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ControlSystemsEngineering

APracticalApproach
byFrankOwen,PhD,P.E.
MechanicalEngineeringDepartment
CaliforniaPolytechnicStateUniversity
SanLuisObispo,California
May2012

byFrankOwen,May2012

TableofContents

Preface

Acknowledgements

Chapter1Introductiontocontrolsystems

Chapter2Laplacetransformations

Chapter3Systemmodeling

Chapter4Firstandsecondordersystemresponse

Chapter5Stability

Chapter6Steadystateerror

Chapter7Rootlocus

Chapter8Frequencyresponse

Chapter9DesigningandtuningPIDcontrollers

Chapter10Anintroductiontodigitalcontrol

Preface

Preface
Whythisbook?
ThisbookhasbeenwrittenforcontrolsstudentsatCalPolyquitesimplytosavethemmoney.Thereare
many,manygoodcontrolsbooksavailable,buttheyhave,inmyopinion,threeflaws.
1) Theyareveryexpensive.
2) Theyareratherreferencebooksthanabasic,firstbookwhatoneneedswhenfirstapproaching
thesubject.ThuswehavefoundatCalPolythatwebuyabookforalotofmoneyandthenuseonly
asmallpartofit.Itisnotthatthepartsthatwedontusedonthaveanyvalue.Theydo.Butone
doesntneedtobuyacompletereferencebooktounderstandthebasicsandtheessentialsofa
topic.
3) Theyarehighlymathematical.Controlsisaverymathematicaltopic,perhapsthemostheavily
ladenmathematicallyinmechanicalengineering.Therearemanygoodengineersinindustrythat
arenotparticularlyadeptatmathematics,whopracticeengineeringwithasmuchintuitionand
commonsenseasmathematicaladeptness.Amathematicalapproachtocontrolslosessightofthis,
leavesmanypeoplebehind,anddoesnottakeadvantageofthefactthatthistopicalsomakesalot
ofsense,alotofcommonsense.Thustheapproachtakenhereistoincludewhatmathisnecessary
buttoappealtocommonsenseandintuitionwheneverpossible.Withtodaysmodelingtools
readhereMatlab/Simulinkagreatdealofthemathcanbeskippedandreplacedwithmodel
building,toposeandanswerquestionsthatstartwithWhatwouldhappenifwe?
InadditionithasalwaysbeenmyconjecturethatwhatwehavedevelopedatCalPolyinourcontrolslab
wouldalsobeveryusefultocontrolsengineersinindustry.Ourlab,whilenotunique,isveryrare.It
bringscontrolsdowntoearthandteachescontrolsengineershowtodealwithrealsystems,howto
modelthemandthentunethemodels,andhowtosetupandtunePIDcontrollersforrealsystems.
Thesearetheessentialskillsthatacontrolsengineermusthavetooperateinindustry.Inmy
experienceinacademia,theseessentialskillsarenotoftentaught.Controlsstudentshavetheirheads
filledwithmathematics,indeedthemathematicsofcomplexnumbers,butthentheyarenotgiveneven
astartingnotionofhowsuchknowledgeisapplicableintherealworld.Thisbookfocuseseveronthe
realworldofcontrolsinindustry.Ittriesnevertolosesightofthatgoalandtriestoavoidthealluring
trapofmathematicaleleganceandindeedmathematicalsnobbishnessthatseemscommoninthefield
ofacademiccontrols.Sothebookhasalsobeenwrittenforindustrialpractitionersofcontroltheory
whoneedtounderstandthetopicandthenbringintoplaytotheiradvantage.
TheotherinfluencethatledmetowritethisbookwasthethreeyearsIspentteachingcontrolsin
Germany,twoyearsattheMunichUniversityofAppliedSciencesandoneyearattheKarlsruhe
UniversityofAppliedSciences.InGermanytextbooksarerare.Ratherstudentsworkfromascript,a
collectionoftheprofessorsnotesorganizedandprintedforstudentuse.Thisbookisreallyascript,a
collectionofmynotesfromteachingcontrolsoverthepastdecade.Thoughwritingabookisalotof
Preface1

Preface

work,itscommonpracticetohaveshort,directedscriptsatlowcostsforpoorstudents.SoIthought,
whydontwedothesameatCalPoly?Wehavelotsandlotsofexperienceteachingcontrols,sowe
shouldbeabletocomeupwithagoodscript.Besides,withourinvolvementinourlaboratory,wehave
alreadydemonstratedthatwecancomeupwithahighqualitydocumentforteachingthelabportionof
thecourse.
Thusitismyhopethatstudentswillbenefitfromthispracticalapproachtocontrolsjustastheyare
assuredlybenefitingfromsavingalmost$200(in2010).AndIhopethatthisscriptservesasanexample
ofwhatcouldbedoneinothercoursesatCalPolyifprofessorswouldtaketheirhardwonexperience,
collectit,andmakeitavailableatlowcosttothoseeagertolearnbutwithoutalotofmoneytobuy
expensivereferencebooks.Thisdoesnotmeanthatoneshouldntbuytheexpensivereferencebooks.
Maybeoneneedstheminhisorherwork.Butatthatstage,onehasthemeanstobuythemorones
companywillbuythemwhenthereisaneed.
TheuseofMatlab/Simulink
ItishardnowadaystoenvisionpracticingcontrolsengineeringwithoutMatlab/Simulink.The
employmentofthissoftwareinanalyzingsystemsanddesigningcontrollersindeednowinrunning
realcontrollersinphysicalsystemsisderigueur.Thistextdoesnotincludeatutorialinlearning
Matlab/Simulink.Thatsavailableonlineorwiththesoftware.Itisassumedthatthereaderhassome
knowledgeofthissoftware.Problemsareposedinthetextthatdirectlydirectthestudenttousethis
software.Occasionallytipsaregiveninspecificapplicationsthatillustratetheutilityofaparticular
MatlabcommandorSimulinkprocedure.Iftheusersknowledgeofthissoftwareisnotatalevelwhere
thesereferencestoitmakesense,heorsheshouldexplorethesoftwareabit,researchingitshelp
facilityforbackgroundknowledge.ControlsrequiresknowingaboutonlyatinybitofMatlaband
Simulink.Sothereaderisnotrequiredtodoanyextensivefoundationbuildinginordertobeeffective
withMatlab/Simulinkinhisorherstudyofthesubject.
Acknowledgements
Wow,howdidahillbillyguyfromalawyerfamilyinMississippievergettothepointthathecouldsit
downandwriteacontrolsbookalmostdirectlyoutofhishead?Well,ifItoldthatwholestory,thatd
beabookinitself.Lotsofhardwonexperiencebutalsolotsofhelpalongtheway.Itsalwaysbeenmy
contentionthatwhenbestowingthanks,wenevergofarbackenough.SoIwanttoatleastgobackand
thankmyhighschoolmathematicsandphysicsteacher,MacEgger.Hedidntplanttheoriginalseed,
buthewasthereclosetothebeginning.Thentherewerelotsoftwistsandturnstogettothispoint.
Alongtheway:GlenMasadaattheUniversityofTexasatAustintaughtmeclassicalcontrolswhenI
wentandgotamidcareerPhD.JustbeforethatIworkedatoneofthelargestcoalfiredplantsinthe
UnitedStates,AmericanElectricPowersGavinplantinGallipolis,Ohio.Aplantengineertheretaught
mealot,RandyScheidler.Hetaughtmealotaboutpowerplantsbutalsoaboutthelevelofknowledge
ofgoodplantengineersintheUnitedStates.Randyservedasasortofmodeltouseinkeepingwhat
Ivewrittenpractical,oftryingnevertowriteanythingwithoutshowinghowitisused.AndImustback
upfurtherandthankthefolksatTraxCorporationinLynchburg,Virginiafortheirinvitationtocome
Preface2

Preface

workforsevenmonthswiththemin1992onpowerplantsimulators.Ilearnedlotsaboutsteampower
plantsandhowtheyrecontrolledfromthisexperienceatTrax.
SincemyarrivalatCalPolyin1998Ihavebeeninvolvedincontrolsasoftenaspossible.Thecourse
therewashandedofftomebyMikeIanci,EdGarner,andEdBaker.Theyhadbuiltaverypractical,
handsonlab.Thoughwevereplacedmuchoftheequipmentinit,someisstillleftfromthosedays,
andmuchofwhatwasaddedcanbeviewedasrefinementsandimprovementsofwhatthey
bequeathedtous.HereIhavethepleasureofworkingwithverypractical,handonpeoplelikemyself
JohnRidgely,CharlesBirdsong,BillMurray,andXiWu.Allhavecontributedonewayoranothertoour
workinmakingthislaboratorymorepracticalandhandson.Somehavehadeventodealwiththe
consequencesofwhatIregardedasagoodideaatthetime,thatrequiredalotofworkontheirpartsto
implement,toworkthebugsout.Throughtheireffortswehaveatopnotchcontrolslab.Ihaveseena
betteronenowhere,neitherinAmericanorinEurope.Itwastheirsweatthatmadethislabthegreat
teachingtoolthatithasbecome.
MytwosojournsinGermanywereimportantcontributorstothisbook.Ihadthepleasureofworking
withseveralaccomplishedcontrolsengineersthere.Twostandout.ManfredSchusterattheMunich
UniversityofAppliedScienceswelcomedmeintohislabandgavemeaveryconcisescripttoteachout
of.Hisscriptis,infact,amodelformine.AttheKarlsruheUniversityofAppliedSciencesIhadthe
pleasureofworkingwithHelmutScherf,acommittedcontrolsnerd.Helmutisarare,rareexampleofa
practicalcontrolsengineer.HehaspublishedagreatbookinGermanofSimulinkmodelsofvery
common,practicalsystems.Hehasbuiltandisstillbuildingpractical,lowcostsystemsforhiscontrols
labthatserveasusefulplatformsforturningonthecontrolslightinstudentsheads.Manyofhis
perceptive,cuttothequickmethodsofthinkingaboutcontrolstopicshavebeenincorporatedintothis
script.
Sothatsthestoryinbriefofhowthisbookcameabout.Ihopethatyouenjoyitandfindituseful.
FrankOwen
SanLuisObispo,California,U.S.A.
May2012

