sin
a,ia;+/i cos
tta;.
Therefore
and
an'\'Xn'dx
+ ^' (^^Jdx={an' + h')l
But we have seen that
.fr'^i;(t)=[s
dx
SOLID
Therefore
But
BOUNDED BY TWO PARALLEL PLANES
2arJ'\'Xr,^dx=l(an^+h^)~[xJ^'J
_^+^;s:^=0, when x=0,
and
^j^JtX^^O, when
^^=
and
x=l.
^^^^
^^''
'^=0
jZ^+a)'=HA..
But
and
dx
Z^=l, both when
Therefore
x=0 and
fz^<^.=..("^+/y+^^
Hence,
if
a;=?.
^
^Cln
Jo
we assume the possibility of the expansion and
by term, we have
integrate term
aA
Xn^dx=\ f{x)Xdx
Jo
Jo
Thus
We
'
z/j^"=AZ2, when x=l,
Therefore
we may
77
stated above (p. 75) that the equation
,
2ah
tanaf=r
rh
cannot have an imaginary root of the form aib.
that
THE LINEAR FLOW OF HEAT
78
If this
were possible, we would have two conjugate roots aib,
and these would give the two expressions
a sm aX,
sin
X==cosax\
Z' =cos
a'x\
where
a=a+ib
and
a'=aih.
Now we have
a'x,
seen that for any two unequal roots of
(5),
Xm^^dx=0,
and
this applies also to
X, X',
so that
[^XX'dx=0.
Jo
But dividing
X into its real and imaginary parts, we have
X=R+iS
X'=RiS,
and
we would have
so that
(R^\S^)
dx=0,
Jo
which is impossible.
Thus we see that (5) has only
real roots.
If radiation takes place at x =0
i
and
2,
and x=l into media at temperatures
the problem can be reduced to the above as usual by
v=u\w,
putting
where m
is
a function of x only which satisfies the equations
=0, (0<x<l)
T
and
and
J
w is
\h{uVj}=0, when x=0,
+h{uV2)=0, when x=l
a function of x and
\Tmo^,
which
when
satisfies
a;=0,
Yhw=^, when x=l,
and
w=f{x)u, when t0.
the equations
SOLID
BOUNDED BY TWO PARALLEL PLANES
The problems where one end
of the
rod
is
kept at a constant
temperature, and radiation takes place at the other end, or
one end
is
rendered impervious to heat,
79
may
when
be treated in the
same way.*
37. Application of this Solution to the Determination of the Conductivity
and Emissivity.t
In the case of radiation at the surface of the rod into a medium
at temperature zero, the solution may be deduced at once from
and
given by
that of
36,
A and
X,i having the values of that article,
is
and
being equal to
Hplcpw.
Neumann showed
may
that this result
be used in determining
His method requires the
and ,, when x=0 and x=l.
the values of the thermal constants.
measurement
of the temperatures
v,,
Now
Z=:cosaa;H
sinaa;,
an
and thus X=l, when x0.
Also
we have
when x=l.
Since
seen that
We proceed to
tan a,il
Xn^=l
determine the sign of Z.
2anh
an'h^'
On ^+h^
THE LINEAR FLOW OF HEAT
80
As ^n
increases with w,
if < is
chosen large enough,
a close approximation by using only the
first
we
shall obtain
term in each
of these
series.
On
this understanding
and
^{v^Vi)=Aze^^K
In Neumann's experiment he
heated one end of the bar
first
by a flame, and then allowed the bar to cool by radiation. After
some time he began to take observations of Dq*^; ^^ equal intervals.
These readings showed when the temperatures began to obey the
law given above. By this means the constants /3i and ^^ ^'^e found
and thus two equations are obtained from which the conductivity and emissivity may be determined. However, as the
values of a^ and a^ involve h, this calculation has to proceed by
successive approximations and is somewhat complicated.
A simpler method is obtained by observing also the temperature
;
at the middle point of the bar.
When
a;=JZ,
sm
Z = cos
But
tan anl=
It follows that
 a/A. when n
^anl\
is
tan ^aj
is
5
t>
equal to /i/a
when n
even.
x=hh
Thus, for
Z=cos JanM IH
\
cos f '
=0, when n
g
Thus
^aj>.
vu=Ai
'
when n
is
g~^8^
7+^3
cos fait
odd,
is
even.
Pit
tanlaZ)
an
7
i
"cos^agl
and to our approximation
^=cosW.
is
odd, aijd to
SOLID
From
BOUNDED BY TWO PARALLEL PLANES
we
this result
find aj
then h follows from the equation
tan 101?=
and
ag
from
tan ^ag?
Also
=y
^i=Kai^+v,
K and
give
v,
so that the values of the conductivity
may
81
and the emissivity
then be found.
38. Equation of Conduction in a
Thin Wire heated by an Electric
Current of Constant Strength.^
The equation for the temperature in a thin wire along which
an electric current of constant strength is flowing was given by
Verdet in 1872.t For some time httle use was made of this method
'
of heating the metal, although it has several obvious advantages.
In the
first place,
the electrical measurenients can be
made with
found possible to arrange the experiments
so that the difference of temperature along the wire wiU be small.
The error due to the neglect of the change of the Electrical Conducsuch accuracy that
and
it is
Thermal Conductivity,
Further, it is of importance that the same method
is thus avoided.
of heating the wire should be employed in the cases when the
temperatures to be examined are widely different, and that the
two conductivities electrical and thermal should be obtained by
tivity,
also,
though not so marked,
of the
simultaneous experiments.
By
in this form, the question raised
* Verdet,
TMorie Mdcaniqite de
using the equation of conduction
by Wiedemaim and Franz, t
as to
la 0/ialeur, T. II., p. 197, 1872.
t Alternating currents have also been used in this connection.
papers may be referred to
Several important
Cranz, Zs. Math., Leipzig, 34, p. 92, 1889.
Ebeling, Ann. Physik, Leipzig
(4. F.),
Weinreioh, Za. Math., Leipzig, 63,
27, p. 391, 1908.
p. 1, 1914.
The lastnamed memoir contains a valuable account of the literature on this
and the variation of the temperature over the section as well as along the
subject,
length of the wire
is
taken into consideration.
J Ann. Physik, Leipzig,
C.C.H.
89, p. 497, 1853.
THE LINEAR FLOW OF HEAT
82
the ratio of the thermal and electrical conductivities, has beer
again examined, and
it
has been shown that the ratio
nearly constant as was at
We
is
not
sc
supposed.
first
Equation of Conduction, and then show
how the Steady Temperature and the Variable Temperature in
such a wire have been used to determine the Electrical and Thermal
shall first find the
Conductivity of the metal.
Let the wire be of length
I,
and
strength of the current, and
K,
and
let
conductivity, specific heat, density,
c,
p,
and
H be its thermal
emissivity.
Let
the electrical conductivity,
o
be the
i.e.
the
reciprocal of the resistance per unit crosssection per unit length.
Consider the element of the wire contained between the sections
distant x
The
and
x\dx
from one end.
rate of gain of heat in this element
over the sections at x and x\dx
Koo
ft)
from the flow
of heat
ultimately
is
Tj
dx,
being the area of the crosssection of the wire.
The
rate at which heat
is
lost at the surface of the element
is
H{vVg)pdx,
being the perimeter of the crosssection, and Vg the temperature
of the surrounding
The
medium.
rate of gain of heat due to the current i
The
total rate of gain of heat
This must be equal to
and therefore the equation
Writing
dx.
therefore
dv
wcp^dx,
of conduction
dv
_K dH
dt
Cp dx^
is
Up.
"'
Cpw (y^o)
k=, \=^,
cp
this equation
is
is
Cpw
and
Cpcio^cr'
a=
^,
cpufa
becomes ^=K^i~\{vv^\a.
SOLID BOUNDED BY
39.
TWO PARALLEL PLANES
The Steady Temperature.
83
Kohlrausch's Method of obtaining
the ratio of the Electrical and Thermal Conductivities.
Kohlrausch* has. shown how the Steady Temperature may be
employed in finding the ratio of the electrical and thermal conductivities.
The ends
peratures.
of the wire are
kept at as nearly as possible equal tem
The surface
supposed rendered impervious to heat,
and the current
i is
is
supposed to have been flowing long enough
to allow the steady rate of temperature to have been reached.
In this case the equation of conduction becomes
K (Pv
cp dx^
^
'
dx^
cpcoV
oft)^
Let u be the potential at the section
Then
But
x.
i^ wcr^rdx
THE LINEAR FLOW OF HEAT
84
When
the temperatures at the ends of the wire are kept the same,
the distribution of temperature in the wire will be symmetrical
about its middle point. Let the points x^ and ajg J)e at equal distances
from the middle point x^ on either side.
Then
^i='y3
% M2=M2~'^3
and
Therefore
we have from
(3)
^(^2^l)=2Kw2)^
and we have thus obtained a simple method of determining the
K/a of the Thermal and Electrical Conductivities,
value of the ratio
involving only the reading of the difference of the temperatures
and potentials at two points
40.
The
when the
of the wire,
regulated that the temperature of the wire
is
current
is
so
steady.
The Variable Temperature.
variable temperature of a wire along which a constant
electrical current is
surface, has also
The
constants.
flowing, while radiation takes place at the
been used in determining the thermal and
We have found the equation of
dv
electrical
due to Straneo.*
conduction ( 38) in the form
following investigation
is
8^v
r=fg^2X(o)+a.
k=, X=
Cp
where
Cpw
Suppose the temperature
a=
and
of the
5.
Cpw
medium
or
into which radiation
takes place to be zero, and that
< <
a;
when < =0, (0
'y=0,whenaj=0 and x=l,
V =0,
are the initial
To
and boundary
conditions.
we proceed
integrate the equation of conduction,
to break
up the problem
of Variable
* Straneo,
See also
Weinreieh,
Z)
as usual
into one of Steady Temperature and one
Temperature.
Roma, Rend. Ace. Lincei (Ser.
Sohanfelberger, Ann. Physih,
loc. cit.
5), 7,
Sem.
Leipzig,
ii.,
(4.
1898.
F.), 7, p. 589,
1902
and
SOLID
BOUNDED BY TWO PARALLEL PLANES
Pit
v=u+w,
where u
is
independent of the time and
M=0
and
85
w is
a function of x and
dw
dho
at
x=0
w=0
of
is
which
w==n
The value
x=0
at
at
the equations
and x==ll
satisfies
the equations
x=U
and
t=0
obtained immediately in the form
_,
_sinh /ux+sioh /x(Z re)"]
r^
where
sinhjuZ
and
iu.=J{\Ik)
This function
satisfies
may
J'
b=a/\.
be expanded in the Sine Series
2jAsm^x,
where An=0, when n is an even
when M
With
is
an odd
u the
solution of the equations for
follows
we have
r
w=~2jAnSm^xe
1
and
integer.
this value of
immediately, and
integer,
nv
'
.n,
^
>
"
or
46
y^
(2ttl)7r
[<^^^%x]*
Therefore
_,
r,
_ sinh fxx+ sinh fx{l x)l
siahfjil
In applying this solution we note that the
in the series for
diminish rapidly, and
coefficients of the
when x=lj3
terms
or 21/3 the
86
THE LINEAR FLOW OF HEAT
second term in
Hence
zero.
is
value of V at these points
is
to a close approximation the
given by
Let observations be made at the point x=^l at the times
and
ig,
t^, l,
i^ ij=3 ^2=^.
where
Let the temperatures be
v^, v^,
and
v^ respectively.
IS^=('F+^)^
..='^'4^('"<*"'""^'''"'')
^
Also take the value of the steady temperature at the middle point
of the wire, viz.,
^=Kic^J
(^)
These three equations determine the values of
from
(1)
we
A,
and
a.
this value of
we have an equation
from (3) we find b.
giving the value of
=r^>
W
b=l.
(5)
M=v/(V)
/m
and A, and
and (5).
of K
(4)
fx,
/j.
But
Therefore,
For
find the value of kj^{\.
Inserting this in (2)
and with
/c,
being known,
b being
(6)
we have from
known, the value
of
(1)
tr
and
(6)
the values
follows at once from
In the actual experimental work this process was reversed.
The wire was
first
heated by the current
was observed that
The current was then
the ends and the surrounding
till it
the steady temperature had been attained.
cut
off
and the wire allowed to
cool,
medium being still kept at the given constant temperature.
With this arrangement the steady temperature u is given
before by
_, /, sinh /xx+sinh fi(lx) \
sinh/u?
/'
as
SOLID BOUNDED BY
and the variable temperature v
dv
TWO PARALLEL PLANES
is
determined by the equations
dH
v=0, when
and
Thus
87
x=Q and
x=l,
v=u, when f=0.
+A
7rV(2wl){(2}il)V+ZV}^^^
Then, as before, we find
The values
of
k,
A,
and
o
follow as above.
^^
CHAPTER V
TWODIMENSIONAL PROBLEMS
41. Introductory.
two chapters we have been examining different cases
Flow of Heat. In these the temperature has been dependent only upon the time and upon one geometrical coordinate. Such
In the
last
of Linear
problems
may
be referred to as onedimensional.
We
proceed
to the discussion of cases in which the flow of heat takes place in
parallel planes.
If these planes are
taken parallel to the xy plane,
the temperature will depend only upon x and
of
steady temperature, or upon
We
with variable temperature.
x, y,
and
t,
y, if
if
it
we
is
a case
are dealing
speak of these problems as two
dimensional.
The
first
problem in the Conduction
Fourier in his treatise,
Infinite Solid
is
of
Heat discussed
in detail
by
that of the Steady Temperature in the
bounded by the planes a;=7r, y=0, and extending
The boundaries a;= ^7r are
to infinity in the direction y positive.
kept at zero temperature, and the base y=0 at temperature unity.
His discussion led him to the expansion of unity
in
the interval
Jtt < < ^tt in the series
a;
4
{cos
xi cos 3a;+i cos 5x ...},*
TT
and he then proceeded to consider the question of the development
of an arbitrary function in trigonometrical series, and obtained
the expansion now known as Fourier's Series. He was thus able
The
{cos a;^ cos
series
3a;
+ icos6a;
...[
7r
may
be obtained in the ordinary
way
f{x)
as the Cosine Series for f(,x),
= l,
(0<x<iw)
{iTr<x<ir)
f{x)=l.
88
when
TWODIMENSIONAL PROBLEMS
89
to give the distribution of temperature in this solid,
when the
fease
kept at the temperature v=f{x),f(x) beiag an arbitrary function
of X, while the faces x=^Tr are kept as before at zero.
is
48. Infinite Rectangular Solid.
Steady Temperature.
Instead of takiag Fourier's Problem in the form which he adopted,
we shall take the soHd as bounded by the planes x=0 and a!=7r,
which are kept at zero temperature, and the plane y=0, which is
We assume that the function /(a;)
bounded and satisfies Dirichlet's Condition (F.S. 93) ia (0, tt).
The equations for the temperature will thus be as follows
kept at the temperature v=f{x).
is
v=0, when a;=0 and
and
when y=0.
v=f{x),
Also
we have
a;=7r,
(0
< <
tt)
a;
Lt {v)=0.
Starting with the Sine Series for /(a;),
! sin x\a2 sin 2a;+...
where
"Jo
let
f{x') sia nx' dx',
us examine the function v defined by the equation
v=aje~^
Since /(a;)
is
sin
x+a^e^" sin
bounded and integrable
2
an = ~
2a;+...
in (0,
tt)
and
f""
f{x')smnx'dx',
ttJo
then
a
a\ sin nx e"
Also
yo being
< 2M,
where
\f{x)\
< 2Me
"'',
<,M
when
in (0,
2/
tt).
= > 0,
/o
an arbitrary positive number.
CO
Now the
2^""^
series
is
terms are independent of x and
convergent and
its
Thus the
v=aie^smx\a2e'^'>sm2x+
series
regarded as a function of
of X,
when y >
convergent when
x, is
...
(1)
uniformly convergent for any interval
and, regarded as a function of
y^yo'^0.
y.
y, it is
uniformly
TWODIMENSIONAL PROBLEMS
90
TLe same
is
true of the series obtained
tion of (1) with respect to
x and y
^=  S'*^**"^"""'"' ^ "^
Therefore
,^=
and
Y\n^ane"vsinnx.
+ a^^=^
Hence
a^2
Further, since (1)
and the sum
of as
a;
by term by term differentia
in these intervals.
is
= a;^
uniformly convergent in the interval
of the series vanishes
approaches these values
when a;=0 and
tt,
a;=7r, the limit
y being positive. Thus
x=7r are satisfied.
bounded and satisfies Dirichlet's
is
zero,
the boundary conditions at the faces a;=0 and
We
have assumed that f(x)
Conditions in the interval
is
(0, tt).
Therefore the Sine Series
sin x\a2 sin 2x+...
tti
converges, and
which /(cc)
is
It follows
its
sum
is
and tt at
f{x) at every point between
all other points.
continuous, and^{/(a;+0)+/(a; 0)}at
from F.S.
73, 1.* that, if
Lt v==f(x) at a point
is
defined
by the
of continuity
=2{/{+0)+/(ic0)} at aU other
points.
v='^ae"''smnx
Thus
is
series (1),
the solution of our problem.
This
may
be written
f(x')y](e"vsinnxsmnx')dx',
Tfjo
since the series under the integral
Ex.
If
the solid
is
uniformly convergent.
bounded by the planes x=0, x=ai and y=h, which
is
are kept at zero temperature, and 2/=0, which
show that
1.
MT ,,
(b y)
smh
= y ^^^^^^ sm
smh
6
is
kept at temperature
/{a;)f
fix)
sm
x dz
'"
and
which three of the boundaries
and the fourth at an arbitrary temperature.
Series and Spherical, Cylindrical and Ellipsoidal
discuss the other three oases in each of
are kept at zero temperature
Cf.
Byerly, Fourier's
Harmonics, pp. 102104.
*
The argument
of W.8. 73, II. also applies to this question.
Cf.
above,
31.
TWODIMENSIONAL PROBLEMS
91
3ase at Temperature Unity.
In the solution of 42, put/(a;)=l, and we have
43.
v=~2^1
V coswTT e"!' sin nx.
Therefore
^D=e!'
sin
x+^e^y
sin
=the imaginary part
_
~
3a;+ ...
of (e!'+"'+^e^!'+^^*+...)
1,
l)e'(^+3')
2 ^^ 1 e'C^+'y)
l
e^y+2ieysuxx \
2eycosx+e^y)
IM\
_^/sina;\
1,
Vsinh y/
=^anif?5^^
Thus
TT
The conjugate function*
to
\smh M/
2,tan~^ (
IS
) ^
i,
/ l+2eJ^cosa;+e^n
1,
4 ^ U2e!' cos x+e^y)
1,
/cosh y+cos
Vcosh / cos
a; \
a;/
It follows that the lines of flow are given
by
coshw+cosa;
v^i
=constant,
cosh?/ cos a;
,
these being orthogonal to the isothermals'
sin
rT
= constant,
a;
smhy
44.
of Conjugate Functions in Problems of Steady
The Use
perature.
Let
^,
);
be real functions of x and y such that
i+iri==f{x+iy)=f{z).
"f
For the
definition
and properties
Cf. Fourier, loc. cit., 205.
of conjugate funotiona see 44.
Tem
TWODIMENSIONAL PROBLEMS
92
Then
^,
are called conjugate functions of x
;;
and
y.
Also
we have
=^,
Therefore
(1)
l^=?f
dx
It follows
that the curves
(2)'
dy
^=constant and ?= constant
are
orthogonal,
Agam,smce
B^^^^d^y'
^5~>
5~s=3
ay^ ax ay
and
it
follows that
and
similarly
Further,
if
t;
is
iJ+32=0'
(3)
^+9^=*^
^*^
a function of x and
such that
g+5=
^5^+55=0
we can show that
9a;^
,
J or
<^>
ay^
dv
dv d^
003
of
8v dn
5=5> 5^+55
we have
oic
ax
orj
and
dx^~d^\dx)
'^
didr,dxdx'^dr,^\dx) '^ di dx^^ dr, dx^'
Similarly
dy^^di^\dy)
Adding these two
we
d$dr,dydy'^dr,Ady)
results,
and using
(1),
'^ d^ dy^'^ d^ dy^'
(2),
(3),
see that
dx^'^dy^
Thus,
if
we can obtain "a
solution of the equation
9p+9?~
'
(4),
and
(5),
TWODIMENSIONAL PROBLEMS
93
boundary conditions at the curves
satisfying certain
this solution in the
^r/
plane
may
be transferred to the xy plane,
the boundaries being the curves in the
ccy
plane which correspond
by the transformation
i+iri=f{x+iy)
to the curves
f=fi,
while the temperatures at these boun
etc.,
daries correspond to the temperatures at the boundaries in the
f;?
plane.
Suppose that we have the case of the rectangle in the
and that
at
o=fi{r,)
^17
plane
(h<'7<V2)
f =^1,
=/2W at^=f2> {ni<n<Vi)
V=F,{i)
The
Bit
r,=r,
solution of this problem
is
{ii<i<i,)
obtained by breaking
it
up
into
four cases, in each of which three of the boundaries are kept at
zero temperature.
In this
way we
find
sinh ^T<^''~f)
^"''^'^
('72
V
where a,
a', 6,1,
:^i,
and
&,/
ft
W^('?2'?l)
are the coefficients in the Sine Series,
\_V
/2(.)
(2^1)
^^('?'?i)
= S'>n'^^^),
^.(a=s^>in'g^^.
TWODIMENSIONAL PROBLEMS
94
Substituting for f
from the relation
>;
we have the temperature
in the region bounded by the curves which
correspond to f =fi, etc., these curves being kept at the temperatures
corresponding to/i(ij), etc.
45. Applications of this Method.*
I. The Sector of a Circle.
Consider the transformation
^=
In this case
and the sector
in the
^t]
;y=log(
0,
a and angle a corresponds to the region
of radius
plane.
Thus the equations
de^dr,^
'''
v=0, when
(0<^)
f=0
and
w=l, when ij0,
lead to
a~2+3~2=0
and ^=7r,
the sector,
0"^^^
v=0, when 0=0 and 0=a,
and
v=\, when r=a.
These equations in (f i;) we have already discussed in 43 when
dealing with the Infinite Eectangular Solid, and their solution is
,
= tani
TT
\smh
;;/
Therefore the temperature in the sector
sm
v=
given
by
tan~^
TT
sinh
* Cf.
is
 log 
Mathieu, Gours de Physique MatMmatique, Ch.
III.
TWODIMENSIONAL PROBLEMS
95
the boundary r=a had been kept at v=f(d), the problem
would have reduced to the solution of the equations
If
v=0, when
and
and
^=0 and
^=ir,
^=^^1, when ^=0,
this
II.
has been discussed in 42.
The
Circle.
Consider the transformation
x+iy
^\ir,= ilog
Then
and the
i=6,
circle
r=a
^=logp
corresponds to the region
0<v, 0<i<27r
of the
^Tj
plane.
Thus the equations
g2+9^a=0 over
this region,
^^^
v=f(^), when ri=0,
lead to
gj+g^=0 in the
circle,
v=f(6), when r=a.
The
solution of (1)
is
'

J
given by
v='^ e'"'(a cos wf +6 sin w^),
where
^^0=9
fii')^i'>
=r7(ncos<'d^',
TTJO
and
b=^\jii')smni'di'.
TT JO
^2)
TWODIMENSIONAL PROBLEMS
96
Thus we have
1 e^i
C^^
=2^ Jo l2e"cos
(^^')
+ e2/(^')'^^'
Therefore the temperature in the circle
is
given by
,,=J[7(0')2
/ ^" ''a22arcos
(00') +^
a^
27rJo
)(,
III.
Twp
Concentric Circles.
may
This
'
be obtained from the same transformation.
solution can readily be found in the
The
form
(acosw^+6sinn)
'siahw(v2 >;i)
,
y^
>^ sinhn(n i)
+7
where
^^:
..
Mf + 6'sm ni),
(a cos
/i(^)
= S (cosM^+6sinw^),
/2()
= 2 cosn^H6'sinn^),
are the Fourier's Series for/i(^) and/2(^) in the interval
IV.
Two
to 2t.
Intersecting or NonIntersecting Circles.
Consider the transformation
^+ir,=\og
x^liy
xl
i
Then
where
r^
^=logJ,
and
rj are
v=0,92,
the distances from the points
to the point P{x, y),
and
6^, 6^ are the angles
with the positive direction of the axis of
A (1,
AP
0),
and
B{1, 0),
BP make
x.
Thus ^=constant represents the system of coaxal circles with
A, B as limiting points, and >;=constant represents the system of
circles passing through A, B, these two sets of curves, as in all
cases of conjugate functions, being orthogonal.
With this notajiion
the xy plane is given by 7r<)j<7r and oo <i$<iKi
the lower
= tt; the lines Ax and Bx' are ;?=0; and the
side of BA is
;
;j
TWODIMENSIONAL PROBLEMS
upper side of
the point
BA
f=
Also
is .)=7r.
is
the point
97
^=+00 and B
,
is
00.
J'
We proceed to apply this transformation to several cases in which
the region in the ay plane
as in Fig.
bounded by
and
(0
^=0
iiiKiKii)
and r,=T,
over ^=^2> '?=0, and ri=Tr,
=/(/) over
Then we 1.
have
where
v= ^
> a
V
,
<*==
is
<,,<7r)
6.
mi.
^=^1.
^Vr
sinhw(A ^)
^,
sin
nri,
"sinhw(^a^i)
f{ri')^va.nij' dn'.
easy to extend this solution to the case where
v=fi{ri)
orei i=ii,
(0<>i<7r)
'v=Mv)
over ^=^2,
(0
v^F,(i) over ,=0,
v=F,{i) over
(ii)
arcs of these circles,
i=ii and f=^2,
v=0
Let
It
is
Consider the region bounded by
(i)
r,=7r.
< <
.;
tt)
{ii<i<i,)
ii^<i<i,)
Consider the region bounded by the two complete circles
=^i and ^=^2
surrounding the limiting point A.
Let v=fi{ri) over f=fi, and
solution
is
v=0
over
=^2.
obviously
siDhndzi)
(acosm)j+6sinw>;),
=s
f sinhniisii)
C.O.H.
Then the
TWODIMENSIONAL PROBLEMS
98
where
o=oJiTT J
fi{n')d>i')
IT
1 f"
=
ttJ
fi(ri')C0Snri'd,i',
w
1 ["
b=\
TTJ
Similarly,
when
v=f2(ri)
over
^=^2
^ siiihw(f A)
have
where
fi(>i)smnrid,i'.
n
a'
and
in the interval
b' are
tt
to
v=0
^.nd
i,
over f=fi,
,>
the coefficients in the Fourier's Series for/2(
tt.
Adding these two results we have the solution for the case
the circles ^^ and ^2 at temperatures /^(ij) and/2(r;).
It is clear that if /i(;) and/2(>?) are constant and equal to % and
respectively, we have only to solve the equations
v=Vi, when i==ii,
v=V2, when ^=^2
The
solution
is
v=Vi,
{j^) +^2 (1^^^)
ri8.
(iii)
1.
Consider the region bounded by
.)='I2,
(0<^<>)
(0<^<co)
^=0,
W<n<
')=ii,
as in Fig.
7.
V2)
TWODIMENSIONAL PROBLEMS
(a)
Let
w=/i()) over
v=0
v=0
Then the
solution
(j8)
{rii<rj<r,^)
over
j=ji,
(0
over
>)=j/2.
(0
<^<oo)
<^<oo)
clearly
is
V ae'^
=
where
f=0,
sin
/''~''^\
wtt,
["""^^. WTr
f/iC,,') sin
)2 )lJr,i
('72 f!!)
a=
Again,
09
cZ^'.
(Cf. P.S., 98, (7).)
let
i;=0
over ri=^^,
(0<^<co)
(0<<oo)
u=0
over =0.
(0
=/2(^) over
,)=;,i,
< <
oo
Suppose in the iirst place that the point A {io6 ) is excluded
by a circle ^=a, where a is a very large positive quantity, and
that the part of this circle included in the region is kept at zero
temperature.
Then we would have
ainh ~(ri,^r,)
sin
an
Sinh (;;2 j?l)
where
ar:
= ~\' m')s\n'^i'M'.
(X
To obtain the
Jo
solufion of our problem,
Proceeding as in F.8.
we must
let
a tend to
oo
118, in the case of Fourier's Integral, put
a = \
and
= AA.
a
This result might have been deduced from Fourier's Sine Integral
iovMi), namely,
rcZXsinX^r/2(f)sinXrdf.
Tjo
(y) In the
same way,
'^
Jo
if
^faii)' ""^hen
v=
0,
v = 0,
r,
,,2,
when =
when ^ = 0,
ri
t]j^,
(0
< ^<
oo
(0<f<oo)
{ri^<v<l2)
TWODIMENSIONAL PROBLEMS
100
i"^M'?'?i)
^ =  f" dX
we have
(S)
By
adding
(a), (/3),
and
^i^,
we
(y),
^^ f"y
(^^j
.j^
xf df
when
find the solution
the
three surfaces are kept at v=fi{ri), v^f^i^), and ^=/s(f).
(iv)
Consider the region bounded by
(<<^<')
= ii
'v=fi{i) oyer
'?
Let
= %
yi
=/2(^) over
and
Then we
find, as
>?
;;2
above,
V. Confocal Ellipses or Hyperbolas.
Consider the transformation
.x + iy
^ + 1^ = cosh^
.
x+iy ccoah{^+i^).
or
Then
a;
= ccosh^cos>;,
2/
= c sinh ^ sin
4.+^^
sinh^^
and
?;,
cosh^f
3/'
cos^ij
sin^j?
Thus the curves f= constant, and ;;= constant, are a set
ellipses and hyperbolas, and the xy plane is given by w
of confocal
< < t and
< ^
of
r]
<
00
the lower part of the xy plane having negative values
and the upper part
(i)
Two
i;
positive values.
Confocal Ellipses.
Consider the region bounded
by i=^i and ^=^2
v=f^(ti) over
Let
^=fi,
v^fiM over i=ii.
Then, as above,
^=
^sinh%(^o #)
^""^^''+^^^"^'')
?
+ S sinh^(,4V"" cos, + 6 sm,),
sinhn(gy
TWODIMENSIONAL PROBLEMS
where
and
a, b, a',
for/i((j)
the coefficients in the Fourier's Series
6' are
and/2(v) in the interval
Two
(ii)
101
v to
tt.
SemiEllipses and the part of the major axis between
In this case the region
bounded by
is
i=i^ and i=i^
= 7r.
r,=0 and
(0<;?<7r)
iii<i<Q
,,
Let
^=/i('?) over f=fi,
'"=M>]) over ^=^2,
=0
and
It
is
over ij=0 and
clear that the solution
V
^
+ Vein
V
,
where a and
a' are
;?
= 7r.
is
sinh 11(^2^1)
.
sin nri
sinh 71(^^1)
^^r
7^^
H^,
'sinhw(f2^i)
the coefficients in the Sine Series for/i()j) and
/2W.
(iii)
SemiElUpse.
In this case the region
^=0
^=0
is
bounded by
and i=i^,
and r,=7r.
Let v=f{ri) over i=ii, and
Then
temperature.
^=
where a
(iv)
In
is
(0
< <
,r)
;?
(0<f <fi).
the major axis be at zero
let
sinh n^
^
2sm^,^j^,
.
the coefficient in the Sine Series for /(;;).
Complete Ellipse.
we have
this case
to satisfy
3^2"^ a^a
^ =/(?),
(7r< >j<7r)j
'
when ^= ^1
 TT <
;;
<
tt)
Also there must be no discontinuity in the temperature or the
flow of heat as
we
cross the
major axis or pass along
All these conditions are satisfied
cosh nP
by the
,
it.
expression
sinh
n^
^=S(^^5^'='^''+^^iHh#,^^"S'
TWODIMENSIONAL PROBLEMS
102
where a and b are the
in the interval
tt
to
(v) Quadrilateral
coefficients in the Fourier's Series for /(>/)
tt.
bounded by
the
Arcs of two Confocal Ellipses
and Hyperbolas.
and the
solution
In the cases of steady motion considered in the preceding
articles,
This reduces to the rectangle in the
^i;
plane,
follows.
46. Sources
and Sinks in Steady Temperature.
the supply of heat which maintains the steady temperature
is
applied
On the analogy of the flow of electric
at the boundaries of the solid.
when the
currents along thin conducting plates,
current
is
conveyed
and withdrawn by another, we may
imagine the steady flow of heat in two dimensions or the flow of
heat in thin plates to be produced by the introduction of a quantity
of heat at one or more points and its withdrawal at others.
These
points may be called Sources and Sinks of Heat.
to the plate
by one
electrode,
In this
case,
we
point at which heat
describe a small circle of radius r round a
is
steadily flowing into the plate, in the limit
the flow of heat out through this circle must be equal to the flow
in at the source.
Hence the
must take the form
where m
is
solution of our equation
a solution which remains
the source, and
m is
+ u,
log r
finite as
the point approaches
the quantity of heat introduced there per unit
time.
Similarly at a sink the part of v which tends to infinity
must be
tfl
equal to
^^ log
r.
Consider the part of the xy plane for which y>Q, and let the
boundary y = Ohe kept at temperature zero, while there is a source
of strength
m at (0, y^).
Then we have
= p^ log ^ T
4.K7r
since this expression satisfies
It
win be seen that
L
^x^ + {yyY'
all
the conditions of the problem.
this solution is obtained
by putting a
sink
TWODIMENSIONAL PROBLEMS
at (0,
which
/o))
will
balance the source at
103
Indeed
(0, y^).
the use of Sources and Sinks in twodimensional problems of Steady
Temperature
is
exactly analogous to the use of Images in Electro
and Hydrodynamics, and the reader
statics
is
referred to the dis
cussions in the books on these subjects for further illustrations.
It is clear that the
functions
is
Z=X
where
and
(j>,
method
(f>
transformation by conjugate
+iY
Since
if
=f(x+iy),
Zo=Xo+iYo
=f{xo+iyo),
Zo'=XoiYo
=f{xoiyo),
looked upon as a function of
Also
of
appUcable in this connection.
also
{x, y), satisfies
7=0
in the
(xq, y^),
which
vanishes at the boundary which corresponds to
XY plane,
and
is
infinite as
h^^ log r at the point
/ATT
corresponds to the point {Xq, Yq) in the
XY plane.
