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fluids mechanic

© All Rights Reserved

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CHAPTER 6

FLOWS IN PIPE

6.1 Introduction

Flow in closed conduits is very important part of study of fluid mechanics as

examples are very common. Water for domestic use is districted to all parts of the

house in pipe, sewers and drain pipes carry waste water away. Crude oil is pumped

from oil well to refinery in pipes. Natural gas is brought to the consumer through

pipes. Heated or cold air in distributed to all parts of a house in circular or rectangular

ducts. All these examples show that water, oil or gas is usually transported through

pipes.

phenomena, to determine the effect of viscosity and also examine various flow losses

that taking place in the piping systems.

6.2 Laminar and Turbulence Flows

In pipe flow three flow regimes exist which are laminar and turbulent. At low

velocities the layers of fluid move smoothly over one and another and this is known

as laminar flow. However, as the velocity is increased small disturbances cause

eddies which mix up the layer of fluid and produce a different pattern of flow known

as turbulent. The nature of flow determines the pressure loss and hence the power

required to pump the fluid along the pipe.

Osborne Reynolds is the first person to investigate the behavior of flow in pipes and

produced a rational method of predicting the nature of flow. Reynolds showed that

the flows behavior depends on inertia and viscous forced in the fluid. He introduced a

non-dimensional parameter called Reynolds number which gives ratio of inertia to

viscous forces and this number can identify the conditions under which flow changes

from laminar to turbulent.

Dividing the inertia forces by the viscous force, we obtain Reynolds number. This

number is used to identify the flow developed

Inertia force mass changes of velocity / time

132

mass flow rate changes of velocity

density velocity area changes of velocity

u A u

u2 A

u2 D 2

Viscous force shear stress area

du

area

dy

u

D2

D

uD

Therefore, Reynolds number = Inertia force / Viscous force

Re

u 2 D 2 uD

uD

(6.1)

The term to write called kinematics viscosity and it is often convenient to write

equation 5.1 as

Re

uD

(6.2)

The important discovery made by Reynolds was that for a normal flow in a pipe the

transition between laminar and turbulent flow always occurs at approximately the

same value of Re irrespective of fluid and the size of pipe. This helps to predict the

flow conditions in pipes of any size carrying the fluid.

6.3 Reynolds Experiments

Reynolds apparatus is shown schematically in Figure 6.1a. A transparent tube is

attached to a constant-head water tank. The opposite end of the tube has a valve to

133

control flow rate. Dye in injected into water tube at inlet and resulting flow pattern in

observed. For low velocities of flow something similar to that represented in Figure

6.1b is observed. The dye pattern is regular and forms a single line like thread.

There is no mixing in any part of the tube. The flow show that particles of fluid flow

in parallel lines. This is called laminar flow.

As the flow rate of water is increased beyond a certain point the dye is dispersed. The

dye mixes with water as shown in Figure 6.1c. This is called turbulent flow.

It has been found that when the flow in laminar the Re < 2000 and when the flows is

turbulent Re > 4000 and flow in said to be transition when Reynolds number in

between 2000 and 4000. A distinction must be made between laminar and turbulent

flows because the velocity distribution within the pipe is different for each case. A

velocity distribution in laminar flow is shown in Figure 6.2a and for turbulent flow it

is shown in Figure 6.2b.

For both laminar and turbulent flow, maximum velocity in the axial direction occurs

at the center line of the pipe. For laminar flow the curve is parabolic whereas velocity

distribution curve for turbulent flow depends on experimental data.

134

(a)

(b)

Figure 6.2 Velocity distributions for laminar and turbulent flows in the pipe

Consider the laminar flow in a pipe as shown in Figure 6.3.

Over cross-section of the tube the peizometric pressure (P) in constant

and this pressure falls continuously along the pipe. Suppose that between two crosssections A and B separated by length L of the pipe the fall in pressure is P. Then force

exerted by this pressure difference on the ends of cylinder having radius r from center

line of the pipe is given by

F= Pr2

(6.3)

135

Let the velocity at radius r of the cross-section be denoted by u. Then shear stress in

the direction shown due to viscous forces on curved surface is given by

du

dr

(6.4)

du

2rl

dr

(6.5)

For the fluid in a steady state condition, from the pressure and viscosity forces (where

eqn. 6.3 = eqn. 6.5), thus:

Pr 2

du

2rl 0

dr

du

Pr

dr

2 l

(6.6)

Pr 2

C

4l

Where C is a constant and for a boundary condition when r= a, u=0 (at the pipe

surface)

Pa 2

C

4 l

Put the expression of C into the above equation;

136

u

P 2

a r2

4 l

(6.7)

This equation provides the velocity distribution at the pipe cross section as shown in

Figure 6.2(a) is parabolic velocity profile. From the equation also shows that the

maximum velocity at r= 0 and can be calculated by:

umax

Pa 2

4 l

(6.8)

For the volume flow rate, it can be determined by the following equation:

dQ= u 2r dr

Replacing u into equation 6.7 and after integration between a and 0, gives:

a

P

2 a 2 r r 3 dr

4 l

0

Pa 4

8 l

(6.9)

Equations 6.7 and 6.9 are known as Hagen-Poiseuille equation and used widely in the

study of fluid mechanics.