Preface3

Chapter 1 Introduction to Control Systems

Chapter1IntroductiontoControlSystems
Goals
Thepurposeofthischapteristogiveyouanoverviewofthetopicofcontrolsystemsandtointroduce
youtothebasicconceptsthatyouneedtogoforward.Presentedare

Basiccontrolloopanatomy,thepartsandpiecesofcontrolloopsandhowtheyareconfigured
Positionersvs.regulators,thetwobasictypesofcontrolloops
Aflybywiresystemvs.acruisecontrolsystem,iconicexamplesofthepositionerandthe
regulator
Abeginningdiscussionofblockdiagrams
PIDcontrollers,themostcommonlyusedcontrollersinindustry

Examplesofcontrolsystemsusedinindustry
Controltheoryisarelativelynewfieldinengineeringwhencomparedwithcoretopics,suchasstatics,
dynamics,thermodynamics,etc.Earlyexamplesofcontrolsystemsweredevelopedactuallybeforethe
sciencewasfullyunderstood.ForexampletheflyballgovernordevelopedbyJamesWatttocontrol
overspeedofhissteamenginewasdevelopedoutofnecessity,longbeforethescienceofcontrolscame
intobeing.Figure1.1showsanexampleofthiscontroller.Theflyballsaremountedonashaftthat
turnsandisdrivenbytheenginethroughthepulleyshown.Astheenginespeedsup,theflyballsare
flungoutwardbytheircentrifugalforce.Thisoutwardmovementpullstheleverarmdown,whichraises
itsotherend.Thisistiedtothesteaminletvalve,whichclosesastheflyballweightsmovefurther
outward.Soiftheenginetriestorunaway,theinletsteamvalvewillclose,shuttingoffthefluiddriving
theengine.

Figure1.1Flyballgovernor
ManysaythatthedevelopmentoftheairplanebytheWrightbrotherswasenabledbytheir
understandingofcontrolsthatandthedevelopmentofalightweightenginepowerfulenoughto
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Chapter 1 Introduction to Control Systems

propeltheirmachineintotheair.Theirdevelopmentofwingwarpingenabledthemtosteertheir
airplane,somethingthathadbeenimpossibleuptothatpoint.Anditiscertainlytruethatmuchof
controltheorygrewupwiththeairplane,asairplanesweredevelopedduringthetwoworldwarsand
alsothroughoutthe20thcenturyforcivilianpurposes.Asjetenginesweredevelopedandairplanes
becamebigger,itbecameevermoreproblematictopilotanaircraftwithjustmechanicalconnections
betweenthepilotscontrolsinthecockpitandthesurfaceselsewhereontheairplanethatsteerit
throughtheair.Thustheflybywiresystemwasdeveloped,whichcutthisdirectconnectionbetween
thecockpitcontrolsandthecontrolsurfacesontheairplane.Inaflybywiresystem,themovementsof
thestickoryokeandtherudderpedalsinthecockpitaremerelysensedbysensors.Electricalsignals
arethensenttoactuatorsdrivingtheappropriatesurfaces,andthenthesemovetheailerons,the
elevator,ortheruddertosteertheplaneaccordingtothecontrolinputsmadebythepilot.Ofcourse
theforceappliedbytheactuatoronthecontrolsurfacecanbemanytimeswhatahumancouldapply
directly.Andtheforcecanbeappliedatanactuatorfardistantfromthepilot.Soflybywirebrings
withittheadvantageofforceamplificationandremotecontrol.
Inindustryonefindscontrolsystemsofmanytypes.Inarefinery,chemicalplant,foodprocessingplant,
orapowergenerationfacilityonefindscontrolloopsforcontrollingtanklevels,pressuresoffluidsat
variousplacesinaplant,poweroutput,valveposition,pump,fan,orturbinespeed.Moderndayfighter
jetsactuallyaredesignedtobeunstable.Thisallowsthemtomaneuverquickly.Theycanonlyfly
becauseacontrolsystemstabilizestheirflight,makingcorrectionsataspeedthatnopilotcouldmatch.
Ifoneoftheseplanescontrolsystemfailedinflight,theplanewouldbeunflyableandwouldcrash.
Therehasbeenatremendousgrowthofcontrolsystemuseinthemodernautomobile.Thereareeven
nowdrivebywireandbrakebywiresystems,where,likeintheairplane,thedirectmechanicalor
hydraulicconnectionbetweeninputdevicesandwhattheycontrolhasbeencutandreplacedbywish
sensingdevicesandthentransmissionofanelectricalsignaltoanactuatortoturnthewheelsorto
applythebrakes.Likethecontroloftheunstableairplane,skiddetectionandcontroltakeadvantageof
anautomaticcontrolsystemsspeed.Adriverwholosescontrolofhis/hercarmaybesavedbysucha
system.Itspringsautomaticallyintoactionupondetectingaskidsituationandappliesthecorrect
brakingforcestorescuethecarfromtheskidanditdoesthisbeforethedriverisevenawarethata
problemexists.
Besidestheseapplications,controltheoryisusefulevenforanalyzingmanuallycontrolledsystems.A
humanoperatorisinthiscaseactuallyplayingtheroleofthecontroller.Ahumanssensingofand
reactingtoinputswhilemanuallycontrollinganindustrialsystemoravehicleisactuallyastudyin
controls.Hisorherreactiontimes,theforcefeedbackortheangulartravelofasteeringwheeloran
operatinglever,suchhumanmachineissuesarewithintherealmofcontroltheory.Mathematical
modelsofthehumancontrollerhaveevenbeendeveloped,sothatadynamicmodelofamanually
operatedsystemcanbecompletedandstudied.
Muchofwhathasbeendiscussedherecanbeillustratedwiththeexampleofapilotinanairplane.
Takethecaseofanairplanewithoutaflybywiresystem,withdirectconnectionsviacablesandpulleys
betweenthecockpitcontrolsandthecontrolsurfaces,asonefindsinasmall,generalaviationairplane.
Acontrolsexpertmightstudytheeffectofahumancontrollerduringsomeflightmaneuverorcritical
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Chapter 1 Introduction to Control Systems

situation.Thissystemispurelymechanicalwithahumancontrollerintheloop.Butsomesmallplanes
alsohaveautopilots,soacontrolsengineerhadtodesignasystemthatwouldsenseflightconditions
andoperatethecontrolswithoutinterventionbythepilot.Evenmorecomplicatedisthecaseofa
largerairplanewithaflybywiresystem.Controlsengineersdesignedthesensingandreactionlink
betweenthecockpitcontrolsandthecorrespondingmotionofthecontrolsurfaces.Evenwhenthe
planeisbeingflowninmanualmode,asophisticatedcontrolsystemisengagedsimplytosensethe
pilotsmovementoftheinputcontrolleversandpedalsandtransmitthecommandedmotionto
actuatorsthatwillbringitabout.Nowconsiderthecaseofaflybywiresystemwithanactiveautopilot.
Thecontrolsystemsensesflightconditionsaltitude,heading,andspeedandautomaticallyoperates
theproperactuatorselevator,aileronsandrudder,andthrottletomaintaindesiredvalues.Thus
thesefourvariantsofdoingthesametaskflyinganairplaneshowincreasinglycomplexexamplesof
moderncontrolsystems.
Basiccontrolsystemanatomy
ClassicalcontrolsystemsareSISOsystems,singleinputsingleoutput,asopposedtoMIMOsystems,
multipleinputmultipleoutput,whicharemorecomplicated.Foracontrolsystemtheinputisthe
desiredvalue,andtheoutputistheactualvalue(SeeFigure1.2).

Figure1.2SISOcontrolsystem
Agoodexampleisacruisecontrolsystemforanautomobile.Theuserinputsadesiredvalue,say65
mph.Usuallyonedoesnottypethisin.Onedrivesthecaruptothisspeedmanually,thenpushesa
button.Thespeedometersensesthespeed,storesthisinanonboardcomputer,andthenitisthejob
ofthecruisecontroltokeeptheautomobileatthisspeed.
Thus,wheneverythingisworkingasitshould,theactualvalueisequaltothedesiredvalue.InGerman
thesevariablesareknownastheSollwert,theshouldvalue,andtheIstwert,theisvalue.Incontrolsit
isalwaysgoodtobringthingsdowntoearth,becausecontrolscangetsotheoretical,onequicklyloses
sightofwhatisgoingonorwhyoneisdoingwhatoneisdoing.Iliketorefertothesetwovaluesas
whatyouwantversuswhatyouvegot.Whenwhatyouvegotisntwhatyouwant,then
somethingswrong.WhenSollwertIstwert0,thenthecontrolloopisnotdoingitsjob,and
somethingisbrokenorsomethingneedstobechangedtomakethisdifference0.
Actuallythisdifferencehasaname,theerror.Thatsnoterrorinthesenseofamistake.Ratherits
errorinthesenseofdeviation.Inaperfectlyfunctioningcontrolsystem,theerrorshouldbe0,and
whatyouvegotshouldbewhatyouwant.
Letslookinsidethecontrolloop,attheanatomyofacontrolloop.Almostallcontrolloopsarethe
same.Theyareallmadeupoffivecomponentsarrangedalwaysthesame.Sometimesitisnoteasyto
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Chapter 1 Introduction to Control Systems

recognizetheseelementsinanactualsystem.Butitsalwaysagoodideatotry.Thisstructureis
fundamentaltocontroltheoryandrepresentstheunderlyingfunctionsthatareneededtomake
feedbackcontrolwork.Asyouprobablyhavealreadyconcluded,thebasicstructureofafeedback
controlsystemisaloop(seeFigure1.3).