47. Variable Temperature.
In this case the equation of conduction
dv_
and we obtain the solution as
the
initial
(d^v
in 16 in the
If
form
temperature being
^ =/('.
y)
bounded by /=0 kept at temperature zero and the
temperature is v=f{x, y), when  cxj <a;<oo and 0<2/, we
the soUd
initial
is
dH\
is
have
1
v=
(>
T^A
To obtain
(<
f,y')\e
this solution
beyond the plane
y=0
{xiif+(vy'f
e
(j;xT+(.v+y') \
we may suppose
and that there
is
]dxdy.
the solid continued
a symmetrical initial
104
TWODIMENSIONAL PROBLEMS
distribution of temperature in the
added region y
<
which
will
cause the plane y
always to keep zero temperature: that is,
we take the initial temperature at {x',y'), (y'
0), to be equal in
>
absolute value but opposite in sign, to that at
The question
it,
y').
tempefature at the boundary y=0,
will be referred to in 74, 86 and 87.
of a variable
or of radiation across
(a;',
CHAPTEE VI
THE FLOW OF HEAT IN A EECTANGULAE
PAEALLELEPIPED
48. Introductory.
Several of the methods of finding the conductivity of solids which
we have
discussed in the previous chapters cannot be applied to
poor conductors, since the amount of heat
the bar
by
along the bar, and the emissivity
that
it is
lost at the surface of
radiation becomes large compared with that conducted
best to have
it,
when
is
such an uncertain quantity
possible,
reduced to the rank of a
With poor conductors this would be impossible
in the bar methods.
But for the cube, the sphere, and the cylinder
the mathematical problem can be solved and its solution applied
to the evaluation of the thermal constants. In this chapter we shall
small correction.
discuss the case of the rectangular parallelepiped.
perature the solution
much
is
For steady tem
given by a rather complicated
series,
without
practical value, but for different problems of variable tem
perature
we obtain
results
immediately applicable to experimental
investigation.
49. Steady Temperature.
Consider the solid bounded by the planes x=0,
y==zb
z=0, z=c.
The equation
for the temperature
We take the following surface conditions
v=Vi, when x=0,
v=Vi, when x=a,
and
the other faces at zero.
105
x=a
is
y=0,
IN RECTANGULAR PARALLELEPIPED
FLOW OF HEAT
106
It
is
clear that the expression
t),
i^
sinhi{a a;)+i'osi!ih?a;
'
,
sinh La
satisfies all
5^ sin ntrz
.
the conditions provided that
Therefore the solution of the problem
CO
CO
%\ sinh
sm^sin
sinh^c
11'
Y" y] A^^ sin
provided that
given by
is
(a x) +1)2' sinh ^^j^.^ mTry ^.^ mrz
^m,T
^=S
S^"'."
i=l n = l
r.
be
imrv
sin
^
sin
^
"
= 1.*
^
tnTry
^y'^mSinr^ = i)
But
a =
when
(1 coswitt).
Therefore
sin^^i^sin^^2lll!
_16'^ ^Visinhi(tt a;)+t^2sinhia;
where
50. Steady
When
(2g+l)
{2p+l)
_ {2p+lY
i^
&
iEhTS
''"^^oj^'o
'
(2q+lY
Temperature (cowiwMed).
radiation takes place at the faces
and the faces x=0,
we can obtain
x=a
y=0, y=b, z=0, z=c,
are kept at temperatures
v^, v^,
as before,
a similar solution of the problem.
In this case the surface conditions are
v^Vi when
51^1' = 0,
when
^\}bv=0,
when z=0;
az
*
a;=0, and
For a rigorous treatment
t/
= 0;
v=v^ when x=a]
= 0,
\hv
\hv=^0,
when y = h;
when z=c.
oz
of this question it
would be necessary to justify
The same remark
v.
the term by term differentiation of the double series for
applies to the other problems discussed in this chapter,
Cf. 12, 30' above, and Moore: "On Convergence Factors in Double Series,
and the Double Fourier's Series," Trans. Amer. Math. Soc., 14, p. 99, 1913.
Also the same author's paper in Bull. Amer. Math. 80c., 25, p. 274, 1919.
FLOW OF HEAT
IN RECTANGULAR PARALLELEPIPED
107
The expression
~rx) +Vo
Vi sinh. lla
.h.
sinh. Ix /
(cos mi/ H
^^
^
sinmy
,h.
amnz)\
\/
\
cos nz]
satisfies
the equation of conduction provided that
Also
satisfies
it
values of
I,
the surface conditions at
and those at the other
faces,
x=0 and x=a
ii
for all
m, n are the positive
roots of
,
(cf.
2'mh
tanmo=
2nh
and
5^
tanic=
36).
Now we
have seen in
assumptions as to
36, that, with certain
the possibility of the expansion of an arbitrary function in a series
whose terms are
of the type
Yr=coa mry\
sm
niry,
the coefficients in the expansion
f(y)=A,Y,+A,Y,+...
are given
But
^r= ^^^,^j^:;^^_^^f^ y{y) Y,.dy.
by
Yrdy=\
Jo
smmryjdy
(cosmry\
^m^ h= ^
= (sinm^feH
(l
mr\
tan
Also,
'
***
mr
CQsmrb)
h
tanm2j+i^=
(cf.
m.2r+l
37).
Hence
f*
I
r,.(^2/
= 0,
when
r is
even;
Jo
m/=,
4^
VI
when
r is
^^
odd
Similar results follow for the corresponcjing expression Z^.
FLOW OF HEAT
108
RECTANGULAR PARALLELEPIPED
IN
Therefore the solution of our problem
is
v ^i '^^"^^ l(ax) + V2 sinh Ix
~ 1fi*2V
sinh la
^0 ^0
where
It
is
i^=2j,+i+W25+i
do not lend themselves to numerical
and that they are not suitable for the evaluation of the
clear that these solutions
calculation,
thermal constants.
No
51. Variable Temperature.
Radiation at the Surface.
Let the solid be the rectangular parallelepiped of the
sections,
X,
y and
we have
the
and
z,
of
Then
the faces being kept at zero temperature.
all
two
last
temperature being an arbitrary function
initial
to satisfy the equations,
=kVH
^
in the solid;
(1)
=0, when x=Q, y=0, z=0\
and
v=f{x,
y, z),
,.
x=a, y=b, z=cj
'
wheia.t=0
(3)
The expression
^^
and
satisfies (1)
sm a; sm ? V
^
'
"
mr
sin
(2).
Extending Fourier's Sine Series to the case oif(x,
have
f^^' y'
'^)
^SS
= ""''
f
("
,.,
/(a;',
a;
=S
l
y\
,v
z')
^ysm
z
O
sin
't
sm
we would
y, z),
a;'
WITT
nK
sm ^y %in
z ix
T
J
dy dz
,
=X
"
"
Itt
rrnr
.__
mr
S ^Am,nii^^xamyysm~z,sa:y.
a
m=l n=l
solution of our problem will be given
by
^=S2SAm.nSma;smg3/sm ^e
^
' '
"
Ai__n being the definite integral
f"
f" ,,
iTT
mw
mr
,"1
"
Hence the
Z> sm a
l=lm = ln = l
CP
IJ
FLOW OF HEAT
When /(a;,
IN RECTANGULAR PARALLELEPIPED
constant and equal to
y, z) is
109
v^,
Therefore, in this case,
^=0^l:2i:{(2;'+l)fsin(2,+l)!^sin(2.+l)^
"0
\'"
C
3j=09=0r=0
">
=
(
ism
NTT/
sin^sm
1
Sttx
try
vz
c'
KlT'(,+l.+^t
Tra;
StTW
nZ
+7:Sin
smT^sin
e
3
a
6
c
Bab
6!>
^^
+jrSin smi^sm^
1
6
,
(2r+l)' \
(2a+l)'
(2;j+l)(2j+l)(2r+l)
0.
3 / (2p+l)'
\
a
icn'(.+ l;+\)t
\'
''
'
"''
'^>
Thus, for large values of
t,
the series
is
rapidly converging, and
to a close approximation
TTX
Try
V
 Sin sin T^sm
= f4iy
a
W/
%
.
Also,
we note that
_(i^4.i+l)(
rrz
^^
''
"
'
at the pouit
(^a, ^0, c),
the 2nd, 3rd, and 4th terms disappear, so that
e
TT
is
a good approximation to the value
values of
In applying
are equal,
of v at this point for large
t.
this result it is usual to take a cube, so that a, b
and
24 V3
TT
3.r
and
110
FLOW OF HEAT
That
sufficient
IN RECTANGULAR PARALLELEPIPED
time has passed to allow this to represent the
state of the temperature
may
be tested by seeing
if
the temperature
readings at this point follow the exponential curve.
noticed that the 5th, 6th,
It will be
and 7th terms are
2473
27^I
and that these should be negHgible.
If Vi
and
V2 are the readings of the
temperature at
ij
and
t^,
the
equation
=e3/c^(<2'l)
"
Vl
gives the value of
k.
52. Variable
Temperature (continued).
When
is
there
medium
Radiation at the
Surface.'^
radiation at the faces of the parallelepiped into
at zero temperature,
we have
to satisfy the equations,
^=KVh> in the solid
(1)
ot
^
ox
when x=a;
(2)
_p.jf.hv=0, when y=0,
^+hv==0, when y = b;
(3)
^+hv=0,
^+hv=0, when z=c;
(4)
ax
when 2=0,
oz
oz
and
+ hv=0,
i^thv0, when a;=0,
v=f(x,y,z), when t=0
It is clear that the expression
where
Z=cos
ax]
r=cos/32/+o
Z=cos
yzi
sin ax,
sin
sin yz,
y
* Cf. Fourier, loc.
cit.,
;8jr,
Ch. VIII.
(5)
FLOW OP HEAT
and
a,
/3,
IN RECTANGULAR PARALLELEPIPED
111
are positive roots of
2ah
tan aa
2/3A
tan/36=
satisfies (1), (2), (3)
and
(4).
.(6)
(Cf. 36.)
Hence assuming the possibility of the expansion of the given
arbitrary function in a triple series whose terms are of this nature,
we have
as the solution of our problem
where
.4^, p, y is
fi
the coefficient of the term in
and the summation
is
roots of the equations
taken over the
(6).
In the case when the
initial
temperature
to Vg, this expression simplifies, as in 50,
__
If
may
is
<
4,313
CO
X^Y^Zy in the expansion
number of positive
infinite
CO
V V ^^
is
constant and equal
and we have
t;
^ap+i
"aa+i
so great that in each of these series the terms after the
be neglected, we have
In applying this solution to the case of the cube, we have
where
and
Zi=cos
aiX\
yi=cos
ai/H
Zi=cos
aiZ\
sin aiX,
sin oiy,
sin a^z.
first
112
FLOW OF HEAT
Therefore,
if vy
IN
RECTANGULAR PARALLELEPIPED
and V2 are the temperatures at any point at t^ and t^,
Hence, k having been found by other means, aj
But
tania,a=".
Thus we have the value
of h.
may
be obtained.
CHAPTER
VII
THE FLOW OF HEAT IN A CIECULAR CYLINDER
53. Introductory.
We
have seen in
6 that the equation of conduction, when
expressed in cylindrical coordinates, becomes
If
a circular cylinder whose axis coincides with the axis of z
is
and boundary conditions are independent
of
the temperature will be a function of
heated,
and the
initial
the coordinates 6 and
and
only,
and
z,
this equation reduces to
/d^v
Idv
dt~'^ \dr^
r dr
dv
In this case the flow of heat takes place in planes perpendicular
to the axis,
When
and the Hnes of flow are radial.
initial and boundary conditions do not contain
the
z,
the flow of heat again takes place in planes perpendicular to the
axis,
and the equation
dv
when the
of conduction reduces to
/B^v
dv
9V
and boundary conditions do not contain
6, the flow of heat takes place in planes through the axis, and the
equation of conduction becomes
Again,
initial
dv
_ /dH
3^
S^i"'
I
dt~'''\d^^^rd'r'^M.
O.CH.
113
FLOW OF HEAT
114
54. Infinite Cylinder.
If
the solid
IN
A CIRCULAR CYLINDER
Steady Temperature.
a hollow circular cylinder, whose inner and outer
is
and r^, and the surfaces are kept at the constant
temperatures v^ and V2, the equations for the temperature become
radii are r^
(Pv
= v^, when
= V2, when
and
Ti^us
Idv
^ ^
= r^,
r=
?'2
Ki^i) logr+^i logr^Vi logr^
logr^logri
If
the cyUnder
is
solid
and heat
ciding with its axis,
is
suppHed by an
electric current
through a uniform straight wire
of constant strength passing
coin
and the heating has gone on long enough
for
the steady state of temperature to be attained, the rate of flow
of heat out
through any concentric cylinder
at which heat
Thus,
if
ff
by the
is
equal to the rate
is
supplied to the wire
is
the heat supplied per unit length per second, and
current.
K the Thermal Conductivity,
or
Therefore on integration
Vi
and
V2
we have
being the temperatures at
rj
and
H=PR,
But
I being the strength of the current and
Thus
r=a
R the resistance.
27rK{Vi~V2)=I^Rlog^^.*
55. Infinite Cylinder.
Let the
r^.
Variable Temperature.
temperature be given by v=f{r) and let the surface
be kept at a constant temperature, which may be taken as
initial
zero.f
*Cf. Niven, London, Proc. B. Soc, 76
(a), p. 433, 1905.
(a), p. 34,
1905;
Lees, London, Phil
Trans. B. Soc, 204
t
If
the constant surface temperature
zero temperature
by putting v=Vg+w.
is Vq,
we may reduce
this to the case
o\
FLOW OF HEAT
The equations
IN A CIRCULAR CYLINDER
115
for v are as follows
dv
/d^v
v=0,
and
,ldv\
if.^^.
when r=a,
when t=0.
where m is a function
v=f{r),
If we put
must have
=e~'"'''M,
d^u
du
of r only,
then we
^+r^ + ""=^'
,
which
is
As the
Bessel's equation of order zero.
solution of the second kind
is infinite
at
r=0, the particular
integral of the temperature equation suitable for our problem
is
v==AJo(ar)e'"''i,
where Jo{x)
To
is
Bessel's function of order zero of the first
satisfy the
boundary condition a must be a root
Jo{aa)
kind*
of
= 0.
known
that this equation has no imaginary roots or repeated
roots, and that it has an infinite number of real positive roots
It
is
"i. oa, 03....
Also to each positive root a there corresponds a negative root
If f(r)
can be expanded in the
a.f
series
AiJo{air)+A2Jo(a2r)+ ...
the problem will be satisfied by
,
the conditions of
CO
Assuming
and
by term, we can obtain the
for the present the possibility of the expansion J
that the series can be integrated term
values of the coefiicients
by the help
of the
two important
definite
integrals to be discussed in the next section,
*
For information as to the Bessel's functions see Appendix
I.
Gray and Mathews,
Bessel Functions, Ch. V., 1895 ; Watson, Theory
This important work has been passing through
of Bessel Functions, Ch. XV., 1922.
own. I am indebted to Professor Watson for
thejpress at the same time as
f Of.
my
the references to
it
here and in the pages which follow.
J For a discussion of the possibility of expanding an arbitrary function in a
Hobson, London, Proc. Math. Soc. (Ser. 2), 7, 1909
series of Bessel's functions, see
Moore, Trans. Amer. Math. Sac, 10, 1909
Proc. Math. Soc. (Ser.
2), 18, 1920.
12, 1911
The subject
and
21, 1920
is also
Young, London,
treated in Dini, Serie di
Fourier, pp. 246269, 1880, and Ford, Studies in Divergent Series
Ch.V.. 1916.
and Summabilify,
FLOW OF HEAT IN A OIRCULAB CYLINDER
116
The Integrals
56.
rrJ,,(ar)J(l3r)dr
and
Putting u=J(ar) and v=J,{^r),
^\{J^(ar)fdr.*
we have from Bessel's
equation,
rl(4)+("?)='''
dvy
r du
and
this vanishes
dv~\''
when
aJ(^a)J'(aa);8J(aa)J'(/3a)=0,
where
'^"'^"'^^^\5r'^"^'^Vra
Thus when a and
two
are
/3
difEerent positive roots of
(i)
J(aa)=0,
or
(ii)
J'(aa)=0,
or
(iii)
we have
aJ n
{aa)
J%J(ar)JJ/3r)dr=0.
M = 0.
Again, since
''V'/^fe?
dud/
du
drV
dr
rfr
Therefore
rfjV
and
dr
by
parts and
it
dr
follows that
/du\'^
laM ru^d/r= r''\^\
The convergence
shall be greater than
shall
n^^ O,
+ aV 5dr
"j?w*+[('jT]:=
Integrate
,.(1)
+ 'hJn{aa) = 0,
)De
of the integrals
1.
when
+(aV2)M2
requires that the real part of n
In the applications of these integrals in the text we
dealing with n real and not less than zero.
FLOW OF HEAT IN A CIRCULAR CYLINDER
117
Therefore
rr{J(aT)fdr=^^,[a'a'(J^{aa)f+{a'a'nWn{aam
^a
Jo
='[(J^'M)^+(i^,)(^M)^]Thus
when a
(i)
a root of J{aa)
is
= 0,*
r{J{ar)fc!^=Uj'{aa)f;
Jc
(ii)
when a
is
a root of J'(aa)
= 0,
nf.2
iM 2
(2)
%(J(ar))2cfo='(l^,j(J(aa))^
and
when a
(iii)
is
a root of aJ'(aa)+/iJ(aa)=0,
Jo'"
Applications of these Integrals.
57. Infinite Cylinder {continued).
We may
apply these results to the case of the Infinite Cylinder,
assuming the possibility of the expansions needed in each
and that they may be integrated term by term.t
I.
r=a
Surface
at temperature zero.
case,
Initial temperature v=f(r).
In this case we take
f(r)=AiJo(air)+A2Jo(a2r)+...
where
ai, ag
...
are the positive roots of
Jo{aa)=0.
AA''r{Jo{ar))^dr=
Thus
Jo
rf{r)Jo{a^r)dv,
Jo
since
rJ a{a^r)J oia^r) dr=Q.
Jo
But
9
Therefore i>= 5
a^
*It
are
is
known
all real
rf{r)Jo{a^r)d^
0,
I
that the roots of this equation and the others in
and not repeated.
Cf.
Watson,
loc. cit., 15.
(ii)
and
(iii)
23, 15. 25.
treatment of some of the problems named in this section
f For a more rigorous
and the next, reference may be made to Moore's papers in Trans. Amer. Math.
Soc. 10. 1909: 12. 1911: and 14, 1913.
FLOW OF HEAT
118
ra
Surface
II.
A CIRCULAR CYLINDER
IN
impervious
Initial temperature
to heat.
v=f(i
In this case we take
/(r)=^iJo(ai')+AJo(2') + "
where
oj, ag,
Jo'(aa)
Then, since
= 0.
r[J o{ar,r)Yd/r=^{Jn{arfl)Y,
rf{r)Jo{ar)d^
we have
>
are the positive roots of
= ^S "'' f
^oM
"'
III. Radiation at surface
(j(,)).
r=a
into a
medium
at zero temperatur
Initial temperature v=f{r).
In this case we take
/(r)
where
ai, oa,
= ^iJo(ai)+^2'^o(a2) + aJg (aa)
Then, since
>
are the positive roots of
Jo
+ hJ^iaa) = 0.
a^
r{Jo{ar))^dr=^i^{h^+aJ)(Jo{aa))^
n
aj\
rf(r)Jo{anr)dr
we have
IV.
^=^2 S^' y;^2)(j(^,)). ^o(a.r).
Surface r=aat zero temperature. Initial temperature
v =f{r,
In this case the equation of conduction becomes
1 dH''
fd^v Idv
'^Kdr^'^rdr'^r^dd^J'
dv
dt
and the expression
e "''/ {ar)(^
is
periodic in
Now
cosn0+5
n being taken
satisfies this equation,
with period
sinm6*)
integral as the temperatu
27r.
take the Fourier's Series for f{r,
6),
namely,
CO
f(r, 6)
where
=2
('*'
1 f"
= I f (r,
&,,=
T
"J
and
^ ^^
f(r,
6)
+K sin
'^^).
cos nddO,
6)smnede,
IT
ao=^Wfir,6)de.
(n^l)
FLOW OF HEAT
These
coefficients are functions of
of Bessel's functions of the
where
IN A CIRCULAR CYLINDER
ai, a^,
...
as,
Expand them
r.
wth order,
119
in the series
e.g.
are the positive roots of
J(aa)=0.
Then we have
^'==
'='*^'^"(')'^'^^'
7ra''(.7j(,))4 r_/^'' ^^
Thus we obtain our
^'=2
solution in the form
(^. ^^
V. Radiation at surface
nd+Bn^s sinn6)J(agr)e~'"'t.
r=a
into
a medium at zero temperature.
Initial temperature
v=f{r, d).
In this case we take the Fourier's Series for /(r,
00
/(".
S)
=S
('^^ *^ **^
6),
namely,
+ ^ '*^)'
11=0
as in IV.
The
coefficients are functions of
r.
Expand them
of Bessel's functions of the ith order, e.g.
in the series
00
where
ai, a^, are
the positive roots of the equation
aJ'(aa)+AJ(aa)=0.
Then we have
2
f{r,Q)Jo{asr)rdrde,
^os=^r^~rmTTnAvA'' f
A,=
f"
7
^^Jt
r"/( S)cosnejJasr)TdTde,
7ra^[as'+h^~){Jn(asa))^'' ^
'^'^
r r"f{r, 6) sin neJ {asr)r dr dO,
Jo
^a'^(as^+h^^^Wn(asa))'
FLOW OF HEAT
120
IN A CIRCULAR CYLINDER
yuj,y
^=2 '^{^n,s'^osnd+Bn^sSiD.nd)Jn{asr)e
and
.lin s UV.U
VI. Surface
r=a
.i^n g uiij, ,!,>,;.,
.1/.,
Initial temperature
at zero.
v=f{r,
6, z).
In this case we have
dt~''\dr^'^rdr'^r^de^'^dz^)'
and
sin
is
?^az
e''('''+'''>*J(ur)*'P^w9
a particular
sin
integral.
Now expand f{r,
6, z)
in the Fourier's Series
(a cos nd\bn sin nd)
?l=0
The
F{r,
and 6 are functions
coefficients a
z)
and
Expand these functions
by the positive roots of
2 ^"
(^) "^n
(^')
((,
{z)
co
= \
da\
(pr,
J XI
^n{z)=\ da\
"Jo
Thus we get our solution
2S
/'
and ^(z), namely,
/ao
"TJo
"=
denoted by
Finally, take the Fourier's Integrals for <p{z)
"
z,
= 0,
F (, 2) =
let
and
in the series of Bessel's functions given
J(f^a)
and
of r
ff(r, z).
O)
cos a {/3z) d^,
xlr{/3)cosa{l3z)dl3.
J CO
in the
form
coo
e =(''^+''^) J(^r) [^(/3)
cos nd+y}r^{^)
smnQ}
Xcosa(;8 z)c?a(^/3,
bhe
summation with regard to
jj.
being over the positive roots of
J(/xa)=0.
VII. Surface
of
r=a at v=F{6,
z).
we reduce this
steady temperature, by putting
As shown
in 9,
Initial
temperatwe v=f{r, 0, z).
and a problem
to the case V.,
V=U\V),
FLOW OF HEAT
and choosing
IN A CIRCULAR CYLINDER
a function of
u,
u=F{d,
and
w to
d,
z),
and
= =/c Vm),
satisfy
w=f{r,
find
z only, to satisfy
when r=a,j
6,
z)u, when t=0,
w=0,
To
121
u we expand
when r=a.
l'(9, z), as
above, in the Fourier's Series
CO
^{anCosnd+bamn6),
11=0
a and 6 being in this case functions of
and
<pn(z)
and
z,
which we denote by
Then we take the Fourier's
and u is given by the equation
\/r(z).
^/^(z),
Integrals for <p{z)
XCOSa{^z)dad^.
To
find
w we
proceed as in VI. above.
58. SemiInfinite Cylinder.
Let the axis
let its
of the
Steady Temperature.
cyHnder as before
base be the plane z=0.
We
along the axis of z and
lie
shall exapaine first of all the
when the base is kept at temperature
medium at zero temperature
at the surface r=a. When we put/(r)='Uo the solution of this problem will correspond to the exact discussion of the Flow of Heat
case of steady temperature
v=f{r) and radiation takes place into a
in a
Rod which
has been treated in
the crosssection
is
20,
with the assumption that
so small that the temperature over
it
may
be
However, when radiation
centre.
takes place at the surface, there must be a flow of heat outwards
from the middle of the rod, and the assumption of Linear Flow
taken as equal to that at
of
Heat
affairs.
its
serves only as an approximation to the actual state of
This approximation
is
admissible
when the
emissivity
Bar
Methods of determining the Conductivity are employed only for
good conductors. We have seen in 52 that in the case of poor
is
poor and the conductivity good.*
Cf.
Peek, Phil. Mag., London (Ser.
For
6), 4,
this reason the
1902.
FLOW OF HEAT
122
IK A CIRCULAR CYLINDER
conductors experiments have been conducted on cubical blocks
and in 63, 66 we shall find that cylinders and
for the same purpose.
employed
be
of the substance,
spheres
may
In this case of steady temperature the equations for v are
<<'<^<^)
IMhw'"'
v=f{r),
dv
^^\hv
or
= 0,
when z=0,
(2)
when r=a
(3)
The expression
is
e~<^JQ(ar)
a particular integral of
and
(1)
satisfies (3) if
aJo(aa)\hJo{aa)=0
Thus we take
/(r)=^i<7o(ai'')+42<7o(2'")
(4)
+ "
>
00
and
=24e.Vo(ar).
1
When
V the first
is
small, the roots a^, a^,
term in
Further,
if
ai^a^
may
and we may take
for
be neglected, we have
J{aja)
Therefore, from
increase rapidly,
...
this expansion.*
=l
and
J'{aja)= ^a^a.
 ^a^^a
(4),
or
+h=0,
.=vit will be noticed that this requires
^1 to
this
approximation the value
Thus we have
and
ah to be small, and that we obtain for
is constant and equal to 7.
F when/(r)
= Ve ^
'
this agrees with the solution of 20.
59. SemiInfinite Cylinder.
We
shall
examine
first
Variable Temperature.
the problem of the SemiInfinite Cylinder,
given that
v=f(r,
*Cf. Watson,
10, p. .S97, 1909.
6, z) initially,
v=Q, when r=a and z=0.
and
loc.
cit.,
15.23,
15.
32;
Moore, Trans. Amer. Math. Soc,
FLOW OF HEAT
A CIRCULAR CYLINDER
IN
123
In this case we start with the expression
e(a^+^)
/^)
J^^
'
which
cos
^g ^.^
sin
=kV^v,
satisfies
at
and
also the surface conditions
Now
expand /(/,
6, z)
when z=0 and r=a,
if
J(^a) = 0.
in the Fourier's Series
CO
nd+bn sin m0),
(n cos
a^ and 6 being functions of r and
Then expand J(r, z) and 6r(r,
given by the positive roots of
and take Fourier's Sine
and 6r{r,
z,
denoted by Fn
z)
in the series of Bess el's functions
(r, z)
Integrals for the coefficients ^,i(z)
and
z).
y{/n{z)
terms in these expansions.
In this way we find the solution in the form
of the
^,='1
TT
2 i; r
u,
re('+^")*J(Mr)[0(;8) cosi9
m=0 Jo Jo
X sin a/3 sin az da d^,
the summation with regard to
being over the positive roots of
/n
JnifJ^O)
If
the temperature at the surface
v=Xi('''' ^)<
and
= X2(^'
^))
v =f(r, 6,
if
z),
+ V.(;8) sinn0]
is
=0
given by
when 2=0,
when r=a,
when t=0,
up the problem into two, the one being a case
and the other a case of variable temperature. In
the steady temperature problem we have
we proceed
as in
9 to break
of steady temperature,
u=Xi{r,
ii,
= Xii9>
6),
^)'
when 2=0,
when r=a.
Then we put M = Mi + tta, and choose
Mj, u^ to satisfy
V^Mi =0,
Ui=Xi{r,
and
d),
when=0,
V%2=0,
U2=0, whenz=0,
Ui=Xi{z, d)Ui, when r=a.
FLOW OF HEAT
124
A CIRCULAR CYLINDER
IN
Thus we have*
and
%=
where
sin Az ."...
d\
cos m^
[4> (a)
R = J(r^+r'^ ^rf cos{6  d"))
and
+ i/'(a) sin nd] sin Aa (ia,
and ^ (a) are the coefficients in
<^(2)
the Fourier's Series
CO
S ((f cos Ji9
+ 6 sin S
11=0
for
'Xal^.
variable temperature problem
The
former part of this
article,
^)iis
the same as that discussed in the
the initial temperature being
fir,d,z)u.
Surface at Zero Temperat
60. Finite Cylinder.
perature
tem
f(r, 6, z).
The equations
for the temperature are
{0<r<a,l<z<l),
_J=V2,
(1)
v=f(r,d,z), when t=0,
v=0, when r=a and
and
(2)
z=l
(3)
The expression
c(x'+^V
e
satisfies (1)
and
*'
(3), if
Now expand /(r,
''
COS
J
sin
Jn{fxr)^nd
m is any integer and
6, z)
mir
^{z +
.
,.
//
is
l)
a root of
in the Fourier's Series
CO
(n cos
nd + b^ sin nd),
and 6 being functions of r and z, denoted by Fn{r, z) and Gnir, z).
Then expand Fn{r, z) and (?(, 2) in the series of Bessel's functions
given by the positive roots of i/(^a)=0, and take the Sine Series,
a,j
whose terms are the sines
of multiples of
^ (z+l),
for the coefficients
in this series.
In this way we find the solution in the form
v=^
S S e""^"
^''
^^
JJiuLr)sin'^ {z+l)iA^,mnCosn9
+S^,^.sinw9),
Heine, Handbuch der KugelfimcUonen
(2.
Aufl.),
Bd.
II.,
57.
FLOW OF HEAT IN A CIRCULAR CYLINDER
125
where
sin'^^(z+Z)&r
2J"/(M)<^rj'
and a
similar expression holds for
the temperature at the surface
V If
^ =Xi(^>
^))
is
cos n9f(r,
6,
z)dd
B^^m,n*
given by
when r =a,
^ = X2(''>^)i whenic!=Z,
when z=
'=X3{'. 6),
we
I,
have, as before, to consider the steady temperature problem
where
'*=Xi(^'^))
'*
and
= Xa('''
0)'
'M=X3{''' ^)>
This
may
whenr=a,
when z =
l,
when z=
Z.
be solved by taking
satisfies V ^Mj =0, has the given value at r =a, and
with similar conditions for the others.
where Mj
In
this
way we
sin5j(z
+;)(^ cosTOg +B,sin?tg),
where Am,n and 5, are determined by the expansion of Xi(^>
Also
M,
"
=2
jn
I ^"^^
o t^^
smn//x(
.4^,,
''. (i"*")
(^^'. "
cs '^^
+ S''.
2)
as above.
'^)'
n=o
where the summation in
and
= Z,
obtain
2 E
Mi=
zero at 2
is
/* is
over the positive roots of
B^, are determined by the expansion of
Xal*". 6)
Similarly
%=2 I
where
4^1, ,
?i5j4^^J(/*)(4M,<'osw6l+Bp.,sinjie),
5n, are determined by the expansion of
61. Finite Cylinder.
XsC*". S).
Radiation.
in the cylinder of 60, radiation takes place at all the surfaces
into a medium at zero temperature, and there is an arbitrary initial
If,
* Of. Heine,
loc. cit.,
Bd.
II.,
81
when 71=
0,
the expression
is
to be halved.
FLOW OF HEAT IN A CIRCULAR CYLINDER
126
temperature v =f(r,
temperature
we have the
6, z),
following equations for the
_
Jt='^'''
dv
(1)
when<=0,
v=f{r,9,z),
^+hv=0,
whenr=a,
(3)
^\hv=0,
when z=Z,
(4)
dv
when2=
dv
^\hv=0,
and
Put
v=u+w,
and
where
u,
u=Uf(r,
e,
w=^{f{r,
6,
satisfy (1), (3), (4),
sin
satisfies (1)
and
and
(5)
(5),
when t=0,
z)},
when t=0.
6,
and
expression
Xz^^^nd JAfxr) e (^+'^') '.
sm
(3), if
"
it satisfies (4)
and
is
/*
//j;(/xa)
Further,
z)f(r, 6z)},
z)+f{r,
To determine u we take the
This
(2)
'
a root of
+ W(/xa) =
(5), if
is
a root of
X cosAZ+AsinXZ=0
If
we then expand the
(6)
(7)
function
\{^{r, e, z)f{r, 6,
2)}
in the series,
CO
S S n=0
S (A.;a,nCOsn9+Bx,^,nSinni9)sinX2:<7"(M^),
X
is
given
ft
by the equation
CO
"=S 2 S
(^,^,cosw0+B^,^,sinn9)sinX2J(Mr)e''<'^"+'''",
the summations with regard to
roots of (6)
and
To determine
fj.
and X being taken over the positive
(7) respectively.
w,
we take the
cos X2
expression
''"^^ J(M>)e(^"+'''>',
sm
FLOW OF HEAT IN A CIRCULAR CYLINDER
and the
127
X's are the positive roots of
h cos XZ X sin Xl=0.
The function
is
then expanded in a
given
z)+f(r,
{f{r, 6,
z)}
6,
whose terms are
series
of this type,
and
w is
by the equation *
00
tL
n=0
More General Problems on the
63.
The methods
Cylinder.
may
of the preceding sections
be used in dealing
with the hollow cyHnder, or the solid in which the bounding surface
formed by the cylinder (or hollow cyhnder), two planes through
the axis, and one or two planes perpendicular to the axis.
It will be sufficient to give here the solutions of the following
problems of this kind
is
I.
Hollow Cylinder.
Infinite
Initial
Surfaces
r=a and rb
kept at zero.
Temperature f{r).
In this case we have
dv
/d^v
ldv\
,,.
J = \W^+rFr)
If
we put
^^^
= e~''''^u, where u depends on
r only,
the equation for
is
Idu
dhi
or Bessel's equation of order zero.
As the range
of r does not extend to the origin, Bessel's functions
of the second kind are not excluded.
function r
Appendix
(cf .
F, where
I., 2), it is
Zrw=J+*r
(cf.
Instead of introducing the
better to take the function
Appendix
I.,
4),
since
H^^^z)
vanishes at infinity in the upper part of the zplane.
U,(ar)=J,{ar)H^Hah)J,{ah)H<'\ar),
Let
where H^^^r)
is
Then JJo(ah)=0 and Uo(aa)
^* ^
(2)
this solution of Bessel's equation of order zero.
is
also zero, provided that a is a
Jo{aa)H,^Hab)J,(ab)H,^^^{aa)
This equation has no imaginary or repeated roots, and
'Cf. Heine, he.
oil.,
Bd. IL,
83.
(3)
it
has
FLOW OF HEAT IN A CIRCULAR CYLINDER
128
an
infinite
number
To every
positive root a there
\''rU,{ar)U,{l3r)dr=^0,
(4)
of real roots.
a*
corresponds a negative root
Further,
where
a, /8
we
have, as in 56>
two
are
And
different positive roots of (3).
l/^o^()^ifrf")X
But
*^X^r^{H.'iab)j^^JM)JM)j^^Hw}
'
TT
J,{z) ff<!'(2)^<"(.)
since
*The equation f7o(ao)=0
The
p.
is
the same as
linown
real roots of this equation are
242
I Jo(^)=^,t
Gray and Mathews,
[ot.
loc. cit.,
(vi)].