The volume flow rate Q also can be determined as follows:

Q= a2 V

(6.10)

If equation 6.10 combined together with equation 6.9, its will give:

137

Pa 2 PD 2

8 l

32 l

(6.11)

Replace P in equation 6.8 into equation 6.11 will gives:

1

umax

2

Therefore, this has shown the average laminar velocity V is the half of the maximum

velocity in the pipe. Thus, the relationship of pressure drop and head loss is given by:

P gh f

(6.12)

hf

32 Vl

gD 2

(6.12)

hf

64 l V 2

Re D 2 g

(6.13)

In a turbulent flow mixing takes place between layers of the fluid and as a result

distribution of velocity in more uniform than in laminar flow. Let us consider a crosssection of the pipe as shown in Figure 6.4.

138

For a control volume from points A and B. The shear stress is acting on the wall

surface depends on the average velocity, thus:

1

V 2 f

2

(6.14)

1

1

V 2

V 2

Where 2

= dynamics pressure and f = friction factor. The o and 2

have

Resultant force due to shear stress = shear stress area

139

= o2al

1

V 2 f 2al

2

(6.15)

= P a2

(6.16)

Pa 2 f

V 2 fl

a

1

V 2 2al

2

(6.17)

The relationship between pressure drop and head losses is given by:

P gh f

(6.18)

hf

flV 2

2 gD

(6.19)

where D= 2a.

The comparison of equation 6.13 and 6.19, the friction factor of laminar flow is:

64

Re

(6.20)

140

Example 6.1

SAE 10 oil flows through a cast iron pipe with a velocity of 1m/s. The pipe has a

length of 45m and diameter of 150mm. Determine head loss due to friction.

Solution:

From the table, density and viscosity of SAE oil are:

= 869kg/m3, = 0.0814Ns/m2

Re

VD 869 0.15 1

1601

0.0814

Friction factor,

64

64

0.04

Re 1601

Head loss,

hf f

l V2

45

1

0.04

0.612m

D 2g

0.15 2 9.81

Therefore, for a laminar flow the friction factor solely depends on the Reynolds

number only. However, the friction factor for the turbulence flow is depend on

Reynolds number and other parameters that known as relative roughness for the pipe.

The relative roughness is a ratio of average pipe wall roughness, k s and pipe diameter,

D as shown in Figure 6.5a. The pipe roughness depends on type of material and pipe

conditions. The value of roughness is high for old pipe compare to a new pipe.

(a)

141

(b)

Figure 6.5 Wall relative roughness of pipe

Table 6.1 Wall roughness of commercial pipe

Material

Roughness ()

M

Riveted steel

0.0009-0.009

Concrete

0.0003-0.003

Wood

0.0002-0.0009

Cast iron

0.00026

Galvanised iron

0.00015

0.0001

0.000046

0.0000015

smooth

142

If the Reynolds number Re and relative roughness /D are known, the pipe friction

factor can be determined from a diagram of relationship as shown in Figure 6.6. This

diagram is known as Moody diagram and it is always being use in solving the pipe

flow problems.

For the laminar flow Re < 2000, the friction factor f has the relationship of:

64

Re

The relationship is shown as a straight line at the top of left hand side of Moody

diagram.

143

For the turbulent flows Re > 4000, the relationship between f, /D and Re are

complexes. From the Moody diagram, for a higher Re the friction factor is not

depends on the Re.

Example 6.2

SAE 10 oil flows through a cast iron pipe with a velocity of 5m/s. The pipe has a

length of 45m and diameter of 150mm. Determine head loss due to friction.

Solution:

From the table, density and viscosity of SAE oil are:

= 869kg/m3, = 0.0814Ns/m2

Re

VD 869 0.15 5

8000

0.0814

k s 0.26

0.002

D 150

f 0.036

Head loss,

hf f

l V2

45

1

0.036

0.551m

D 2g

0.15 2 9.81

As flows through a conduit, total energy possessed by the fluid tends to decrease in

the direction of fluid flow. Such energy losses are of two types

144

(i) The friction loss, hf

(ii) The minor loss, hm

This total losses h1 is the sum of hf and hm.

hl h f hm

Friction losses have already been explained and they are due to friction resistance at

walls and due to resistance of fluid particles as they roll, rub and slide each other due

to fluid flow.