Figure1.3Basiccontrolloopanatomy
Thefiveelementsare:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

thecomparator
thecontroller
theactuator
theplant
thesensor

Letsdiscussthesecomponentsonebyone.Illpresentthemintheorderthatseasiesttouseto
identifytheminarealsystem.Usuallytheeasiestelementtoidentifyisthesensor.Foracruisecontrol
system,thesensoristhespeedometer.Thesensoralwaysmeasurestheactualvalueandthenfeedsit
backtothecomparatortocomparewiththedesiredvalue.Thecomparatorisjustthesummingblock
thattakesasinputthedesiredvalueandthemeasuredvalue.Thatsthenatureoffeedbackcontrol,
andthatswhyitscalledfeedbackcontrol:theactualvalueisfedbacktothedesiredvalueand
compared.Anothercommonexampleisthethermostatinyourhouse.Athermometerinyourhouse
measurestheinteriortemperatureandthencomparesthatwiththedesiredtemperatureyouhave
somehowenteredonthefaceplateofthethermostat.
Theerrorsignalistheoutputofthecomparator.Itisalsotheinputtothecontroller.Asyoucansee,all
oftheseblocksintheblockdiagramofFigure2areSISOblocks,andeachoutputbecomestheinputof
anotherblock.Thecontrollertakestheinputfromthecomparator,theerror,anddecideshowthe
systemshouldrespond.Iftheerroris0,thenwhatyouvegot=whatyouwant,andthesystemshould
donothing.Iftheerrorisnot0,thenthecontrollershouldtakesomeaction.

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Chapter 1 Introduction to Control Systems

Nowadays,withdigitalcontrols,thecontrollerisusuallyjustapieceofsoftwarerunninginacomputer
somewhere.Foracruisecontrol,thereisacomputeralgorithmrunninginanonboardcomputerthat
performsthistask.Soifsomeoneaskedyoutopointtothecontrollerinthecruisecontrolloop,youd
haveahardtimedoingthatwithouttalkingwiththeengineersthatdesignedit.Oryoucouldjustpoint
atablackboxinthecarandsay,Thereitis,andmostpeoplewouldhaveahardtimedisputingthis.
Iftheerrorisnot0,thenthecontrollerneedstotakeaction.Eventuallyitwantstoinfluencetheplant.
Thisisafunnytermforthethingthatweactuallywanttocontrol.Butcontroltheorygrewupin
industrialplants,sothatiswhythisblockhasthisname.Theplantcanbehardtoidentify.One
identifiesitoftenbyasking,Whatarewetryingtocontrol?andthentheplantisthethingthatthat
valueisapropertyof.Forexampleinacruisecontrolloop,thespeediswhatwearetryingtocontrol.
Andthespeedisapropertyofthecar.Sothecaristheplantinacruisecontrolloop.
Oftentheactuatoristhehardestcomponenttoidentify,sooftenweleaveitforlast.Oftenitishardto
drawalinebetweentheactuatorandtheplant.Oftenitshardtoanswerthequestion,Wheredoes
theactuatorendandtheplantbegin?Youllseethisdilemmawithexperience.Sogoodquestionsto
askareWhatdoesthecontrollertalkto?orWheredoesthecontrollersenditssignal?orBywhat
meansdoesthecontrollerinfluencetheplant?.Inacruisecontrolsystemtheplantisthecar.The
actuatoristhethrottle.Ormaybeitstheengine.Itsthethingthatcausesthecarsspeedtoincrease
whenthecontrollernotesthatthecarisgoingtooslowandneedstospeedup.Whatyouhaveisless
thanwhatyouwant,sodosomething.
Thusthesefivelogicalcomponentsarealwayspresentinaclassicalcontrolloop.Thoughitmaybe
hard,itisalwaysofvaluetotrytoidentifythephysicalcomponentsthatcorrespondtothelogical
components.
NotealsoinFigure2thatthesignalsbetweentheblocksalsohavenames:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.

rdesiredvalue(rstandsforreferencevalue;thisisalsoknownasthecontrollersetpoint)
eerror
ucommand
fforce
cactualvalue(cstandsforcontrolledvalue)
bmeasuredvalue

Thesevariablenamesarenotstandardbyanymeans,butoneseesthemoften.Youshouldbeaware
thatoftenvariationsofthemareused.Butweneednamesforthemsothatwecanrefertothemwhen
talkingaboutwhatsgoingonintheloop.
Twotypesofcontrolloops:positionerandregulator
Controlloopscomeintwoflavorspositioners(alsoknownatrackers)andregulators.Botharemade
upofthesamecomponentspresentedabove.Whatdifferentiatesthemisactuallyhowtheyareused,
whattheirpurposeis.ThecontrolloopshowninFigure1.3isapositioner.Thisloopcanbemodifiedto
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Chapter 1 Introduction to Control Systems

configurearegulator,asshowninFigure1.4.Notethatthedifferenceistheadditionofthedisturbance
betweentheactuatorandtheplant.Thishintsatthedifferencebetweenthetwoloops.Apositioner
hasadesiredvaluethatchangesoften.Auserisoperatingaplantthroughthecontrolsystem.Itisthe
jobofthecontrolsystemtosensetheoperatorswishesanddrivetheplanttothepointthattheuser
desires.Incontrast,inaregulatorsystem,theuserwantsnormallythattheactualvaluestayatsome
preselectedlevel,eventhoughexternalinfluencesareworkingtodrivethesystemoffofthepreselected
level.Agoodexampleisthecruisecontrolsystemofacar.Yousetthedesiredspeedtoafixedvalue.
Butupwardanddownwardgradestendtomakethespeeddeviatefromitsdesiredvalue.Itisthejobof
thecontrolsystemtokeepthesystematapreselectedspeedinthefaceofdisturbancesthattendto
deflecttheactualspeedfromthiswishedforspeed.

Figure1.4Regulatorloop
Itiscommontoarrangecontrolloopssothattheinputisonthelefthandsideandtheoutputisonthe
righthandside.Witharegulatorloop,whenthedesiredoperatinglevelischosen,theloopselectsthis
levelasthereferencelevelandconsidersittobe0.Theloopworksindeviationsfromthisoperating
level.Weshallseelaterhowthisisdone.Atpresentitsufficestonotethatthedesiredvalueisthe0
referencevalue,sotherinputcanbeeliminated.TheloopcanbereconfiguredasshowninFigure1.5.
Heretheinputisthedisturbance,andtheoutputisstillthesamevariableofinterest,c.Thereworking
ofloopsasshowninthisexampleiscommonlydoneincontrolsandisknownasblockdiagramalgebra.
Weshallseemanymoreexamplesofthisinthematerialtocome.

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Chapter 1 Introduction to Control Systems

Figure1.5Reworkedregulatorloop
PIDcontrollers,theworkhorseoftheindustry
PID(ProportionalIntegralDerivative)controllersarebyfarthemostcommoncontrollersusedin
industry.Thenamereferstothreedifferentactionsthatthecontrollermakesinrespondingtoanon
zeroinput,theerror,aswehaveseenabove.Thuswespeakofproportionalaction,integralaction,and
derivativeaction.Thethreeactionsoccursimultaneously.Theconfigurationofthecontrollerisa
parallelconfiguration,asisdemonstratedinFigure1.6.

Figure1.6PIDcontrollerconfiguration
Noteinthefigurethattheinputsignal,theerror,isfirsttreatedonewayoranotherandthenmultiplied
byaconstant.Thetoppathistheproportionalpath.Heretheoutputisproportionaltotheerror,
hencethename.Thereisnoactiontakenontheinputsignal.ItisjustmultipliedbyKPandthenpassed
ondownstreamtotheoutput.Theintegralactionisthesecondpath.Notethattheerror(theinput)is
firstintegrated.Theoutputoftheintegratorblockistheintegraloftheerror.Thusifyouplottedthe
errorcurvevs.time,thissignalwouldrepresentthenetareaunderthiserrorcurvethroughtime.Thisis
thenmultipliedbyKIandbecomestheintegralaction.Thederivativeactionisthethirdpath.Notethat
theerrorisfirstdifferentiated.Theoutputofthederivativeblockisthennottheerrorbuttherateof
changeoftheerroratthecurrenttime.ThischangerateisthenmultipliedbyKDtobecomethe
derivativeaction.AllthreeactionsareaddedtogetherinthesummingblocktobecomethetotalPID
controlleraction.

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Chapter 1 Introduction to Control Systems

Whyonewoulddothisisatthispointnotclearatall.Butasweshallsee,eachoftheseactionshasa
specificuseorjustificationandusuallyimprovesthecontrolresponse.ThethreeconstantsKP,KI,and
KDarecalledthecontrollergains.KPistheproportionalgain,KIistheintegralgain,andKDisthe
derivativegain.Itisalsooftenthecasethatoneoftheactionsisnotpresent.Asweshallsee,the
proportionalactionisbyfarthemostsensibleandusefulaction.OftencontrollershaveonlyPaction
thatisKIandKD=0.WecallthesePonlyorjustPcontrollers.AcontrollerwithnoDactioniscalledaPI
controller.OnewithnoIactionisaPDcontroller.SoweencounterP,PI,PD,andPIDcontrollers.Note
thatallofthesehavePaction.TheremaybeanoddballcasewithoutPaction,butthatiswhatitis,an
oddballcase.
Problems
1.1

Makeaconceptualmodelofabrakebywiresystem.Theforceonthebrakepedalissensedasa
desiredbrakingforce.Thegreaterthepedalforce,thegreatertheforceappliedbythebrakepads
tothebrakediscs.Thismeasuredpedalforceissensedbyaloadcell,whichproducesavoltage
proportionaltothisforce.Thisvoltageisdeliveredtoaninterfaceboard,whichconvertsitintoa
digitalnumberinamicroprocessor.Thecontrollerrunninginthemicroprocessorproducesan
outputsignalthatisthenconvertedintoavoltagethatdrivesanelectromechanicalactuator.This
drivesapiston,themastercylinder,andproducesapressure.Thepressureworksonthebrake
pistonthatappliesthebrakingforcetothediscpads.Thebrakingforceismeasuredusingactually
apressuresensor.Knowingthesizeofthebrakepads,thebrakingforcecanbedetermined.The
forceappliedtothebrakepadsisnotnecessarilythesameforceappliedtothepedal,buttheyare
proportionallyrelated.Makeablockdiagramofthissystem,showinghowallthecomponentsfit
togethertocomposethesystem.Eachblockshouldallcontainthenameofasystemcomponent.
Eachlinebetweentheblocksshouldshowthetypeofsignalbeingtransmittedbetweenblocks.