I
To show
we
that there are no pure imaginary roots,
that
,rr(z)=2J(z)(logji/2+7)
Appendix
see from
I.,
2,
+4
+ (^/2)2^(z/2)^+
(2!)'
...
^^Y^ix)
Thus
y=
'Joiix)
is real,
when x
is
Ai=
real.
i=7?fc) {^(^)
[of.
Therefore y
is
^'(^) ^o'(^) r.(.)}^^
Watson,
loc. cit.,
a continually increasing function of
It follows that
1./
Jo (to)
TV/
3. 63
(1)].
x.
=0
/o(')
cannot have any pure imaginary root.
Again,
when
a,
Thus
we know
j3
that
are different roots of i7o(ao)=0.
U^{aa) =
cannot
36, p. 78).
The equation U(aa)
have
an
imaginary
root
of
(of.
fUf. Watson,
=Q
loc. cit.,
can be treated in the same way.
%S. 63
(1).
the
form
XsV
FLOW OF HEAT
IN A CIRCULAR CYLINDER
129
Also
Jo(aa)_ go'"() _
But
foUows that
It
fr
\
Therefore
we have
Assuming
that/(>')
= 
^)
ar /r=a
pTI"
can be expanded in the
series
AiUo{air)+A2Uo{a2r)+...
and that the
(4) and (5),
series
can be integrated term by term, we have, from
[rf(r)U,(a^T)dr
A
ia
Ja
Thus we are
led to the solution of our problem in the
the summation being taken over the positive roots of
II.
0=00
Infinite
Cylinder.
kept at zero.
The surface r=a and
form
(3).
the planes
6=0,
Initial temperature f(r, 6).
In this case we have
dv_
/d^v
dv
1 d^v\
dt\~''\di^'^rdr'^?dd'y'
and
is
Jmir (ar) sin
" KaH
3 Qe
a particalar integral of this equation.
Also the conditions at r=a,
that
0=0 and 6=60 ^'^^ satisfied,
m is a positive integer and a is a root of
^m:T(aa)=0.
C.CH.
provided
FLOW OF HEAT IN A CIRCULAR CYLINDER
130
Expand/(r,
the Sine Series
6) in
Va,sin^t',
Oo
the coefficient a^ being a function of
Then expand F^i^)
say F^{r).
r,
by
in the series of Bessel's functions given
positive roots of
the
J,^ (aa) =0.
So
In this
way we
are brought to the solution of our problem in the
form
"o
m=l
where
2
Aa,
/(>, 9) sin
4/
Ml IT
'^
/(' ^)
^u 2
^ dJm;{ar)r dr dd
^
rJUar)dr^'>'
eo\
= ^2fl
wiTT
f" r*"
w.=fi
^ OJmAar) r dr dd,
sill
the summation in a being over the positive roots of
J^aa)=0.
0
The
solution for the
deduced from the above by letting
the surface
r=a
a^
oo
The ends z=l,
III. Finite Cylinder.
and
9=0 and 6=0o
wedge given by
Cf
69, 90.
the planes
6=0, 6=6o,
Initial temperature/ {r, 6,
kept at zero.
can be
z).
In this case we. have
dv_ /3^
dt~''\dF^'^r
and a particular
dv
1 d^v
integral of this equation
*'
''
d'^v\
JrW' W^MJ'
JnAXr) smsd
is
Sin
^{z+l).
da
Also the conditions at the surface are satisfied
integers,
and A
Expand/(r,
is
a root of
6, z) in
J^(Xa)=0.
the Sine Series
2^asm3e,
1
a being a function of r
and
z,
C'O
say ^(r,
z).
if
m, n are
positive
FLOW OF HEAT IN A CIRCULAR CYLINDER
Then expand
of
The
2j(z+0
say
Fn{r,
z) in
131
the Sine Series whose terms are multiples
be functions of
coefficients of this series will
r,
J'.H.nCr).
Finally expand
by the
Ji, (r) in
positive roots of
the series of Bessel's functions given
j^ (xa) =o.
h
In this way we are led to the solution of our problem in the form
where
^x,
m,
nOo
a?/)
,t
/^
wi
wn rjm
C^
f{r, 9, z) sin
Vinr
^ (z+l) Bm.^dJn,r{\'r)rdrdB dz.
63. Determination of the Conductivity
from
Cylinders.
The results of the last sections can be reduced to a simpler form
when the initial temperature is constant. We proceed to examine
three cases which lend themselves to experiihental investigation.
I.
Initial temperature
v=Vo.
Radiation at r=a,
z=l
into
mediitm, at zero.*
In this case we take the expression
cos
which
is
'\zJo(iuir)e''^>'^+i^'^^,
a particular integral of the equation
=kW
ot
This
satisfies
the surface conditions,
equation
h cos
and
IX
if
is
a positive root of the
X sin ZX =0
fxisa. positive root of iJiJo'{jua)+}iJo(iUia)=0.
Now, assuming
as before the possibihty of the expansions.
1=^1 cos Xi2:+^2 cos X2Z+...
l=BiJoW)+BMf,^r) + ...
we may obtain the values
of these coefficients
by
integration.
* Weber, H. P., Ann. Physik, Leipzig (N.F.), 10, p. Ill, 1880.
FLOW OF HEAT IN A CIRCULAR CYLINDER
132
To determine
Ai, A^,
and
We have
we
...
show that
fiist
cosXzcosA2(i!z=0
cos''
cos \^z cos \z dz
A 2 dz
(m^n),
"
{cos{X^+\)z+'cos(\^~\)z)dz
J
2(Xm X)
2{Xm+^)
cosXZcosXZ
(^m^
= 0,
Also
^n
> 7
%
^
(XmtanXjXtanX0
7.
J.
XtanX?=A.
since
(l+cos2Xz)dz
cos2Xz<?z=l
Therefore, on multiplying
by cos Xz and
integrating,
4sinXn?
"~2Xj+sin2Xr
To determine
B^, B^,
...
we have
Ctt
("a
^n\ fJi{nr?')dr=\ rJa{fir)dr.
Jo
But
we have
Also
^
d^
since
Jo (m')
;:
"^o (m')
y"^<^o
(/.)
seen ( 56) that
Jo
Therefore
+ ^
=0,
rJo{fXnr)dr=^ ^^[r^Jo{fij)jdr
^2j
we have
'o
'i/^n
B"
2A
a(A2+//^)Jo(/a)'
we have
FLOW OF HEAT IN A CIRCULAR CYLINDER
Thus we have the
133
solution in the form
v=Vo{Aj^cos\iZe''^''^+...){BjJo{fXir)e'""'t+...),
\i, X2>
and
fix,
being the positive roots of the equations
n^,
hcoslX\sm.lX=0
Further,
time,
if
and
readings after a considerable
we have approximately
v=v^iBi^ cos
Two
and
/xJo'(m*)+^o(/"<'^)=0.
we take temperature
observations
may
v^, v^,
at the
same point at times
t^, t^,
give
be determined, h being supposed known.
r=a
Surface
Radiation at z.= l into a medium
v=Vq.
Initial temperature
II.
at zero.
XizJo(/"i')e"''^'^i''*''''''^'.
kept at zero.*
In this case we have, as before,
v=Va{AiCosXiZe'''"'t+...){BjJo{fXjr)e''i''^+...),
where
Ai,
A 2,
...
are the positive roots of
h cos
and
are
fxi, yua,
l\
X sin IX =0,
the positive roots of Jo{fjia)=0.
.
Also
4sinAZ
2XZ+sin2Xj
5= 
and
2
.
,,
,
Approximating as before,
v=VoAiBi cos XizJo{iuiir)e''<>'^'+i'^'>',
and from two observations at the same point we obtain the value
of K, h being supposed known.
III. Initial temperature
perature.
In
v=Vq.
Radiation at z={l and
this case
we
z=l
Surface
r=a
into
kept at zero tem
a medium
at zero.'\
start with the particular integral
sinA(z+2)Jo(M')e''(''+'''>'.
At
Wiss., p. 472, 1880.
Weber, H.
Beglinger, Berlin, Verh. Ver. Oewerbfi., 45, 1896.
Ithaca, N.
F., Berlin, SitzBer.
Y., 10, p. 297, 1900.
See also Hall, Physic. Rev.,
134
The
FLOW OF HEAT
IN
A CIRCULAR CYLINDER
surface conditions are satisfied
equations
if
X and
^u
are given
by the
x cos 'm+h sin 2X1=0
and
nJ^{fxa){hJ^{ij.a)=Q.
Thus we have the solution
in the
form
=Vo(^isinXi(2!+0e''V4...)(5iJo(Mi')e'"'''"+..).
where
A,,=
4(lcos2Xj)
4XZ sin4Xr
B=.
2h
'a(h^+/uLr,^)Jo(lu.a)'
andXi; Xa, ... mi> /2> are the positive roots of the above equations.
Approximating as before,
,
CHAPTER
VIII
THE FLOW OF HEAT IN A SPHERE AND CONE
64. Introductory.
We
have seen in
6 that the equation of conduction,
when
ex
pressed in spherical polar coordinates, becomes
dv_ fdH
In the case
of
3t;
d (
Flow
of
Heat
dv\
in the Sphere,
d^v\
when the
initial
and
surface conditions are such that the isothermal surfaces are con
and the temperature thus depends only upon the
and t, this equation becomes
centric spheres,
coordinates r
On
putting u=vr,
we have
du_
d^u
Steady Temperature.
If
fa,
the solid
is
a hollow sphere, of inner radius
we have
r^
and outer radius
u=m,
where
d^^^'
u=v^ri, at
and
r=ri,
u=Vir^ at r=r2,
the temperatures of the inner and outer surfaces being v^ and
Therefore
=
^ ^
Y^
rir^rj)
,
135
v^.
136
FLOW OF HEAT
A SPHERE AND CONE
IN
Variable Temperature.
Let the sphere be of radius
given by v=f{r).
o,
the equations for
initial
temperature be
kept at a constant temperature
is
are as follows
(0<r<a)
a^='^a^'
and
and the
a,
the surface
If
M=0,
when r=0,
u=av^,
when r=a,
u=rf{r),
when <=0.
These are the same as the equations we obtaiaed for the case
of
whose ends are kept at temperatures zero and av^,
its initial temperature being rf{r).
The problem of the symmetrical
distribution of heat in a sphere of radius a is thus mathematically
the same as that of the flow of heat in a rod of length a.
The case of a hoUow sphere can be discussed in the same way.
a rod of length
65. Sphere.
a,
Radiation at the Surface
Zero Temperature.
Initial
Temperature
r=a
into
a Medium
at
f (i).
In this case the equations for v are as follows
dv
w
dv
and
Puttirig
\hv
= 0,
when r=a,
(2)
when t=0
v=f{r),
(3)
u=vr, we have
Tt^^d^'
(^<^<^)
di
g^ +
u=0, when r=0,
(5)
('i)tt=0, when r=a,
(6)
and
u=rf{r), when
t=0
(7)
The problem is thus reduced to that of the flow of heat in a rod,
one end being kept at zero temperature, while at the other end
radiation takes place into a
Proceeding as in
36,
we
medium
at zero.
consider the expression
gKoH gin
Qj._
FLOW OF HEAT
This
if
and
satisfies (4)
(5)
IN A SPHERE
whatever a
be,
and
137
it satisfies (6)
a root of the equation
is
aacos aa\(ahl)
To
may
AND GONE
sin
aa=0
(8)
find the nature of the roots of this equation put
and we
see that they correspond to the abscissae of the
common
points of the curves
>
where 'p=dh\
The
f x)
1.
roots are thus symmetrically situated on the axis of
regard to the origin.
(0,
=tan^
and >?=.
*
P
(tt,
<^ <; 00
Itt)
,
...
they
lie
When 1
< <
j?
0,
they
lie
and approach (2w l)Tr as w
in the intervals (^tt,
approach (2w 1) tt as n increases
FlO.
tt)
increases
(f tt, 27r)
But
J(^)=^+(aAl) tanh^=0
F'(/ii)
when
,
and
roots.
8.
Further there can be no pure imaginary root of
where ju is real.
Also
...
and there are no repeated
(8).
ossible, let aa=ifjL,
Then
^ with
in the intervals
= 1 +{ahl) sech Va^l>l.
and
F{0)=0.
For,, if
FLOW OF HEAT
138
IN A SPHERE
Therefore F'i/n) never vanishes, and
F(iul)
AND CONE
has no other
real
root than zero.
no imaginary roots of the form \ifx.
a=\+i/jL be such a root.
Then a' = \ifA must also be a root.
Also, there can be
For,
if
Then
possible, let
F=sin
since
F'
^+^^=0
satisfy
ehave
(a^a'^)
But F, F'
satisfy (6),
ar,
= sin a'r,
and
^+a'^F'=0,
FFrf
dr
d/r
and therefore
ar
ar Jo
r Vrdr=0.
Thus
Jo
sin(X+i^)rsin(X i/x)r(Zr = 0,
Thus
and
this requires that
(sin^ \r cosh^ far
+ cos^ Xr sinh^ ^r
(ir
= 0,
Jo
which
is
impossible.
We
have thus shown that
are infinite in number.
Let
(8)
has only real roots, and that these
ai, aa,
...
denote the positive roots in ascending order.
CO
Then the
y]4e''"'^sinar
series
satisfies (4), (5),
and
(6),
and
'rf{r)
will satisfy (7)
if
= ^Aamar.*
1
Assuming the possibiUty of this expansion and that the series
may be integrated term by term, we can obtain the values of these
coefficients as in 36.
*
On
the possibility of this expansion, see Ford,
loc. cit, p.
144.
FLOW OF HEAT
IN A SPHERE
AND CONE
139
We first show that
fo sin a^ sin ar =
J
{m=f=n)
c?r
a^an^+{ahlf
Jo
These follow at once by integration.
sin(a_,
cos
and
a^a cos
sin(a + a)a
a_(X
^^ (a tan a^a a^ tan
a^ and a are roots
this vanishes, since
aa_
tan
a
Also
For
aja
of
a
1
s.m.^anrdr=^\
ah'
(1
cos2ar)c?r
_a
J
and
2tanaa
sin2aa
s
sin2act=:p7T
l+tan^amO!.
2anCi{ahl)
sm^ardr=^
Therefore
J^
"
^^.j+^ahl^
Hence, assuming that
r/"(r)
aA
we have
=^1 sin air+A^ sin a2r+
sin^ ar
. .
dr=\ rf{r)smardr
rf{r)sm.ardr.
^n=g
2
!/
IN
"
a aW+aft(aft
l)Jo
and
I.
Then the
solution of our problem
is
00
M=^^e''""'* sin
a^r,
which gives
^
ar,f^aW+fflA(aAl)VJo
'^^
>
att)
FLOW OF HEAT
140
DT
A SPHERE AND CONE
This solution has been appKed to the problem of Terrestrial
Temperature, the
temperature being constant,
initial
and the
The solution of the problem of
SoUd with arbitrary initial distritemperature may also be deduced from the result of
radius of the sphere very great.
radiation in the SemiInfinite
bution of
this article*
66. Application
to
Determination of the Conductivities
the
of
Poor Conductors.
The expression we have
just obtained for the temperature in
a sphere cooling by radiation at the surface converges so rapidly
that
when a
sufficient
calculation,
time has passed the terms after the
first
may
This gives an expression suitable for mmierical
be neglected.
and
has been apphed in different experiments where
it
the initial temperature of the sphere
is
constant.
For example, a ball of the material to be tested is immersed in
a bath at a constant temperature F for a sufficient time to allow
the whole baU to acquire the temperature of the bath. It is then
removed and allowed to cool by radiation in a medium at constant
temperature. After the cooling has gone on for a certain time,
observations of the temperature are taken. In one set of experiments
these readings are for the temperatures at the centre and the surface.
In another set of experiments the temperature at the centre alone is
required.
With the
notation, of 65,
A
=
Hence,
and
if
e"*"''''
sin aiT to our approximation.
a=the temperature
at
r=a at the
o=the temperature
at
r=0
time
at the time
t,
sin a,a
(1)
Also
Kai^
Thus
(!^^=i.=e'"'i'<'2'i).
is
given by
(2)
and
oj
by
(1),
(2)
remembering that
< aoj <
tt.
K is obtained.
*Cf. Biemann,
WeberRiemann,
Partielle. Differentialgleichungen,
loc. cit.,
Bd.
II., 55.
6970, Braunschweig, 1869;
FLOW OF HEAT
Further, the original equation for
ffla
AND CONE
IN A SPHERE
141
namely
a,
cos aa\(ahl) sin
aa=0,
h*
gives the value of
Ayrton and Perry used the second method ia determining the
The temperature at the centre at time
Conductivity of Stone.f
t
is
approximately
g_^^2,_
r sin a^r dr
I
But
A,=v,f^
Therefore
rm.
Thus
^)
^gj;, /sin a,aa,a cos a,a\
! \a^a WO. a^a COS a^aj
= n2'U sinaiffl
^ aM cos a,a e""'^
aiffl sin a^a cos a^a
=Ne^\
~,
say.
The value of n is obtained by two observations of the temperature,
and n being known, the value of N may be found. Also a table of
the values of the expression
since a; cos
a; sin a; cos
35
a;
from the known value of N.
But TO=/cai^, and thus the conductivity
will give oi
Surface
67. Sphere.
p^aturef(r,
6,
r=a
is
determined.
at Zero Temperature.
cdH
.'2dv
'
9 /
v=:f{r,e,<p),
v=0,
Put
write
v=e'"^'^u,
ju
where
tt
is
3t^\
d^v \
when t=0,
when r=a
a function of
r,
(2)
(3)
6 and
<p
only,
(1),
Weber, R., Zurich, VieHdjahrsch. Natf.
Of. Phil.
Mag., London
(Ser. 5), 5, 1878.
= cos 0.
Then we have from
Tem
(j,).
Ih this case the equations for v are as follows
dv_
Initial
Ges., 23, p. 209, 1878.
and
FLOW OF HEAT
142
Now
IN
A SPHERE AND CONE
the Zonal Harmonic P((u),
when n
is
a positive integer,
is
and
it
the coefficient of A" in the expansion of {l2/jLh{h^)~,
satisfies
Legendre's equation,
m
Also
w={lij.YD^PM
satisfies
m'2
n*
w = 0,'
M^
D for
where we have written
j
It follows that the expression
oLLX
will satisfy (4)
provided that R
dr^
dr
is
a function of r only, and
r^
72=(ar)"V+j(ar),
This leads us to
the solution J_(+j)(ar) being inadmissible, as
to infinity as
it
would make R^ tend
r>0.
We are thus brought to the following solution of
(1)
=e^(ar)^/+i(ar)(lM=)'^Z'P(/.) ""^^mcp,
(5)
m and n being positive integers.
The condition
at the surface
is satisfied
by
(5), if
is
a root of
J+,(aaHO
If,
as before,
we assume that/(r,
whose terms are
of the
6,
(j>)
(6)
can be expanded in a
series
form
"*
O Oft
oIXl
and that
this series
can be integrated term by term, we can find the
coefficients in the expansion.
*Byerly,
loc. cit., p.
196
Analysis (3rd Ed.), 15.
The second
(11),
Boston, 1893; Whittaker and Watson,
Modem
5, 1920.
solution of this equation has an infinity at
unsuitable for our problem.
ir,
and
is
thus
FLOW OF HEAT
IN A SPHERE
AND CONE
143
For, let
<
/(r, 0, ^)
=2
a.
CO
SS
(^)"V+i(ar)(lM^)^2)'"P(M)
m =0 n=0
the summation in a being over the positive roots of
(6).
Then we have
I
f(r, 6,
(j>)
cos
Also
we know *
and
m<j) d(p
that
(l;u2)i)P(Ai)DP'(//)rf/x=0,
w^w'.
I'
Therefore
)_^(lM^)^DP(/x)(^/x
f{r, 6,
<ji)
cos mi>d,p
_
Finally,
fa
from
56,
27r
we
obtain
r^'T
{l^YB^P^{^) dfj.
f^Jn+i (ar) dr
JO
fl
{n+m)\
1
f{r, 9,
cj>)
cos
m0 d<p
Jo
ira'ai {n+m)\
^..2n + l (wm)P'^+^^
In these results tt must be replaced by 27r when
Also Ba,m,n can be found in the same way.
Thus we are led to the
CO
^^
m = 0.
solution of our problem in the form
CO
M=0=0
{ ^a, m,
COS
nKj)
+ 5, , sin mcj)
},
the constants Aa,m,n and 5,m, being determined as above, the
summation
in a being over the positive roots of the equation
J+s(aa)=0.
* Cf Byerly, loc.
.
cit.
106
Whittaker and Watson,
loc. cit.
(3rd Ed. ), 15. 61.
FLOW OF HEAT
144
A SPHERE AND CONE
IN
been shown in 9 that, when the surface temperature is not zero,
may be reduced to a case of steady temperature, and a case of
variable temperature with zero surface temperature.
It has
the problem
When the surface of the sphere is kept at v = F{d, <^), the steady temperature,
or potential probjem,
given
is
by
'Vhi = n, through the sphere,
u = F{d,
4>),
at the surface,
and we have*
m=^(2m + 1)Q"_^ sine'de'j^
^^Fid', <t>')P{cosy)dct>',
where the ordinary notation of Spherical Harmonics is employed.
The variable temperature problem will then be given by
w=f(r,
6, <i>)u,
jo=0,
And
when < = 0,
when r=a.
the solution of the problem with which
we
started
is
v=v, + w.
The corresponding
may
questions,
when
radiation takes place at the surface,
be treated in the same way.t
68.
The Part of the Sphere r = a cut out by the Cone 6 = do.
Temperature Zero.
Initial
Temperature
f (r, 6,
Surface
<f>).
In this case the equations for v are as follows
where yu=cos0,
v=0, when r=a and when d=0Q,
v=fir,
d, <p),
Proceeding as in
(1)
'.
(2)
when<=0
67,
we
(3)
are led to the following solution of
(1)
=e'*()* J+j(ar) P(^)"'m^,
(4)
Bill
where
P,;;'"(^) is
equation
the generalized Legendre's function J given by the
* Cf.
Byerly,
loc. cit,
114.
t Of. Heine, he.
cit.,
Bd.
II.,
J The best treatment of the generalized Legendre's functions
a paper by Barnes, Q.J. MatK, London, 89, p. 97, 1908.
It is obvious that PZ'^.i (m) is the same as P"'"(/u).
84, 85.
will be found in
FLOW OF HEAT IN A SPHERE AND CONE
145
Also, in this case,
m is zero or a positive integer,
and
is
a root greater than
is
a positive root of
J
of Pn'^duo) =0,
J^+i (aa)
= 0.
The surface conditions (2) are satisfied by the value of v in (4),
and there is no infinity within the solid.
If, as before, we assume that the ftmction/(r, 6, (j>) can be expanded
in a series whose terms are of the form
olU.
'
and that
can be integrated term by term, we can find the
this series
coefficients in the expansion.
For, let
CO
m=0 n
X {^, , cos m^f) + B, ,, n sin m^}
n being over the roots greater than 1
the summation in
p"(^d)=0, and that
in
being over
the
positive
roots
of
of
J+j(aa)=0.
Then we have
an
Jo
Also
are
it is
two
known
that,*
when
different roots greater
m is any positive number and n, n'
than 
1 of
P^(^o) =0,
J Mo
fJPr(.)N.=(^)
U=P'^M
*Let
and
5^ P.(.o)^P.(.o)
'
= PW.
Then we have
((l.=)g)H(n(.I)j^.)=0,
Therefore
{n'n){n'+n+l)
uu'd/j,
Jim,
=/:{s(<'''i)"i("'''f)}*
= n 1 _ ^2) j '
C.O.H.
^ _ M ^1 T
K
[Note contimxd, p. 146.
FLOW OF HEAT
146
A SPHERE AND CONE
IN
Thus we have
/.2ir
(1
P'" (m) dfi
f(r, d,
cos
<p)
m^ d^
Jo
Ji^
from
Finally,
56,
we obtain
ri
fa r^J+j(ar)*
"
("2:7
A,,
In these results
f{r, e,<p) cos m<}>d<l>
Pr"(M)^M
"o
^^"
2(2n+l)
^ must
be replaced by
Further Ba,m,n follows in the
27r,
when
^''<'^^'^+j('*)^
m = 0.
same way.
Thus we are brought to the solution
^=
"
^'"'M^o
of our
problem in the form
S m=0
S i;e'''''(ar)*J+s(ar)P(M)
n
X (4,,,cosm9!)+5a,m,sinm0),
the constants Aa,m,n> Ba,m,n being determined as above.
If
the solid consists of the part of the sphere
and the planes <^=0,
(j>=tj)a,
we expand/{r,
the series
o.
on the same
0, (p) in
r=a
cut out by the cone d
m=\ n
9o
lines as above.
It follows that,
when
n, n'
are
two
different roots of P^'"(mi))=0 greater
than i,
'(M)P:,"'(M)d;" = 0.
d
Also
J^(f,T'"(.))
'^>^=2iC^]t
_
when
=8 at
the surfaces being kept at zero temperature,
/'7'"(Mo)
= 0
(lMo)
>Apm,
FLOW OF HEAT
IN A SPHERE
The Cone.
The result of 68, when the
and the cone 6 = 6o> ^^'^ ^^ W^
AND CONE
147
69.
r'*J+j(a/)dr'
Jo
solid is
bounded by the sphere
^s follows
=a
/(/,0',9f>')cosm(<^f)c?</,', (1)
(P.r'U'))''^/
Jo
Jmj
the summation in wbeingovertherootsgreaterthan 4 of P^(/,(o)=0,
that in a over the positive roots of J+j(aa)=0, and
But when
or a positive integer.
being zero
=0, the result has to be divided
by 2.
The temperature problem for the cone 6 = Q^, when the surface is
kept at zero, and the initial temperature is/(r, 6, </>), can be deduced
from (1) by letting a^^oo
.
Now it is known*
J+j
(affl)
that,
/(
when a
j
is
cos [aa
very large,
{n \ 1) ~j approximately,
and thus
J'n+i (aa)
If a,
= A/f
+ Aa
(aa{n+ 1) ^)
sin
J
approximately.
when a
are consecutive roots of J+i(aa)=0,
is
very large, we have the approximations
aAa=7r,
3/.,
Using these
results,
2a
.\2
"j
and remembering that the summation
definite integral, the solution of our
will become a
problem for the cone
is
as follows
^ V
in a
temperature
(2w+i)p'"(//)
.,j
..
1 2\s=0
T>ml..
T>ml.. \'0
..*(l,0V=0^p.(^^)^p.(^^).
<*
1/
f"
"'
fZTr
fl
Jn
* Cf.
'
Watson,
f{r\8',<l>')cosm{cp<p')d,^',
(P0'''))^c?/
/*J+i(ar')c?/
Jo
Jmo
loc. cit.,
7. 21
(i)
Gray and Mathews, he.
cit.,
p. 40.
FLOW OF HEAT
48
le
summation
in
lacing
IN A SPHERE
AND CONE
taken over the roots greater than
 of
'"{/"o)=0.
m=0,
In the term corresponding to
splaced
by
as noted above,
be
27r.
If the solid is the part of the
cone 6 = 0o cut
= <^
68 applies.
v must
the remark at the end of
The general case when the surface
m be treated in the same way.
is
The
off
by the planes
<^
and
given by
results are
more complicated
as Bessel's
mctions of both kinds, and the generalized Legendre's functions of both
nds,
must now be taken
into account.
CHAPTER IX
THE USE OF SOUECES AND SINKS IN CASES OF
VAEIABLE TEMPERATURE*
70. Instantaneous Point Source.
Suppose that a sphere of radius a at temperature Y is placed at
in an infinite solid of the same material at zero temperature
i=0
and
If
t
is
left
to cool.
M=w, we know
from
64 that the temperature v at the time
given by the equations
3w
dt
The
solution
d'^u
"dr^'
when t=0,
u=0,
when f=0, >,
M = 0,
when r=0.
is
thus
known
( 18) to
(r+/)'
4/ct
)dr'
^ y
'^\
Jo
2rV(7rK)
Expanding the integrand
3
Va
_rr'
r'i
in powers of
we obtain the approximate
=
be
frr')'
v=
small,
0<r:
u=Vr,
r',
and assuming that a
is
solution
_r.
^)4)
67r*/c
LetQ=i7raW.
This method is due to Kelvin. Of. "Compendium of the Fourier Matjiematios for the Conduction of Heat in Solids," Mathematical and Physical Papers,
Vol. II., p. 41. See also, Hobson, London, Proc. Math. Soc, 19, p. 279, 1889 ;
Rayleigh, Phil. Mag., London (Ser.
6), 22, p.
149
381, 1911.
THE USE OF SOURCES AND SINKS
150
Then
this result
Now
can be written
the radius of the sphere tend to zero, Q remaining
and we are led to the following solution of the equation of
let
constant,
conduction
Tl
'"''
(^)
"=^(2j(7rKt)r^
where r^=x^{y^+z^.
As
iiO this value of v tends to zero
origin,
where
everywhere except at the
if we integrate
we obtain Q.
temperature given by (1) is said
becomes
it
Also
infinite.
the infinite solid at any time
(t
The distribution of
an Instantaneous Point Source of Strength Q at the
an Instantaneous Point Source of Strength Q placed
(x', y', z'), we have in the same way
to
to be due
origin.
For
at the point
(xxT+(yyy+(.zz'r
v=
v through
> 0)
{2J{7rKt)f
This
is
the fundamental solution of the equation of conduction in
three dimensions.
is
The quantity
of
heat concentrated at the source
Qpc.
We
might have started with a cube whose edges are of length h, instead
If this cube is placed in the infinite solid as above
and left to cool, we would have ( 16)
of the sphere of radius a.
rV'
fi"
(a!') '+(i/i/')'+( as')'
the centre of the cube being at the origin
and
its
edges parallel to the axes.
This leads to the approximate solution,
where Q = h?V.
Also letting ft>0
we have
as above.
For
from
Q
to
write
t.
<j>{t')dt'
in (1),
change
into [tt')
and integrate
IN CASES OP VARIABLE
TEMPERATURE
151
Then, we have another solution of the equation of conduction;
namely,
v=
,;
,^
.,3
cl>{t')^irdt'.
This distribution of temperature
Point Source of Strength
If
(/)
said to be due to a Continuous
is
from t=0 onwards.
q, we have
(j){t)
constant and equal to
(t) is
ng
4(ij')
5ai
=V
Let t^oo and
4''
on putting
rfr,
=^t.
this reduces to v=q/4:7rKr, a steady
distribution where a constant supply of heat
continually intro
is
duced at the origin and spreads outwards in the
temperature
infinite solid.
71. Spherical Surface Source.
Again
let
placed at
a spherical shell a<Cr<ia\h at temperature
t=0
in
temperature and
an
at the time
y
xi=
ra+h
r
will
('+''') '\
let h^0,
*"'
)d,r'.
remaining constant.
obtain another solution of the equation of conduction,
v=
^^(e
STrariTTKty^
is
**
Put Q=^Tr((a+hf a^)V, and
This
be given by
(> '')^
f'\e
2r{TrKtYJ"^
en we
be
left to cool.
The temperature
'"^
same material at zero
infinite solid of the
*"'
e
""
).
'
the temperature due to an Instantaneous Spherical Surface
Source of Strength Q.*
The temperature due to a Constant Spherical Surface Source of
Strength q will be obtained by writing q dt' for Q, changing t into
{t
t'),
and integrating from
to
t.
* This solution can also be obtained by distributing the Instantaneous Point
Sources of 70 uniformly over the surface of the sphere and evaluating the surface
integral.
THE USB OF SOURCES AND SINKS
152
Then we have
T= n
where
thj
m2=(r a)^
/.
//
For the steady temperature problem,
when r>a, and
v = g/4irKa,
when
let i>oo,
and
n^=('+a)2.
and we obtain
v=q/4:irKr,
?<.
72. Instantaneous Line Source.
Let the whole of the xy plane be
initially at zero
temperature
except a square with centre at the origin and edges of length h
temperature of this square being
parallel to the axes, the initial
constant and equal to F.
This twodimensional problem has for
nh
its
solution (47)
(a:j;')'+(y,v')'
fJA
dx'dy'.
TT/Cf Ji/iJi/i,
iTTKti
Now
let h>0,
while FA^ remains constant and equal to Q.
Then, in the hmit.
This
is
the temperature due to an Instantaneous Line Somce
coinciding with the axis of z of strength Q.
When
cides with the parallel to the axis of z through
v=^e
This
and
is
it is
Strength
the source coin
(x', y', 0),
we have
(1)
the fundamental solution for twodimensional problems,
usually referred to as due to an Instantaneous Source of
at
(a;',
y').
It will be noticed that the quantity of heat
along the source per unit length
Using polar coordinates,
(1)
r\
is
may
Qpc.
be written
r'+)" 2rr'coB(9 y)
IN CASES OF VARIABLE
and
this reduces, with the aid of a
TEMPERATURE
153
wellknown integral in Bessel's
functions,* to
^=^6Vo(aB)rfa,
where
(2)
R^=r^+r'^2rr' cos{dd).
The
solution for the Instantaneous Cylindrical Surface Source of
Strength Q corresponding to the Spherical Surface Sowce of 71 can
be
by
obtained
Line Sources uniformly over the
distributing
r=a.
cylinder
In this way the temperature at the time
from the axis is given by
*
dd'
e""*,
Sir^Kt"
at a point distant r
Jo
riar~\
^ e'^^J
47rrf
''L2;rfJ
73. Instantaneous Plane Source.
Again
let the infinite solid,
^= i^,
be
at
initially
initially at the
except the
zero
between the planes
slice
temperature,
portion
this
being
constant temperature F.
Then we have
( 16)
dx'.
'(7rKi)J_j,i'
2V(7
Now
let
A>0, while
Then, in the
This
Strength
is
Vh remains
limit,
ff
Z^yrrKt)
over the plane
x=Q.
If
the source coincides with the
<^=^
ixt
The quantity
the fundamental solution for Unear flow.
heat per unit area concentrated on the plane
For the case
this solution as
The diagrams
of
(1)
we have
Q
is
e~'^
the temperature due to an Instantaneous Plane Source of
plane x=x',
This
constant and equal to Q.
is
of flow of heat along a rod it
is
usual to refer to
due to a Point Sowce at the point
in Kgs.
9,
of
Qpc.
x'.
10 illustrate graphically the distribution
temperature due to this Instantaneous Point Source.
*Cf. Gray and Mathews,
loc. cU., p.
77 (158),
The dotted
154
THE USE OF SOURCES AND SINKS
IN CASES OF VARIABLE
TEMPERATURE
VALUES OF
'
ITia.
W.
155
10.
The temperature at the point (x, y, 0) due to a uniform distribution of heat
on the plane a; =0 at the time t =6 could also be obtained by using the polar
element of area in that plane.
In this way we have
^
./
rJa
(2V(Ti))^.
a;''+i/'+p'2j/pcos9
rii,
a^'+r
Thus
:j
4rt
pdpdd.
Jo
ry>
!>&'
iKt
dp.
