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decomposition

ARTICLE in IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON FUZZY SYSTEMS MAY 1999

Impact Factor: 6.31 DOI: 10.1109/91.755394 Source: IEEE Xplore

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120

Singular Value Decomposition

Yeung Yam, Member, IEEE, Peter Baranyi, and Chi-Tin Yang

for reducing a given fuzzy rule set. The method conducts singular

value decomposition of the rule consequents and generates certain

linear combinations of the original membership functions to form

new ones for the reduced set. The present work characterizes

membership functions by the conditions of sum normalization

(SN), nonnegativeness (NN), and normality (NO). Algorithms

to preserve the SN and NN conditions in the new membership

functions are presented. Preservation of the NO condition relates

to a high-dimensional convex hull problem and is not always

feasible in which case a closed-to-NO solution may be sought. The

proposed method is applicable regardless of the adopted inference

paradigms. With product-sum-gravity inference and singleton

support fuzzy rule base, output errors between the full and reduced fuzzy set are bounded by the sum of the discarded singular

values. The present work discusses three specific applications of

fuzzy reduction: fuzzy rule base with singleton support, fuzzy

rule base with nonsingleton support (which includes the case

of missing rules), and the TakagiSugenoKang (TSK) model.

Numerical examples are presented to illustrate the reduction

process.

Index TermsFuzzy systems, reduced order systems, singular

value decomposition.

I. INTRODUCTION

and implement the actions of expert operator(s) without

the need of accurate mathematical models. The drawback,

however, is that there is no standardized framework regarding

the design, optimality, reducibility, and partitioning of a fuzzy

rule set. A fuzzy rule base, be it generated from expert

operators or by some learning or identification schemes, may

contain redundant, weakly contributing, or outright inconsistent components. Moreover, in pursuit of good approximation,

one may be tempted to overly assign the number of antecedent

sets, thereby resulting in large fuzzy rule bases and problems

in computation time and storage space. A formal approach to

extracting the more pertinent elements of a given rule set is,

hence, highly desirable. The present work is an attempt in this

direction.

Manuscript received June 27, 1997; revised August 26, 1998. This work was

supported by the Hong Kong Research Grant Council (RGC) CUHK4138/97E,

the Hungarian Ministry of Culture and Education (MKM) FKFP 0422/1997,

and the Hungarian National Science Research Foundation (OTKA) T019671.

Y. Yam and C. T. Yang are with the Department of Mechanical and

Automation Engineering, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, N.T.,

Hong Kong.

P. Baranyi is with the Computer and Automation Institute, Hungarian

Academy of Science and the Department of Automation, Technical University

of Budapest, Budafoki u. 8, H-1111 Hungary.

Publisher Item Identifier S 1063-6706(99)02800-3.

capturing a large extent of its input/output characteristics is

introduced. The method is based on conducting singular value

decomposition (SVD) of the rule consequents and generating

proper linear combinations of the original membership functions to form new ones for the reduced set. Instead of assuming

certain specific shapes for the membership functions, here we

characterize the membership functions by the conditions of

sum normalization (SN), nonnegativeness (NN), and normality

(NO). Algorithms to preserving the SN and NN conditions in

the new membership functions are presented. Preservation of

the NO condition, however, involves the solution to a convex

hull problem and is not always achievable.

The proposed approach can be applied regardless of the

inference paradigm adopted for the fuzzy rule base. For

product-sum-gravity inference and singleton support rule base,

output error bound between the original set and the reduced

set is readily expressible as the sum of the discarded singular

values. The method is applicable to fuzzy rule set with any

number of input variables, but is illustrated here mostly with

the example of a two input fuzzy system. Three specific cases

of fuzzy reduction are discussed. They are fuzzy rule base

with singleton support case, fuzzy rule base with nonsingleton

support case (which includes the case of missing rules), and

the TakagiSugenoKang (TSK) model [1]. These three cases

represent situations where the output of a fuzzy rule is defined

by one, two, or more parameters.

The present work constitutes a detailed investigation of the

preliminary approaches outlined in the works of [2][4], and

gives rigorous solutions to the problems posed thereof. The

algorithms to be utilized here are mostly developed in [5]

for fuzzy approximation of general functions. Application of

SVD to fuzzy reduction has been investigated recently by

Wang et al. [6]. Their approach utilizes SVD to reduce the

dimensionality of the input space and then performing system

reduction based on optimizing a certain objective functions.

Their work uses B-splines as the membership functions. The

present work, on the other hand, applies SVD directly to the

rule consequents of the given rule set, and works with the

membership functions constrained only by the conditions of

SN, NN, and NO.

This paper is organized as follows. Section II first defines

the various concepts to be used in the proposed method.

Section III presents the basic operations of SVD reduction

for the example of a two input fuzzy rule set. Section IV

extends the SVD operations to fuzzy rule set of three input

variables. Extension to fuzzy set with a general number of

YAM et al.: REDUCTION OF FUZZY RULE BASE VIA SINGULAR VALUE DECOMPOSITION

to the cases of singleton support, nonsingleton support, and the

TSK model, with a numerical example for each. And finally,

Section VI presents the conclusions.

121

and a matrix

of dimension

by

as

functions

, one forms

new

(4)

II. DEFINITION

OF

BASIC CONCEPTS

ensuing SVD operations. These concepts are first utilized in

,

[5] for fuzzy approximation of general functions. Let

be functions of variable

defined on some

. The following properties can

compact domain

.

be defined for the function set

Sum Normalization (SN): A set of function

is SN if for any value of

within the domain

of interest

Then

1) the set of

,

2) the set of

,

3) the set of

,

Proof: For

functions

and

is SN if

are SN;

functions

and

is NN if

are NN;

,

is NO if

and

are NO.

within the domain of interest, one has

functions

any

(1)

Without ambiguity, a matrix

is SN if

..