1.2 Thefigurebelowshowsapartoftheelectricalpowergenerationsysteminaconventionalsteam
powerplant.Fuel(gas,oil,orcoal)issuppliedonthelefthandsidetotheboiler.Therewateris
heatedintosteamandstoredinasteamdrum.Fromtherethesteamflowsthroughacontrol
valveintotheturbine,whichturnstheplantsgenerator.Thegeneratorproduceselectricpower.
ThereareseveralSISOloopsinplayhere.Oneloadsthegeneratorbyincreasingordecreasingits
electricfield.Ofcoursewhenmoreelectricityisneeded,morefuelwillbeneededtosupportthis.
Buttheconnectionbetweenfuelinandelectricityoutisnotdirect.Thethreelollipopsshown
representmeasuredquantities.Thinkaboutwhatthesemightbe.Thenwriteintheblocksthe
quantitiesthataremeasured.Drawdashedlinesfromtheselollipopstotheactuatorsthatcontrol
them.Itisachainofeventsthatleadfrommorepowerrequiredtomorefuelsupplied.Consider
thecaseofadesiredincreaseinpowerout.Writeoutinwordsthesequenceofcauseandeffect
eventsthatwillleadthesteamplanttoanew,higherlevelofoperation.Makeacopyofthe
completeddiagramtocompletethedeliverableforthisproblem.

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Chapter 1 Introduction to Control Systems

1.3 Sometimesaplantisatwopartplant,andadisturbanceenterstheplantmidwaybetweenthese
twoparts.Drawaregulatorloopforsuchaplantwithanegativedisturbanceenteringbetween
Plant1andplant2.Letthedisturbancebetheinputtotheloop.
1.4 CreateaSimulinkmodelofaPIDcontroller.Forthisyouwillneedtousegainblocksforthethree
controllergains.Useanintegratorblockandadifferentiatorblockfortheintegralactionandthe
derivativeaction.Atfirstjustsetallgainstoavalueof1.Asinput,useaconstantblockandset
itsvalueto0.Allthreecontrolactionsaresummedwithasumblock.Useascopeblockatthe
outputofthesumblocktocapturewhatoutputthecontrollerdeliversovertime.Alsoplace
scopeblocksonallthreecontrolactionstoseehowtheybehave.Ofcourseintherealworldthe
controllerwouldbehookedintoasystemandreceivethesystemerrorasitsinput.Itsoutput
wouldbefeddownstreamtoanactuator.With0asasteadyinput,youhavemodeledthecaseof
acontrolloopwheretheactualvalueisequaltothedesiredvalue.Whatshouldthecontrollerdo
andwhatdoesitdo?Nowmaketheinput1.Whatdoesthecontrollerdonow?

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Chapter 9 Designing and tuning PID controllers

Chapter9DesigningandtuningPIDcontrollers
Goals

ProvideapracticallookatthePID,athowitisthoughtofandunderstoodbypractitionersin
industry
DescribeseveralheuristictuningmethodsforPIDcontrollers

InChapters7and8wehavealreadygottenagoodlookatthePIDcontroller.Inthecontextofroot
locusandfrequencyresponsedesignprocedureswehaveundertakenthedesignofPIDcontrollersfor
variouscommonsystems.Inawaytheseapproachesgiveoneafalseimpression.Theyimplythatone
musthaveasystemmodeltotuneaPIDcontroller.Thatisnot,however,commonpracticeinmany,if
notmost,industrialapplications.Forexampleatanklevelcontrollerneedstobeimplemented.One
purchasesacommercialPIDcontrollerandputsitinserviceonthetank.Onethenfieldtunesthe
controller,startingwiththeproportionalgainandthenaddingintegralandderivativegaintoimprove
systemresponse.Allofthisisnormallydonewithoutasystemmodel.
Indeed,thenormalunderstandingofPIDcontrolbyacontrolstechnicianinanormalplantismuchmore
intuitiveanddowntoearththanwhatyouhavelearnedaboutPIDdesignandtuningviarootlocusand
frequencyresponse.Thosetwotechnicsarepowerfuldesigntechniquesandoughttobeunderstoodby
controlstechniciansbutoftentheyarenot.Thusforthecontrolsengineer,itisimportantalsotogain
thisintuitivegraspofPIDcontrolsimplytobeabletocommunicateeffectivelywithplantcontrols
technicians.ThiscommonsenseunderstandingofPIDcontroloffersyetanotherperspectiveonthis
technology,andthiscomplementstheapproachestakenalreadywithrootlocusandfrequency
response.
ThereareanumberofacceptednonmodelbasedmethodsfortuningPIDcontrollersi.e.methods
usedforfieldtuning.ThemostwellknownoftheseisprobablytheZieglerNicholstuningmethod.That
andothersarediscussedinthischapter.
ThePIDcontrollerinterface
Figure9.1showsthefaceplateofatypicalPIDindustrialcontroller,thisoneusedfortemperature
controlinakilnorheattreatmentoven.

Figure9.1IndustrialPIDcontrollerfaceplate

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Chapter 9 Designing and tuning PID controllers

Theinterfaceissomewhatsparsebecauseoftentherearemanyofthesecontrollersgroupedtogether,
controllingvariouspartsofanindustrialprocess.
Theuserinputpanelforthiscontrollerconsistsofthefourbuttonsatthebottomofthefaceplate.The
firstbuttonisthemanual/automaticbutton,usedtoswitchbetweenthesetwomodesofoperation.
TheAUTOlightontheleftofthefaceplateindicateswhetherthecontrollerisinautomaticmode.In
manualmodethecontrolfunctionisdeactivated.Theusercandrivetheprocessinmanualmodeby
usingtheupanddownarrowsonthecentertwobuttons.Thisadjuststheoutputfromthecontroller
directly.Thisoutputfromthecontrollerissome(settable)range.Oftenthecontroloutputiscalculated
anddisplayedaspercentageofthisrange,asisshownaboveintheOUTwindow.Inmanualmode,
whenoneclickstheuparrow,forexample,thepercentageoutputwouldincrease.Torunthecontroller
inautomaticmode,onemustsetthesetpoint(andmaybesomeotherparameters,likeKP,TI,andTD).
Todothis,onemustreadthedocumentationthatcomeswiththecontroller.Inthecaseabove,theSET
buttonisusedtoenteraparametersettingproceduretosetthecontrollerparametersforautomatic
operation.
Inbothmanualandautomaticoperation,thedisplayofthePV(processvariable)showstheoutput
comingfromthesensorofthevariablethatistheoutputfromtheloop,thevariabletobecontrolled.
SP(setpoint)isthedesiredvalueofthisoutputvariable.Thisistheinputtothecontrolloop.Inthe
aboveexample,thecontrollerisinautomaticmode(theAUTOlightislit).Theactualvalueofthe
controlledprocessis316F,andthedesiredvalueis325F.Thecontrollerisputtingout12%ofits
outputrangetobringtheactualtemperatureuptothedesiredvalue.
TheALMlightisanalarmlight.Thiscanbesettoindicatethattheactualvalueisoutsideacertainrange
aroundthedesiredvalue.Oftenalarmscanbesetattwolevels,awarninglevelandaseverelevel.The
warninglevelwillhavethelightburnamber.Theseverelevelwillhaveitburnred.IftheAUTOlightis
green,thisgreenyellowredcolorschemeforthelightswillallowanoperatortoscanagroupofthese
modulesquicklyanddetermine
1. whichloopsareinautomaticoperation
2. whetherthereareanywarninglevelalarmsactive
3. whetherthereareanyseverelevelalarmsactive
Quartercycledamping
Controllersaredesignedtoimprovesystemresponseortoachieveadesired,prescribedresponse.
Variousaimsarepossible:

Limitastepresponsetoaspecifiedovershoot.Recallthattheovershootisafunctionsolely

of %

100% .At=1thereisnoovershoot.Butbyspecifyingno

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Chapter 9 Designing and tuning PID controllers

overshoot,onemustsettleforalongerresponse,alongertimetoreachanewsetpoint.So
oftenacompromiseismadeandalittleovershootisacceptedforfasterreactionspeed.
Specifyaspecificfrequencyofoscillation.Notethatincreasingthisfrequencydecreasesthe
systemsspeedofresponse,sincetheresponseisoftenjustthefirsthalftothreequarter
wavecycleoftheresponsesinusoid.
Limitoreliminatesteadystateerror.
Acombinationofsuchspecifications.

Tomeettheseneedsitisveryhelpfultorememberthegeometryespeciallyofcomplexpolesandthe
meaningofvariousdistancesonthisplot.Figure9.2showsthisgeometryagain.

Figure9.2Geometryofcomplex(oscillating)poles
Sobyspecifyingacertainovershoot,oneislimitingthedominantclosedlooppolepairtoarayleading
fromtheoriginatacertainangle(=arccos)fromthenegativerealaxis.Asexplainedabove,oftena
controllerissettogivealittleovershoot(510%)inordertohavethesystemrespondfaster.
Alternativelythereisaconceptcalledquartercycledamping,wherebyeachoscillationis1/4the
amplitudeofthepreviousoscillation(seeFigure9.3).Forquartercycledamping,turnsouttobe
0.2155.Thisleadstoshorterresponsetimesbutmoreovershoot.Whichtopickdependsonthe
applicationandtheabilitytotolerateovershoot.Iftheoscillationfrequencyisspecified,thenthe
verticaldistancefromtherealaxis,d,isknown.Ifboththedesiredortolerableovershootandthe
dampingratioareknown,thenthedesiredlocationofthedominantclosedlooppolepairisfixed.
Steadystateerrorisnotreadilyseenontheplot,sonosuchstatementscanbemaderegardingitandits
placementofpolesontheplotabove.