(2)
THE USE OF SOURCES AND SINKS
156
It follows
from
and
(1)
(2)
that
one of Weber's integrals in Bessel's functions, and a physical interby considering a more general
distribution of heat along the plane y =0.*
This
is
pretation of the other integrals can be obtained
74. Doublets.
We
have seen that
(x~xy+(vi/)'+(.^'/)'
Q
is
4Kt
a solution of the equation of conduction
dv_
It
is
rd^v
d^v
d^v
oUows that
_ ixx')'MvyyH^^r
dv
Q{xx')
dx'
UmjinKt))^
also a solution.
This can be obtained by combining with a source of strength Q'
at (x'+dx',
dx'^>0,
y', z')
a sinkf of strength
For the temperature at
is
Q'
at
y,' z'), letting
{x,'
and putting Lt (Q'dx')=Q.
{x,
y,
z)
due to the source and sink
given by
r
ry
___
^xx'y+{yy)'+{^z'y 
(xx'da:')'+(yy)'+izzy
v=,
iKt
Thus
Q'
_ (3;a;')'+(t/i/')'+(2z')'
2{xx')dx' {dx.V
V
Q'gr^
(a;a;')'+(i/i/T+(g0'
Proceeding to the limit,
we obtain
'0= ^^
where
When
.'.
V)
**,
'R^={xx'Y+{yy'Y\{zz'f.
* Of. Bayleigh, loc.
+ higher powers of dii.
''^
:{x'3i)e
cit.,
p.
384
Gray and Mathews,
the strength of a source as defined in
70
is
loc. cit.,
p.
negative,
78 (160).
it ia
called a sink:
IN CASES OF VARIABLE
TEMPERATURE
157
Tlie distribution of temperature in (1) is said to be
due to an
instantaneous point doublet of strength
at (x', y',
z'),
with
its
axis
parallel to the axis of x.
Corresponding definitions apply to the doublet in linear flow
point
x',
and the
at the
whose axis is parallel to the
line doublet at (x', y')
axis of X in twodimensional problems.
The temperature at the time t due
will
to the
two doublets
just
named
be
^^=^
.Qixx')
Q(xx')
v=^
2,T^e
and
 (^fr+lyr
The extension to the continuous
strength
is
obvious.
tinuous doublet of strength
flow, is given
doublet of variable or constant
For example, the temperature due to a concp {t)
at the point
and
in the case of lineai?
by
47rVJo^'
Substitute
x',
{tt'Y
xx' = 1ic{tt'ya, and we have
~7^}
v=r\
^~'4>(t
'o=T\
e''^fi
j
V, when
)(?a,
a;>a;',
when a!<
k'.
2V(0
Thus
and
.,,o=Mre^c?a =
%'o= ^5
>
0,
Thus, in the case of linear flow in the semiinfinite solid a;
when
placing
temperature
by
at
kept
0,
can be
the plane cc
^ ()
>
a continuous doublet of strength
2/(:^(<)
at a;=0.
[Cf. 23.]
In twodimensional problems the boundary 2/=0 can be kept at
temperature f(x, t) by placing a continuous doublet at (a;', 0) with its
axis parallel to the yzxss, and strength 2/(r/(a;', t) dx', and integrating
along thejaxis of x. A corresponding result holds for the three
THE USE OF SOURCES AND SINKS
158
dimensional case
f(y'.
when the plane c=0
to be kept at temperature
is
z', t).*
The Method of Images.
The method of images, which plays
75.
Mathematical Theory of Electricity,
so important a part in the
peculiarly adapted to the
is
solution of problems in Conduction of Heat,
boimded by
when
the solid
and these are kept at zero temperature.
planes,
imagine the solid to be continued in
all
is
We
directions without limit,
and we then obtain, by a suitable distribution of sources and sinks,
a temperature function vanishing on the boundaries, with the
required singularities (sources, sinks, etc.) in the solid. The distribution of sources and sinks outside the solid is in this case determined by taking images of the original distribution in the solid.
We shall see in next chapter that the temperature due to a single
source in the given solid, when its boundary is kept at zero, is of
considerable importance in the solution of the general problem
of conduction for that soUd.
We
proceed to discuss different types of problems whose solution
can be obtained by the use of sources and sinks in this way.
Linear Flow.
I.
SemiInfinite
Solid
a;
>
Temperature at the Boundary x
0.
Initial
Consider the source of strength
may
take the
initial
Temperature f{x).
= 0.
Zerio
_^
/(a;')
tZa;'
at the plane
x'.
We
temperature as due to a distribution of these
sources along the positive axis of x.
With the source f(x')dx' at x', we associate the
two give zero temperature at x=0.
sink f(x')dx'
at x', as these
Hence
II.
rA
1^=2577
fix')\e
*"
Finite solid bounded by the planes
Temperature f{x).
Bounding Planes kept
*"
}dx'.
a;=0 and x=a.
Initial
at zero.
x', we have to take the images
and x=a, a source and a sink
Starting with the sovace f(x')dx' at
of this source in the planes
x=0
alternating so that the boundaries
may
way we have
x'+2na and
x'\2na,
sources at the points
where n
is
zero or
be kept at zero.
any positive or negative
* This statement can be verified
from the
In
this
sinks at the points
integer.
results of 86, 87.
IN CASES OF VARIABLE
Thus we have
We
TEMPERATURE
159
finally
have already in 30 obtained another expression
this case,
>,sin
may
which
for v in
namely,
a;e
be written, when
/(wlsin
>
a;aa;,
0,
~rf{x'}y]smxsm'^x'e~''^'dx'
ajo
We
(2)
proceed to show that these solutions are identical.
may be proved by the properties
aid of the following theorem
of the Thetafunctions * or
This
with the
an even function of x which can he expanded, as also
f(x2na), in a Fourier's Series of Cosines ofmultvphs of Trxja, then
If f{x)
is
2/(a'+2na) = f f{x)dx+^'^co&'^x{ f(x')cos'^x'dx',
provided the integrals are convergent and the series converges.
Since
/()
=
f{x')dx'+y]cosx\ f{x')cosx'dx',
"'1
"^Jo
and
f{x+ 2na) = 
Jo
f /(a;' + 2na) dx'
<^Jo
+ycos
a
aV
f(x'+2na)cos
a;
Jo'"'
=l\ f{x')dx'+y]coB'^x\
and
/(a;2jia)='
/(a;Va''+S'^o^
aj(2,i)a
it
x'dx'
f{x')cos'^x'dx',
f{x')co&x'
V^
a
J(2i)
dx',
follows that
V /(x+ 2na) =i Vf[x') dx'+lf^ cos
'^'^
x [fix') cos*^ a;' cZx'.
* Of. Poinoar^, Theorie de la propagation de la Ghaleur, p. 91
Watson,
loc. cit.
(3rd Ed.), p. 475.
Whittaker and
THE USE OF SOURCES AND SINKS
160
Let/(a;)
=e
(a;+2ma)'
00
and we have
*"*,
a:''
/.oo
=
rfa;'
aJo
^
^^^^
\_
<
+ Vcos
a
x''
e"
a;
cos
Jo
xe
+ 2>,cos
a
"
jc'c^a;'
\.
Therefore
(xx:+ina)'
{xx:+inay
S^=^^* p[1 + 22 cos '^(xc.')e''^']
2e
m't'.I
II
.(3)
and
(a;+a:'+2g )'
^^
tt
Using
and
(3)
+ 2Vcos
L_
the solution
(4)
.\^
^Tx/
v=~\
f(x)y,e
(x+x)e
"
(4)
{*
_
reduces to
(1)
''^'
sm
"
a;sin
x ax
nir
,,
,
.
Temperature zero. Boundary x =
Boundary x=a kept at zero.
Starting with the Continuous Doublet of strength 2k0i() at
x=0, which would keep x = a at temperature (pi{t) if the solid
extended to infinity, we have to take an equal doublet at x = 2a
to keep the plane a; =a at zero
and so on.
Thus we have doublets of strength 2K(pi(t) at the points 2na,
n being zero, or any positive or negative integer.
III.
The Same
Solid.
kept at temperature
Initial
(pi(t).
Therefore
^=o^rA ^^^(i^+^na)e ^^^tn)dt'.
A
may
corresponding result
boundary
a:
these solutions
is
we
76. Application of the
of
Q
*
of
Images to Fourier's Ring.
Source of strength
< <
tt,
at
x0.
Initial
zero.
Consider the problem of the rod
strength
^1 addition
34.
Method
Ring of Unit Radius.
Temperature
<^4f)t ^'^^
are led to another form for the expression for the
temperature in the problem of
I.
be obtained for the case when the
kept at zero and a;=a at
tt
a;
at a;=0, and no flow of heat across
Cf footnote
.
p.
30.
its
with a source of
boundaries.
The
IN CASES OF VARIABLE
solution
is
TEMPERATURE
obtained by putting equal sources at the points 2mr, n
being any integer, positive or negative;
given by
It
is
and the temperature
is
fa+2^)a
clear that all the conditions for the temperature in the ring
are satisfied
II.
161
by
'
this solution.
Ring of Unit Radius.
Initial Temperature v=f(x).
Since, as above, the temperature
due to a source
of strength
^JiKKt)
for the initial distribution /(a;)
Using
75
=^ r
(3), this
we have
/
fir
"I
reduces to
/(*')[1+2S
cosji(a;a;')e'''*] dx',
as in 12.*
77. Application of the
 00
<z<
Kj.
Source at x'(x'
Method of Images
is K^, and when
to the Infinite SoUd.
the conductivity
< x < oo
^>S.<>)
a)
t=S'
(<)
(^)
10=0,
(3)
Vi=W2,
when
='
^'^^S=^i' ^and Lt Vi=0, except at x~x', where
vi
2V(W)^
Ltvs=0.
is
to take the
(^>
form
'"''
(^
< 0)
(=0
* Cf. Niven, London, Proc. S. Sac, 76 (A), p. 41, 1905.
C.C.H.
is
> 0).
We require a solution of the equations
and
When
the conductivity
^'^
(6)
THE USE OF SOURCES AND SINKS
162
and
Differentiating (3)
(4)
with respect to
and using
(1)
and
(2),
we have
at .i=0,
3^yi
3'i'2
AiKig^ = yi2K2 g^,
and,
Now, using Maclaurin's Theorem,
we have
2..
= (l+a)l,(V(^),.)"(0)
(4MV(:i).^rO)o'
a=
where
'^^f^
This holds for any integral of
(1), (2), (3)
Take
= re
first
the expression
Vi
and
*"!*
(4).
.'
(7)
v'
which
satisfies (1).
Then we have
,
Mki/kj) ')'
(a;^/(.^/.l)a!')^
= i+i!;eNow
it is
clear that this
is
u^t
,_
(V(K,Mx+!^y
+^e~
not the solution
we
(a!+V(K;/Ki)a;')'
'^'4
(8)
require, as the second term
involves a source at the point sUk^Ik^x' in the part of the solid where
00 < a; <
we would
We
0.
are able to obtain the true solution
by considering what
obtain from a sink at s]{kJk^x', such as this second term
requires, in the
Exactly as in
same way as above.
(8)
we
have, corresponding to the solution of
(2),
V'
So that in the case of
/,
^^^^'^~
(x+VMKi)x')'
""
(^>
'
IN CASES OF VARIABLE TEMPERATURE
we have
i\
(jg+a; )
/I
i\ /I
163
(xx')''
=oj)(&>'^(^;)G^>^
Adding the
solutions
(7), (8), (9),
_
(al)'i\
_/,
(
and
"2
which
in
^'i'
(,x+x'f
la^
*"!'
(a!^Wici)a;'P
= o~77
we have
(10),
(x~x' )'
and
(^)
^''^'
'
satisfy all the conditions of the
the strength of the source at
problem except for a numerical factor
x'.
We obtain the actual solution
by dividing both by
(a+l)V(^Ki)
'
2a
and thus have
(j:+a;')^
"^=2^0^'
+;^i2;/^^)
'^''
^^^^''^
'
_(vWs)0!
*2<
2a
"2 = ,;
1 + a
and
^tTi
(^
r\
2;y/(irKi)
< 0)
'
Thus the temperature at any time t in the part a; > 0, is the same as
solid had been of that material and another source of strength
if
the
whole
had been placed at x': and the temperature in the part a; < is the same
as if the whole solid had been of that material and a source of strength
2^1 Kg
had been placed at J{kJki) x'.*
78. Applications of
the
Images in Two or Three
Method
of
x> 0.
Initial
Dimensions.
I.
SemiInfinite
Boundary
x=0
Solid,
Temperature f{x,
y).
Tceft at zero.
Starting with the line source of strength /(a;', y')dx' dy' at
we must take an equal
{x', y'),
sink at {x', y') to satisfy the condition
at the boundary.
Hghcg
*"'
=4^J/^'J_/(a:',2/'){e
e
*'
Weber, OoUingen,
;
Bd. II., 40.
* Cf. Sommerfeld, Math. Ann., Leipzig, 45, p. 266, 1894
Nachr. Ges. Wiss., p. 722, 1893
WeberRiemann,
loc. cit.,
]dy'.
THE USE OP SOURCES AND SINKS
164
II.
SemiInfinite Solid,
x=0
Boundary
x>
Initial
0.
Temperature f(x,
Starting with the point source of strength
at
{x', y', z'),
y, z).
kept at zero.
we take an equal
sink at {~x',
/(a;', y', z')dx' dy' dz'
y', z'),
since these give
zero temperature at a;=0.
Hence
^(27(^r
LL
f^''
'''
^0{ee}c^.'^.'e^.',
R^^{xx'Y+{y~y'Y+{zz'Y
R'^={x+x'Y+{yy'Y+{zz'Y.
where
and
The Wedge of Angle Trim, where m is any positive integer.
The two and threedimensional problems given above in I. and II.
are special cases of the wedge of angle 7r/m, where m is any positive
III.
integer.
We shall now treat this problem, confining ourselves to the
twodimensional case of a hue source at the point
[x', y'),
the edge
wedge coinciding with the axis of z. The threedimensional
case of a poiut source at (x', y', z'), and the extension to the general
problem of an. arbitrary initial temperature offer no difficulty.
Taking cylindrical coordinates, the surface of the wedge is supposed given by the planes 0=0 and 9=Tr/m; these planes are to
be kept at zero temperature.
Within the wedge we have <6 < Trim.
Let the source be placed at the point Pq whose coordinates are
of the
(a, a).
Let the
circle
and d=Trjm at
through Pq
and
^^^
(Pig. 11).
its
centre at the origin cut
6=0
IN CASES OF VARIABLE TEMPERATURE
Then the angles AOP, FOB and AOB
^=Trjma and y=7r/m.
^ and
are a,
165
y,
where
Start with the unit source at Pq.
To
of
Pq
in
04
To balance the
of
Pj in
05
i.e.
To balance the
of
Pj
OA we
give zero temperature at
image
in
04
i.e.
i.e.
put a unit sinh at P^, the
at (a).
sink at Pj, in
OB, we put a
sowrce at Pg, the image
at (a+2y).
source at Pg in
at
(a+2y)
OA, we put a
and so on.
sinfc
In this way we have the set of images P^, P^,
at Pg, the image
where
PP2=P,P4==2y,
'
P^P^=P,P,=...=2y.
(a+2(m l)y).
Also Pami
lies
Thus
PoP2_i+2/3=2a+2(ml)y+2/3=2,r.
at
Therefore Pgmi coincides with the image of
set of
images
is
in
OB, and the
closed, P2,,_i being the last.
Also these sources and sinks give, with the source at Pq, zero
temperature over the planes
The temperature
at
{r,
0)
0=0 and
due to
2ml
v=
d=Tr/m.
system is
this
(ir^..'
(1)
s=
where
v^ is
the temperature due to a unit source at P^ in the infinite
solid.
But we have seen
a unit source at
(r',
in 72 (2) that the temperature at
(r,
Q')\s
R^=r^+r'^2rr' co& [dd').
where
Using Neumann's expansion *
this
may
be written as
^
or
fAe"^'*
S J{Xr)J^{Xr') cosn{d6')
ify;cosn(e6l')
itTf trSi
* Cf.
Xe'^'t
J (Xr) J (Xr') dX.
Jo
Gray and Mathews,
dX,
loc. cit., p.
27
(69').
6)
due to
THE USE OF SOURCES AND SINKS
166
It follows
from
00
1
v=^^
that
(1)
2 S
{cosn{9
a2sy)cosn{9+a+2sy))
^Tf n=> s=0
r\e'''tJn{\r)
JJ\a)
d\.
...(2)
Jo
When n is not a multiple of m the series in s has zero
and when it is a multiple of m, its sum is equal to
2m sin nO
Thus, from
(2),
fj
CO
{a, a)
in the form
/CO
Ssin
^sin^a Ae^^* Jp. (Xr) J^,, (Xa) ciA
?;= p^i
y Jo
y
y
7^
where, as above,
For
tlie
sin na.
wedge 6 = 0, 0=irjm,
in the
sum
solution of our. problem of the unit
we obtain the
source at the point
for its
we have
written
threedimensional case,
we
(3)
for njm.
start witli the expression
r+r" 2rr'cos(9 8')Kz 2')'
(2^(7rK0)^
corresponding to the unit source at
(r',
<:').
ff,
Proceeding on the same lines as above,
we
obtain the solution of our
problem in the form
17^
sin
6^
sin
"yJ(7rK<)p=:
79.
^y
Jp{Xr') dk.
f Xe<^>^Vp.(X.r)
V
z
Sommerfeld's Extension of the Method of Images.
The method of images as used above for the wedge of angle tt/w,
m is any positive integer, fails when the angle is mrjm, where
TO, n are both positive integers, prim.e to each other.
For example, when the angle is a right angle, and the given
where
source
is
at Po(r',
6'),
a sink at Pi(/,
and
< < ^tt, the images are as follows
where
0)
a source at
a sink at P^ir', nd').
But when the angle
is
27r/3
P^ir',
tt+O')
(Cf. Fig. 11.)
and the given source
is
at
IN CASES OF VARIABLE TEMPERATURE
^o(*"'j 9'),
where
<
5'<
the successive
2ir/3,
167
images are
follows
a sink at Pi(/, d')
and
p.
a source at P^(r',
a sink at Pg^/,
y^^')
a sinkatP5(^r',
^0').
^+0')
a source at P4(r',
(Fig. 12.)
^+d')
as
THE USE OF SOURCES AND SINKS
168
problem
after applying it to the heat
bounded by the planes
of a source in the region
6=0
and 6=27r, Sommerfeld by its aid
gave the first exact solution of the diffraction of waves by a semiinfinite plane {e.g. 6=0).
But a simpler method of treating these
questions both from the equation of conduction of heat and for the
other partial difierential equations of mathematical physics has now
been evolved* For this reason it will be sufi&cient here only to
give references to Sommerfeld's and other papers in which the
Riemann's Surface idea is used.t
We return to the problem of the wedge in
obtained ia 78, III.
true for the
wedge
of
(3) for
any
the angle
w/m
90 and the solution
will
be found to be
angle.
*See below 90 and papers by the imthoT
in
London, Proc. Math.
Soc. (Ser. 2),
1910 and, 18, 1920.
8,
(1) Math. Ann., Leipzig, 45, p. 274, 1894, and 47, p. 317, 1896
London, Proc. Math. Soc, 28, p. 395, 1897. Sohwarzsoliild, Math. Ann.,
Leipzig, 55, p. 177, 1892.
Carslaw, (1) London, Proc. Math. Soc, 80, p. 121,
t Sommerfeld,
(2)
1899
(2)
London, Rep.
Brit. Ass., p.
Phil. Soc, 18, p. 277, 1900.
644, 1900.
Hobson, Cambridge, Trans.
CHAPTER X
THE USE OF GEEEN'S FUNCTIONS IN THE SOLUTION
OF THE EQUATION OF CONDUCTION
80. Introductory.
The use of Green's functions in the theory of potential is well
The function is most conveniently defined for the closed
surface S as the potential which vanishes over the surface, and is
infinite as 1/r, when r is zero, at the point P{x', y', z') inside the
surface.
If this solution of the equation VH=0 is denoted by
G{P), the solution with no infinity inside S and an arbitrary value
F over the surface is given by
known.
'd
S^G(P)VdS,
4'!rJJ(
5 denoting differentiation along the outward drawn normal.*
We
proceed to show
how
a similar function
may
be employed
with advantage in the mathematical theory of the conduction
heat.
In this case we shall take
at \x, y, z) at the time
due
to
of
the Green's function as the temperature
an instantaneous point source of
unity generated at the point P{x',
y',
z')
at
strength
the time t, the solid
being initially at zero temperature, and the surface being kept at zero
temperature.
This solution
may
be written
u=F{x,
and u
satisfies
y, z, x', y', z',
{t
> t)
the equation
*Cf. ClerkMaxwell, Electricity
Slectricity
tr),
and Magnetism,
and Magnetism, Vol.
p. 290.
169
I.,
97
(5),
and Webster,
THE USE OF GREEN'S FUNCTIONS IN THE
170
However, since
only enters in the form (< t),
we have
also
Ot
Further, Lt(M)
(x', y', z'),
at
all
points inside S, except at the point
where the solution takes the form
(3:a;')i!+(y0'+(zz')2
1
;
Finally, at the surface
/S,
4/t(tT)
M=0.
{t <it.)
Let V be the temperature at the time
surface temperature
Then v
(j>
{x, y, z, t)
in this solid
due to the
and the initial temperature/(!r, y, z).
the equations
satisfies
j=kVH, (>0)
v=f{x,
and
y, z) initially, inside
v=(j>{x, y,
Also, since the time
interval for
t,
when
S,
>
0.
former equations
of our
lies
within the
we have
^^ = kVH,
v=(p{x,
Therefore
at S,
z, t)
= iuv) =m=
OT
Ot
{T<t)
y, z, t) at'the surface.
[mV^ vV^u],
+ v^5=k
Ot
and
a"
^""^
t^a;
% &1
c?T
[(mV^i;
[
1
 v^hi) dx dy dzA dr,
the triple integration being taken throughout the
any positive number
less
than
t,
as small as
we
solid,
and
being
please.
Interchanging the order of integration on the lefthand side
this equation
and applying Green's Theorem to the righthand
we have
{uv)^^ttdx dy
dz
{uv)r^odx dy dz
='ir[iKi"a)^^:
of
side,
SOLUTION OF THE EQUATION OF CONDUCTION
w^liere
171
denotes differentiation along the inwarddrawn normal,
and we have used the condition that u vanishes at the surface.
Now take the limit as e tends to zero. The lefthand side gives
M<MjjMT={o(^a'!y
the
(?z
JJ \{u)r=o{v)r=odxdydz,
integral being taken through
an element of volume including
where the function u becomes infinite at
t=T, the second integral being taken through the solid
and
first
the point P{x',
y',
z'),
[vp]i
stands for the value of v at the point P(x',
time
t.
But
since
{x','y', z')
is
the temperature at the time
y',
z')
at the
due to a source at
at the time r,
\\\{'^)T=todx dy
dz=\,
and we have
M=jJJ(w)ro()T=o(^a:c?2/(^z+/cl
rj?;g^t?<S
dr
=JJJ(M)T=o/(a;, y,z)dxdydz\K\ \^^(ji{x,y,
as the temperature at
tribution /(a;, y, z)
x', y', z'
at the time
z,
T)^ds\dT
due to the
and the surface temperature
(j)(x,
y,
(1)
initial dis
z, t).*
In the case of Kadiation at the surface, the Green's function u
is
taken as the temperature at
{x, y, z) at
point source of strength unit generated at
taking place at the surface into a
The temperature at
distribution
/(a;, y, z)
* This discussion is
Dissertation,
time
due
{x', y', z')
medium
to
an instantaneous
at time r, radiation
at zero temperature.
P(x', y', z') at the time t due to an initial
and radiation at the surface into a medium
due to Minnigerode, and was published in his Gottingen
Uber die Wdrmeleitung in KrystaUen, Gottingen, 1862.
Ann.
Cf.
also
Toscane, 10, p. 143, 1868, Pisa; (2) Ann. Mat.,
Milano, 1, p. 373, 1868 ; (3) Mem. Soc. Italiana delle Scienze (Ser. 3), 1, p. 373,
1868, Firenze ; (4) Collectanea Mathematica inedita in Memoriam Domenici Chelini,
Betti, (1)
delle Universitd
Sommerfeld, Math. Ann., Leipzig, 45, p. 274, 1894. WeberII., 52, and papers by the author, (1) Phil. Mag., London
(Ser. 6), 4, p. 162, 1902 ; (2) Edinburgh, Proc. Math. Soc., 21, p. 40, 1903 ; (3)
London, Proc. Math. Soc. (Ser. 2), 8, p. 365, 1910. See also for appUoation to
Uber die PartielleDifferentialgleichung
the equation {V^ + k')u = 0, Pookels,
{V^ + k')u = 0, T1. IV. 4, Leipzig, 1891; Sohwarzschild, Math. Ann., Leipzig,
p. 238, 1881, Milano.
Riemann,
loe. eit.,
55, p. 177, 1902.
Bd.
THE USE OP GREEN'S FUNCTIONS IN THE
172
at temperature
(j>(x,
y, z,
t)
follows from
We find in the
that given above.
a discussion similar to
end
bp](=JJj(M)T=o/(a;, y, z)dxdydz\'hK^
UJ**^^*'
2^'
^>
'r)d^\dT
=\\Y'^)'=of{x,y,z)dxdydz\K^ [Jj(g^).0(a:.2/.2.T)rf/SjciT,
since at the surface
(2)
= hu,
^^
drii
and our result takes the same form as in (1).
The solution of the general problems in conduction
of
heat
which the temperature
in
is
and
(2)
can be obtained at once.
infinity of order
(1)
(2) will
this
.
^

*',
'inrKl
change the equations which correspond to
be
[vp],=j{u)r=of(3>)dx+KJ
and
and
^'''
tt
With
respectively.
and
'
E.
h
ik e
2^(7r/c5)
results
Instead of an
.k
{2V(,r/cJ)F'
we have
solid
required.
In the case of linear or twodimensional flow of heat
similar to (1)
thus
is
reduced to the determination of the Green's function for the
du
<t>{T)^dT,
[pJ(=jJ(M)^=o/(a;, /)<?a;t^y+KJ
[j0(a;,
(3)
2/,
T)g^&J*r,
(4)
where the integration with regard to s is along the bounding arc.
In the articles which follow we shall employ these theorems in
solving various problems in the conduction of heat.
Some of them
have already been discussed by other methods, the possibility
of
the expansion of the arbitrary function in the form required in
This assumption will not
the solution being assumed.
now
be
necessary.
81. Linear
Flow
Temperature
SemiInfinite Solid bounded by x=0.
of Heat.
Boundary kept
at Temperature ^(t).
In this case the Green's function, or the temperature at {x,
Initial
at the time
f (x).
due to the unit source at
J
{x', y', z')
at the time t,
^^e MtT)_e4(r)L
2V(' K{tr))
y, z)
is
SOLUTION OF THE EQUATION OP CONDUCTION
It follows
from
80
the temperature at
with a slight change in the notation, that
(3),
{x, y, z)
at the time
(gic')'
is
given by
(a;+it')' ^
17.
4/ti
g 4(t)
(^r,
(t)*
which agrees with
The Same
82.
into a
We
solid,
Medium
23.
Source at
Solid.
x'
t=0.
at
Radiation at
x=0
at Zero.
start with the solution for a unit source at x' in the infinite
namely
1
/CO
cos2hxdx=i^ e
Since
it is clear
^*
la
Jo
that
e^e><{!B')(;a.
(1)
'~27rJ_
2J(,rKt)
Consider the integral
J_
LKaHeMxx')ga
Ztt J
> 0)
over the path (P) in the aplane of Kg.
The path (P)
in the
14, this
path being
a  plane
Tig. 14.
chosen so that at infinity on the right the argument of a
and
Jtt,
and on the
left
between
Itt
and
lies
between
tt.
Fib. 15.
Complete
this
path as in Fig.
15.
The
integral vanishes over
the circular arcs joining the path (P) to the points oo on the real
* Cf.iJootnote, p. 30.
THE USE OF GREEN'S FUNCTIONS IN THE
174
axis,
and there are no poles
of the integrand inside this closed
circuit.
from Cauchy's Theorem, that
It follows,
gKa.'teia(zX')^^^_J_L^a.Heia.(x~X')^a,
(2)
the second integral being taken over the path (P).
Also
we have
the second integral being taken over the path (P).
It is convenient in the following
>
x',
and
(3)
when x
<
x',
Now
is
argument to take
for the transformation of
(2)
when
is in
(1).
r Ae''V'^
a solution of the differential equation p:=f v^) when
dependent
If
(P),
of
X and
we choose
and add
it
properly, integrate this solution over the path
to (2)
function satisfying
The choice
of
t.
all
is
and
(3)
above,
we
a temperature
find
the conditions of our problem.
indicated
by the equation
when a!=0.
This equation leads to
A=
? e'"*'.
Then we have
'0=
~^ fe
'%'(:^')rfa+7i
Itt i
f?t^ e'"''e*(^+^')da,
...(4)
2'!rjnia
over the path (P), the positive or negative sign being chosen
according as
This
may
a;
5 x'
be written
If\e'"^'i{eiMxx')j^pia(x+x'))da V^
+^ttJ
v= ~~
f,ia(x+x')
ttJ
e'"''
+
,
.,
da,
(5)
ltl
the integrals being taken over the path (P) and the positive or
negative sign being chosen according as
We shall now
of
our problem.
show that
a)
5 x'.
this value of v satisfies all the conditions
SOLUTION OF THE EQUATION OF CONDUCTION
175
From the way in which it has been built up, we see that it satisfies
the equation of conduction and the surface condition at x=0.
Also, from
The
first
what has been
said above, the
term corresponds to the source at
first
x',
part of
(5)
reduces to
the second to an equal
source at x'.
We
have thus only to show that the second part
when <>0 and x is positive.
Assuming that the integral
of (5) vanishes
in the limit
gia.(,X+x')
0m2
'
a continuous function of
is
da, over the
for
path
t=0* we have
da, over the
(P),
(6)
only to establish that
path (P)
(7)
zero.
is
Take the closed circuit of Fig. 16, consisting of the path
and the part of a circle, centre at the origin, lying above the path
(P),
(P).
FlO. 16.
There are no poles
of the integrand of (7) in this circuit,
the integral over the whole
infinity,
is
zero.
But when the
and thus
radius tends to
the integral over the circular arc vanishes, x+x' being
positive.
Thus the integral (7) over the path (P) vanishes.
we have obtained in (5) the required temperature.
Therefore
The continuity
on the
the variable
is
when t&ff, is not difficult to establish somewhat
But the discussion of infinite integrals, when
somewhat outside the range of this book.
of this integral,
lines of F.S.,
Chapter VI.
complex,
lies
THE USE OF GREEN'S FUNCTIONS IN THE
176
Replacing the integrals over the path (P)
integrals over the real axis,
v=
by the
equivalent
we have
+ cos a {x+x')
cos a(a; a;')
e'"'''M
in (5)
237p(^ <^o^ ('"+ ^')
a sin a {x+x') vda
(8)
Therefore
ax+h sm
Iif,,(acosaa!+^sin
2 f"
V!;=!
(a cos
e""''
aa;)(acosaa;'
ax)
(a cos ax
srrs
sin ax
ax') ^
+ hi^sin
da
,
,.,
Again,
[ecos^ci^=^
[ esina^.i^=^,.
and
It follows that
2hC' _
The
last
Ji cos
e''^n e"(cosa{x + x'+i)di]da
= ^f
e^fff e'"'''cosa(a;+a;'+^)rfa]<Zf
(8)
we have
e'
,.^^^,
+e
2A
e^e
term in
sinks extending
(10) represents the
from x' to
83. The Same Solid.
Medium at Temperature
The Green's function,
^^J.
(10)
temperature due to a Une
of
oo .*
Initial
Temperature
f (x).
Radiation into a
^(t).
or the temperature at
due to the unit source at
The
a{x+x') asin a{x+x') ^
= ^j
Thus from
^;=
{x', y', z')
{x, y, z)
at the time
at the time t, radiation taking
was first given by Bryan (Cambridge, Proc. Phil. Soc,
See also Bryan, London, Proc. Math. 8oc., 22, p. 424, 1891. The treatment in the text is taken from the author's paper, Edinburgh, Proc. Math. Soc,
*
7, 1891).
21, 1902.
solution in (10)
SOLUTION OF THE EQUATION OF CONDUCTION
place at the boundary
82 (10) in the
x=0
into a
medium
177
at zero, follows
from
form
Jo
2V(7r/c(T))L
''J
Thus from 80 (3), for the general problem with initial temperature
f{x) and the medium at temperature (p{t), the temperature at
(a;,
y, z)
at the time
=27ib)l
is
given
by
K "''+' "4'
*
"
'fJ/M*']
(1)
Let the initial temperature be unity and the medium at
Then, from (1), we have
C
v=^
,,
(Xxy
\e
2V(tk)Jo L
(+')'
+e
..
f"
2A
(+!!/
+ '
zero.
l
d^dx'.
I
Jo
Now
r'^
dx'\
^{tTKt) Jo
Jo
^^^^^=
^
AJn
^x
V(tkOJo
<f
*^*~'^' r
Jn
LJ _xi
x+$
i
2\/(k)
Thus we have
1
Jni
if"
if"
^/TJ_^_
f_.,^^
84. Finite Solid.
M'5^
>/('rKOJ
^^^IF,^,
Source at x' at t=0.
a. in 25.
Boundaries
x=0 and x=a
at Zero.
To obtain the Green's function when
surface, we start with the solution
1
''2VM)L
(^')'
there
is
no radiation at the
Cx+xy
THE USE OF GREEN'S FUNCTIONS IN THE
178
which
and
the condition for a source at x' at the time i=0,
satisfies
also the
This
may
boundary condition at a;=0.
be replaced as in 82 by
the integrals being taken over the standard path (P) of Fig. 14
also
when x >
x'
we choose
the positive sign
when x
<
x',
the
negative sign.
Thus we have the transformation
i'n
= 1 f e~'"''*sinaa;'e'"''(?a
(a!>a;)
[x
(1)
g '''* sin ax e'^'da,
<
x')
^7^J
the integrals being taken over the path (P).
Vt=
Let
\Ae~'"^'''SLnaxda,
over the path (P), and choose the constant
at
a;
= a is satisfied by
Then
v,
so that the condition
v=Vo+Vi.
= \e'
^sinaa;smaa;
.,
(2)
sm aa
^7rJ
Consider the solution
= + Vi
V(,
smaa
iw]
^_^f
.(3)
^^..sma^sinoja^^^
sm aa
^7^J
The value of v given in (3) satisfies the equation of conduction and
when a;=0 and x=a.
We shall now show that it satisfies the initial condition for a
vanishes
source at
x'.
We
have seen that LtQ has the required value.
We
t>0
have thus only to show that Lt
1^1
= 0,
where
v^ is
given in
(2).
ttO
Assuming that the
,, sin
f eKaH
integral
aa sin ax
._
e'^da,
.^
over the path
(P).