Minor losses are due to the flow through valves or pipe fittings such as elbows, tees,

bends etc. In the design of pipelines energy loss due to friction is dominant for the

pipe length of 30m or greater. For short length losses at elbows, valves, tee joints

may be equal to or greater than the frictional losses.

Minor losses are commonly expressed in terms of velocity head, in the equation form;

hm K

V2

2g

K = coefficient of minor friction

V = average velocity in the pipe

The minor loss coefficient K has different values depending on particular type of

minor loss.

1.

Entrance losses occur when a liquid enters a conduit from a large tank or

reservoir. Entrances loss coefficient for different shapes of the entrances is

given in Figure 6.7.

2.

Exit losses: It occurs when liquid leaves the conduit and enters a large tank or

reservoir. Exit loss coefficient is equal to 1 for all shapes of exit (Figure 6.8).

3.

Sudden contraction: occur when there is a sudden decrease in conduit size and

sudden expansion losses occur when there is sudden increase in conduit size.

The loss coefficient (K) is depended on d/D ratio and is shown in Figure 6.7.

145

4.

determined from Figure 6.7 which depends on the ratio of radius of curvature

of the bend to diameter of the conduit (R/D) and relative roughness of the

bend /D.

5.

Additional minor losses result from fittings such as valves, elbow and tees as

given in Figure 6.7. Values of minor loss coefficient K for valves given in

Figure 6.7 are for fully open position. If valve is partially open the head loss

hm will be greater. Figure 6.7 enables us to estimate the increased head loss

for partially open valves.

146

147

Minor losses calculated from equation 6.15 can be incorporated into Bernoullis

equation. The resulting equation is given by

P1 V12

P V2

flV 2

V2

Z1 2 2 Z 2

K

2g

2g

2 gD

2g

Example 6.3:

Two tanks are connected with the piping system with the first pipe has the diameter of

150mm and 6m long, and the second pipe has a diameter of 225mm with the length of

15m (Figure E6.37). The water surface in the first tank is 6m above the second tank.

Calculate the losses exist and determine the flow rate of flowing water. (Take the

friction coefficient for both pipes as 0.01)

148

Figure E6.3

Solution:

Using the Bernoulli equation;

P1 V12

P2 V22

Z1

Z 2 hL

2g

2g

By considering at points 1 and 2;

P1 = P2 = 0 ;

and V1 = V2 = 0

hL

hL

Q2

g

hL Z 1 Z 2 6m

flV 2

V2

K

2 gD

2g

and

Q= VA

f1l1

f 2 l 2 K 1Q 2 K 2 Q 2 K E Q 2

2

2

2

2 gA22

2 gA12

2 D1 A1 2 D2 A2 2 gA1

Where

A1

D12 (0.15) 2

0.0177 m 2

4

4

and

A2

D22 (0.225) 2

0.0398m 2

4

4

K1 = 0.5, K2 = 1 and KE = 0.41 ;

hL

Q2

0.01(6)

0.01(5)

0.5

1

0.41

2

2

2

2

2 g 0.15(0.0177)

0.225(0.0398)

(0.0177)

(0.0398)

(0.0177) 2

Therefore,

Q= 0.155m3/s

149

Problems

1.

Kerosene with a kinematic viscosity of 210 -6 m2/s flows at a rate of 0.02 m/s

in a 20 cm steel pipe. Would you expect the flow to be laminar or turbulent?

Calculate the head loss per 100m of pipe.

2.

In the pipe system for a given discharge, the ratio of the head loss in a given

length of the 1 m pipe to the head loss in the same length of the 2 m pipe is

3.

(a)

(b)

(c)

16

(d)

32

Glycerin at 20C flows at 0.6 m/s in the 2 cm commercial steel pipe. Two

piezometers are used as shown to measure the piezemetic head. The distance

along the pipe between the standpipes is 1 m. The inclination of the pipe is 20.

What is the height difference h between the glycerins in the two standpipes?

150

4.

Water flows in the pipe shown and the manometer deflects 80 cm. What is f

for

the pipe if V = 3 m/s ?

5.

A fluid with v = 10-6 m/s and = 800 kg/m flows through the 8 cm

galvanized iron pipe. Estimate the flow for the conditions shown in figure.

reducethe discharge to 50% of the flow with the valve wide open as shown.

7.

0.1 m/s. Also, D1 = 15 cm, L1 = 50 cm, D2 = 30 cm, and L2 = 160 cm. Determine the

difference in the water-surface elevation between the two reservoirs.

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