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Chapter 9 Designing and tuning PID controllers

Figure9.3Quartercycledamping
ThePIDcontroller
AsexplainedinChapter1thePIDcontrolleristheworkhorseofindustry.Most,indeedalmostall,
controlloopsinindustryareSISOloopswithPIDcontrollers.Sotobeactiveasacontrolengineerin
industryonemusthaveagoodunderstandingofPIDcontrollers.Andbythesametoken,withagood
understandingofPIDcontrollers,onecandoalmostanythingonewantsinindustry.Evenintherare
casethatoneneedssomethingotherthanaPIDcontroller,agoodunderstandingofthisworkhorse
controllerwillstandoneingoodsteadtocompareanexoticcontrollerwithaconventionalPID
controller.
BeforebeginningwiththeexplanationofaPIDcontroller,itisfirstusefultorecallwherethecontroller
isplacedinthecontrolloopandwhatitsinputandoutputare.Thecontrollerisjustafterthe
comparator,thesummingblockthattakesthedifferencebetweenthedesiredvalueandtheactual
value.Thustheinputtothecontrolleristheerrorsignal.Thecontrolleroperatesonthiserrorsignal
andproducesacommandthatisthensentdownstreamtotheactuator.Thepurposeofthecontrol
loopistodrivetheerrorto0,sothattheactualvalue=thedesiredvalue.Ifeverythingisworkingasit
should,ewillbe0andthecontrollerwilltakenoaction.Itwillsimplyput0ontheoutput,theinputto
theactuator.Thisisacommandtotheactuatortodonothing.Whentheactualvalueisnotequalto
thedesiredvalue,thecontrollertakesactionandproducesanonzerocommandfortheactuator.
PID,ofcourse,standsforproportionintegralderivative.APIDcontrollerhasaparallelstructurewith
thesethreeactions(seeFigure9.4).ThethreecontrollerconstantsKP,KI,andKDcanbetunedto
adjusttherelativestrengthofeachaction.Theproportionalactionisthemainaction,andtheother
twoactionsareaddonstoimprovethecontrol.OftenoneseesaPonlycontroller,i.e.acontrollerwith
onlyKP0.O enonseesaPIDcontrollerwithoneac onintegralorderivativeturnedoff.Thusthe

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Chapter 9 Designing and tuning PID controllers

mostcommonvariantsareaPcontroller,aPIcontroller,aPDcontroller,orthefullblownPID
controller.

Figure9.4PIDcontrollerstructure
Ofcourseonemightask,howdidanyoneevercomeupwiththisstructure?Theanswerliesinthe
developmentofthecontroller.ItwasdevelopedbyaRussianAmericanengineerNicholasMinorsky.
HewasworkingonanautosteeringsystemforshipsfortheU.S.Navy.Minorskyobservedhelmsmen
steeringshipsandnoticedthattheyactednotonlyontheerroritselfbutalsoontherateatwhichthe
errorwasdevelopingandonthehistoryofthepasterror.ThePIDstructurewasdevelopedfromthese
observations.(SeetheWikipediaarticleonPIDcontrollers.)
Proportionalaction
Asstateabove,Pactionisthemainaction.OnealmostneverseesaPIDcontrollerwithoutPaction.P
actionmakesalotofsense.Thecontrollerseestheerrorasinput.Iftheerrorissmall,thecontroller
shouldsuggestasmallaction,anudge,totheactuatortogettheplantbackontrackandreducethe
errorto0.Iftheerrorislarge,thatmeansthattheactualvaluehasdriftedfarawayfromthedesired
value.Thecontrollerneedstosuggestalargeactiontotheactuatortobringtheplantinlinewiththe
desiredvalue.Suchastrategymeansthecontrolleractionshouldbeproportionaltotheerror,i.e.P
action.
Theproportionalgain,KP,canalsoberegardedasthesensitivityofthecontroller,howgreatanactionit
willsuggestforagivendeviationofactualfromdesired.IfKPishigh,thecontrollerwilltakealarge
actionforasmalldeviationofactualfromdesired.Thecontrollerisverysensitive.IfKPissmall,the
reactionofthecontrollertoadeviationofactualfromdesiredisgentle.Averycommonsense,seatof
thepantsmethodfortuningKPisthefollowing.Onelooksattheactuatorandasks,Howmuchcanthe
actuatorgive?Forexample,takeatanklevelloopwiththecontrollinginletvalveoperatingata75%
valveopeningatdesignsteadystate.(SeeChapter3forthetanklevelsystemdescription.)Thevalve
has25%yettogiveifthelevelstartssinking,75%toclosedownifthelevelstartstorise.Onewould
pickthesituationthathadthemostdireconsequencestocontinueeitheranoverflowingtankoran
emptytankandthenposethequestion,HowfarawayfromdesignsteadystatedoIwanttogo
beforethevalveisgivingallitsgottobringthesituationundercontrol?Ifthemostcriticalsituationis
theoverflowingtankandonedecidestoallowthetankleveltorisethreeinchesbeforehavingthevalve
giveitsfull75%topreventafurtherrise,thenonehastheproportionalgain.Ifthetanksactuallevel
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Chapter 9 Designing and tuning PID controllers

rises3inchesabovethedesiredsteadystate,thene=3inches.Thedesignerhasdecidedthatatthis
deviationthevalveshouldhaveclosedits75%,sothecontrolleroutputshouldbe75%(recallthatsuch
loopsoperateondeviationsfromdesignsteadystate).SoKP=25%valveopening/inch.Thisisa
commonsensewaytoselectKPandoftenagoodwaytopickaninitialKP.RegardlessofhowKPis
selected,itisgoodpracticealwaystoperformacommonsensecheckonit,toseehowmuchofa
deviationwilldrivetheactuatortosaturation(seebelow).
Proportionalactionisbaseduponthecurrentvalueoferror.Thusitisbaseduponthepresent.Aswe
shallseebelow,integralactionisbasedonthepast,andderivativeactiononthefuture.
Integralaction
Integralactionisusedtogetridofsteadystateerror.Asystemstypeisnotgreatenough,sooneusesa
PIcontrollertoaddafreeintegratortotheopenlooptransferfunction.Otherwiseexpressed,wehave
seeninChapter6thatPonlycontrolleadsnaturallytosteadystateerrorinmanycases.Theintegral
termactsnotontheerroritselfbutratherontheintegraloftheerrorthatis,ontheaccumulated
errorproducedovertime.

Figure9.4PIcontrolloop
Itisusefultolookatthisactionupclose.Figure9.4showsaPIcontrollerinaloopwithafirstorder
actuator+plant.Aunitstepisgiventotheinput.Ofcourse,withoutintegralcontrol,theoutputwould
notgoto1,thecommandedvalue.Therewouldbesteadystateerror.(TrythisbysettingKI=0inthe
modelabove.)Noticethetwoactionsovertime.Whenthestepisinputatt=1sec,theerror
immediatelygoestoKPe.Theintegralactionis0becausethisactionisbasedupontheareaunderthe
e(t)curve,andnotimehaspassedtoallowtheareaunderthecurvetoaccumulate.Astheclockticks,
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Chapter 9 Designing and tuning PID controllers

thisareadevelops,andtheIactionincreases.Astheplantmovesclosertothedesiredvalue,theP
actiondiminishes.Intheend,withtheplantatthedesiredvalue,thePactionis0andallnonzero
controlactionisprovidedbytheintegralcontrolaction.
Noteworthyisthattheintegralactionwillcontinuetoaccumulateuntiltheerroris0.Oncetheerroris
0,thereisnoproportionalaction.Notethatwithe=0,theintegralactionisnot0;itjustdoesnt
accumulateanymore.
Controlsengineersinthefieldoftenusethetermresettocharacterizethestrengthofintegralaction.
Resetisalsocalledintegraltime,TI.(Intheprocessindustry,thisvariableisoftenexpressedasR.Thisis
notthesameRusedfortheinputorreferencevalueinthestandardcontrolloop.)Thisisacomparison
ofintegralactionwithproportionalaction.IfaPIcontrollerweresubjectedtoasteadyinputsignal,the
resettimeisthetimeitwouldtakefortheintegralactiontoreachtheleveloftheproportionalaction.
Sowithaninputsignalof1,theproportionalactionwouldbeKP.Theintegralactionwouldbe

Att=TI,KP=KITI.SoTI=KP/KI.SinceTIisameasureofhowlongittakestheintegralactiontodevelop,
thehigherTIis,thelowerKIisandthemoregentletheintegralaction.
Sinceintegralactionaccumulatesovertime,whatisimportanttoitisthehistoryoferrorovertime.
Integralactionrememberswhathashappened,soitisanactionbaseduponpastexperience.
Derivativeaction
Derivativecontrolispredictiveinnature.Itoperatesontherateofchangeoferror,notontheerror
itself.Apracticalexampleillustratesthis.InFigure9.5asupplytankhasalevelcontrolleronit.Asthe
liquidinthetankisneeded,anoutletvalveopenstosupplymoretoadownstreamprocess.Ifthetank
startsoffatasteadystateandthenasuddendemandformoreliquiddownstreamoccurs,theoutlet
valveopensquickly,andthelevelinthetankstartstodrop.Thetroublewithproportionalcontrolis
thatitreallydoesnotreactuntiltheerrorhasdeveloped.Sothereisalagtimebeforetheproportional
actioncomesintoplay,sinceitcanonlyreacttocurrenterror,errorthathasalreadyoccurred.Thisis
unfortunate,because,withthevalveopenandtheerrordevelopingrapidly,itwasentirelypredictable
thattheerrorwoulddevelopbeforeitdiddevelop.Theideabehindderivativecontrolliesinthisphrase
withtheerrordevelopingrapidly.Therateofchangeoferrorishigh.Thatmeanstheerroris
developingrapidly,andthereisnoreasonwhythecontrollershouldntreacttothatbeforetheerror
develops.Soastrongderivativeactionatthestart,beforetheerrordevelops,ensuresthatlesserror
willactuallydevelop.