(4)
SOLUTION OF THE EQUATION OF CONDUCTION
a continuous function of
is
for <=0,*
sm aX sin ax
sm aa
we have only
179
to establish that
over the path (P),
e^"'da,
(5)
zero.
is
This follows, as before, from the closed circuit of Fig. 16, since
there are no poles of the integrand of (5) in this circuit, and the
integral over the whole vanishes.
But when the radius tends to
infinity,
the integral over the circular arc vanishes, provided that
x\x'2a
path (P)
is
is
negative.
integral (5) over the complete
Thus the
zero.
The solution (3) can be reduced to an infinite series as follows
Take the path (Q) of Fig. 17 formed by the path (P), the image of
this path on the real axis, and the circular arcs (dotted in the
:
The path (Q) in the aplane
FIQ. 17.
The dotted part
diagram) joining the ends of these two curves.
Also the integrand in
this circuit gives zero in the limit.
odd function of a.
Thus we have from
1
v=
;rT
(3) is
of
an
(3)
j,smaa;
e'"^'
sma(a a;)
^^
.
da,
smafis
27rJ
^
,<
^x^a)
,
(x
.(6)
1
ii= ^
sinaa;sina(ffl a;') J
da.
e""*
^^
.
sm aa
2*Tr J
the integrals
The
now
,n
(0
being taken over the complete path
poles of the integrand are at a
2 "
v=~ >,sm
a^
for
integrals of (6).
See footnote, p. 175.
a a;sm nwa x
w,r
(Q).
= tt/k, 2Tr/a,
Thus, by Cauchy's Theorem, we obtain
the two
xx
.r^t
'
etc.
THE USE OF GREEN'S FUNCTIONS IN THE
[ence the Green's function for this case
>,sm a;sm
a
a^
the temperature at x at the time
t,
is
',
when the
initial
temperature
and the surfaces x=0 and x=a are kept at
follows from 80 (3) in the form
'(x),
!),
y=>,sm
aV
sm
a;
Jo
xe
"
^^(t)
and
f(x)dx
+^2nsin^xf[^,(T)(l)^.(T)]e"">'"^'dT.*
The Same
5.
[
x=a
lere
into a
we
Source at
Solid.
Medium
x' at
t=0.
(')'
4k
e
''''~2V(7r/cO
^_
LKaHgi^{xx;)^f^^
(a;>a;')
= j^fe'''e^''(*="')(Za,
{x<:x')
integrals being taken over the standard
Ne
associate with
Vi
IT
path (P)
of I"ig. 14.
this another solution,
= ^\e'"''t{Ae^<'+Be^'''') da,
the path (P), and determine
and
so that the boundary
iditions
+ ox
7S
when x=0. and x = a,
\hv=0,
by v=Vq\Vi.
way we obtain
satisfied
[n this
x=0
start with the solution
1
'
Radiation at
at Zero.
(h sin
A = (h+ia)
a(ax')\a cos a (a a;')
(i^^ a^)
^sinax^+gcosax
B= ih+ia)
(A^
a.
34.
sinaa+2a^cosaa
^)
sin
aa + 2aA cos aa
'
^,
SOLUTION OF THE EQUATION OF CONDUCTION
Substituting these values for
f e""''
(^ sin
ggi'
+ cos
ttJ
(i%*
when x'>x'
and,
and
S in
%, we have
finally
(^ sin a (g
+ a cos a (a
a^) sin aa+2aA cos aci
ga;')
a;)
when x < x' we interchange
,
a;
181
and
a;) )
,^.
"'
x' in this
expression, the integral being taken over the path (P).
From
satisfies
the
way
which
in
(1)
has been built up,
we know
that
it
the equation of conduction and the boundary conditions.
We shall now show that it satisfies the initial conditions for
a source
at x'
As
v^
corresponds to the source at
x' ,
we have
only to show
that Lt 'Ui=0.
This foUows as in
84,
by introducing the path
of Fig. 16, for
the
integrals vanish over the circular arc in the limit, provided that
c+a;'>0,
cc+a;' 2a<0,
and
and both of these conditions are satisfied.
Also we know that the roots of the equation
(A^ a^)sinaffi+2aAcos aa =
and not repeated. (Cf. 36.)
The solution in (1) can now be reduced to an infinite series by using
x'
the path (Q) of Fig. 17. For we have from (1), when x
are all real
>
_^^,j(Asinaa;'+acosaa;')(Asina(a
+ acosa(a
a;)
(A2~a^)sinaaf2aAcosaa
2i7rJ
the integral being taken over the path
a;))
,,
,
'
(Q).
Then, by Cauchy's Theorem, we have
^Tv
{Asinaa;'+acosaa;')(i^sinaa;+acosaa;)
^=2S'^
a(/.^+a^)
+ 2^
,,
'
(^^
the summation being taken over the positive roots of the equation
(A^ a^)
sin
aa+2aA cos aa=0.
The result in (3) holds both when
Hence the Green's function is
_
a;
>
a;'
and when x
< x'
(Asinaa3'+acosaa;')(^sinaa;+acosaa;)
'
THE USE OF GREEN'S FUNCTIONS IN THE
182
The solution for an arbitrary initial temperature f{x) follows at
and we obtain the temperature at x at the time t, for the case
when the medium is at zero, in the form
once,
.,0 ^%u.'\ K^ ..aH (^ sin aai'+a cos ax')
]o^^
'^
{h sin
This admits of term by term integration, and
ow
.,
ax+ a cos ax) j^,
"'^
a{h^+a^)+2h
(Asinaa;
acosaa;)
.,
,7
,,
may
be written
a 7/
/,
^^>
,>
(Cf. 36.)
may be noted that the result given in (5) leads to the expansion
It
Ex.
sin ax'
+ a cos ax') dx'.
The same Solid. Source at x'. The boundary x = kept
The boundary x = a radiating into medium at zero.
1.
at zero
temperature.
+
a^
2f
w = 22~'"' sinouKsiuco;'
Result:
where the summation
is
A"
tt
=7^,
aa^ + h(l+/ia)'
taken over the positive roots of the equation
a cos aa + h sin aa = 0.
Ex.
The same SoUd.
2.
Boundary conditions
as above.
Initial
tempera
ture f{x).
Result
>
= 2 2 e"""
J,
'
a
,
Ex.
beat.
+
,,,,,,,
+ h{\+ha)
a^
A"
sin oa;
aa?'
f sin (ud fix') dm',
''
Jo
'
The same Sohd. Source at x'. The boundary a; = impervious
The boundary x=a radiating into a medium at zero temperature.
3.
y=2
Result
2 e""""
a^ + h^
a,
,
i /T^
>
cos
ax
cos
to
aa:',
where the summation extends over the positive roots of
a sin acs  A cos
Ex.
4.
The same
Solid.
(MS
= 0.
Boundary conditions as above.
Initial
tempera
ture f(x).
Result:
= 2 S e"""
cos a.f
86.
I.
,,,,,,
aa' + A{l+ha)jo
,
coBax'f(x')dx'.
TwoDimensional Problems.*
SemiInfinite
Boundary
y=0
Solid y
kept at F{x,
>
*Cf. Hobson, London, Proc. Math. 80c.
[iven in 86, 87.
Initial
0.
Temperature f{x,
y).
t).
19, pp. 286, 293, 1889, for
the result
SOLUTION OF THE EQUATION OF CONDUCTION
In this case the Green's function
U=,
\dJi
It follows
is
from
80
(4)
(a;a:r+(i/+i/')' \
e~
^'t'^)
j^~^[e
\dyJy=o
is
{xiO'+iyyV
183
*''<^'
iTTKHtrV^
that the temperature at
{x,
y) at the
time
given by
("
r"
fJie~Sam^oUd.
II.
a;~a!')'+(y+i/')^ i
a'a!')'+(i/i/')
Radiation at
y=0 into Medium at F(x,
may be deduced from
t).
In this case the Green's function
in the
82
form
_
'
hii'
{xafy + jy+y')'
{xx')'+{vy')'
4/c(t)
iKljtT)
__g
47r/i:( t)L
(a;a;')'+(y+i/'+i))'
fto
and
Thus the temperature at
{x,
zero, is given
by
temperature
is
y) at the time
t,
when the
initial
87. ThreeDimensional Problems.
I.
SemiInfinite Solid
Boundary
In
x=0
a;
kept at F{y,
>>
0.
Initial
Temperature f(x,
z).
y,
z, t).
this case the Green's function is
u^^
Ae
*^(*)
e
* This result proves the truth of the statement at the
tinuous doublets.
M*.)
end
of
74 about con
THE USE OF GREEN'S FUNCTIONS IN THE
184
Thus the temperature at
/
at the time
JoJa)Joo
/Same
**
The Green's function
u=
\e
is
dx' dy' dz'
a;'+(yi/')'+(gg')'
i^(t^)
drdy'dz'.*
//__\*
Radiation at
/SoZtd.
given by
(3;+a;')'+(i/y')'+(88')' 
^Jy^ZjT)^
II.
is
iW
#00
(a:a;')'+(yyr+(zz')'
(x, y, z)
4K(tT)
e
x=0 into Medium
at
F{y,
z, t).
in this case
(xa;')=+(i/i/y+(zz')'
i(r)
(a;+a;')'
+e
+ (i/y')'+(g8')'
Mt)
87r^K"(^ t)(+'+ fl'+(a/y')'+(8 8')'
2Ay
Thus the teniperature at
temperature
h
is
[<
{x, y, z)
zero, is given
f"
f"
88. Infinite Cylinder
f^^J
at the time
t,
when the
t\
It
(a:+i)'+(i/i/')'+(zg')'
(j_^)f
r=a.
Initial
Temperature
f(r, d).
Temperature Zero.
To
obtain
tlie
Green's function for this case,
we
start with
r'+r''2rr' cos (99')
1
n=
We transform this,
I
OO
^TTco
initial
by
rFM
8^*^4JoJJJo
^(^>
e'^e
.
.
int
4,r/c
as in 78 (III.)j into
/.OT
Jo
*Tlie footnote on page 183 also applies to this result.
Surface
SOLUTION OF THE EQUATION OF CONDUCTION
186
But
J
=J
ae''''tJn(ar')HJ'\ar)da.
J 00
And
proceeding as in
82, this
ae'="J(a/)J(ar)c?a
may
be replaced by
'
= jfae'"''*J(a/)ir'"(ar)c?a
(r>r')

= ijae J (ar) ZfJ^' (a/) da,
<
(r
the integrals being taken over the standard path (P) of Fig.
r')
14.
Thus we have
"
Vo=^^cosn{dd')
when
>
r',
and we interchange
\ae'"'tJ{a7')HJ'^{ar)da,
and
r',
when r
<
r',
(1)
the integrals
being taken over the path (P).
To
r=a, we associate with
taken over the same path (P), where
satisfy the condition at
solution Vi
another
CO
Vi=r
Ug
2 cosn{dd')
*7r a,
and we choose the constant
Then we have
\Aae'"''tJn{ar')Jn(ar).da,
J
so that
Vq+^i
shall
be zero when r=a.
^i=^S cos^(00') jaeV(ar')J(ar)^Me?.
...(2)
Consider the solution
=_i
47r
2
f^
cos ^(0^
0')
ae j4^J
Jn{aa)
'
'J
X {ff/'M</M^/'(a)'^M}
When X is real and positive,
Thus
we know from Appendix
<"(a;)e"''^?^'(:)=2/(;).
I.,
da,
4 that
(3)
THE USE OF GREEN'S FUNCTIONS IN THE
186
when
>
the integral being taken over the path (P)
r',
when
being interchanged,
<
and
r, r'
r'.
The value of v given in (3) satisfies the equation of conduction,
and vanishes when r=a.
We shall now show that it satisfies the initial condition for a
Hne source at (r', 6'). This requires that Lt'yi=0, where v^ is
given in
But
From
'^
(2).
84 by introducing the path of Fig.
this follows as in
the approximations for
of the 2plane,* it will
the
over
and
16.
HJ^^{z) in the upper part
be seen that
J(arV(ar)gJ"(aa) j
vanishes
t/(z)
circular
arc
the
in
provided
limit,
r+r' 2a <[ 0, a condition which is satisfied.
Also we know that the roots of J^{aa)=0
are
all real
that
and not
repeated.
The
solution in (3) can
now be reduced
to an infinite series by
using the path (Q) of Fig. 17.
For we
may
_ J_
replace the term
Le'.H'IJ^ {HJ'^{ar)J,,{aa)HJ'^{aa}JUar)}da
over the path (P),
by
half this integral over the path (Q).
Using Cauchy's Theorem,
2a^
this
term becomes
aer
J'(aa)
the summation being taken over the positive roots of J(aa)=0.
But
it is
Thus we
known
that t
find for the temperature at
source at (/,
(r,
6) at
the time
t,
due to the
%'),
.=;^.S(.)e..^^<y^
and
this holds
"Of.
,4,
when r%r'
Appendix
I.,
4, 5.
;JCf.
Watson,
loc. cit.,
3. 63.
(1).
SOLUTION OF THE EQUATION OF CONDUCTION
The Green's function
When
at
(f,
the initial temperature
at the time
6)
When
for this case
therefore,
is f{r),
we
obtain the temperature
form
in the
t,
is,
187
the initial temperature is/(r,
6),
we have
If we assume that this series may be integrated term by
we have, for the coefficient of J(ar) cos nd the expression
and
for
rr
r'f(r', e')Jn{or')
n=0 the result must be
divided
term,
cos nd' dr' dff
by two.
Thus we are led to the series for/(r) and/(, 0) of 57, 1, and
and they occur here as the limiting values of v when t^^O.
89. Infinite Cylinder r =a.
at Zero.
Initial
Temperature
Radiation at the Surface into a
it
Medium
f (r, Q).
Starting with the expression for the line source at
transform
IV.,
(r',
6'),
we
as before into
%=TS coan{ed') J{ae'"^'tJ^{ar'}H^'\ar)da
^^^
(r>r')
{ ...(1)
= ^f]cosn{e9') faeV(ar)F'"(arVa,
(r
<
r),
the integrals being taken over the standard path (P) of Fig. 14.
We
^^1
then obtain the solution
= ^2 cos (^<?')
fae V(ar) J(ar')
xl_i)
(aJ'(aa)
over the path (P), and
we prove
+ ^Jaa))
ida
...(2)
that ^='yo+%> which satisfies the
THE USE OF GREEN'S FUNCTIONS IN THE
188
dv
surface condition ^
\hv=0, also satisfies the initial condition for a
or
source at
{r', 0').
Thus we are led to the solution
= . S COS n{99')
fae"""' J(a/)
J
"ItT do
^HJ{ar)[aJ:(aa)+hJ^{aa)]
when
r
<
r >
r',
the integral being taken over the path
we interchange
r'
The
and
{Q) of Fig. 17, for
(P)
and when
an
infinite series
we know* that the
by using
roots of the equation
aJ'(aa)+hJ{aa)=0,
(4)
and not repeated.
The coefficient of cos n{66') becomes
are
all real
d
* ^v
1.
2^
"^
'
/^
"^
'
d(aa)
aaJ"
ff'"(aa)+M("(aa)
{aa)
+ {l+ha)J' [aa)
the summation being taken over the positive roots of
(4).
But
J(aa)+At/(aa)=0.
ajy
and
Also
we
aj^. HJ{aa) + hH^'^iaa) =
Therefore
jB^^,
find that
Therefore the coefiicient of cosn{d
J,
Tra
2 a2
d') becomes
J(ar).7(a/)
^
the summation being taken over the positive roots of
* Cf. footnote, p. 117.
^^^
r'.
solution in (3) can be reduced to
the path
'^"'
aJ:(aa)+hJ,(aa)
(4).
SOLUTION OF THE EQUATION OP CONDUCTION
Hence the temperature
(r', 6'),
when
zero, is given
at
(r,
6) at
the time
due to a source at
radiation takes place at the surface into a
medium
by
(^Ha^^)(J(a))^
and
this holds
When
and
the
when
initial
r'.
temperature
is/(j),
or/(r, 6),
189
we have
at
190
THE USE OF GREEN'S FUNCTIONS IN THE
Introducing the complex variable
a, this
becomes
2cos(ae)_
4kJ
sda.
\'
over any closed path in the aplane
=9'
and no other singularity of the integrand.
enclosing the point a
It is clear that singularities enter only from the poles a=2m7r+6',
and the infinities of e^rr'cos(^e)yz^
On putting a=a+ib, we see that when 6=ao, cos (a 9)
must be negative or the integrand would be infinite. Hence in
deforming the path to 6= oo we must take care to have a in such
a region that cos (a 6) must be negative. The shaded portions of
the integral being taken
The path (A) in the aplane
Via. 18.
Fig. 18 represent such parts of the aplane,
the circuit round a =6'
may be deformed
and taking
\09'\<i'!r,
into that given in the
new path being composed
of two symmetrical curved
and two rectilinear parts, drawn at a
distance 27r from each other.
The integrals over these straight
hnes cut each other out, owing to the periodicity of the integrand
and the fact that they are described in opposite directions. We are
left with the two curved portions, which we refer to as the path (A)
figure, this
parts extending to infinity,
in the aplane for this value of 6.
In connection with the problem of the wedge of angle mr/m,
was used to obtain another
this solution
of period 2mr, with only one singularity in that
SOLUTION OF THE EQUATION OF CONDUCTION
and to the second solution the method
range,
of images
was
191
applied.
(Cf.
79, and the author's paper in Proc. London Math. Sac, 30, 1899.)
Consider the expression
lira
_g
So
bhe integral being taken over the path {A), corresponding to the
current coordinate d.
(i)
This expression
is
a solution of
the equation of conduction,
since every element of the integrand satisfies this equation.
(ii) It is periodic in 6 and of period
change in d, e.g. from
29o.
to
9
0, simply translates the path along the real axis of a, and
the term e^rr'ooaia.e'npM jg unaltered. Further, if the change in d is
equal to 2ndo (n being any positive or negative integer), the other
factor of the integrand also remains unaltered.
(iii) It vanishes when t>0 in the interval
6o<^6
when r^' and d^>0', where it takes the form
y(r'
_ 2rr' cos (B
e_
<i6o, except
ff)
!!
To prove this, we have only to note that the path (A) can be
changed into the two straight lines of Fig. 18, together with the
small circuits surrounding such of the poles as he in the interval
{d
TT,
Q[Tr).
The
integrals over these straight lines vanish in the
limit as i>0, since these lie in the
We
are thus
^o'C^'^C^o
^iid
circuits all vanish
source at
(iv)
^o<^<^o)
when
i>0,
tlis
integrals
poles
round
and
if
these
except one which corresponds to the
(r', 6').
When
the factor
II.
shaded portions of the diagram.
with the circuits round the
left
The
r^co
the expression vanishes
owing to the presence
of
e'V4.
solution given in (2) can be transformed into a series
involving Bessel's functions
by the
aid of the contour integral which
defines the Bessel's function of the first kind.*
*Cf. Whittalier and Watson,
loc. cit.
(3rd Ed.), p. 363.
THE USE OF GREEN'S FUNCTIONS IN THE
192
We
start with
r>+
*'!
^cos(a_e)
e*
fiKt
rst^a
lira
over the path {A).
Putting a
d^a,
tTr0'
_e
*0
becomes
this
So
r!coaa'
v=
'
iit(e+a.')
^TTKdfjt
da'
fay
over the path (A') of Fig. 19
77ie
path
^>4) /n
the a'plane
Fig. 19.
iir(9+a')
In expanding the term
fafl'
upper and lower parts
of the
the positive imaginary infinity in the a'plane
gi"''*"
we must proceed
path
M(9+a')
differently for the
{A').
From
the upper part
we obtain
(
since at
vanishes and the series
.
is
convergent.
Also from the lower part
we have
SOLUTION OF THE EQUATION OP CONDUCTION
Now
we change the
if
integral to the
sign of a' in the lower part,
upper part, and have,
we
193
bring this
finally.
over the upper portion of the path {A').
Now put u'~rr'e^'I^Kt. In the Mplane, the path proceeds
from the negative end of the real axis on the lower side, makes a
circuit round the origin, and ends at the negative end of the real
axis
on the upper
side, as in Fig. 20.
FIG. 20,
Also the integral
IS
replaced by
2::<,o8a' ?i5'
e
da
Je^"'
At}) V
^^^
'
du
over this path in the Mplane.
Thus
it is
replaced
by
2.e J
on using the contour integral
Hence we have
_ r'+r"
2^).
for <7(2).
(.CO
aeV(ar)J(ar')^=2^e
But
_r'+r"
""
/irr'\*
eJ*V(^27j
for
any value
of
for
which the
real part is greater
than 1.
A,
p. 184 (2).
*Cf. Gray and Mathews, loc. pit., p. 78 (161): Nielsen, loc.
This formula for a positive integer n was first given by Hankel (Math. Ann.,
Leipzig, 8, p. 470, 1875) and for the general case by Sonine (ibid., 16, p. 40,
1880).
CC.H.
N,
THE USE OF GREEN'S FUNCTIONS IN THE
194
Therefore our solution, with period 29o, can be written
^=?^icos'^{dd')rae''^VAcr)JnA^r)da
^fo^
III.
Now
let 6' lie
found above in
Jo
(fo
by
(3)
^^^ denote the
0o>
solution
v{6').
This has the value required
s
< <
within
(3)
To
by a source
at the points
(r',
d'2sdQ),
being zero or any positive integer.
hj v(d'), the corresponding
v=v(e')~v{~d')
Similarly denote
Then
solution for (9').
=2i(cosf(^^')cos^(.+r))
/CO
ae"^VUar)Jn^iar')da
'o
all
satisfies
0<^6
the
So
(4)
temperature in the wedge
conditions for the
<^9q, the unit line source being placed at
and the planes being kept at zero.
The solution given in (4) can be written
in the
(r',
6')
at !!=0,
form
=52sin^(9sin^e' ae V^(ar)J,(arVa
^0
In
78, III.,
we found
angle Tr/m, where
to be true for a
We
If
we
Wo
t7o
(5)
1^1^
Jo
this solution
by images for the wedge of
The result is now seen
m is any positive integer.
wedge
of
have been dealing in
any
angle.
this section with a line source through
start with a point source at
{r', $', z')
(r',
d').
and take
(zzfy
^
we obtain by a
similar
r'+r"2rr'aos(ee')
argument the solution
V = ^j^
r Ssin;20sm5e'
foV^TKt; 1
^0
Co
t7o
91.
8=do
We
Infinite Cylinder.
kept at Zero.
ae"* V(a) J^^(a/) da.
The Surface
Initial
for the point source in the form
r=a
Temperature
and the Planes d=Q,
f(r, 6).
start with the solution of 90, corresponding to the line
source at
{r', 9'),
namely,
sin^Ssin^e'
^o=3S
fo
fo
Jo
^0
1
ae'"'V{ar')Jn(ar)da.
:
SOLUTION OF THE EQUATION OF CONDUCTION
As we have seen
^0= 5
S ^9 ^
sin
may
in 88, this
sin
0'
be written
ae V.(a/)fl^i(ar)cZa
= rS sinT Q sin^ 9'faeV.(ar)ffi':(a/)c?a,
(r
>
(r
< /)
the integrals being taken over the path (P) of Fig. 14.
This leads, as in 88, to the solution for the source at
the solid bounded
195
(r',
r')
Q') in
by r=a and 9=^0,0 = 0^:
=zSsm30sm50
Oo^
^0
^0
X
when
r
<
r',
>
r',
we
the integral being taken over the path (P)
interchange r and
and when
r'.
This solution can be reduced to an infinite series as before by
introducing the path (Q) of Fig. 17.
Then we obtain
(1)
mr
2w.
TS S ^
Jni,{r)Jn,r{ar')Bn{m)
nir
^ sin
^"
d'ae^^
^f
...(3)
So
the summation being taken over the positive roots of
But, as in
Thus
(3)
86
ir (aa) J^ (aa)
J^(aa)=0
= 
reduces to
J^{ar)J,J,ar')
which holds when r % r'.
The solution for the initial temperature /(r, 6) follows at once
from (4) by integration, and we have, for this case,
'
4,
fa
fii
'JnAar)Jn(ary
sm pr 9 sm
^0
[Of. 62, II.].
pr
""
'
[J'nAca)J
dr'd9'
THE USE OF GREEN'S FUNCTIONS IN THE
196
The
following results can be obtained by the method of the preceding
In each case the surface of the solid is kept at temperature zero,
and a unit source is placed at < =0 at a point of the solid.
92.
section.
The Solid bounded internally by the Cylinder r=a. Line Source
Here the temperature at (r, 9) at the time t is given by
I.
iirri
'
at
(r', $').
H^^\aa)
J'
X {J(ar)H<')(aa) ./(aa)ff<(ar)}rfa,
when r<
We interchange r and r', when r
r'.
The Solid bounded
II.
>r'.
internally by the Cylinder
r=a, and
the
Planes 0=0,
d=da Line Source at (>', 8').
In this case we are dealing with the region
'
Then we have
Hn{ar )
t/O
wo
f/0
J a
tt'"
X ./Mr(ar)H^(oa)/n^(aa)ff^(a?')(ia,
I.
when
r<r'.
III.
In
We interchange r
^0
^0
and
r',
when
^0
The Solid bounded by the Cylinders ra and r=b.
this case
we
^0
r>r',
Line Source
at
(r', 0'),
are dealing with the region
a^r^b, 0^e^2ir.
Then we have
{/(aa)ffm(ar')
 ^(ar')fl<(<i)}
K(aa)H/l(a&)J(a6W(ao)}
when r>r'. We interchange r and r', when r<r'.
The summation in a is taken over the positive roots
of
J{aa)HW{ab)  J(a&)ffm(aa) =0.
The above
result reduces to
.=^i2cosM0^)a%..
V^(alftva)
where U{ar) =J(ar)ff)(a6) ^ J(a6)rW(ar).
IV. The Solid bounded by the Cylinders
this case
we
62, I.)
ra and r=b, and
6I=(9.
In
(a.
^"(')^"("'>'
are dealing with the region
the
Planes 6=0,
SOLUTION OF THE EQUATION OF CONDUCTION
197
Then we have
c
!''
(1)
X
Co
2, Sin ga
"o
So
flo
"\
 JiuA<M')Hrm{oa)
J Jr^aa)EnA,o.ll')
/^7i;(a6)frjw(ar)./B,r(ar)fl'jw(oi6)].
& Sin g ffae"o
J
{ ^w(atl)fl'j(a&)
*
fl[)
 J'jta(a6)fl'n7r(aa)
flo
6o
when r>r'. We interchange r and r', when r<r'.
The summation in a is taken over the positive roots
>
flo
of
Jnn(aa)HnAb)  JrJiab) Hn^(aa) =0.
flo
The above
flo
flo
flo
result reduces to
^7r(afls)
=^'
""
9'a%'*
1 2 sin ^ d sin ^
""
"
'
''
where
^a
{7^(^) j;'^(ar'),
4^(a6)4u(<w)
Um,{a,r)=J^{ar)HnJiab)J^(ab)Hn;r{ar).
flo
flo
flo
flo
flo
6=0
V. The Wedge bounded by the Planes z=0, z=:h,
Source at
In
flT
and d=9a
Point
(r', 6', z').
this case
we
are deaUng with the region
Then we have
v=T7r
2j
2/6
"
Wom=l=l
sin T K sin T z
"
sm 7p
t*
sin Tjt7o
C^o
Jo
ae'"^'tJn{a.r)Jnn{ar')da.
^
57
VI. The Solid bounded by the Cylinder r=a, and
and 6=6(1. Point Source at (r', 6', z').
In this case we are deaUng with the region
the
6=0
Planer z =0, z=h,
O^r^a, 0^6^60, O^z^h.
Then we have
v=ivr7v
2)
2e
a%6o ^uSil:!
"
sin T sin T sin g &
h
h
60
sm g60
JnA.ar)J'nJ,al')
xe^ot^
'
[f'nM)J
the summation in a being taken over the positive roots of J^(oia)=0.
(Of. 62, III.)
9S"
THE USE OF GREEN'S FUNCTIONS IN THE
198
The Sphere r=a.
93.
Initial
Temperature
f(r,
9, ^).
Surface
Temperature Zero.
In this case we start with

1
"^0
li^^tWi
19.
where R^=r^\r'^2rr' cos y, with the usual notation, y being the
angle between the radii to {r, 9, <p) and (r', 9', (j>').
v.=
Then
But from the expansion
we have
.... e^"'
of e""""* in a series of
Zonal Harmonics,*
e"V(y)?<^+').'ii''".()'<^>Thus
o=gi^^;7(;^E
f"
But
^* Jn.,i^;)Pnioos y).
(2^^+!)
*"*'
/it'r'\
ae V+i(ar)J+i(a/)rfa = ^p^.^J+j^2^j^t.
J^
Hence
""=
4^^/)
But, as in
aeV+i(ar)J+i(a/)cZa.
(2^+l)P^(cos
...(1)
y)J^
88,
ae''''Vni.i{ar)Jn+i{a/)da=Aae'"'Vn+i{ar')Hn+i{ar)da,
J
over the path (P) of Fig. 14,
when r
<
when
>
r'
and we interchange
Therefore
we have
o= j^^^^S (2n+l)P(cos y)aeV+i(a/)ffL'+i(ar)(Za,
when
>
r, r'
r'.
r',
the integral being taken over the path (P), and
being interchanged
when
<
(2)
r, r'
r'.
Now let
CO
2
= S7rV(r/)
S (2 + l)P(cos
over the path (P), and choose
*Cf. Heine,
loc. cit.,
Bd.
I., p.
4 aeV+i(ar)J.H ('') t^",
y)J
so that
82
(14).
Vq\v^
vanishes
fCf. footnote,
when r=a.
p. 193.
SOLUTION OF THE EQUATION OF CONDUCTION
199
^=:^iM.
This leads to
Jn+i{aa)
Also
we have
i^Jn+i{o'Ci)H'n+i{ar)Jn+i{ar)HllU{aa}}da,
when
/>*'; while
we
interchange r and
can be shown, as before, that
It"
conditions for a source at
(r', 9',
r'
when
<
(3)
r'.
this value of v satisfies all the
(j>')
at
=0
in the sphere.
This solution can be reduced to an infinite series by introducing
the path {Q) of Fig. 17.
Then we obtain
,^_^VV(2n+l)PJcosy)ae' '^"+^^'')'^y^(f)5+*("")
the summation in a being taken over the positive roots of J+ j(aa)
But, as in
88,
Then from
(4),
= 0.
H^+i (aa) J+ j (aa) =
we have
the summation in a being as above.
If
at
the initial temperature of the sphere
(r,
6,
(f))
at the time
follows
from
(5)
is/(r, 6, 96),
by
the temperature
integration
and we have
X e'* Jnii^^iip ,'i gin e'dr'dd'd<t>'.
^
[J+i(aa)]'
Remembering that
THE USE OF GREEN'S FUNCTIONS
200
it will
in
be seen that this solution agrees with the result obtained
67.
However,
in the discussion in this section,
that the arbitrary function /(r, 9,
(p)
we have not assumed
can be expanded in a
terms of the form
(ar)*J+j(ar) (1
 ^.'fD^PM !! m<l>
series of
CHAPTEE XI
THE USE OF CONTOUE INTEGRALS IN THE SOLUTION
OF THE EQUATION OF CONDUCTION
94. Introductory.
In the previous chapter we have obtained the Green's functions
by integrating suitable solutions along a path in the
plane of the complex variable. The same method can be applied
in other cases, and, indeed, it is the simplest and most direct way
in several cases
of solving
many
problems of conduction.
In this chapter we shall
some problems already solved by elementary methods,
and to others which, so far, have not been solved at all, or have
only been treated by Heaviside's " operational method."* In this
class may be mentioned the problem of the semiinfinite rod composed
of two materials, the end kept at a constant temperature, the initial
temperature of the whole being zero, and the corresponding problems
for the finite rod and the sphere.
The methods lased in the solution
of these three problems give equally satisfactory results when the
apply
it
to
surface temperature varies with the time, or radiation takes place
into a
medium
at a constant or varying temperature.
* Heaviside's " operational
method " may be said to be simply a kind of shortThe formulae can be established by the use of the contour integrals employed
in the following pages. And the results are confirmed in this chapter. But his
work is hard to follow, and it may safely be said that he makes little attempt to
Indeed the real justification of his method
justify the steps in Ms argument.
seems to depend upon some such use of contour integrals as will be found below.
Reference should be made to Heaviside's Electromagnetic Theory, Vol. II.,
Chapter V., and to his paper in London, Proc. B. Sac, 52, p. 604, 1893 also to
hand.
Bromwich's papers, London, Proc. Math. 8oc. (Ser. 2), 15, p. 401, 1917 Phil. Mag.,
London (Ser. 6), 87, p. 407, 1919 and Cambridge, Proc. Phil. Soc, 20, p. 411, 1921.
The method employed in this chapter was given by the author in his paper in
See also Cambridge, Proc. Phil.
Phil. Mag., London (Ser. 6), 89, p. 603, 1920.
Soc, 20, p. 399, 1921.
;
201
THE USE OF CONTOUR INTEGRALS IN THE
202
LINEAE FLOW.
95. SemiInfinite
perature
Vo
Bod
(x
>
End x=0 kept
0).
and
^tt,
infinity in
and on the
left
tt.
This value of v
satisfies
the equation
x=0 and
It also satisfies the conditions at
initial
(1)
In this path at
over the standard path (P) of Fig. 14.
the right the argument of a Ues between
For the
Tem
da
Consider the integral
?;=. le'"*
ITTj
a
between f tt and
at Constant
Temperature Zero.
Initial
condition put
i=0
in (1),
da, over the
iirj
t=0.
and we have
path (P)
of Fig. 14."
Consider this integral over the closed circuit of Fig. 16, consisting
of the
path (P) and the part
above the path
of
circle,
centre at the origin, lying
There are no poles of the integrand
(P).
inside
and therefore the integral over the whole vanishes.
But when the radius of the circle tends to infinity, the integral over
the circular arc vanishes, x being positive. It follows that the
integral over the complete path (P) vanishes when x is positive.
For the boundary condition put x=0 in (1), and we have
this circuit,
iTTj
This
is
da, over the path (P).
da, over the path (Q) of Fig 17,
equal to
2^
2)
since the integrand
is
an odd function
of a,
and the
For a more exact discussion, we should consider Lt
(),
integrals over
when
is
a given
not
difficult
a;
>o
positive
to
number, and Lt
show that the value
when
a given positive number.
It
is
of v given in (1) is a continuous function of
t,
{v),
is
X being a given positive number, and a continuous function
t
of x,
when J^O,
when x^Q,
being a given positive number.
The same remark
applies to the discussion of the
throughout this chapter.
boundary and initial conditions
SOLUTION OF THE EQUATION OF CONDUCTION
the circular arcs at infinity (dotted in the diagram) vanish,
is
203
when
positive.
It follows
by Cauchy's Theorem that, when a; =0,
Thus the value
is
equal to
Do
of v given in (1) satisfies all the conditions of our
problem.