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Chapter 9 Designing and tuning PID controllers

Figure9.5Levelregulatorexperiencingsuddenincreaseindemand
Anotherscenariowouldbethefollowing.Youaredrivingacarinmanualspeedcontrol(thecruise
controlisnotengaged)atasteadyspeed.Youcometoasteepincline.Youautomaticallypushthe
acceleratoralittleharder,becauseyouknowthatifyoudont,thecarsspeedwilldecrease.Youhave
justappliedderivativecontrol.Throughvisualclues,thesteepincline,youknowthatthespeedwill
decrease,soyouhavetakenaproactivesteptopreventthespeedfromdecreasingbeforeitactually
decreased.Notdoingthis,usingonlyproportionalaction,wouldplayoutlikethis.Youaredrivingata
steadyspeed,encountertheincline,andatfirstdonothingdifferent.Youapplythesameconstant
forcetotheaccelerator.Afterafewmoments,younoticethatthespeedhasdecreased,soyoupush
theacceleratorhardertocompensateforthedecreasedspeed.Thefirstscenarioseemsentirely
plausible.Thesecondseemslikethedrivingstyleofaninexperienceddriverinmaintainingaconstant
speed.Soderivativecontrolisnotsomethingexoticorbizarre.Itfitsnaturallyintonormalhuman
behavior.

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Chapter 9 Designing and tuning PID controllers

Figure9.6ComparisonofPandPDcontrol
Figure9.6showsacomparisonofPandPDcontrolappliedtoanunderdampedsecondorder
plant+actuatorsubjectedtoaunitstepinput.Noticethatthesystem,underPcontrol,oscillatesmuch
morevigorouslythanitdoesunderPDcontrol.
Figure9.7showstheseparatecontrolactionsfromthissamesystem.Withaunitstepinput,theerror
immediatelygoesto1.SotheproportionalactiongoestoKP.Thesuddenincreaseinerrorgenerated
bythestepinputofcourseproducesaninfiniterateoferrorincrease.Sotheinitialderivativeactionis
verylarge.Thisisknowninindustryasaderivativekick.ThisisthelargespikeinFigure9.7.Also
noteworthyabouttheseactionsisthattheproportionalactionenduresbecauseoftheconstantsteady

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Chapter 9 Designing and tuning PID controllers

stateerror.Soeventhoughtheerrorisnonzeroattheend,itisnotchanging.Andsinceitisnot
changing,itsrateofchangeis0,sothederivativeactionis0.

Figure9.7Proportionalandderivativeactions
InasecondcommonformofthePIDcontroller,thevariableKDisnotused.Ratherthestrengthofthe
derivativeactionisexpressedbythederivativetime,TD(seebelow).Intheprocessindustry,thisPID
parameterisgiventhesymbolT.
ThefullblownPID
AfullblownPIDcontainsthethreeindividualelements.Thehighertheerror,thegreaterthe
proportionalaction.ButwehaveseeninChapter6thatsteadystateerrorissomethingthatoften
proportionalcontrolactionalonecannotgetridof.Integralactionisaddedtodothis.Itcontinuesto
actuntiltheerrorbecomes0.Derivativeactionallowsthecontrollertorespondinadvance.Itseesthe
errorcomingandactstostopthegrowthoferrorbeforeitoccurs.
Thisisthecommonsense,intuitiveunderstandingofPIDcontrolthatmostcontrolspractitionershave
whoworkupclose,handsonwithcontrolloops.Talkingtoaplantscontrolstechnicianintermsofroot
locusorBodeplotsisusuallynotveryproductive.Thatdoesnotmeanthatthesetechniquesshouldnot
beusedinaplant.Theyshouldbe.Theyarenotaswellknowninthefieldastheyshouldbe.They
enhanceonesknowledgeofsystemdynamicsandwhatisactuallyhappeninginsidecontrolloops.But
theunderstandingofcontrolstechnologyandthelanguageusedwhentalkingaboutitinthefieldis
moreintuitiveandhandsonthanitistheoretical.
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Chapter 9 Designing and tuning PID controllers

FormsofthePIDcontroller
ThePIDcontrolstructurecanbeexpressedinanumberofdifferentforms.Threecommonformsare
giveninTable9.1.Noticethateachcontrolstructurehasthreeparametersthatdescribeit.Thatmeans
thateachsetofparameterscanbeexpressedintermsofadifferentset.Noticethatinthefirstform,KP
isaseparateaction,withnoimpactontheothertwoactions.Inthesecondtwoforms,thegainKPIDisa
multiplierforallactions.TheKT1T2formistheformconvenienttouseforpolecancellation,wherethe
polestobecancelledareat1/T1and1/T2.
Form

Blockdiagram

Transferfunction

KPKIKD

KPIDTITD

KT1T2

Table9.1FormsofPIDcontroller
Actuatorsaturation
ApracticalproblemthatoftenisnotevidentintheworldofSimulinkmodelsisthatthesizeofaloops
actuatorislimited.Acontrollermaytellapoweramplifiertoputout40volts,butifthatamplifier
cannotputoutmorethan15volts,itwillsaturate.Thusallcommandsignalsfromthecontrollerthat
demandmorethan15voltswilleffectivelybechoppedoff.Onesolutiontosuchaproblemwouldbeto
buyandinstallamorepowerfulamplifierthatcouldputout40volts.Butthismaynotbethecorrect
solutiontothisproblem.Forexample,takeacruisecontrolforacar.Youmayhaveitsetat65mphand
engageitwhenyouaregoing40mph.Thiswillcausethecartoreactandtotryashardasitcantoget
to65mphasfastasitcan.Buttheenginecanonlyputoutalimitedamountofpower,soitmaytake
sometimeforthecartoreactandarriveatthedesiredspeed.Duringthisperiod,whenthecarsengine
isfullyengagedtoreach65mph,thespeedcontrolloopissaturated.Tofixthis,onecouldbuyacar
withamorepowerfulengine.Butthisisexpensive,andhowimportantisitanywaytohaveacar
acceleratefrom40mphto65mphveryquickly?Thecontrolloopwasdesignedtoholdthecarata
speedaround65mph,notasanaccelerationlooptogetacarfromtheentrancerampofafreeway
ontothefreeway.Sosaturation,eventhoughitisanonlinearphaenomenon,isnotbadinallcases.In
theexampleofthecruisecontrolforthecar,saturationwhengoingtodrivingspeedisnotbadandcan
betolerated.Butiftheengineofthecarweresopunythatitcouldnotmaintainthecarsspeedat
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Chapter 9 Designing and tuning PID controllers

relativelygentleincludes,thenonemustaskthequestionofwhetherthecarsenginewassized
properlyforthecar.
Theoperatingconditionsoftheloopmustbetakenintoaccountwhendesigningtheactuatorforthe
loop.Whatkindofloadwillcausetheactuatortosaturatemustbeconsidered,andtheactuatorshould
besizedaccordinglyfortheloopoperationconditions.Actuatorscanalsobesizedtoolarge.Takethe
tanklevelexamplethathasappearedthroughoutthistext.Iftheinputvalveistoolarge,ithastoobiga
gain.Ifthetankleveldropsslightlyandthisvalveopensalittle,itletsinafloodofliquidsothatthe
levelrisesquickly.Shuttingjustalittlecutsoffsomuchliquidthatthetankleveldropsquickly.Thusa
missized,oversizedvalveleadstoafluctuatingtanklevelandunstableormarginallystableoperationin
theprocessthatitisapartof.
Saturationdependsnotjustonthesizeoftheactuatorbutalsoonhowfartheactualvalueisawayfrom
thedesiredvalue.Thiswasseenabovewiththecruisecontrolexample.Thissamephaenomenon
appliesalsotomotioncontrolsystems.Theyarenormallydesignedforsomewhatfinecontrol,to
maintainpositionaroundanarrowrangeofdistance.ForgrossmotionsfrompointAtopointB,motion
actuatorsoftensaturate.

Figure9.8Saturationresponse
Figure9.8showswhatsaturationlookslikeonastepresponseplot.Thelong,straightclimbfrom0up
toanewvaluedoesnotseemtofitwiththeshapeofthecurvysinusoidaloscillationoncethesystem
getswithinanarrowrangeofthefinalvalue.
Aproblemwithintegralcontrolwindup
AhiddenproblemwithintegralcontrollurksintheblockdiagramofaPIDcontroller,inthatoneisnot
awarethatintegralactionhasassociatedwithitasortofstorehouseofrememberedpasterrorthatcan
continuetoact,evenaftertheloopreachesitsdesiredvalue.ConsidertheexampleinFigure9.8.Ifthis
systemwereunderintegralcontrol,inthesaturatedstate,betweent=0.1secandalittleafter0.3sec
thepersistenterrorwouldcauseanaccumulationofareaunderthee(t)curve.Asthesystemnearedits
goalandtheerrorbecamelessandless,theproportionaltermwouldstarttodecrease.Buttheintegral
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Chapter 9 Designing and tuning PID controllers

actionwouldcontinuetoactbecauseofthestorederrorundertheerrorcurve,eventhoughthenew
setpointhadbeenreached.Thustheintegraltermwoulddrivethesystempastthesetpoint.Infactthe
onlywayfortheintegraltermtosheditsaccumulatedpositiveerrorwouldbeforittoaccumulate
negativeerror.Andtheonlywayforittodothiswouldbetostayabovethesetpointuntilthenegative
accumulatederrorcancelledthepositiveaccumulatederror.Thistendencyoftheintegraltermto
accumulateerror,evenwhentheactuatorisdoingallitcantoreduceerror,iscalledintegralwindup.
Thesolutiontothisproblemissimple:dontlettheareaundertheerrorcurveaccumulate.Aswitchis
putintotheintegralbranchofthePIorPIDcontroller.Iftheactuatorissaturated,turnoffthe
integrationoftheerror.Sointheaboveexample,whiletheactuatorissaturatedbetween0.1secanda
littleover0.3sec,theintegraltermisturnedoff.Whenthesystemnearsitsdesiredvalueandthe
actuatorbecomesunsaturated,theintegraltermisonceagainturnedon.Thispreventsthe
overshootingcausedbyintegralwindupandallowsthesystemtoreachitsdesiredvaluewithless
fluctuationsenroute.