But the path
of Fig. 21,
(P) can be replaced in (1)
by the
with the semicircle enclosing the origiu
and,
by
letting
r\.
00
straight path
o
FlO. 21.
the radius of this circle tend to zero,
in the
form
y=l
f
1
ttJo
Now
it is
known
we
obtain our solution
sinaa; ,
e"'
da
a
,>
(2)
that
cos
e"''''
*"'
bxdx=i^e
2a
and that we can integrate under the
Ex.
p. 195,
sign of integration.
(Cf. F.S.,
13.)
re''^^^dx='^ f e'^'db.
Thus
Jo
2a Jo
a;
It foUowB from (2) that
X
v=l
'
rwut)
f
e^'dl
(Cf. p.
35,
Ex.
1.)
s/tJo
96. SemiInfinite
a cos
wt.
Initial
Rod
(x
>
End x=0 kept
0).
at
Temperature
Temperature Zero.
Consider the integral
\^^''^^
(^)
over the standard path (P) of Fig. 14.*
This value of v
ment
satisfies
the equation
as in 95 shows that
it
In
this case the
e~ 'x;
path (P)
ia
>
^^^ ^^^ same argu
also satisfies the condition at t=0.
For the condition at the end
^ =i^^^
of the rod,
WT;
we take the
integral
over the path (P).
to lie above the points
a/(")*^
^""^
vi^)^^"
THE USE OF CONTOUR INTEGRALS IN THE
204
This
is
equal to
icaH
a^da
.
2i7r 1'
and the poles
.,
over the path IQ) of Fig.
of the integrand are at a/( je^^", a/(
17.
 je^^*"
FIG. 22.
It
follows
by Cauchy's Theorem
that,
when x=0, we have
v=acos(ji}t.
Thus the value
of v
given in
(1) satisfies all
the conditions of our
problem.
But the path
Fig. 23
(P) can be replaced in (1)
from right to
left,
with the small
VG)^''
^^^
by the
straight path of
circles enclosing the points
VG)^'^^
o
FIQ. 23.
We thus
It
obtain our solution in the form
can be shown that
and from
this equality the solution in (2)
as found in 23.
can be reduced to
SOLUTION OF THE EQUATION OF CONDUCTION
If
the temperature of the end a;=0
solution
ao,
is
kept at
ada
Saw
we
flssintui,
205
start with the
J'
and the
real
form
of the
J(?)o'
97. SemiInfinite
answer
is
// < \
Bod (x>
Temperature
at Constant
Here we take
0).
Radiation at
Initial
Vg.
o"'"
x=0
into a
Medium
Temperature Zero.
u=^le"'*T
h%a
iTT J
(1)
over the standard path (P) of Fig. 14.
It follows as in 95 that all the conditions of the
satisfied
by
this value of v, the condition at
problem are
a;=0 now being
g+A('"o)=0
We may
path
and by
of Fig. 21,
to zero
we
IliVa f "
TT
J,
A sin
ax\a. cos ax,
/''"..
the solution in
(2)
ensmaa;ffia;

= hsmax+acosax
e,
.
^
.
can be reduced to
v^^'Teh^dur
^Jtt Jo
as obtained in
For we have
and from
this
we
at
(^
a;
=0
ev'dr,,
x+ii.
follows directly
=^0]]^^^'
from the value
*^ P^*^
'^^^
obtain the approximate value
3w_
p. 52.
'J
23.
The gradient
on
da
A^+a^
Jo
using the integral
I
as
straight
letting the radius of the semicircle tend
obtaia our solution in the form
"
By
by the
replace the path (P) in(l), as in 95,
"_/!
l_l
of in (1).
^^'l'
,.
THE USE OF CONTOUR INTEGRALS IN THE
206
98. SemiInfinite
at
Rod
(x
Temperature acoswt.
>
Radiation at
0).
v=\e^^^
Here we take
x=0
into
a Medium
Temperature Zero.
Initial
"3;
(1)
57!,
over the standard path (P) of Fig. 14.*
It follows as before that all the conditions of the
satisfied
by
this value of v, the condition at
problem are
x=0 now being
^\h{vacoswt) = 0.
dv
The
solution given in (1) reduces to
..^sinax+acosaa;
2ha['^
^^+a2
Jo
,r
d^da
o^+coVk"'
y=tan^^^^.
where
For radiation at x =
into a
v=
medium
haw
at a sin (ot,
start with the integral
ada
^e"""'
e* T
we
r:
272
over the path (P).
The
solution reduces to
ha
V(?>sin(.*V(^).y)
V{('W)^S}
,,fesinaa;+acosaa;
ihao) f
h'+a^
Kir }
KTT
ada
a*+Ui'lK''
where y has the same value as above.
99. SemiInfinite
Rod
from x=0 to
Constant Temperature Vg.
Material
(x> a).
Initial
With the usual notation,
a a; 0, and v^, K^, c^,
< <
Also
"
let
p.
x= a
x=0
of one
x= a
kept at
to
End
Temperature Zero.
let v^,
K^,
p^ refer to
i^i=Ki/cipi
The footnote on
From
Infinity of another.
and
203 applies here
Cj,
a;
>
p^ refer to the interval
0.
Kg=Z2/c2/02.
also.
SOLUTION OP THE EQUATION OF CONDUCTION
Then the equations to be solved are
W='^^a^'<^<o=
(1)
(3)
a < <
Vi=0, when t=0,
It
where
a;
when
x> 0.
(3')
c=0,
KiP^=K2^
ox.
ox
when
a;=0.
Vi=(Aje?^+ B^ er^^) e"'"'*,
and
and
(5),
(!').
provided that
A^=^(l+a)A^,
where
(^)
a.
V2=0, when =0,
(5)
also satisfy (4)
Thus
Vi=V2,
ij.=sJ{kiIk^, satisfy (1)
They
a;
(4)
clear that
is
9f='^^^'^>^
when
Vj^=Vf
(2)
as follows
207
}
5i=4(lcr)^2,
(T^nKJK^^JiKrp^pJK^Cip^.
Introducing the path (P) of Fig. 14 and choosing a suitable
value for A^
(this
value
is
indicated
solutions
L
0) e
+ (1
by
0)
(2)),
are led to the
e^ e"!"'*
(Ho)e''+(lo)e'
a^d
we
'^2=^"](i+^),,.+(i_^),.
^.
^^^
(7)
the integrals in both cases being taken over the standard path (P).
The expressions in (6) and (7) satisfy the differential equations
(1) and (!'), and the conditions at a;=0 given in (4) and (5).
They also satisfy the remaining conditions (2), (3) and (3').
For
is
equal, as before, to
da over the path (P)
v^.
Also the roots of the equation
(1
are given
by
0)
e+ (1
0)
e'=
THE USE OF CONTOUR INTEGRALS IN THE
508
We may therefore use Fig.
ranish,
We
16 as before, and
we
see that Vj
and
v^
when t=0.
shall
now
simplify the solution of our problem
we have
)btained in the form of a contour integral.
I.
o
>
1.
Put o=coth
(l
^,
e.
+ o)e' +{l (r)e^^ _
+ o)e*^+(l(r)e*"^
sin
Thus
?',
'
= ^
"
^
^
"
r^ 
^7
iir J
sm.
(ax iO)
sin(aa+t0)'
(l
da, over the
(aa+i6) a
path
(P),
i>or f s^^JaxiO)
sin(aa;+^g) \e~'"''''^^
tTrJo lsiii(aa+*0)
sin(aa i0)ja
2^)osinh2g
sina(a;+a)
TT
e"!""'^^
20 cos 2aa
Jo cosh
,g,
Similarly,
1),=
.
TT
T^TfT
sm (aa+id)
da, over the
path (f ),
+ a)
1 + tanh 0) sin a
(1 tanh 6) sin a {fxxa)
(^la;
cosh20 cos2aa
I"
ej"'""'
.q>
<r=l.
II.
Then
%=2 e*<*+"^^
da,
over the path (P).
These reduce to
^^1=^0
^1 e"'"'*
Jo
'da
TT
/CO
_2?;,^"
ei'(Z^*
(10)
~^''^'/
(11)
WW
2v,
,nd
"2=T^f
III.
ry,
< <
o
1.
Put o=tanh d.
+ g)e^ +(lg)e^ _ cos(aa;tg)
(l + <7)e*'+(lo)e^''
cos(aa+i0)'
(l
Using the integral
^'"^^^"^
I''
^^='^
^''''f.
as in 95,
SOLUTION OF THE EQUATION OF CONDUCTION
Also our solutions
(6)
and
Jo cosh
TT
reduce to
(7)
sinag+a)
2j;osinh2gr
209
ej^^^
29+ COS 2aa
^^
and
{'"
(l+tanh9)sina(jua;+a)
+ (ltanli6')sina(//a;a)e''"''' ^^
cosh29+cos2aa
,,,
^^^^
This problem was discussed by Heaviside (loc. cit., p. 16), the gradient
a; =  a being required for the question of the Age of the Earth.
This
gradient follows at once from our solutions (6) and (7).
at
We
have
= ?
^^M
)^
'r^r e  "i"'*
da,
over the path (P).
cr
^'^^
+l
L.=y ;4SS>^.
= ?^f
over the path (P),
A+2 2^"cos2aa]ei'^=ia
BW
,2(7>
=
Hence
^7^/l +2 f^e "".).
for large values of
we have approximately
/BpA
Pq
1+fe
'
^J(IrKlt) \KfiiPi)
When
the surface
is
kept at zero and the initial temperature of the whole
temperature gradient, when x=a, will be
solid is Vo, it is clear that the
minus the above.
But the gradient in Kelvin's classical treatment
( 28 above) was found to be vJ{iTKjt).
of the
Age
of the
Earth
This modification of the problem, allowing for greater conductivity and
capacity for heat in the interior than in the outer skin,
makes the interval
required for subsidence to the same gradient {K^c^p^j^K^Cip^ times as great
as before.
With the data adopted by Perry and Heaviside,* and
Thus Kelvin's estimate
{K^^2)j{K^c^Pi) is nearly 450.
be increased to 45 x 10' years.
* Of. p,
c.c.H.
221 and the footnote on
p. 60.
the above notation,
of 10' years
would
THE USE OF CONTOUR INTEGRALS IN THE
210
Rod
100.
Length
of
peratures Zero and
It
is
clear
/.
The Ends
Vg, respectively.
from the argument
v
x=0
and x=? kept
at
Temperature Zero.
Initial
of 95 that
Va f sinacc e"""'
= ^\
da,
,_,
(1)
*7r J
Tem
sm at
J
over the standard path (P) of Pig. 14
the conditions of
satisfies all
our problem.
From
v=^
.
2^7^J
And
we
this solution
obtain, as before,
da, over the path
(Q)
\o/ of Fig.
ro 17.
smaJr a
by Cauchy's Theorem, we have
finally,
n.^TT
v=v
>
~\
I
TT^
'
' Sin
vp
smTa;e
j,
t,
Another form of the solution can be obtained as follows
from
'a
etc.
(1),
'
ITT
.(2)
since the poles of the integrand are at 0,
We have,
'
*"
=^^\
{sina((2l)?+a;)sina{(2l)?x)}~''''ia
(2tc+1);+!1:
= 72:
^/7^
J (2>l);a;
ef',^A
t
(Cf.
^
75,
s
'
III.)/
(3)
i
\
2^''(()
A similar treatment of (I) leads to two expressions for ;^.
For example, we have
vo /eK"'*
('dv\
=T ^
hg\ox/x=o 7rj SinaiJ
^,
=f[l + 2S(l)e"i'']
'
The footnote on
p.
da, over the path
(P),
f
/>
\
208 applies here
also.
(4)
SOLUTION OF THE EQUATION OF CONDUCTION
And
(1)
\OX/x =
JJLof^
e^lal
TT
211
^.uda
='L\
TT
^0
cos('iLn\)a.le".Hda
2
,,
'2:ii)'"
,>2e
(5)
of Length I.
The Ends x=0 and x=^ kept at Temperaand Zero, respectively. Initial Temperature Zero.
Rod
101.
tures Vo
In this case the solution
obviously
is
^^^fsin(Z^)e^=*
*7r
sin al
over the path (P) of Fig. 14.
And
this leads, as before, to
The remarks
form of the
as to a second
solution,
and the gradient t^, are
equally applicable to this case, which, of course, could be deduced from the
preceding by a change of origin.
102.
Bod
ture Zero
of
and
x=0 and
s.=l kept at Tempera
Initial Temperature Zero.
from the argument of 95 that
the problem are satisfied by
In this case
conditions of
The Ends
Length I.
Ct, respectively.
it is
clear
Cain ax
all
the
e""'*
da,
(1)
iKTT J sin al a*
over the path (P) of Fig. 14.
Again we
may
write (1) in the form
V= jr^
fsin ax
;
2iKTr J
sm atf
over the path (Q) of Fig. 17.
And, finally, by Cauchy's Theorem,
e"'''*
s
da,
a"*
we have
^=;^r^J+^s^^^^^T^^
When x=lia
in the
kept at temperature
same way.
Ct',
W,
etc.,
'
(2)
the results can be obtained
THE USE OF CONTOUR INTEGRALS IN THE
212
103.
Rod of Length
and a cos
tures Zero
In this case
satisfied
it is
I.
x=0
The Ends
and 7i=l kept
Initial
wt, respectively.
clear that all the conditions of the
by
at
Tempera
Temperature Zero.
problem are
fsinaa;
da.
tTrJsinai!
(1)
a*+ft>V/c2
over the path (P) of Fig. 14.*
We may
write (1) in the form
fsin ax
a?
da
27r J sin al
over the path {Q) of Fig. 17.
And, finally, by Cauchy's Theorem,
we have
r
sin
\%tat
sin^
sin
s
V()<'+*>'
,
cosh
2/iZ
2a.^,
,.
a/(s)(i,'p*
WTT
cos 2/11 [{cos fi{xl) cosh fj.{x\l)
cos in{x+l) cosh iul(x1)} cos wt
{sin (a; sinh (a;+
sin (x+l) sinh (a; Z)}sin wt]
/x
/i
,
I)
Z)
//
yu
mr
+'^i,i l)"sin rx
Z
w*7rVZ*+toV
where
/m==J{u}/2K).
Similar results
may
be obtained for the case when x = l
ia
kept at a
sin
lot,
and when the temperatures at a;=0 and x = l are interchanged.
Rod of Length ;. The End x=0 kept at Zero. Radiation at x=^
into a Medium at Constant Temperature Vo. Initial Temperature Zero.
Here we have to solve the equations
104.
^=0,
SOLUTION OF THE EQUATION OF CONDUCTION
Starting from the solution
wien 33=0, we
by
are led
aA
sin axe""'* of (1),
to choose
(3)
213
which vanishes
so that
sm al~Vo)=0,
cos al\h{A
4=
^^rr
sm al
a cos M\h
Introducing the path (P) of Fig. 14,
we
obtain the solution of
our problem in the form
hVg f
sin ax
e""'*
v=^\
da,
a cos al\h sm alf,
iTT
,_,
(5)
the integral being taken over the path (P).
It
is
show that the
easy, as in 36, to
a cos
roots of the equation
aZ+A sin al=0
(6)
and not repeated. They are symand may be denoted by 0, aj, a^, etc.
(5) reduces, by using the path (Q) of
are infinite in number, all real,
metrical about the origin,
The
Fig. 17
solution given in
and Cauchy's Theorem, to
{^ 2V(
v=hv
"
l^"
Xl^hl^^^^
''''''
^>
v/("'+^')
h(l+M) +
^''^'^nX
the summation being taken over the positive roots of
If radiation takes place at
Vi
and
V2,
respectively,
we
a;
(6).
= and x = l into media at constant temperatures
are led to the solution in the form
v = l [{Ai
I sin ax +
over the path (P), where
H \
,7.
1'^''
ctn
B cos cue)
doi
A and B are determined by the equations
Aa+hB = hvi,
)
A[a
cos al
+ hsin
aJ]
+B[
sin al
+h cos oWj^hUi.)
of radiation into a medium at Gt, Ct^, etc., or a cos (ot, a sin lot,
can be treated in the same way.
,
For example, if radiation takes place a,t x = l into a medium at temperature
is kept at zero, our solution is given by
Ct, and the end a; =
The case
etc.,
v=
.
iKir j
a cos al +h sin al a^
over the path (P).
In each case we obtain the value of u in the form of an
infinite series
by
taking the path {Q) and considering the poles of the integrand.
of Length b composed of two different Materials. The
and x=b kept at Zero and Constant Temperature Vo,
Initial Temperature Zero.
respectively.
105.
Ends
As
Bod
x=0
in 99,
we
let
%, K^,
Cj,
pi refer to the
first
part of the rod
THE USE OF CONTOUR INTEGRALS IN THE
214
< <
(0
a;
and
a),
2>
*^^
K2,
c^,
p^ to the second (a
and
Ki=K,!cipi
Then the equations
(2)
Vi=0, when a;=0:
(3)
Vi=0, when <=0,
af='^^a^'
^2=%
0<a;<a:
%=%
a;
we
Also
b).
K2=KJc^p2.
to be solved are as follows
War='^^a^' o<^<^
(4)
< <
:
a<.;<6.
when x=b,
...(D
(2')
^2=0, when =0, a<a;<6.
(3')
when a3=a.
It is clear that
Vi=Ai
sin aa;
V2={A2
where
e""!""*,
sin //a(a; a)+S2 sin
and
/ji=J(Ki/K2), satisfy (1)
They
also satisfy (4)
and
(5),
^tt(6 a;)}e''i''''',
(!').
provided that
Ai
sin
aa=B2 sin /jLa(ba),
K^Ai
cos
aa=K2ix{A2B2
cosi/xa(6a)).J
,
Thus we take
A2={cr cos aa+sin aa cot /xa(6 a))^i,
where
sin aa
^~ s,m ij.a{ba)
^'
cr=KJK2iii=J{KiCj^pJK2C2p2).
Introducing the path (P) of Fig. 14, and choosing a suitable value
for ^1,
we
are led to the solutions
o
Vo
e''"'*
ain ma (x
 [ f
= Vq^
^sin
iTT
where
sin aa
a)
^g (6 a;) e""'"'*
F{a) amiua(ba)) a
sin aa sin
fjLa{b a)
i''{a)=cr cos
..
"!
"'
'"^
'
aa sin //a(6 a)+sin aa cos iua{ba),
the integrals being taken over the path (P).
The value
__v f
q
of V2
given in
(7)
reduces to
cos aa sin jua (a; a)
2J
over the path (P).
+sin aa cos //g (a; a)
j(^j
e""!"'* ,
^a.
(8)
SOLUTION OF THE EQUATION OF CONDUCTION
215
The expressions in (6) and (8) satisfy the differential equations
(1) and (1'), and the conditions at x=0 and x=a given by (2), (4)
and (5).
Further, putting
x=b
in (8),
we have
{"''"'da,
we know that
over the path (P), and
this is equal to v^.
We shall prove below that the roots
F{a)=a cos aa
sin
are infinite in number,
of the equation
/xa(6 a)+sin aa cos fji.a(ba)=0
(9)
and not repeated, and it is clear that
an equal and opposite negative root.
all real,
to each positive root there
is
Then using Fig. 15, as before, it will be seen that the values of v^
and v^ given by (6) and (8) satisfy the initial conditions (3) and (3').
Finally, the solution is obtained as an infinite series.
For we have, from (6) and (8),
Va fsin
Vq
ax
e'i"'*
Ccrcosaasin fxa{x a) sin aa cos fxaix a) e~'''^^'*^
Fja)
"a ^"'
'''~2i^}
over the path (Q) of Fig.
Hence
17.
r+2V
Vi=Vo\7j
^^^
j^,,
".
(10
(rC0Saasin^a(a; a)
'''''''>
f (rfi{x~a)+a
^.^ +sin graces /xa(a;a)
FM
W(6a) + a+^4>
the summation being taken over the positive roots of
When
e'i""''!
/'
^^^>
(9).
the conditions at the surface are of the form discussed in
the previous pages, the method of this section can be appUed with
success to the solution of the problem.
106. It remains to discuss the roots of the equation F(a) = 0.
the
common
These are
roots, if any, of
sint
inaa=0,\
= 0,J
a) =
sin /ia(6>a)
and the
is
From
ocotaa + cot/ia(6a)=0
roots of
The equations
rational and
the curves
'
(2)
have common roots other than zero only if fj.{b  a)ja
iji(b a)/a is small, these values of aa will be large.
(1) will
if
?/=ocot.r,
y=
(ba)
catii.
X,
THE USE OF CONTOUR INTEGRALS IN THE
216
it is
clear that there are
an
position can be determined.
number of real roots of (2), and their
They are symmetrically placed with regard to
infinite
the origin and they are not repeated.
^Further (2) cannot
have a pure imaginary
(T
coth
ari
+ coth
root, m; say, since
a)
fir]{b
cannot be zero.
We
now show
shall
that there are no imaginary roots of (2) of the
form ^iij.
Consider the function
defined as foUows
<x <,a,
!f7i =sin ax,
ad
,,
V
rsmaaibx),
U, = ~.
TT
"^
sw. ij.a[b a)
sin
_,
where a
is
a root oi F{a)
''^^+/i''2{7a
= 0,
= 0, when a;=0 ;
Ui = Ui, when x=a.
Also
f/i
And
ITurther,
I.
= 0.
^^+a^U^ = 0,
Then we have
^
^
a<x<b,
C/a
0<x<a,
(12)
a<x<b
(13)
= 0, when
j;
= 6.
when x = a,
dx
dz
"
sui;u.a(6a)
= 0,
since
{^1 cos aa sin fia{b  a)
Hii'j/i
sin
aa cos /xa(6  a)]
Ki = aiLK^.
Let a and fi be two different roots of J'(a) = 0.
Let ?7i, Ui have the values given above, and let Fj, Fa be the corresponding
expressions when /3 is put in the place of a. Then we have from (12) and (13),
^(a^^^)l''u^V^dx +
(a^13')
^ f{U,"V^U.J^")dx =
rUiVidx+
f{,U^"V^ UiVi")dx=0
Therefore
(a^/?")
(14)
(TfX J a
J,
l^r U,V, dxl
[ fViFi dx +
= fVsF/'C^fJJa
U,"V^)d3;+
fViFi"Jo
But we have seen that
dU,_
dU,
ax
ax
dV,_j. dV,
\
I
^jjgjj
^^^_
^i"Fi)d^
(15)
SOLUTION OF THE EQUATION OF CONDUCTION
217
It follows that
(a'l3'')U''u^Vida;+!^l''u^V,clx\ =
(16)
It is clear from (16) that a, fi cannot be of the form ^ir],
and Ui, Fa would be conjugate imaginaries and
since
l/j,
Fj
rU^Vidx+M' U^V^dx
would be
positive.
FLOW OF HEAT
107.
Wheu
the
IN
A SPHEEE.
and surface conditions
initial
in a
homogeneous
sphere are such that the isothermal surfaces are concentric spheres,
we have
seen that the equations for the temperature can be reduced
to those for a rod whose length
equal to the radius ( 64). When
is kept at the
is
and the surface
the initial temperature
is
constant temperature
the equations for v are as follows
v^,
zero
v=0, when t=0,
v=Vq, when r=a.
Thus, from
100
we have
Vnttf sin ar e""'
vr=^
da,
.
I
iir J sin
aa
over the standard path (P) of Fig. 14.
Also
(^)
+%=
cot aa
= _ M e
"*
I"
2toa
TT
approximately when
?a
''
da, over the path (P),
^2
rg..(^^^4M
"
Jo
is large.
e^^" e""' da
V rcos2miae
X
Jo
'cZa
FLOW OF HEAT IN A SPHERE
218
And when
the initial temperature of the sphere
Vq
is
and the
surface temperature zero, we have the approximation
\drJr=a
Let
<i
and
t^
sliwKty
be the times required for subsidence to a certain temperature
gradient at the sui'face in the plane problem (28) and this spherical
problem.
Then we have
Therefore
= ix + r.
Let
<2
Then
t=~ Ji'^Kh))
But the gradient
approximately.
of 1 degree in 50 feet adopted
by Kelvin
is
the same as
degree in 2743 cm.
Also a=638 x lO^ cm. and =4000
It follows that
:r
= ?:r:*
29
ti
108. Sphere of radius b
r=0
to
r=a
of
C.
composed oi two
one: from
r=a
to
kept at Constant Temperature Vq
r=b
different Materials.
of another.
Initial
Temperature
Surface
From
r=b
Zero.j
As in 105, let v^, K^, c^, pi refer to the part from =0
and V2, K^, Cg, /02 to that from r=a to r=b.
Also let Ki=Ki/cipi and jcj =^2/^2/02Then the equations to be solved are as follows
to r=a,
(2)
(3)
^1=0, when i=0,
V2=Vq,
whenr=6.
0<r<a:
2=0, when f=0, a<.r<h.
(4)
Vi=V2, when r=a.
(5)
K^
ji = K2^, when r=a.
*This agrees with Heaviside's
result, loc.
cit.,
p. 14.
Heaviside solved this problem by his "operational method" (ef. loc. cit.,
19), but he has not published his investigation.
See also the papers by
p.
...(3')
Bromwioh and the author {Cambridge,
Proc. Phil. Soc, 20) referred to on p. 201.
FLOW OF HEAT
a putting
219
Vjr=Ui and V2r=U2, these reduce to
W^"^^'
0<'<:
Mi=0, when <=0,
a<r<b
l/='^^l^'
Mi=0, when r=0:
=6%
u^
0<r<a:
(6'
^^en r=6
M2=0, when =0,
(7'
a<r<6.
Ui=U2, when r=a.
(9)
K^{a^~u^=K^{a^~Ui), when
(10)
It
A SPHERE
IN
r=ffi.
clear that
is
Ui=Ai
sin ar
e*'""*,
%=(^2 sin ^a(r a) + 2 sin //a(6 )) e~"i'*,
where m =\/('i/f 2)1 satisfy
They
^1
(6)
and
also satisfy (9)
sin
and
(10),
(6').
provided that
aa =^2 sin
//a
(6 a),
KiA^[aacosaa sin aa]=K2[iJiaa{A2 B 2 cos fxa{b a)
J
B2 sin fjia(b a)].)
Therefore
aaA2BA
aa cos /j.a{b a) i
sin/xa(6 )
= (T(aa cos aa sin aa) A^,
where
K^=K2na.
Thus we take
cr
cos aa sin /* (6
a) + sin aa cos /naiba)
,
' sin a sin
//cr
MOO
Sin ^a(o a)
sin aa
(0 a)
ua /L
\
____/(
sm ^a(o a)
Introducing the path (P) of Fig. 14, and choosing a suitable
vralue for A^
'^
ivhere
we
are led to the solutions
bvg f sin ar
e"'"'*
ITT J If (a)
,, .
_bVo f/ sin//a(r g) sinaa sin/xa(6 r) \ _"'"'*,
"'"'
"^~i,r J lsin;ua(6a)^ F'(a) sin^a(6a)J a
F{a) = (T cos aa sin //a (6 a) + sin aa cos //a (6 a)
1
//cr
sin
fxaa
bhe integrals being taken over the path (P).
aa sin /*a(6 a).
,^.
^^^'
(8'
FLOW OF HEAT
220
The value
of
,cr
IN A SPHERE
given in (12) reduces to
u^,
cos aa sin
/xa(ra)+ sin aa cos ij.a{ra)
^Sin
^
aa am fxair a)
,,
over the path (P).
The values
and Wg given in (11) and (13) satisfy all the
For, from the way in which they have
been built up, they obviously satisfy (6) and (6'), and the conditions
(7), (9) and (10), which hold when r=0 and ra.
Further, putting r=h in (13), we have
of
conditions of our problem.
V da,
Ja
and we know this is equal
I
iTT
over the path (P),
can be proved just as on
i' (a) =0 cos aa sin ^ua (6 a)
It
p.
+ sin aa cos fia (ba)
H
are infinite in number,
root there
jnaa
sinaasinua(6
a)=0
'^
and not repeated, and to each
all real
this to
be the case,
it
follows
and
For we have, from
bv f sin ar
16, as before,
bva
is
obtained as an infinite
(11)
and
series.,
'
(13),
^"'
cos aa sin fxa (r a)
T
^
2iTrJ
iirJ
I
I
the integrals
initial con
e*'"''
"^=2i7jj>)a
(7
'
(8').
Finally the solution
'
positive
root.
from Fig.
that the values of u^ and u^ in (11) and (13) satisfy the
ditions (8)
(14)
'
an equal and opposite negative
is
Assuming
to bv.
215 that the roots of the equation
now
+ sin aa cos fia (r a)
uaa
F(a)
sin
aa sin ^
ua (r
a)I
^
^,,
gHa.t
'
being taken over the path {Q) of Fig. 17.
Hence
1
P
(a)
an
"2=^0+261)0
trcosaasin^a(r a) + 8inaacos^a(r a)
I
xS
1 MO sinaasinua(r
^'(aj
a)
(15)
FLOW OF HEAT
fcte
A SPHERE
IN
summation being taken over the
221
positive roots of the equa
tion (14).
When the surface is kept at a temperature Gt, C(\ etc., or Ccoso)*, etc., or
radiation takes place at the surface into a medium ait a constant temperature,
or at one of these just named, the method of this section can be applied with
success to the solution of the problem.
109.
When
the sphere of 108 has
surface kept at zero temperature
its
md the initial temperature of the whole
solid is v^, the
temperatures in the
inner and outer parts follow from 108 (16) and are given respectively
"'
= _ ?^ V
f J"(a)a
cos
o
"''
by
sin ar e^"'"""'
aa sin
)x,aj^r
W^)
The summation
 a) + sin a^a cos jLia [r  a)
is
a
taken over the positive roots of the equation J'(a) =
[108(14)].
o
cos aa cos /xa(6
a)\
sin
aa cos iJ.a(b  a)
sinaffisin/xa(6a) _^,^h
_o,,,,
~^ " y
/"()
The equation F{a) =
will be satisfied
sin acf
smfj.a(b
by the common
= 0,
roots,
if
any, of
"j
a)=0,j
and by the roots of
^=0
crcotaa + cot/Lia(6a)H
is
(2)
have common roots other than zero only if /i(6 a)la
is small, these values of aa will be large.
With the data adopted by Perry and Heaviside in c.g.s. units, and the
The equations
rational and
:
ibove notation
(1) will
if /*(&
a)/a
a = 638xl08,
ba=4xl0\
Ki = 47,
Ci/3i
^j,=
= 286,
Ca/32
Vo^^x'W,
00595,
= 507,
Ki=^ = 1643,
/<2=^=0117,
,j,=J{K,IK,) = 3U2,
T=J{(K,c,p,)l(K,c,p,))=.21l,
Also the equation
(2)
above becomes
211cota' + cot(2'35xl0~'j;)
20*8
= 0,
where aa=a;.
pr=79.
FLOW OF HEAT
222
The
root
first
roots approach
= 2'9871
the second root
[^\ when r =
In the Age of the Earth problem
1 degree in 50 ft. or 1 degree
cot
a,a
''^"
2743 =
(cf. 28),
in
'
cot ua,'^(ba)]
'^
LiaM
required.
is
cot raai1^(b
a)/
FLOW OP HEAT
'""'''
This
is
about onefifth of the result
IN A CIRCULAR CYLINDER.
The method employed
upon
and
problem.
in the preceding
applicable to the case of the circular cylinder,
V depends only
.^lMcr
in 99 for the corresponding plane
110.
the hiter
the time of cooling to the
2743 cm.
.
^ ,, ,
,, a)\
aacos(ic'aja+ij,{ba)cosec'iJ.ai{o
gives for the time in years 9'02x 10'.
found
= 5'980; and
found* that the equation
o
.i'2
b.
gradient
It will be
is
Also t is large.
take the first term as a good enough approximation for the
Sir, Air, etc.
Thus we may
gradient
is .ri
A SPHERE
IN
sections
is
also
when the temperature
t.
In this case the equation of conduction becomes
dv
{
dr^
We
shall refer only
Cylinder, as with a
I.
Vo.
very briefly to certain problems for the
little
practice these can be easily solved.
Circular Cylinder of radius
Initial
r dr
a.
Surface at Constant Temperature
Temperature Zero.
It is clear that
,^^[JoMr'' da,
over the standard path (P) of Fig. 14,
of the problem, for the zeros of Jf,(z) are
repeated,! and
when t=0 we can use
(1)
satisfies all
known
the conditions
to be real
Fig. 16 as before.
*Cf. Proc. Gamb. Phil. Soc, 20, p. 404, 1921.
t Cf. Watson, he. cit., 15. 21, 15. 25.
and not
FLOW OF HEAT IN A CIRCULAR CYLINDER
The
223
solution given in (1) can be put in the form
'
2*tJ Jo(aa) a
over the path (Q) of Fig. 17.
And, finally, we obtain
the summation being taken over the positive roots of Jo{aa)==0.
(Cf.
57,
I.)
The Same
II.
Surface Temperature Ct.
Solid.
Here our solution
is
v=.
da,
o
';
(1)
over the path (P) of Fig. 14.
This reduces to
the summation being as before.
For certain applications* the mean temperature over the cylinder
required,
or
2irrvdr,
s
This could be obtained from
the latter method,
the
we
vrdr.
a' Jo
Tra^Jo
By
is
i.e.
or more directly, at once from
(2),
(1).
see that
mean temperature =2
f vrdr
integrating over the path (P).
a
f rJ{ar)dr=J'(aa).
But
Jo
ct
=
Thus the mean temperature
^
2(7
;
/'e''
/
j
iKira] a*
= C
.
/e""'*
I
iKTraJa*
J'(aa)
^ (da, over the path (P),
</o(aa)
J^{a.a) ,
,,
r "ai over the
^
J^iaa)
^L's^^+^f
* Cf.
Bromwioh,
Phil.
Mag., London
temperature over a sphere follows from
(Ser. 6),
^*
87,
p.
,,
path
'^
._,
(O),
^
'
J413,
102 in the same way.
1919.
The mean
224
III.
FLOW OF HEAT IN A CIRCULAR CYLINDER
The Same
Solid.
Here our solution
Surface Temperature
C cos ait.
is
over the path (P) of Fig. 14,* and this can be reduced, as before, to
an
infinite series.
Same
IV. The
Radiation at the Surface into a
Solid.
Constant Temperature
Here our solution
Medium
at
v^.
is
,=^ r_
JoM
r'^^^,
over the path (P) of Fig. 14, which can be reduced to an infinite
series, as before.
The footnote on
p.
203 appliea here
also.
CHAPTER
XII
INTEGEAL EQUATIONS AND THE EQUATION OF
CONDUCTION
111. Introductory.
An integral equation* is one which involves an unknown function
under the sign of integration. The equation
<p{x)
= x[''K{x,i),p{i)di
(1)
J a
is
The function (f>{x) is
The known function K{x, ^) is called the
called a homogeneous integral equation.
the
unknown
function.
hernel (or nucleus) of the equation.
function of
{x,
are concerned.
f) in the region
It will usually be a continuous
a~x^b,
More general conditions
= ^^b
for
with which
we
K{x, ^) are referred
to in the works cited in the preceding footnote.
In the theory of integral equations
continuous function which
zero of a certain function
D (X)
The
D(\) =
roots of the equation
*For a
shown that the only
^{x)=0, when X is not a
it is
satisfies (1) is
asspciated with this equation.
are caUed the characteristic
discussion of the elementary theory of integral equations, reference
may be made to
BScher's Introduction
Tracts in Mathematics, No.
Whittaker
10).
to the
There
Study of Integral Equations (Cambridge
a short chapter on the subject in
is
and Watson's Modern Analysis, and a much
Goursat's Cours
d' Analyse, T.
treatment in
fuller
III.
For the applications, the following works will be found specially useful
Horn, Einfilhrung in die Theorie der partiellen Differentialgleiehungen, Leipzig,
(Sammlung Schubert, LX.)
1910.
Kneser, Die IrUegralgleichungen und ihre Anwendungen in der mathematiachen
Physik, Braxmsohweig, 1911.
Heywood
et Fr^chet, L'Equation de Fredholm
et
ses Applications
la
Physique
Mathematique, Paris, 1912.
Hilbert, Qrundzuge einer allgemeinen Theorie der linearen Integralgleichungen,
Leipzig, 1912.
Vivanti, Elementi della teoria delle equazioni integrali lineari, Milano, 1916.
c.c.H.
225
INTEGRAL EQUATIONS AND
226
When
K{x, f) is a symmetric function
numbers are known to be all real.
numbers of this kernel.
of X, ^, the characteristic
Let
be a continuous function, not identically zero, satisfying
<p{x)
(1) for
a value of X which
D (X)==0.
a root of
is
It is said to be
a characteristic function corresponding to this characteristic number
Also
A.
it is
said to be normalised
if
(p^dx
1.
Ja
It
is
known
that
if
^^(x) corresponds to X^ and
(pnix)
to
another characteristic number X for a symmetric kernel, then
I
Jo
(j>ni<t>n^^
= ^
Functions for which
<ji{x)\lr{x)dx=0 are said
Jff
to be orthogonal,
and they are normalised orthogonal functions
\{r^(x)dx=l.
0^rfa!=
in addition,
Ja
if,
Ja
In the case of
finite
symmetric kernels there
is
an upper
limit to
number of orthogonal characteristic functions which correspond
the same value of X and every other characteristic function, for
the
to
that value of X,
There
will
is
linearly
dependent on these orthogonal functions.
thus be a set of characteristic functions
cp^ix),
<Pi(x),
finite or infinite in
number
as the case
...
may
be, orthogonal to each
other and normalised, such that every characteristic function of
this
symmetric kernel
them.
Such a system
is
is
linearly
dependent upon a
finite
number
of
spoken of as a complete orthogonal system
of normalised characteristic functions of this kernel.
With regard
Let ^i(x),
to such a system
<j>2,(x),
...
we have the following theorem
be a complete orthogonal system of normalised
characteristic functions for the
homogeneous integral equation with finite
symmetric kernel
rb
<p(x)=\\ K{x,i)<t>{i)di.
Ja
and
Xi, X2,
...
V
is
the corresponding characteristic numbers.
uniformly convergent in the region a
sum
is
K{x,
^) at every point at
If
the series
which
= x^b, a = ^^b,
then
its
the kernel is continuous.
Of this theorem we shall have to make frequent use in the applications of integral equations of this type to the solution of problems
in the conduction of heat.
THE EQUATION OF CONDUCTION
112. Integral Equations and Linear
Consider
now
Flow
227
o Heat.
the temperature problem for the rod of length
the ends kept at zero, the
I,
temperature being the arbitrary
initial
function f(x).
Then we have the equations
3rg^.'
0<x<l,
v=0, when x =
and x l,
(1)
v=f{x), when i=0.
Putting v=e~''^*(j>{x),
we have
^+^^'
0=0, when
a;==0
Thus X = i^7r7?^ and choosing
and x=l.
(2)
so that
(t>^{x)dx
= \,
the
Jo
normalised function 0
Also the functions
is
Jijj&irx^x, n being a positive integer.
are orthogonal, since
0m0<?a;=l, m=l=n.
Jo
Now
there
is
a continuous function K{x,
f),
which
satisfies
the
equation for steady temperature {v"=0), and the same boundary
conditions, while its differential coefficient with regard to x, denoted
by
K'(x,i),
in such
continuous except at a;=^, where
is
away
that
K'{x, ^)
=1.
it is
This function
discontinuous
is
Green's function for the steady temperature equation.*
called the
It
is.
the
steady temperature due to a constant source of a certain strength
at the point x=^, and in the case given above it is clear that
all
the conditions are satisfied
by
K{x,i)=x(lill),
=i(ix/i),
i<x<i.
F{x)^<f,{x)K'{x, i)<t>'{x)K{x,
Let
where
0<x<i,
(f>{x) is
given by
^^^
'
i),
(2).
The Green's functions employed
in the application of Integral Equations
to the Conduction of Heat must not be confused with those to which the
term was applied in Chapter X.
same
INTEGRAL EQUATIONS AND
228
Then F(x)
tinuous in
discontinuous
is
when x = ^, but
Also
F'{x)
= \K{x,^)<^{x),
except
\F'{x)dx = \\K {x,
Therefore
Jo
But
it is
otherwise con
(0, I).
F'{x)
when x=^.
(a;)
i)
dx.
"0
={
F'{x)dx+ [ V(a;) dx
"If"
Jj+o
^F{x)\
since
F{0)^F{1)=0.
It follows that
cj>
ii)
oT'^K
\k'(x,
Jf+0
Thus
{'k{x, i)<p{x) dx.
Jo
<j>{i)==\\'K(x,i)<j,(x)dx,
Jo
and
since K{x, ^)
is
a sjTmnetric function of
<p{x)
x, f,
we have
= x\'K(x,i)<j>(i)di
(4)
Jo
Thus
the functio7is
<j>
of (2) occur as characteristic functions of
[x)
homogeneous integral equation (4).
The converse is also true. Every continuous solution
integral equation (4) satisfies the equations (2).
the
We
start with
(a;)
=X f
(p(x) of
the
K{x, i)<p{^) d^,
Jo
where K{x, ^)
is
given by
(3).
Since K'(x, ^) is discontinuous when x
^, we cannot differentiate
under the sign of integration, if we rely only upon the theorem
proved in F.S.
78.
But
it is
easy to extend that theorem to such
a case as this by the following method
Let K(x, ) be given by
fix,
Then
*
f{x,
(3)
i)=K(x, i)=x{lill), when x<i
=K(x, ^) + {x^), whena;>^.
i)=x(l ^jl), and
For a disouBsion
:*
above, and let
this function is continuous in (x, ^)'
1902
38, 1904.
under the sign of integration,
and Mess. Math., Cambridge, 31,
of the question of differentiation
see Hardy, Q. J. Math., London, 38, p. 66, 1901,
THE EQUATION OF CONDUCTION
O^x^l, O^^^l.
in the region
Also
is
229
continuous in this
region.
Further,
Jo
Jo
Therefore
^\[f,i>ii)di
(5)
we cannot differentiate (5) under the sign of integration if
upon the theorem of F.S., 78, since the integrand is
discontinuous when x=^. But we can extend that theorem to
such a case as this in a similar way
Again,
we
rely only
Let
Then
g{x, i)
g{x, i)
and
= K'{x, i) = lijl,
= K'{x,i)+\,
= lill
i>'{x)
=\
^"(x)
\'g{x,
= \\
i)^{i)
Finally, since
(j)
defined
K(x,
by
since
^) vanishes
(4) also
5^=0.
when
vanish when
homogeneous integral equation
In
d^X f%(a di.
A<pi^)di'\<p{x)
Thus we have established that
the
Jo
= X^{x),
tions
x<i,\
in the given region,
Jo
Therefore
when
when a;>f
x=Q
x=0
and x=l, the funcand x=l.
all the characteristic
functions of
(i) are solutions of the equations (2).
this question the characteristic niunbers are n^tr^jP,
where
complete
number,
and
a
normalised
orthogonal
n is any positive
system of characteristic functions is <j)i{x), (j>i{x), ... where
,
INTEGRAL EQUATIONS AND
230
T>
21
BXLt the series
is
~^
^1
^X ^ sm mr
.
nTT.
a;
smy f
uniformly convergent in the region Q
It follows
for
K{x,
= x^l,
0^^=l.
from the theorem enunciated at the end
f) as given in (3)
of 107 that
we have
Xix, ^) = f]in(^lMil
A
(6)
113.
flow of
The
real difi&culty in the solution of the
problem
of linear
112 consists in establishing the possibility of the expansion
of the arbitrary function in the appropriate series.
in (6) above, it
equal to the
From the result
can be shown that the arbitrary function f{x) is
of an infinite series of these characteristic
sum
functions, provided that
f(x)=\'K(x,i)^ii)di
Jo
and i/r(a;) is bounded and integrable
For we are given that
IT
and
in (0, l).*
O^x^l,
this series is uniformly convergent in the region
It follows that
fix)
[^
Jo
Also
^"('^)^"(^)
y.
\j(r,).pMdn^f^ <t>M
^{i)di
K{n,i)i.(i)di\d,
=\l^{i)[\[K{r,,i)ci>Mdn'\di
(F.S.,179)
=\[^ii)[\lK(i,r,)<j>{r,)d,'^di
{K(^,
n)
being symmetric)
An Jo
*It f{x)
continuous.
satisfies this condition,
it
follows from
F.8. 77,
II.
that
it
is
THE EQUATION OF CONDUCTION
Thus when. /(a;) can be put
and
i/r(a;) is
in the
bounded and integrable
.fip)
= ^(i'n<l>n{x),
231
form
in
(0, 1),
we have
where a=\f{x')cl>n{x')dx'.
Jo
Also the solution of the temperature problem of
112
is
v=^a,<j>^{x)e^''K
1
The other problems
the same way.
114.
I.
Suppose
place at
x=l
the
into
for the rod of length
x=Q
end
a medium
can be treated in
kept at zero and that radiation takes
at zero.
Then we have the equations
=0,
when x=0,
dv
^\hv=0,
when x=l,
'
v=f(x),
Putting
v=e''^^(j){x),
when <=0.
we have
with the same conditions when
The Green's function K{x,
x=0 and xl.
^)
is
as follows:
K(x,i)=(l^^x, 0<x<i,
Also the characteristic numbers are X=a^, where a
is
any
positive
root of h tan al\a0.
The normalised
characteristic functiojis are
^(^)=;7^PUp!l)i^^The
series
V
1
}9n\e)
^n
^^j^
^^
(Cf.
65 and Ex.
2, p. 182.)
found to be uniformly con
INTEGRAL EQUATIONS AND
232
vergent in the region
O^x^l, O^^^l, and we
"n
Suppose radiation takes place
II.
have
at both ends
into
a medium
at zero.
Then the conditions
at the ends are
= \hv=0, when x=0,
OX

u^^=0,
when x=l.
dx
In this case
(l+h^)(l+h{lx))
2h+lh^
Also X
= a^,
where a
The normalised
0(a:)=^/(
is
any positive root
i<x<i.
of
{a^ h^) tan a.l=2ah.
characteristic functions are
J ^" ^^^ a;+A sin
(^^2^^2)
:i^+h^)l+2hJ
;+2
(Cf. 36.)
ax).
Also
In these two cases the possibility of the expansion of the arbitrary
function in the required series,
when
it is
subject to the condition
stated at the beginning of 113, follows in the
same way.
The
solution of the temperature problem can then be written down.
When
h=
this discussion fails.
For a treatment
no heat escapes at the ends, reference
above, Ch.
I., p.
may
of the
problem when
be made to Kneser's work cited
19.
115. Fourier's Bing.
For the ring
when there is radiation
we have the equations
of unit radius, treated in 12,
at the surface into a
medium
dv
dt
at zero,
dh)
zrhH,
" dx^
7r<a;<7r,
=Vx = .
(1)
Kdx/^.
\dxJ.
v=f(x), when i=0,
where 6
is
a given number.
THE EQUATION OF CONDUCTION
Putting ;=e(f +'"')
^(o;),
233
we have
S+^^=0'
with the same conditions when x= and x=ir.
(2)
Tr
Thus we have ;u=0 and /u=w2, and the corresponding normalised
functions are
,.
and r cos
It will be noticed that to the
Now
there
is
a continuous function K{x, ^), which
conditions at a;=
is
tt
and
tt,
while
satisfies
the
(Kv"bh=0), and the same
its differential coefficient
continuous except at x=^, where
way that
there correspond two
 sin nx.
steady temperature
for
two.
number n^
orthogonal functions j cos nx and
equation
r sin
inx,
it is
K'{x, ^)
discontinuous in such a
=1.
\k'(x, ^)1
the Green's Function for the equation v"c^=0,
as follows
This function
where c^=h^lK
is
Tzi
coshc(a; ^+7r)
A^
^^("'^)=
2sinhcl
<<f=
^
'
j,
^coshc(^+^
b ^
2smhc7r
follows as in 112 that, when
'
Also
it
equations
<l>{x)
is
given by the
(2),
<p{x)=\\'' K{x,i)<j,{i)di,
(4)
J IT
where X=yu4c^
And
all
equations
the characteristic functions of
(4)
are solutions of the
(2).
The special feature of this question is that, to each characteristic
munber other than \=c\ there correspond two orthogonal characteristic
functions
e.g.
'\=c^{n^ has
Thus the theorem at the end
,
 coswa; and
of
rsinwa;.
110 in this case leads to
^ cos
^ cosw(a;
Jia;
cos w^+,sin m; sin
^)
M^
INTEGRAL EQUATIONS AND
234
provided that this
series is
TT^cc^TT, tt^^^tt;
uniformly convergent in the region
a condition which
clearly satisfied.
is
The remarks in the previous section about the possibility of
expanding an arbitrary function in the appropriate series apply
also to this case.
Thus we obtain the Fourier's Series for f{x),
under the condition stated above, for the interval ( t, tt) and the
solution of the problem of Fourier's ring.
116. TwoDimensional Problems.
The
two and
by
a Green's function similar to that which is
solution of the general problems of conduction in
three dimensions can be
the introduction of
made
to depend
used in the theory of potential
work
is
upon
integral equations
but the rigorous treatment of this
harder than that in the previous sections, since the kernel
of the integral equation has
integration takes
integrals,
place,
and the
series
an
infinity in the region in
Space does not
are double or triple.
permit of more than a slight sketch of the method
first
the twodimensional case where the boundary
Here we have to solve the equations
Jt='\d^^+dr^'
kept at zero.
is
on the curve G,
we put
and we take
v=f{x), when <=0, inside the curve
before,
msideacurveC,
v=0,
As
which
the integrals being surface or volume
(1)
I
CJ
and we have
v=e~"^*0(a;, y),
9^+1^+^^=^'^^'^"^'
0=0, on
The Green's function
is
G.
(2)
j
which we shall denote by K(x,y;
x', y')
the solution of the equation 32+^2"*^' which vanishes on the
curve
C and
is finite
and continuous, as
also its first
and second
where
differential coefficients, inside G, except at the point {x', y'),
it
becomes
infinite as
(logr)/27r
steady temperature at the point
when
[x,
of a certain strength at the point
y)
r>0.
This function
due to a constant
(a;',
y'),
is
the
line source
the boundary curve
being kept at zero.
We now
apply Green's Theorem in two dimensions to the region
THE EQUATION OF CONDUCTION
bounded by the curve C and a small circle
(x', y'), tke functions employed being K{x,
y
(t>{x,
235
V whose centre
x', y')
is
at
and a function
y) satisfying the equations (2).
Then we have
\\
{cl>V^KKV^)dxdy=^{^
H^f^) *'
(3)
where = denotes differentiation along the normal drawn outward
from the region of integration, and the integrals on the right are
taken roimd the curve
and the circle V.
But V^K=0 and V2^+X^=0 in the region through which
integration takes place
while K{x, y;
point {x', y').
Thus from
and
(3),
0,
x', y') is infinite
as
both vanish on the curve
(logr)/27r,
on letting the radius
we have
when r^O,
of the circle
at the
V tend to zero,
pC
<t>{x',y')=M\K{x,y; x',y')4,{x,y)dxdy,
the double integral
now
(4)
being taken through the region bounded
byC.
Theorem in two dimensions to
by the curve C and small circles V, T" with
similar application of Green's
the region bounded
centres at
K(x, y;
{x',
x',y')
y') and {x", y"), the functions employed being
and K{x, y\ x", y"), shows that
K(x',
y';
x", y")
= K(x",
y";
Thus the Green's function K{x,y; x, y)
of the two pairs {x, y) and (x', y').
It follows from (4) that
0(a;, ii/)=A
j
[7^(0:;, 2/;
is
x', y').
a symmetric function
x', y')4>{x',
y')dx'dy',
(5)
the double integral being taken through the region bounded by C,
and [x, y) being any point in this region.
Thus the numbers A and the fimctions
of equations (2) enter
as the characteristic numbers and characteristic functions of the
homogeneous integral equation (5) with a symmetric kernel.
Also the converse is true. The theory of potential shows that
when {x, y) is defined by (5), we have
f/>
(j)
and
4>
=0
on
G.
INTEGRAL EQUATIONS AND
236
The characteristic functions corresponding to different characternumbers are orthogonal, and they are to be normalised by
istic
arranging that
rr
\\<p^{x,y)dxdy=l,
the integral being taken through the given region.
The question
the
initial
functions,
istic
of the
expansion of the arbitrary function defining
temperature in a complete
series of
orthogonal character
and the corresponding expansion
of the Green's
function, ofEer greater difficulty than in the case of onedimensional
For a full discussion of these topics reference must be
made to the works dealing with integral equations.
The argument of this section appUes equally well to the case
problems.
when
117.
by ^+A=0, both
problem and the definition
(i)
at zero, the condition at
dv
the boimdary being replaced
of the
medium
radiation takes place into a
in the statement
of the Green's function.
Consider the temperature problem for the rectangle
.
x = bA
= 0,
y = 0,
i/
= sin p
,v
= c,j
the sides kept at zero.
Here we have
<^
where m, n are positive
sin
(7Th
71,
be given by
<^ will
i/,
and
integers,
The normalised function
mir
rnr
if(.,.
y;
"
.,/,y) =  E S'
assuming that the general theorem of
(ii)
For the cylinder
= a,
d)=r
cl>,Ur,
6)=
"
107 applies to this case,
cos
y\h
and'
'
the surface kept at zero,
J
4>m.n{i;
mir
nmimr
mr
..iT.rsm
^ sin r a; sin
Also
'^o('^.or)
7,
''''^''^(".
we have
')*)
_
when n
> 0,
THE EQUATION OF CONDUCTION
The
numbers A, being a^
characteristic
where
a, is
237
the with positive
root of the equation J{aa) = 0.
Also
K(^,
^',y) =
^i
^.(a..o>)^.(a.,o/)
.
For a fuller discussion of these and other similar problems reference
be made to Kneser's book, cited above.
may
118. ThieeDimensional Problems.
The work
of
116 can be extended to three dimensions by using
Vhi=0, which vanishes on the
and continuous, as also its first and
as Green's function the solution of
surface of the soUd,
second differential
(x,
y', z'),
and
is finite
coefficients, inside the solid,
where it becomes infinite as
l/47rr
except at the point
when r*0. This function
the steady temperature due to a constant source of a certain
is
strength at the point
[x', y' , z'),
the surface of the sohd being kept
at temperature zero.
^=kVH
The equation
is
V^^ + A^=0
reduced to
by
the substitution
v=e''''*<p(x, y, z).
And we have
(j>{x,
y,
z)=\ \S\k(x,
y, z\
x\
the integral being taken through the
y',
z')^{x', y', z')dx'dy'dz',
solid.
EXAMPLES ON THE CONDUCTION OP HEAT.*
An
bounded by the plane x=0, across which it radiates
The solid is initially heated throughout to the uniform
temperature v. Find the temperature at any point at any subsequent time,
and prove that at the time the temperature at the surface is given by
1.
into a
infinite solid is
medium at zero.
^ re=2;m^/(/t0dM.
JiiTJO
2. If
V,
the temperature of an infinite solid has different uniform values
on opposite
the temperature
is
sides of a given plane, prove that at
any subsequent time
given by the expression,
X
X being measured from the plane towards the side where the temperature was
initially F.
A uniform
its length at two different
Find the temperature of any point of it at any
subsequent time, the surface being so protected that there is no gain or loss
For example, take an iron bar 50 cm. long. The
of heat from without.
3.
temperatures
Vq
bar
given with the two halves of
is
and
v^.
is 16 (water being standard subthermal capacity per unit volume is 875. Prove that at
1400 seconds from the beginning the temperature at either end will be
thermal conductivity of iron (c.G.s, units)
stance)
4.
zero.
and
its
bar of length
If initially the
is
heated so that
temperature
V
is
?{<
jj'
two ends are at the temperature
= cx(l x)
P
^
show that the temperature at the time
SceH(
=
^e
its
given by
TTx
'
at
any point
j!2~
smp + e
'
is
given by
Sttx
smp
+
.
These problems are mostly taken from the Examination Papers for the CamSome of them have already been published in
Turner's Examples on Heat and Electricity.
*
bridge Mathematical Tripos.
238
EXAMPLES ON THE CONDUCTION OF HEAT
5.
One end
an
of
infinite
rod
is
there being surface radiation.
239
kept for a long time at temperature
v,
part whose extremities are distant b and
b+l from this end is then cut from the rod and kept from loss or gain of heat.
Show that the temperature at time t at a point distance x from the end of the
part
is
I
where a
is
One
eai
,,
?, 1
COS 7re ' "ncosnirx
a quantity depending upon the material of the rod.
x=c
infinite slab is kept at temperature zero.
The
=0, is kept up to the time t at pt, p being a conAfter the time t it is kept at a constant temperature; Find expressions
stant.
for the temperature at any time, and show that if i is so great that e^(tr)
6.
face
of
an
temperature of the other,
may be
neglected, the total quantity of heat which has passed across unit area
of the surface
where
7.
s is
a;
up
to the time
is
uniform cylindrical bar, of length
is
the conductivity, and
and small
cross section, is kept
the capacity for heat per unit volume,
at a constant temperature v^ at one end and placed in a
medium
at temperature
temperature at a distance x from the end in the steady state
is v^^"', prove that half the radius of the bar and the ratio of the conductivity
to the emissivity are each equal to al.
zero.
If the
When the steady state is attained the sides of the bar are coated with an
adiathermanous substance, but its further end is left unaltered, the nearer
end being still kept at the temperature iv Prove that the distribution of
temperature at the time t is
w = 'o +
2 Om sin mxe<^'^,
EXAMPLES ON THE CONDUCTION OF HEAT
240
values so long that the distrihution of temperature in the solid
is
purely
periodic
X =0
{i)
(iii)
(iv)
10.
An
a,t
=a +b sin pt
x=la,tzeTO.
x=0 a,tv =a+b sin pt: x=l, impervious to heat.
x=0 &ndx =1 a.tv =a+b sin. pt.
x=0 a,t V =a+b sin pt: x=l aX v=a b sin pt.*
(ii)
infinite isotropic solid is
across that plane into a
medium
after a time so great that
all
bounded by an
infinite
plane and radiates
A cos(A* +;8).
at temperature
Prove that
traces of the initial distribution of temperature
throughout the solid have disappeared, the temperature at a distance x from
the boundary
is
^^^^^^,^oos(Xt^x+l3.),
e=tan^^,
where
^^ = 2^,
and h, k have the usual meanings.
Find the corresponding formula when the temperature
11.
uniform rod of length
I,
of the
medium iaf{t).
crosssection 8, perimeter p, conductivity
K and emissivity H,
capacity for heat 0, density D, and electrical resistance
B, is placed in a medium at temperature zero, and has one end heated to
temperature ^o> the other end being kept at zero until the temperature is
An
steady.
electrical current of strength
is
now
passed along the rod
from the cold to the hot end. Show that when the temperature has again
become steady, the rise of temperature due to the current at a point distant
X from the cold end is
cosh^gg
PBS,
loe,
(^^^^)%inhz(g/'
where
cr is
the electrical conductivity of heat and
Two
uniform plates of the
o ^j is
neglected.
UiX
12.
and one
slips
same substance and thickness a are in
over the other with constant velocity
v,
contact,
the friction per unit
The outside surface of one is impervious to heat, and that of
kept at zero temperature. Show that at any time t their temperatures at a distance x from the impervious surface are given by
area being F.
the other
is
S^o.. ,,e"'
e=^(a
^(a + vj2+l
i5^'^cos(2n
cosf2Mlnl
+ l)^)
IB"'"^^'
(2nH)V'C't
Wo,/
e=^{2ax + 2A2+ie
where
J is
is
the conductivity, c
is
le'^'
cos(2+l)^j,
the thermal capacity per unit volume, and
the mechanical equivalent of heat.
* Cf. Kirsch,
Die Bewegung der Wiirme in den Cylinderwandungen der Dampf
machine, p. 68, Leipzig, 1886.
EXAMPLES ON THE CONDUCTION OP HEAT
241
13. An infinite homogeneous slab whose bounding planes are x=a is
placed between two media, one beyond the plane x= a, a,t which the temperature is v^mH, and the other beyond the plane x=+a, a,t which the
temperature is zero. Show that if the ratio of the emissivity to the con
ductivity
is
slab at time
n tan
t
is
What would
of the
14.
and k has the usual meaning, the temperature within the
/3,
given by
= v^ei^t sin p coseo Ziftna) cos {n(x a)+ fi).
be the temperature at any point of the slab if the temperatures
sides of the slab were v^i^oH and v^e '!'* ?
media at the two
A sohd is bounded by two infinite parallel planes.
the radiation from
its surfaces,
Taking into account
show that the temperature at any
internal
point wiU be given by
2^e'W* cos(^^^^)^^i^^).
I
A=tani
where
l^
A'=tani
V are the emissivities of the two faces, supposed unequal, and 2a
The
thickness of the solid.
origin
is
the
taken midway between the faces, and
is
m is determined by the equation
ma= WTT + 2A + X'
n being any
15.
'
integer.
ring of uniform small section so coated as to have everywhere the
is made partly of brass and partly of iron, and one of the
kept at a constant temperature, while the whole cools in air.
same emissivity
junctions
is
Determine the ratio of the lengths of the two parts when the coolest place
is
at the other junction.
16.
thin circular ring whose surface
by a continuous source
time t is given by
is
of heat of strength Q.
impermeable to heat is heated
Show that the temperature at
12AK TrAKfn^
4.TAK
= the conductivity,
2TcAa
where
if
cr
=the thermal capacity per unit volume,
A =the
c
s =an
(f)
and
A,cr
radius,
arc of the ring measured from the heated spot,
=the angle subtended by
* Cf. Niven,
CCH.
cross section of ring,
mean
=its
s at the centre,
5.*
Lmdon,
Proc. B. Soc. (A), 76, p. 42, 1905.
EXAMPLES ON THE CONDUCTION OF HEAT
242
Any
17.
which makes an angle 6 with a fixed
is maintained at temperature
Show that when the motion of heat is steady
point, the radius through
radius of the edge of a circular disc of radius a,
f(d), where /(tt
+ 6)= f(d).
the temperature at
(r,
d)\s
f%//,
arfa" r^) cos <i;
ji
,,
the disc being supposed not to radiate heat.
uj,
be kept at the temperature vi, and the circumprove that the temperature at any point is
"i
2,
18. If the diameter of
ference at temperature
circle
is
'
ir~
and that the isothermal
diameter which
2ay
 "i)s^tan~i
"
x'+y'a"
^
{'"2
"I
lines
are circles passing through the ends of the
taken as axis of
x,
a being the radius of the
circle.
two directions and is bounded by two
meet at right angles in A. Both edges are at temperature zero, except a portion j4B of one edge, which is kept at temperature unity.
Prove that the temperature at any point P is
19.
plate extends to infinity in
straight edges which
tan'f^)
or
1{lAPB lAPC),
where a^, b^ are the semiaxes of the ellipse and a^,
can be drawn through P, having A as centre and
BA
ies in
b^ of
the h3rperbola, which
as focus,
and where
AG =AB.
produced, so that
a sector of radius a and angle a the radii be maintained at the
Vi and the circumference at the temperature v^, verify that the
temperature at any point of the section wiU be
20. If in
temperature
"'"^
g^Han
\ .?^=tan4
\2arsin^y
!!r!!!Z^
,T_<,a
plane area is bounded by a semiellipse and its axis major. The
boundary is maintained at the uniform temperature unity and the
straight boundary at the temperature zero.
Prove that the temperature
at any point within the area is
21.
elliptic
4/sinh</>
^
(
TrVsmha
IsmhSA
\
.
smg^ +o
o sm3g+... /'
),
3smh3a
.
where
c cosh <^, c sinh <^ ; c cos 6, c sin d are the semiaxes of the ellipse and
hyperbola through the given point, confocal with the boundary, and a is
the value of <j> at the boundary.
22.
circular cylinder of infinite length
is
divided into four compart
ments by planes through the axes at right angles to each other.
Measuring
EXAMPLES ON THE CONDUCTION OF HEAT
243
6 from one of the planes, the temperatures cff the successive quadrants of
the surface are maintained at the respective values
r sin
is
temperature at a point
the unit of length, prove that
TTV
T sin 6,
Toosd,
61,
If V is the
inside,
Tcoad.
and
if
the radius of the cylinder
TTT
jT=2(sine+cose)+r(oos^sine) r'(cos30 +sin3e)
+^(cos5esin5e)^(cos7e+sin7e)
+ ^{eos9e sin9e)
~ (cos 11(9 +sinll(9)
+ etc.
23. If
slit
be
made
and extending
origin
in the plane along the line 6 =0,
commencing at the
and if both sides
indefinitely in the positive direction,
of the sHt be maintained at zero temperature during the diffusion, prove that
'
4^KtJo
is
t
I.
the temperature at time
=0
at
due to a
generated at
line source of strength q
(r', 6').
Show
also
how
to obtain the corresponding expression for the portion of
the infinite plane bounded
by two straight edges inohned at an angle 2ir/(2ro + 1),
m being integral, the edges being both maintained at zero.
24. A conducting sphere initially at zero temperature has
at a constant temperature c for a given time, after
Find the temperature at any time in the second
which
its
it is
surface kept
kept at zero.
stage.
v^ is surrounded by an
and of initial temperature
zero.
Prove that the temperature at distance r from the centre of the sphere
at the time t is given by
25.
infinite
sphere of radius a with
medium
initial
same material
of the
^ttLJ r~a
temperature
as the sphere
2V(*)
26. A uniform sphere of radius a is at a uniform temperature v^, and is
surrounded by a spherical shell of thickness a at zero. The whole is left to
cool in a medium at zero. Prove that
4
^cr
where the values of
<t
sin era  acr cos
ua
iaa  sin icra
are given
sin
ar
by
2aa
tan2oo=:;
l2fta
Also consider the case
when the two substances have different conductivities.
EXAMPLES ON THE CONDUCTION OF HEAT
244
27. A homogeneous solid bounded by two concentric spheres of radii a
and 2a respectively has its inner surface coated with a layer of a substance
impervious to heat. The solid is raised to the temperature Vf, and left to
cool in a
medium
v^^A^e'^H
Prove that
where A
is
at zero temperature.
a root of
 2ah
(1
Show how A\ may be
A sphere
28.
A cos A(r a) +sin A(r a)
+ 2\'^a^)s\n\a = (\ +2ah)kaaos.\a.
found.
of radius c
is
symmetrically heated so that
ture at a distance r from the centre is/(r). It
medium
is
its initial
tempera
then allowed to cool by radiation
Prove that if the sphere is very small so that powers
can be neglected in comparison with unity, except just at
the beginning of the coohng, the temperature becomes approximately prointo a
of ^c
above the
at zero.
first
_iiM.
portional to
sin
hr
29.
r
The
initial
from the centre
nt of a sphere of radius
temperature at a point
sinh
and the sphere
is
c at
a distance
is
(3
I
Kr
surrounded by a medium at temperature zero.
ratio of the emissivity
and the conductivity and
Aj, A^,
...
If
is
the
are the roots of
the equation
cA cos cA +(Ac 
1) sin
cX 0,
prove that the subsequent temperature at the time
equal to
2(^61)
within the sphere
is
 ^^_,_,,^,, sin A^rsin A^c
X^'c^+hcihciy
30.
sphere of radius c has initial temperature
ll
2r
and radiation takes place at
A^
is
its
surface into a
medium
at zero.
Show
that
if
a root of the equation
ck cos cA + (fee the temperature at the time
is
1) sin
cA =0,
given by
4lsinA,. (^^)^>;;A. ^_,,,.
where
P=c^k^' +{hc~iy,
Q=c^X^'+hc{hcl).
The
temperature at any point of a sphere exposed in an
medium at temperature zero is given by
31.
initial
1^,
irr
Vc sin~Te
2c
1;'^>
infinite
EXAMPLES ON THE CONDUCTION OF HEAT
c being the radius
if
and
r the distance of the point
from the
centre.
245
Show that,
a root of the equation
is
cX cos cA +{hc 
1) sin
cX =0,
the temperature at the same point after a time t is
"
1
25^6""'^'"'' sin A^r,
Vm^iX^H^ + (he  \Y}\yic \)[\ +^')  X^H^hc 3)
+2eX^c^{X^'^o^ +{hc 
(AV+7ic{Acl)){l+(A^cy}{l+( + A^c)'}
33.
ture
A homogeneous
that the temperature at time
equation
(ah  2) (ma cot
the external
33.
is
heated so that the
initial
tempera
=1 (cos 6 sin mr  mr cos mr).
is o
Show
sphere of radius a
medium being
is Wje ""*,
??ia
where
ro is
a root of the
1) =m,V,
at zero temperature.
solid globe of metal, radius a, conductivity k^, thermal capacity per
Cj, is surrounded by one of another metal, outer radius 6, conand capacity k^ and Cj, the whole radiating into a medium at zero.
Prove that, if at any time the temperatures of the two metals are represented by
sinmr
unit volume
ductivity
u= mr
v=
sinmacosnir a)
Ki
t
mr
Ko
/ki
\k^
m coswiasin.{ra)
mn
,'\ sin?raasinw(r
viTMr
a)
'
m^=n''=0,
where
the temperatures at any subsequent time will be
and determine the equation connecting n with the emissivity
of the outer
metal.
surrounded by a concentric nonconducting spherical
is filled with hot liquid. kept at a uniform
that if v is the temperature at a point in
Prove
agitation.
by
temperature
the sphere, and v', the temperature of the Uquid at any time, then v, v' are
34,
surface,
solid sphere is
and the space between
of the forms
v=c+2A
.
sin nr
,.