Figure9.9Integratorantiwindupimplementation
Figure9.9showsaSimulinkimplementationofanantiwindupscheme.Theinputandoutputsofthe
saturationblockarecompared.Iftheyareequal(orclose),thentheintegralisallowedtoaccumulate
error.Iftheyarenot,thentheactuatorissaturatedandintegralaccumulationisturnedoff.
Aproblemwithderivativecontrolnoise
Figure9.10showstheoutputfromapressuresensorinawatertank.Noticethateventhoughthetank
levelremainsconstantatabout17.5inches,thereisalotofnoiseinthesignal.Thispresentsaproblem
forderivativeactioninaPIDcontroller.Recallthatthederivativetermactsontherateofchangeof
error,notupontheerroritself.Withthesignalbelow,thetanklevel,andthustheerror,isnotchanging
inthebigpictureovertime.Butthesignalitself,whenconsideringthenoise,isconstantlychanging.
Thederivativeoftheerroristheslopeoftheerrorcurve.Sointhiscase,eveniftheerroris0,thenoise
isconstantlymakingtheslopeflipflopupanddown,oftenwithaseveremagnitude.Derivativeaction
appliedtosuchasignalcausestheactuatortoactfirstinonedirectionvigorously,thenatthenext

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Chapter 9 Designing and tuning PID controllers

momentintheotherdirectionvigorously.Themotororvalveorhydrauliccylinderthatisbeingdriven
bythiscontrollerisbeingexercisedbackandforthandfornogoodreason.

Figure9.10Noiseintanklevelsensor
Thesolutiontothisistocleanthesignalup.Thiscanbedonewitheitherahardwarefilter,asoftware
filter,orwithboth.ItiscommontoincludeafirstorderfilterinthederivativepathofaPIDcontroller
tocleanuptheerrorsignalbeforetakingitsderivative.Thetimeconstantofthisfilter,TF,isoftenbased
onTD,thederivativetime.AcommonvalueforTFisTF=TD/10.Figure9.11showssuchan
implementationofaPIDcontrollerwithfiltering.

Figure9.11PIDcontrollerwithderivativefiltering
TuningmethodsforPIDcontrollers
ThenextsectionsdealwithdifferentmethodsfortuningPIDcontrollers.Thesereflectdifferent
strategiesfortuningcontrollers.Mostofthemareheuristicorfieldtuningmethods.Thereareliterally
thousandsofschemeslikethis.Theonesillustratedherearesomeofthebetterknownschemes.
TuningmethodsReplacementofsystemsnaturaldynamicswithdesireddynamics

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Chapter 9 Designing and tuning PID controllers

TheKT1T2formofthePIDcontrollersuggestsaninterestingdesignstrategyforacontroller.Onecan
cancelthedynamicsoftwopolesofanopenloopsystemusingthetwozerosofthePIDandtheninstall
onesowndynamicswiththecontrollersremainingpoleattheoriginandwiththecontrollergain.

Figure9.12PIDpolecancellation
Figure9.12showsthisforasimpleopenloopsystemwithtworeal,stablepoles.WithaPonly
controllerthesystemwouldeventuallystartoscillatingasthegainisincreased.Ifonecancelsthepoles
ataandbbyaddingcontrollerzerosthere,theclosedloopsystembecomesasimplefirstorderthat
neveroscillatesasthegainisincreased.Thusonehascancelledtheoriginalsystemsbehaviorand
installedabehaviortoonesownliking.
Abigcaveattothisstrategyisthatthisreallyonlyworksasdescribedforsystemswhosemodels
perfectlyfitthesystem,andthatisvirtuallyneverthecase.Evenifoneisluckyorresourcefulenoughto
haveaperfectmodel,physicalsystemschangeovertimewithwear.Soasystemthathaspolesata
andbwillseethosepolesdriftovertime.Thusthepolesarenotquitecancelled,andthischangesthe
behaviorofthesystem.Thepolesarenotquitecancelled.Thisproblemisalwaysencounteredwith
zero/polecancellation.Itisoftenrecommendedtoplacethezerosnearthepolesinworkingwiththis
strategytobeexplicitaboutthefactthatthezeroswillnotalways(ever?)exactlycancelthepoles.
TuningmethodsZieglerNicholstuning
TheZieglerNicholstuningalgorithmwasdevelopedinthe1940sprimarilyforregulatorcontrolloopsin
theprocessindustry(powergenerationstation,chemicalplants,refineries,etc.).Asregulators,these
loopspurposeisdisturbancerejection,thatiskeepingadesiredquantityatacertainleveldespite
disturbinginfluencesthattrytochangeit.ZieglerNicholsisprobablythebestknownandmostwidely
usedoftheheuristictuningmethodsfortuningPIDcontrollers.Heuristicsimplymeansbasedon
experimentationorbasedontrialanderror.Suchmethodsdonotdependonthedevelopmentofa
systemmodel.Theyarefieldtuningmethods,inthatonecanapplythemtotherealsystemandtuneit
inplace.
InZieglerNicholstuning,tuningparametersKP,KI,andKDarebasedonKuandPu.Kuisthegainthat
causesasystemwithaPonlycontrollertobemarginallystable.("u"standsfor"ultimate".)Youcan
findtheultimategainbyatrialanderrorprocess.OnesetsKPtosomelowvalue(KIandKDare0atthis
stage).TestthesystemwiththisKPtoseeifitoscillatescontinuously(marginallystable).Ifthe
oscillationsdecay,keepincreasingKP.Iftheoscillationsincreaseinamplitude(unstablesystem),reduce
915

Chapter 9 Designing and tuning PID controllers

KP.Dothisuntilthesystemismarginallystable.Whenyouarriveatthispoint,youhavefoundKu,the
gainthatgotyouthere.Puistheperiodofthenondecayingoscillationsatthispointofmarginal
stability.
Oftenyouwillnotbeabletoreachasystem'sultimategainbecausethesystemactuatorwillsaturate.
Thisisasituationwherethecontrollerdemandsmoreoftheactuatorthanitcanprovide.Remember
theactuatorgetsacommandinputfromthecontrollerandsendsa"force"signaltotheplant.The
actuatorislimitedintheamountof"force"itcansendtotheplant.Foravalve/tanklevelcontrol
system,thevalvecannotopenmorethan100%,norcanitclosemorethan0%.
Firststep:FindKu
FindKubyincreasingKPuntilthesystemoscillateswithoutadecay.Whileyouaremonitoringtheloop
output,monitortheactuatoratthesametimetoseewhetherornotitissaturating.Continueto
increaseKPuntilyoufindKuortheactuatorsaturates.
Iftheactuatorsaturates,youwillnotbeabletogetKu.InthiscaseuseanothermethodtogetKq("q"
standsforquarter).AdjustthePonlygainuntilyouhavequartercycledamping.Thisisameasurement
forasecondorder,underdampedsystem.Ontheresponseplotlookatthefirsttwohumps(thefirst
humpiswherethe%OSismeasured).KqisthevalueofKPthatmakestheheightofthesecondhump
1/4theheightofthefirsthump.Usethefinaloutputvalueasthereferenceformeasuringthehump
heights.NowKucanbedeterminedfromKq.Itis:Ku=2Kq.
Secondstep:FindPu
Puistheultimateperiodofoscillation.YoucanfindthisoutfromtheresponseplotwithKP=Ku,ifyou
wereabletofindit.IfyoufoundKufromKq,getPq.WeassumethatPu=Pq.Thisiscloseenough.
Thirdstep:Findcontrollergains
NowthesuggestedZieglerNicholssettingsforP,PI,andPIDcontrollersare:
P:KPID=0.5Ku
PI:KPID=0.45Ku;TI=1.2/Pu
PID:KPID=0.6Ku;TI=2/Pu;TD=Pu/8

TuningmethodsAstromHagglundrelaytuningmethodforZieglerNicholstuning
916

Chapter 9 Designing and tuning PID controllers

OneoftheproblemswiththeZieglerNicholstuningmethodisthatoneturnsuptheproportionalgain
todrivethesystemtothevergeofinstability.Thiscanbeadangerousthingtodowitharealsystem.
ToavoidthisbutstillbeabletocalculateKuandPu,analternativemethodwasdevelopedbyAstromand
Hagglund.Inthismethodthecontrollerisreplacedwitharelayortwopointcontrollerthatputsouta
positiveconstantiftheerrorsignalisnegativeandanegativeconstantiftheerrorsignalispositive.This
controlleristhenalwayspushingthesystemtowardacentraloperatingpoint(seeFigure9.13).

Figure9.13RelaycontrollerofAstromHagglund
Astepintheloopsetpointisusedtoperturbtheloopfromastableoperatingstate.Kischosentogive
enoughofacontrolleroutputtogetaclearresponsebutnottodrivethesystemtoofarawayfromits
stableoperatingpoint.Forexample,ifthestephasasizeof1,theerrorwillsuddenlybecome+1.
Somethinglikea5%commandedchangefromwhatthecontrollercanproducebeforesaturatingthe
actuatorwouldbeappropriate.

917

Chapter 9 Designing and tuning PID controllers

Figure9.14ImplementationofAstromHagglundrelaycontroller
Figure9.14showsthisrelaycontrollerimplementedinSimulink.Withthissystemithasbeen
determinedthataunitstepinputwouldsaturatetheactuatorwithacontrollergainof5.Therelay
controllerworksasfollows:Iftheactualoutputisbelowthedesiredlevel,theerrorwillbepositive,soa
constantpositivesignalwillbesentoutofthecontrollernudgingthesystemupward.Iftheactual
outputisabovethedesiredlevel,theerrorwillbenegative,andaconstantnegativesignalwillbesent
outtonudgethesystembackdown.Whatresultsisasawwavecomingoutofthecontrollerandan
oscillationfromthesystem.Threeparametersareneedfromtheseplots.Figure9.15showsthese
parameters.

918

Chapter 9 Designing and tuning PID controllers

Figure9.15ResultofAstromHagglundrelaytuning
WithdandaonecancalculateKu.
4

ThisisthesameKuthatisusedinZieglerNicholstuning.
TuningmethodsChien,Hrones,Reswicktuning
Chien,Hrones,Reswicktuningwasdevelopedin1952asanalternativetoZieglerNicholstuning.Its
advantageisthatithasseparatesuggestionstomakeforcontrollergains,dependinguponwhethera
loopisaregulatororapositionerloop.Thetestneededtofindtheresponseparametersisalso
somewhatsaferthantheZieglerNicholstestinthatoneisnotdrivingthesystemuptothelimitsof
stability.
Anopenlooptestisperformedontheactuator+plant.Thisisnormallyasequenceoffirstorderorgain
elements.ThusthestepresponseappearsasshowninFigure9.16.

919

Chapter 9 Designing and tuning PID controllers

Figure9.16Chien,Hrones,Reswicktuningopenloopstepresponse
Withthisstepresponse,oneidentifiestheinflectionpointintheresponse.Atangentlineisdrawn
throughthispointandextendeduntilitcrossesthehorizontalaxisandthefinaloutputlevel.Thisthen
definestheparametersTuandTg.AlsousedisKss,thesteadystategainoftheactuator+plant.These
threeparametersarethenusedinthefollowingtabletosettheparametersforaP,PI,orPIDcontroller.
Nonoscillatoryresponsewithshortest
timetogoal

Positioner
0.3

Regulator
0.3

PI

0.35

1.2

0.6

PID

0.6

0.5

0.6

2.4
0.42

20%overshootwithshortesttimeto
goal
Positioner
0.7

0.6

Regulator
0.7

0.7

2.3

0.6

1.35
0.47

0.6

2
0.42

TuningmethodsTietzeSchenktuningmethod
Thisisatuningmethodfromtheworldofelectricalengineering.Theprocedureisasfollows.
1. DrivethesystemwithaPonlycontroller.
2. RaiseKPIDuntilaweaklydampedoscillationisevident.Theoscillationshouldlastbutdoesdie
out.Thisshouldbeatabouta15phasemargin,so0.15,so%OS60%.
3. FindTS,theperiodofoscillation.
4. SetTD=TS/(2).
5. SetTI=10TD.
920

Chapter 9 Designing and tuning PID controllers

Thisworksverywell,evenwithunstablesystems.Whydoesitwork?TheBodediagramliesattheroot
oftherationale.WeusetheKT1T2formofthePIDcontroller:

Soweareaddingagain,twofirstorderleads,andanintegrator.BysettingKPIDtoobtainroughly60%
overshootatdfortheclosedloopsystem,wehaveM15atdfortheopenloopsystem.Ifwe
placethesecondleadthere,thisaddsanadditional45tothephasemargintogiveM60,so%OS
10%.Thusthegainandoneleadhavebeenutilized.Remainingareanotherleadandtheintegrator.
Theintegratorisadded,asalways,tolimitoreliminatesteadystateerror.Butthenegativeeffectof
addingtheintegratorwillbetolowerthephaseangle90everywhere,i.e.forall.Topreservethe
phasemarginat60,thefirstleadisaddedonedecadebefored,soatd/10.Atthisbreak
frequencythephasecontributionofthefirstleadis45,butbyd,thebreakfrequencyofthe
secondlead,thephasecontributionofthefirstleadhasreached90,sothephaselossoftheintegrator
hasbeencompensated.
Summingup,
1

1
2

1
1

10

10

10

ConvertingtotheKPIDTITDformneededbymostcontrollers
1

Fromthesecondresult,
921

Thus

Chapter 9 Designing and tuning PID controllers

10
2

11
2

So
2
11

Then

2
11

10
2

10

11 2

11
2

10

Ponlycontrolinaregulatorloop
InaregulatorloopitissometimesthecasethatjustPcontrolsufficesbecauseofauniquefeatureofthe
regulator.Theregulatorissetuptorunoffdeviationsfromadesignoperatingcondition,notfromtotal
amountsoftheloopvariables.Takethecommonexampleofatanklevelcontroller.Theloopissetup
asshowninFigure9.17.Forthisparticularexamplethetanksdesignsteadystateis18withtheinlet
valveopen70%.Iftheuserputsinasetpointof18,thesetpointsenttotheinnerloopis0.This
indicatesnotthattheuserwantsthetanktoemptybutratherthatheorshewantsthedeviationfrom
18tobe0.

Figure9.17RegulatorloopwithPonlycontroller
922

Chapter 9 Designing and tuning PID controllers

Noticewhathappensatthisoperatinglevel.Theinnerloophas0comingin,andeverysignalinthe
innerloopis0,assumingthereisnodisturbance.Soatthisoperatinglevel,thedesignoperatinglevel,
thereisnosteadystateerror.Ifthesetpointischangedorifadisturbanceisinput,therewillbea
steadystateerror,sincethesystemisatype0systemwithonlyaproportionalcontroller.Ifapositive
disturbanceflowisadded,thetankwillrunalittlehigh.Ifanegativedisturbanceflowisadded,thetank
willrunalittlelow.Thisamountstodrainingmorefromthetankthanthenormaldesignsteadystate
flowrate.Theloadonthetankhasbeenincreased,sothetanklevelwilldroop.Butinnormal
operatingconditions,thetanklevelwillremainatthedesignlevelwithoutanysteadystateerror.
ThisisafeatureofPcontrolofatype0system.Itwillhavenosteadystateerroratoneoperatingpoint,
namelythepointwhereallthesignalsinthedeviationloopare0.Anothercommonexampleisacruise
controlonacar.Whenonesetsthedesiredspeedbyengagingthecontroller,oneisalsosettingthe
designoperatinglevelandsettingupthedeviationfromtheloop.IfthecontrollerinthisloopisaPonly
controller,whenoneencountersahill,theincreasedloadwillcausethespeedtodroopalittle.Thatis
thespeedwillremainafewmilesperhourbelowthesetdesiredspeed.Thisistolerable.Indeeditmay
evenbedesirable.BynotaggressivelyinsistingwithIcontrolthatthespeedexactlymatchthesetpoint
speed,oneoperatesthecarlessaggressivelyandsavesfuel.
Problems
9.1 TakethesystemofFigure9.7andworkoutitsclosedlooptransferfunction.DeterminenCLand
CL.WhatrlesdoKPandKDplayrespectivelyinnCLandCL?Thatis,ifKPincreases,whateffect
doesthathaverespectivelyonnCLandCL?IfKDincreases,whateffectdoesthathave
respectivelyonnCLandCL?
9.2 ItisoftensaidofderivativecontrolthatsomederivativecontrolallowsonetoturnupKPwithout
runningintothesameproblemsonewouldwithoutsomederivativecontrol.Theprimary
problemencounteredwithoutderivativecontrolisincreasedovershootandswingingwithan
inputstep.Toseeifthisadageisso,takethesystemofFigure9.6andincreaseKP.Doubleit,for
example,andcomparetheresultwiththatofthesamesystemwithhalfthegainandnoKD.What
effectonsystemresponsedoesturningKPuphave?Thatis,withthisabilitytoturnupKPwithout
itsnormal,negativeconsequences,whatisgained?
9.3 GivenKP,KI,andKD,whatareKPID,TI,andTDtheparametersofthesecondformofthePIDin
termsoftheparametersofthefirstform?
9.4 Bypolecancellation,youhavefoundoutthevaluesthatyouneedofK,T1,andT2ofthethirdform
ofthePIDcontroller.Thecontrolleryouareusing,however,needsthethreeparametersofthe
secondform.DetermineexpressionsforKP,TI,andTDofthesecondformintermsofK,T1,andT2
ofthethirdform.
9.5 SetupaPIcontrolloopforafirstorderplantwithunitysteadystategainandatimeconstantof
80seconds.UseKP=0.6andarepeattimeof3minutes.

923

Chapter 9 Designing and tuning PID controllers

9.6 Anunityfeedback,openloopsystemhaspolesats=6and10.Ithasasteadystategainof16.
a. Designacontrollertocancelthissystemsdynamicsandreplacethemwithafirstorderwitha
timeconstantof1second.
b. Overtime,theoriginalsystemundergoeswearandtearandtheopenlooppolesdriftto5.5
and9,andthegaindriftsto15.Howwillthisaffecttheclosedloopsystemsbehavior?Give
theclosedlooptransferfunctionofboththeoriginalandthewornsystems.UsingMatlab,
plotonthesameplottheoriginalsystemsbehavior(unitstepresponse)andthenthe
behaviorofthewornsystem.
c. Plottherootlociofeachsystem,showingoneachdiagramthelocationoftheclosedloop
pole.
9.7 Theactuator+plantwiththetransferfunction
1040

16
208
istobeoutfittedwithaPIDcontrollerinaunityfeedbackloop.UsetheZieglerNicholstuning
methodtotunecontrollersforthissystem.InstallaKPIDTITDformatcontrollerinaSimulink
model.OnceyouhavefiguredoutKUandPUforthissystem,copythesystemsothatthereare
threecopiesofitinasingleSimulinkmodel.SetupinthelooprespectivelyaP,aPI,andaPID
controller.RuntheoutputfromeachloopintoaMUXblockandthentoascope,sothattheunit
responsetoeachloopcanbecomparedagainsttheothertwo.
Tohandin:Showallcalculations,reportKuandPuclearly.PrintoutapictureoftheSimulink
model.Printoutthescopeoutputthatcomparesthethreedifferentcontrollers.
9.8 ThesystemofthepreviousexamplewasusedtoillustratetheAstromHagglundrelaycontroller,
usedtocalculateKuandPu.Findthevaluesofthesetwoparametersfromtheplotsgiveninthe
textandcomparethemwithwhatyoufoundinthepreviousproblem.
9.9 Takethesystemshownbelow

UsetheChien,Hrones,ReswicktuningmethodtodesignaPIDcontrollerforthissystemtoreject
aunitstepdisturbance.Showyourwork.Designacontrollerfornoovershootandthenonefor
20%overshoot.Givecontrollergainsforeachcase.Demonstratethereactionofbothloopstoa
unitstepdisturbance.
924

Chapter 9 Designing and tuning PID controllers

9.10 Takethesystem
30
0.005

0.23
1

1 0.53
1 0.055

UsetheTietzeSchenktuningmethodwithaSimulinkmodeltodesignaPIDcontrollerforthis
system.GivethevaluesofKPID,TI,andTDthatresultfromTietzeSchenk.PrintoutyourSimulink
modelandaunitstepresponseofthetunedsystem.

925