6"^%
m'
siana
,,
EXAMPLES ON THE CONDUCTION OF HEAT
246
where
and n
^r is
is
the ratio of the heat capacity of the sphere to that of the liquid,
any root
of the equation
( 1 +ha
35. In
an
and
tan xa.
conductor made of uniform material an instantaneous
infinite
spherical source of strength
radius a
^,
is
generated over the surface of a sphere of
to diffuse through the conductor.
left
Prove that
generated over equal elements of the spherical surface
is
if
the heat
everj'Tvhere the
same, the subsequent temperature at a point distant r from the centre
of the sphere is
Q
^^
1
c
TT^'^^
sinh
dS
36. If over everj' element
[x, y, i)
dS
an
of a spherical surface in
being a soUd spherical harmonic of degree n ;
of the element
infinite solid
Y{x', y', z')dS of heat are generated (Y(x', y',
sources of strength
point
or
2k<
J{TrKt) 4:irar
x', y', z'
z')
being the coordinates
referred to axes through the centre), prove that, at the
distant r from the centre at time
a^"+
^
t,
2^^^Kt)"n
/smhu\
d"
It
ar
u = ^.
where
The surface temperature of a sphere of thermometric conductivity k
made to vary according to the law v =S cos ct, where S^ is a surface har
37.
is
monic of degree
the interior
is
Prove that the consequent fluctuation of temperature in
to.
given by the formula
^ [P{r)P{a) +Q(r)Q{a)]ooB(rt+[P{r)Q{a)
Q(r)P{a)]am,7t /rY
\aj
where
P(r)
&
(St
=1
2
2to
+3
2?i
+5
8. 2to
+3
...
2to
+9
2.2ra+3
Examine and
large
38.
2.4.6.2to+3...2)+7
interpret the forms which the result assumes (1)
compared with
^,
and
(2)
when n
is
large
when
ct
is
compared with cr
A homogeneous soMd sphere has half its surface, viz. the portion bounded
by a great
circle,
maintained at temperature unity, while the other half is
Find the steady motion of heat. Show also that the
maintained at zero.
mean
of the temperatures at
distant from the centre
is
two points on the same diameter and equally
the same for
all
diameters.
EXAMPLES ON THE CONDUCTION OP HEAT
247
Let the sphere while in
this state of temperature be enclosed in a closely
envelope impervious to heat and left to itself. Show how to find the
temperature at any point after any time t, and when t is very great, sho\v
fitting
that the temperature at a point whose coordinates are
Al
i+A(arooa(rr
^
^e
,C0SS
siacrr)
(r,
6) is
Ktr't
""%
where cr is a constant depending on the radius of the sphere.
determine this constant.
39.
line source of strength
is
approximately
Show how
to
instantaneously generated along the
an infinitely long circular cylinder at the time t=0. The temperature V was everywhere previously zero, and the temperature of the boundary
r =a is maintained at zero.
Prove that at any subsequent instant
axis of
where k
is
the thermometrio conductivity, and the quantities mj are the
positive roots of the equation
Jo{m,a) =0.
Prove that when a
is
made
infinite the
above expression assumes the form
and by comparison with an independent solution
definite integral.
of the problem, evaluate the
APPENDIX
NOTE ON BESSEL'S FUNCTION.
1.
The
Bessel's function J{z) is given
T,.s'
"^
and
is
is
thus defined for
used.
all
when n
J(z),
is
by the equation
(ir(^/2)"+^'
~rioT{r + l)T{n + r + iy
values of n,
when
the general
Gamma
Function*
not an integer, will be many valued, but
it
will
be made singlevalued by restricting the complex variable to a complete
e.g. by taking argj <Tr.
For other values of the argument we use the equation
revolution
2.
When n
not an integer, J{z) and J{z) are independent solutions
is
of Bessel's equation, but J(0)=(1)"J^(2;),
For a second
"^
the limit being taken
It is
when n
solution, available for all values of n,
knownf
'
when n
sin
is
integral.
we choose
mr
an integer.
that with this definition Y^iz)
that Y(z) and Y(z) are given
is
is infinite
when
= 0, and
by
rrY{z)^2J,{z){log(zl2)+y) + {zl2yllJ^(zl2y + 1+^+11^ (ZI2Y...
7rY{z)=JJ,z){2log(zl2) + 2y
The
Tmr^ E
mr^]  "s
{nrl)\
(z/2)"+'
Bessel's function of the second
kind defined above and denoted by
used by Weber.t It is taken as the standard function of
the second kind by Nielsen, but he uses tlie notation Y"(z) and calls it
Neumann's function. As a matter of fact, Neumann (K.) in his Theorie der
3.
Y{z) was
first
Bessel'schen Functionen (Leipzig, 1867)
was concerned only with
positive
Whittaker and Watson, loc. cil. (3rd Ed.), Oh. XII.
jWhittaker and Watson, loc. cit. {3rd Ed.), p. 372;
3. 51(3), 3. 52(3).
XMath. Ann.,
Leipzig,
Nielsen, loc.
cil., p.
6, p.
148, 1873.
10.
248
Watson,
loc.
cit.,
APPENDIX
integral values of n,
the notation Y"{z),
where 7
is
is
249
and
his function of the second kind, for which he used
connected with our r(2) by the relation
(1+5 + 5 +
Lt
Euler's Constant,* namely
logra).
.H
The function we denote by Y^^z) is the same as Gray and Mathews'
Y(2).t It should be noticed that Schafheitlin's Y(z) is minus ours J
also that Gray and Mathews' Y(z) is Neumann's function Y'^{z).
:
In
4.
many
questions the functions denoted by ff'"(z) and H^^^'iz) are
They are defined by the simple
very u3eful.
Hr:"{z)=J(z) + iY(z),
They may be described as
must find a permanent place
of the simple
and
relations
H^^{z)=J{z)iY{z).
Bessel's functions of the third kind,
formulae for arg 2
<w
approximately in the upper part of the 2plane, when
l^l
approximately in the lower part of the 2plane, when
s is
5.
Since, in the
and they
in the treatment of Bessel's functions because
upper part of the 2plane when
2
is lai'ge
large.
is large,

we have the
approximation **
"^
'
^/(2ir2)
it follows that at infinity in the upper part of the 2plane J^ (2) is infinite,
H^^\z) vanishes, and J {az)Hj^^\bz) vanishes, when a and 6 are real and
positive,
a<b.
*Cf. Whittaker and Watson,
loc. cit.
(3rd Ed.), p. 235.
Gray and Mathews,
Schaf heitlin, Theorie der BesseUchen FunMimien,
loc, cit., p. 64, (131).
Nielsen, loc. cit., p. 16.
II
Of.
Watson,
Whittaker and Watson,
loc. cit., 3.
loc. cit.
p. 44, Leipzig, 1908.
(1).
(3d Ed.), pp. 368, 371
Watson,
loc. cit.,
7.2(1).
** Whittaker and Watson,
7.21(1).
loc.
cit.,
(3rd Ed.),
p.
368; Watson,
loc.
cit.,
APPENDIX
II
BIBLIOGRAPHY*
Thu Conduction of Heat
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The abbreviated
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APPENDIX
II
251
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(ii)
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la chaleur
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APPE2SfDIX
252
II
la ohaleur dans les polyedros et
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253
II
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254
II
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APPENDIX
HoBSON.
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II
257
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On
Lees.
the
Law
in the Analytical
of Cooling
Theory
the Conduction of
and
its
of Heat.
Heat.
London,
Bearing on certain Equations
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London
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(ii)
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HA(SsmOM.
Vergleichende Untersuchungen iiber die Methode von
Angstrom und Neumann zur Bestimmung der Warmeleitung der
Korper. Stockholm, Vet. Ak. Ofvers, 48, 1891.
LiNDB.
(i) Methode zur Bestimmung der Warmeleitungsvermogen in
einer Kugel.
Exner's Repertorium, 27, 1891.
(ii) Uber
die Temperaturbestimmung eines Drahtes wenn durch
denselben ein galvanischer Strom durchfliesst.
Exner's Repertorium, 27, 1891.
Appbll.
Sut I'equation
3% 3z
~
^^ = 0,
et la theorie
de la ohaleur.
math., Paris (S6r. 4), 8, 1892.
Bbill. a property of the Equation of the Conduction of Heat.
Math., Cambridge, 21, 1892.
Bryan. Note on a Problem in the Linear Conduction of Heat.
bridge, Proc. Phil. Soc,
7,
J.
Mess.
Cam
1892.
Uber einige partioulare Losungen der Differentialgleichiing
Warmeleitung in einem Kreiscylinder und deren Anwendimgen. Wien, SitzBer Ak. Wiss., 102, 1893.
Lees. On the Thermal Conductivity of Crystals and other Bad
Conductors. London, Phil. Trans. R. Soc, 183, 1893.
Wbbbb, H. Uber den TemperaturAusgleich zwischen zwei sich
KoBAiiB.
fiir
die
beriihrenden heterogenen Korpern.
Gottingen, Nachr. Ges. Wiss.,
1893.
Chwolson.
Zwei Warmeleitungs probleme.
Ann.
Physik,
Leipzig
(N. Folge), 51, 1894.
CzERMAK. Uber die Temperatittvertheilung eines diinnen Drahtes, der
von einem constanten Strome durchflossen wird. Wien, SitzBer.
Ak. Wiss.j 103, 1894.
APPENDIX
258
PoiNCARK.
Rend.
Sur
les
IT
Equations de la physique math6matique.
Palermo,
Circ. mat., 8, 1894.
Zur analytischeu Theorie der Warmeleitung. Math.
Ann., Leipzig, 45, 1894.
Lacour. Sur r^quation de la chaleur. Ann. Fao. Sci., Toulouse, 9,
SoMMERFELD.
1895.
Perry. On the Age of the Earth. Nature, London,
SoMiGLiANA. Sul problema della temperatura nell'
mat., Milano (Ser.
2), 24,
51, 1895.
ellissoide.
Ann.
1896.
Eine neue Methode zur Untersuchung der Warmeleitung in
Gottingen, Nachr. Ges. Wiss., 1896.
BouLANGER. SuT I'^quation de la propagation de la chaleur. Paris,
Bui. soc. math., 25, 1897.
Laukicblla. Sulle temperature stazionarie. Palermo, Rend. Circ.
VoiGT.
Krystallen.
mat., 11, 1897.
Sur I'int^gration des equations de la chaleur. Ann. sci. iSc.
norm., Paris (Ser. 3), 14, 1897. (Also, 15, 1898.)
VoiGT. Bestimmimg relativer Warmeleitungsfahigkeiten nach der
isothermen Methode. Gottingen, Nachr. Ges. Wiss., 1897.
AscoLi. Sulla determinazione della temperatura e dei coefficienti di
Nuovo Gimento,
conduttivita interna ed esterna di un conduttore.
Le Roy.
Pisa (Ser.
Carslaw.
4), 7,
1898.
Some Multiform
Solutions
of
the
Partial
Differential
Equations of Physical Mathematics and their Applications. London,
Proc. Math. Soc, 30, 1898.
Lauricella. Sulla propagazione del calore. Torino, Atti Ace. sci.,
33, 1898.
Lees.
On
the Thermal Conductivities of Single and Mixed Solids and
London, Phil. Trans. R. Soc,
their Variations with Temperature.
191, 1898.
Methode zur Bestimmung der Warmeleitung
Ann. Physik, Leipzig (N. Folge), 66, 1898.
Stekloff. (i) Sur le probleme de refroidissement d'une barre h6t6rogene.
Paris, C.R. Acad, sci., 126, 1898.
(ii) Sur un probleme de la th6orie analytique de la chaleur.
Paris,
C.R. Acad. sci.. 126, 1898.
Straneo. (i) Sulla temperatura di un conduttore lineare bimetallico.
Roma, Rend. Aco. Lincei (Ser. 5), 7, 1898.
ScHULZB.
tjber
eine
fester Korper.
(ii)
Sulla determinazione simultanea delle oonducibilit4 termiche ed
electrice dei metalli
Lincei (Ser.
KoHLRAUSCH.
5), 7,
a differenti temperature.
Roma, Rend. Ace
1898.
t)ber den stationaren Temperaturzustand eines von
einem elektrischen Strome erwarmten Leiters. Berlin, SitzBer.
Ak. Wiss., 1899.
Pierce and Willson. On the Thermal Conductivities of certain Poor
Conductors. Boston, Mass., Proc. Amer. Acad. Arts Sci., 34, 1899.
APPENDIX
259
II
VoiGT. tJber ein von Herrn Fr. Kohlrausch aufgestelltes Problem der
Warmelehre. Gottingen, Naohr. Ges. Wiss., 1899.
BoTJSSlNESQ. (i) Reduction de certains problemes d'^chauffement ou de
refroidissement par rayonnement au cas plus simple de reohauffement ou du refroidissement des mgmes corps par contact ; 6chaufEement d'un mur d'^paisseur ind6finie. Paris, C.R. Acad, sci., 130,
1900.
Probleme du refroidissement de la oroute terrestre, traits au meme
point de vue que I'a fait Fourier, mais par une m6thode d'int6gration beaucoup plus simple. Paris, C.R. Acad, sci., 130, 1900.
(ii)
Probleme du refroidisseraent d'un mur par rayonnement ramen6
au cas plus simple oil le refroidissement aurait lieu par contact.
(iii)
Paris, C.R. Acad,
sci.,
130, 1900.
Echauffement permanent mais in^gal par rayonnement, d'un
mur d'^paisseiu ind^finie, ramen6 au cas d'un Echauffement analogue
par contact. Paris, C.R. Acad, sci., 131, 1900.
(v) Probleme de I'echauffement permanent d'une sphere par rayonnement, ramen6 au probleme plus simple de I'echauffement de la
meme sphere par contact. Paris, C.R. Acad, sci., 131, 1900.
Cotton. Mouvement de la chaleur sur la surface d'un t6traedre dont
les aretes oppos6es sont egales.
Ann. Fac. Sci., Toulouse (S6r. 2),
(iv)
2,
1900.
Tiber die Bestimmung des metaUischen Warmeleitvermogens und iiber sein Verhaltniss zur elektrischen Leitfahigkeit.
Ann. Physik, Leipzig (4. Folge), 3, 1900.
Hall. Concerning Thermal Conductivity in Iron. Physic. Rev.,
Gbttneisen.
Ithaca, N.Y., 10, 1900.
KoHiiBAXTSCH. tJber den stationaren Temperaturzustand eines elektrischgeheisten Leiters.
Ann. Physik, Leipzig (4. Folge), 1,
1900.
Peibce.
On
London
the Thermal Conductivity of Vulcanite.
Phil.
Mag.,
(Ser. 5), 49, 1900.
Sur I'equilibre calorifique d'tme surface fermee rayomiant
Paris, C.R. Acad, sci., 130, 1900.
Bull.
(ii) Sur quelques problemes relatifs
k I'Equation ^u = k^u.
Sci. Math, de France, 38, 1900.
STEKLOFi". Le probleme des temperatures stationaires. Paris, C.R.
Acad, sci., 131, 1900.
BoTJSSiNESQ. Probleme de la dissipation en tous sens de la chaleur
dans un mur 6pais k face rayonnement. Paris, C.R. Acad, sci.,
PlOABD.
(i)
au dehors.
133, 1901.
DouGALL. Note on the Application of Complex Integration to the
Equation of Conduction of Heat, with a special application to Dr.
Edinburgh, Proc. Math. Soc, 19, 1901.
of a Sphere in a Mass of wellstirred
Edinburgh, Proc. Math. Soc, 19, 1901.
Peddie's Problem.
Peddie.
Note on the Cooling
Liquid.
O.C.H.
r2
APPENDIX
260
Probleme du refroidissement d'une barre h6t6rog6ne. Ann.
Toulouse (Ser. 2), 3, 1901.
a Problem in Conduction of Heat. Phil. Mag., London
Stekloff.
Fac.
II
Sci.,
Cabslaw.
(Ser. 6), 4, 1902.
CesXbo.
Sur un probleme de propagazione de
(i)
la chaleur.
Bruxelles,
Bui. Acad, roy., 1902.
(ii) Intorno ad una limitazione di constanti nella teoria analitica
Napoli, Rend. Ace. sci. (Ser. 3), 8, 1902.
del calore.
Lauricella.
delle
Sull 'integrazione
Roma, Mem.
del calore.
Soc.
XL.
equazioni
della propagazione
(Ser. 3), 12, 1902.
Mackenzie. On some Equations pertaining to the Propagation of
Heat in an Infinite Medium. Philadelphia, Pa., Proc. Amer.
Phil.
Soc,
41, 1902.
The Steady Temperatures
Peck.
of
a Thin Rod.
Phil. Mag.,
London
(Ser. 6), 4, 1902.
Schaufelbbrgbb.
Warmeleitungsfahigkeit
aus
dem
bestinamt,
und
Kupfers,
des
imd variablen Temperaturzustand
stazionaren
Warmefluss in einer durch Kiihlwasser bespiilten Endflaohe eines
Warmeleiters. Ann. Physik, Leipzig (4. Folge), 7, 1902.
Stekloff. Sur les problemes fondamentaux de la physique mathematique. Ann. sci. ific. norm., Paris (S6r. 3), 19, 1902.
Carslaw. The Use of Green's Functions in the Mathematical Theory
of the Conduction of Heat. Edinburgh, Proc. Math. Soc, 21, 1903.
GiBBE.
tjber die Bestimmung des Warmeleitungsvermogen bei
tiefen Temperaturen.
Berlin, Verh. D. Physik. Ges., 15, 1903.
Prasad. Constitution of Matter and Analytical Theories of Heat.
Gottingen, Abh. Ges. Wiss., 2, 1903.
SoMiGLiAJSTA. Intomo ad un problema di distribuzione termica. Milano,
Rend. 1st. lomb. (Ser. 2), 36, 1903.
BoussiNESQ. Sur la unicite de la solution simple fondamentale et sur
I'expression asjrmptotique des temperatures dans le problfeme du
'
refroidissement.
Hecht.
F. E.
fahigkeit
und
Bui.
sci.
ihre Durchfiihrung
Leipzig
VOLTBEBA.
math., Paris (S6r.
1904.
2), 28,
Neumanns Methode zur Bestimmung der Warmeleitungsschlecht leitender Korper in Kugel und Wiirfelform,
(4.
an Marnior, Glas,
etc.
Ann. Physik.
Folge), 14, 1904.
Sur
les
Equations
diff6rentielles
du
tjrpe
parabolique.
Paris, C.R. Acad, sci., 139, 1904.
BtTHL.
Sur I'approximation des fonctions par des polynomes dans
aux d6riv6es partielles ;
application au probleme de I'^tat initial in physique inath6matique.
Paris, C.R. Acad, sci., 140, 1905.
Glage. F. E. Neumanns Methode zur Bestimmung der Warmeleitses rapports aveo la thdorie des Equations
fahigkeit gut leitender Korper in Stab und Ringform, und ihre
Durchfiihrung an Eisen, Stahl, etc. Ann. Physik, Leipzig (4. Folge),
18, 1905.
APPENDIX
II
261
Lees.
The Effects of Temperature and Pressure on the Thermal
Conductivities of Bodies. Part I. The Efiect of Temperature
on the Thermal Conductivity of some
London, Phil. Trans. R. Soc, 204, 1905.
Electrical
Insulators.
On a Method of finding the Conductivity for Heat.
Proc. R. Soc, 76, 190S.
NiVBN.
Zabemba.
Solution
gte^rale
du probleme de
London,
Krakow,
Fourier.
Bull. Intern. Acad., 1905.
PiCAED.
Sur quelques problemes de physique math6matique se
M. Fredholm. Paris, C.R. Acad sci., 142,
(i)
rafetachant a I'equation de
1906.
Sur quelques applications de I'equation fonctionelle de M.
Fredholm. Palermo, Rend. Circ. mat., 23, 1906.
(ii)
Thoma.
Warmeleitungsproblem bei wellig begrenzten Oberflache und
Anwendung
dessen
auf Tunnelbauten.
Freiburg u. Br.,
Diss.
1906.
Holmgren.
1907.
Sur I'equation
^j=^.
Paris, C.R. Acad,
sci.,
145,
(See also 146, 1908.)
KoijnGSBEBGEE TJND DiscH.
Bestimmimg der Veranderlichkeit des
von Fourier und experimentelle Anwendung auf Waimeleitung von Isolatoren. Ann.
Koefficienten der Differentialgleichung
Physik, Leipzig
Levi.
Stdl'
(4.
Folge), 23, 1907.
equazione del calore.
Roma, Rend. Ace.
Lincei (Ser.
5),
16, 1907.
MyllebLebbdefp. Die Theorie der Integralgleichungen in Anwendung auf einige Reihenentwickelungen (Warmeleitung in
einem Kreiscylinder). Math. Ann., Leipzig, 64, 1907.
Suir equazione della propagazione di calore in un
Lincei (Ser. 5), 16, 1907.
PicciATTi.
fllo.
Roma, Rend. Ace.
Un
Steklofp.
probleme d'analyse intinaement
refroidissement d'une barre h6t6rogene.
116
au probleme du
Paris, C.R. Acad,
sci.,
144, 1907.
Tbdonb.
Sul
ellissoide
problema dell' equilibrio delle temperature in
a tre assi disuguali. Palermo, Rend. Circ. mat.,
un
24,
1907.
Ebbling. tJber den Temperaturverlauf in wechselstromdurchflossenen
Drahten. Ann. Physik, Leipzig (4. Folge), 27, 1908.
Sur I'equation de la propagation de
Matem., Stockholm, 4, 1908.
Holmgeen.
Xaueicella.
Applicazione
della
del raffreddamento dei corpi.
1908.
la chaleur.
di Fredholm
Ann. mat., Milano
teoria
al
Arkiv.
problema
(Ser.
3),
14,
APPENDIX
262
II
Temperature and Pressure on the Thermal
Part II. The Effects of low Temperatures on the Thermal and Electrical Conductivities of certain
London, Phil. Trans.
approximately pure Metals and Alloys.
R. Soc, 208, 1908. (Also Proc. R. Soc, 80.)
The
Lees.
Effects of
Conductivities of SoUds.
Levi,
(ii)
Sul problema di Fourier.
(i)
Sur l'6quation
^=
MYLLEBLEBEDErr.
P*"^'
f^
tjber die
einer parabolischen
Torino, Atti Ace.
^^
sci.,
43, 1908.
^^'^ ^^' ^^^' ^^^
Anwendung der
Randwertaufgabe.
Integralgleichungen in
Math. Ann., Leipzig,
66,
1908.
Labose.
(i)
Sur les solutions particuliferes de I'^quation W^~"^ = 0*
Acad, sci., 148, 1909.
Paris, C.R. Acad.
probldme de rarnulle de Fourier.
Paris, C.R.
(ii)
Sur
sci.,
le
148, 1909.
Sur
Acad,
(iii)
problema de I'armille aveo deux ruptures.
le
sci.,
Paris, C.R.
148, 1909.
PiCAED. (i) Quelques remarques sur les Equations int6grales de premiere espece et sur certains problemes de physique math^matique.
Paris, C.R. Acad, sci., 148, 1909.
(ii) Sur une Equation aux d6riv6es partielles du second ordre, relative
a une surface fermte, correspondant a un 6quilibre calorifique.
Ann sci. &. norm., Paris, 26, 1909.
The Green's Fimction for a Wedge of any Angle and
other Problems in the Conduction of Heat. London, Proc. Math.
Carslaw.
Soc. (Ser. 2), 8, 1910.
Lees.
On
the Shapes of the Isogeotherms londer Mountain Ranges
London, Proc. R. Soc, 83, 1910.
in radioactive Districts.
PiCABD. Sur un th6oreme g6n6ral relatif aux Equations integrates
de premiere espece et sur quelques problemes de physique math6matique. Palermo, Rend. Circ. mat., 29, 1910.
Mabcolongo.
Suir equazione della propagazione del calore nei corpi
Napoli, Rend. Ace. sc. (Ser. 3), 17, 1911.
cristallizzati.
Raylbigh.
Problems in the Conduction of Heat.
PhU. Mag., London
(Ser. 6), 22, 1911.
SucHY.
(4.
Warmestrahlung und Warmeleitimg.
Ann. Physik, Leipzig
Folge), 36, 1911.
Carslaw.
problem in the linear flow of heat discussed from the
point of view of the theory of integral equations. Edinburgh,
Proc. Math. Soc, 30, 1912.
Silla.
Sulla propagazione
del
calore.
Roma, Rend. Aco.
Lincei
(Ser. 5), 21, 1912.
VoLTEEEA.
Sulla temperatura nell' intorno .delle montagne.
Cimento, Pisa
(Ser. 6), 4, 1912.
Nuovo
APPENDIX
Webeb.
263
II
den Eindeutigkeitsbeweis in der Theorie der WarmeHeinrich Weber Festschrift, 1912.
tJber
leitung.
MitANKOwiTSCH. t5TDer ein Problem der Warmeleitung
Anwendiing auf die Thfeorie des solaren Klimas.
tind dessen
Zs.
Math.,
Leipzig, 62, 1913.
PiCABD.
Application de la theorie des equations int^grales k certains
problteies de la th6orie analytique de la chaleur dans I'hypothese
d'un saut brusque de temperature k la surface de separation des
corps en contact. Paris, C.R. Acad, sci., 156, 1913.
SoMiGLiANA
(e
Veboblli).
Siilla
temperatura nei grandi trafori
previsione
alpini.
matematica
Torino,
Mem.
della
Aco.
sci.
(Ser. 2), 63, 1913.
Stbkloit.
Sur
(Also Veroelli, Torino, Atti Ace. sc, 48, 1913.)
certaines questions d'analyse qui se rattachent k
plusieurs probl^mes de la physique math6matique.
Mem. Acad.
sci. (Ser. 8), 31,
St.
Petersburg'
1913.
Veboblii. Sulla determinazione dei coeflficienti di conduttivita
termica mediante il raffreddamento di sfere. Nuovo Cimento,
Pisa (Ser.
Wbinbeich.
6), 6, 1913.
tJber
Drahten,
den Temperaturverlauf in stromdiurchflossenen
im Fall von Wechselstrom. Zs. Math.,
besonders
Leipzig, 63, 1914.
BoussiNBSQ.
(i) Calcul correct de I'influence de rin6galit6 elimaterique
sur la Vitesse d'accroissement des temperatures terrestres avec
la profondetir sous le sol.
Bui. sci. math., Paris (S^r. 2), 39, 1915.
(ii)
Sur
le
probleme du refroidissement de
la croute terrestre con
sider6 k la maniere et suivant les idees de Fomier.
Paris (Ser.
2), 39,
Bui.
sci.
rnath.,
1915.
On the nonstationary state of heat in an' ellipsoid. Bull.
Calcutta Math. Soc, 8, 1915.
Laudien. Entwicklung willkiirlicher Funktionen bei einem thermoDatta.
elastischen Problem.
AiCHi.
(i)
On
J.
Math., Berlin, 148, 1918.
^6=hW. Proc. Phys.math. Soc,
Picard's solution of
Japan (Ser. 3), 1, 1919.
Heat Distribution on a, radiating plane. Proc. Phys.math^ Soc,
Japan (Ser. 3), 1, 1919.
Bbomwich. Examples of operational methods of solving problems in
the conduction of heat. Phil. Mag., London (Ser. 6), 37, 1919.
McLeod. On the lags of thermometers with spherical and cylindrical
bulbs in a mediiom whosS temperature is changing at a constant
rate.
Phil. Mag., London (Ser. 6), 37, 1919.
AiCHi.
(i) Heat Distribution on a radiating plane, and especially when
the boundary is circular. Proc Phys.math. Soc, Japan (Ser. 3),
2, No. 2 and No. 6, 1920.
convection of heat by the uniform
(ii) On the twodimensional
current of steam. Proc Phys.math. Soc, Japan (Ser. 3), 2,
(ii)
No.
7,
1920.
APPENDIX
264
Cabslaw.
On Bromwich's method
II
of solving
problems in the con
London (Ser. 6), 39, 1920.
Hayashi. On Picard's solution of Au=ku.
Science Reports of the
Tokuhu Imperial University, Sendai, Japan (Ser. 1), 9, 1920.
Bromwich. Symbolical methods in the theory of conduction of heat.
duction of heat.
Phil. Mag.,
Cambridge, Proc.
Phil.
Cabslaw.
Soc,
20, 1921.
The
cooling of a solid sphere with a concentric core of a
different material.
Cambridge, Proc. Phil. Soc, 20, 1921.
Owen.
is
On the lag of a thermometer in a medium whose temperature
a linear function of the time. London, Proc. Math. Soc. (Ser. 2),
19, 1921.
LIST OF
AUTHOES QUOTED
The mumbers
Angstrom, 41, 42, 44,
Ayrton, 141.
refer to pages.
Hagstrom,
70.
42.
HaU, 133.
Hansemann,
Hardy, 228.
Barnes, 144.
Beglinger, 133.
45.
Heaviside,60, 201, 209, 218, 221.
Heine, 124, 125, 126, 144, 198.
Heywood and Freohet, 225.
Betti, 171.
B6oher, 225.
Borel, 31.
Hilbert, 225.
Hobson, 46, 115, 149, 168, 182.
Boussiuesqi 51, 55.
Bromwioh, 201, 218, 223.
Bryan, 176.
Holmes, 60.
Horn, 225.
Burgess, 34.
Byerly, 90, 142, 143, 144.
Ingenhaiisen, 40.
Carslaw, 168, 171, 176, 189, 201, 218,
Kaye and Laby,
222
ClerkMaxweU,
Kelvin,
209,
218.
8, 169.
King, 59.
Granz, 81.
Ozermak,
3.
8, 56, 57, 58, 59, 60, 149,
Kirchhoff, 28, 45, 51.
Kirsch, 240.
Kneser, 225, 232, 237.
83.
De Morgan,
34.
Kohlrausch, 83.
Despretz, 40.
Diesselhorst, 46.
Dini, 115.
Lamb,
Duhamel, 17.
Duncan, 83.
Laplace, 31, 54.
Lees, 114.
Ebeling, 81.
EddJngton, 60.
Encke, 34.
Sejer, 65.
Forbes, 40, 41, 56.
Eord, 115, 138.
Fourier, 20, 26, 54, 56, 57, 58, 88, 91,
110.
Pranz, 40, 81.
^
Gibson, 30.
Giebe, 46.
Goursat, 33, 225.
Gray and Mathews,
156, 165, 193.
115, 128, 147, 153,
9.
Mackenzie, 35.
Mathieu, 94.
Minnigerode, 171.
MoUison, 70.
Moore, 65, 106, 115, 117, 122.
Neumann,
F., 26, 42, 70, 71, 79, 80.
Nielsen, 193.
Niven, 114, 161, 241.
Peck, 121.
Perry, 60, 141, 209, 221.
Pookels, 171.
Poincar^, 159.
Poisson, 54, 56.
Poynting and Thomson, 40,
41.
Preston, 40, 65.
Gregory (J. W.), 60.
Gruneisen, 46.
Rayleigh, Lord
265
(J.
W.
Strutt), 149, 156.
LIST OF
266
Rayleigh, Lord (B.
J. Strutt), 60.
Riemann,
140.
Rutherford, 60.
Schaufelberger, 84.
Sohwarzsohild, 168, 171.
SoUas, 54.
Sommerfeld, 163, 166, 167, 168, 171.
Sonine, 193.
Stokes, 69.
Straneo, 84.
Turner, 238.
Verdet, 81.
Vivanti, 225.
AUTHORS
Watson, 115, 117, 122, 128, 147, 186,
222.
Weber, H., 34, 69, 70, 163.
H. F., 131, 133.
R., 141.
WeberRiemann,
34, 51, 140, 163, 171.
Webster, 169.
Weinreich, 81, 83, 84.
Whittaker and Watson, 142, 143, 159,
191, 225.
Wiedemann, 40, 81.
Winkelmann, 40, 41.
Woodward, 60.
Young, 115.
GENERAL INDEX
The numbers
Age
refer to pages.
of the Earth : Kelvin's classical treatment, 57
activity, 60 ; later discussion, 209, 218, 221.
British
Calory.
Thermal Unit.
effect of discovery of radio
See under Quantity of Heat.
See under Quantity of Heat.
Conductivity.
See under Conduction of Heat.
Conduction of Heat
Definition of, 1 ; Definition of Conductivity {K), 2
:
Definition
of Diffusivity or Thermometric Conductivity (k), 8 ; Definition of Emissivity
(H), 14.
Equation of Conduction, in Cartesian Coordinates, 8 ; in Spherical
Polar Coordinates, 11 ; in Cylindrical Coordinates, 12; Initial and Boundary
Conditions, 12.
Methods of obtaining the Value of the Conductivity (K) and
;
the Emissivity (H)
Foi Good Conductors
Despretz, 40, 66 ; Forbes, 40 ; Giebe, 46 ;
:
Bar Methods
Angstrom, 41
Hagstrom, 42
Neumann, 70, 79 Wiede
Gruneisen, 46
Ingenhausen, 40 ; KirohhofE and Hansemann, 45
mann and Franz, 40. King Methods Fourier, 25 Neumann, 26. Electric
Duncan, 83
Cranz, 81 ; Czermak, 83
Ebeling, 81
Current Methods
Sohaufelberger, 84
Straneo, 84
Verdet, 81 ;
Kohlrausch, 83
Lees, 84
Weinreich, 81, 83, 84. For Poor Conductors: Cube, 110, 112; Cylinder:
Beglinger, 133; Hall, 133; Weber, H. F., 131, 133: Sphere: Ayrton and
Perry, 141
Weber, K., 141.
Conjugate Functions, Their use in solving twodimensional problems, 91.
;
Contour Integrals, Their use in solving the equation of conduction (Chapter XI.).
Convection of Heat,
1.
Cylindrical Surface Source, 153.
DifEusivity or
See under Conduction of Heat.
Thermometric Conductivity.
Dimensions, of Conductivity (K), 3
of Diffusivity
Diriohlet's Conditions, referred to first
on
p. 22.
(), 8.
For
definition, see F.S., 93.
Doublets, 156.
Duhamel's Theorem, 17
Emissivity.
See under Conduction
of
Heat.
TwoDimensional Flow,
Flow of Heat : Linear Flow, Chapters III. and IV.
In a Circular
In a Rectangular Parallelepiped, Chapter VI.
Chapter V.
In a Wedge,
In a Sphere and Cone, Chapter VIII.
Cylinder, Chapter VII.
;
164, 189.
Fourier's Ring, Chapter II
Temperature due to a source at a point
267
in, 160.
GENERAL INDEX
268
Green's Functions, Their use in solving the equation of conduction, Chapter X.
Heaviside's Operational Method, 201.
Images, The method
of, 158.
See also under Sommerfeld's Extension,
Integral Ecinations, Their use in solving the equation of conduction, Chapter
Isothermal Surfaces,
Quantity of Heat
Radiation of Heat,
XII
4.
the Calory, 3
the British Thermal Unit (b.t.u.),
3.
1.
Riemann's Surface and Space, 167.
Sommerfeld's Extension of the Method of Images, 166.
Sources and Sinks, In twodimensional flow (steady temperature), 102
in cases of variable temperature, Chapter IX.
Spherical Surface Source, 151.
Terrestrial Temperature, 53.
Thermometric Conductivity.
See under Conduction of Heat.
Their use