.

(2)

ming over the rows of matrix .

Nonnegativeness (NN): A set of function

is NN if for any value of within the domain

of interest

(3)

. Likewise, a matrix is NN if every

for each

is greater than or equal to zero.

one of its elements

The concepts of SN and NN are consistent with the usual

definition of membership function. Note that

being SN and NN implies that

for all within the domain of interest. Similarly, matrix

being SN and NN implies

for all of its element.

Another property of the membership functions is normality.

Normality (NO): A set of function

is NO if it is SN and NN and that each of the functions

attains value one at some point within the domain of

. Correspondingly, a matrix is NO if it is SN and NN and

that each of its column contains the value one as an element.

For a set of membership functions, the NO condition

implies a certain localization property, i.e., when one of the

functions achieves membership degree of approximate unity,

the remaining ones would yield close to zero membership

degrees. Hence, the membership functions take turns dominating different regions within the domain of interest. As a

result, linguistic labelings are readily assigned to membership

functions satisfying the NO condition.

The above definitions enable the following result to be

stated.

constitutes the sums and products of positive

as each

and

. To prove 3) since

and are

quantities

is also

NO and, hence, SN and NN; then by 1) and 2),

within the domain of

SN and NN. This implies

. To show that

attains the value of one at some , one

is NO, there exists a value

notes the following. Since

within the domain of such that

. Similarly, since

is NO, there exists integer ,

, which gives the

attaining the

location of the element in the th column of

. As a result

value of one, i.e.,

and, at

,

(5)

NN, one has at

Since

,

,

This proves 3).

, this implies

, . Hence, (5) yields

is SN and

for

,

at

,

.

122

This section outlines the procedures to conduct singular

value-based reduction in terms of SN and NN, and possibly

NO, matrices. Details of the method can be found in [5]. The

procedures are presented here with a two-dimensional (2-D)

matrix and then extended to higher dimension in the next

section.

in SVD form

Consider a 2-D matrix

we desire

to be invertible matrix. We adopt the following

does not contain

scheme for constructing : if

is chosen as

zero elements, the matrix

(10)

contains zero element(s),

and if

is chosen as

(6)

by

and and are

by

and

by ,

where is

and

are orthogonal, i.e.,

respectively. Matrices

and

. Here,

denotes the by

identity matrix. For later reference, we also introduce

as

as the by matrix of

the by matrix of zeros, and

by

matrix contains the singular values of

ones. The

in decreasing magnitude. The maximum number of nonzero

. The singular values

singular values is

indicate the importance of the corresponding columns of

and

in the formation of . A close approximation to

can be obtained by keeping those components having large

singular values.

be the number of singular values to keep and,

Let

hence, an approximation of

(7)

and

contain the

columns of

and

where

corresponding to the retained singular values in

.

Approximation is exact if all singular values are kept,

. Matrices

and

are in general neither SN nor

NN. However, they can be converted into SN and NN matrices

by the following procedures. Take , as an example, and

consider the SN condition first; we have Theorem 2.

be an

by

orthogonal matrix

Theorem 2: Let

, where

and

have,

partitioned as

and

columns. Let

be

respectively,

by

matrix satisfying the constraint

any

. Then, if

, the

by

matrix

satisfies SN, where

(8)

and if

satisfies SN, where

, the

by

matrix

(11)

is

where one ensures that the th entry of

is chosen, one can proceed to compute

nonzero. After

For

For

(12)

,

, and

as results of

Similar expressions hold for

applying the above procedures to matrix . The approximation

(7) can then be written as

(13)

and

. Other cases corresponding

and/or

to

follow in a straightforward manner. The matrices

and

are SN. They have either

or

columns depending on whether

or

.

and

contain negative

It is possible, still, that

elements and, hence, not satisfying the NN condition. The

following gives a set of procedures to generate from a matrix

satisfying the SN condition another one of the same dimension

satisfying both SN and NN conditions. Let be a matrix of

by

satisfying the SN condition. Then

dimension

note the following.

, of . Set

1) Look for the minimum element

parameter

if

(9)

Theorem 2 characterizes the extra column one needs, if at

so as to achieve the SN

all, to supplement the matrix

condition. The proof of the theorem can be found in [5] and

is omitted here. Note that the theorem does not require

to be invertible. In theory,

may contain zero

are not

elements, which implies that some columns of

necessary to satisfy the SN condition. If so, a noninvertible

can actually be used for (8) or (9). For the present work,

and

however, we prefer to retain all columns of

so as to facilitate a close approximation of

in (7). Hence,

(14)

otherwise.

2) Form a

by

..

.

matrix

..

.

..

..

.

(15)

YAM et al.: REDUCTION OF FUZZY RULE BASE VIA SINGULAR VALUE DECOMPOSITION

satisfies the SN and NN

conditions.

is adopted to stress the dependence of

The subscript in

on . To see that

is SN, one notes that

and, hence,

as

is SN to begin with. To see that

is also

is given by the

NN, one notes that the th column of

multiplying a column vector that is the

scalar

and

times the th column of , and

sum of

ensures proper scaling to result in positive

the parameter

values for all entries.

Applying these results to (13), one has

(16)

with

123

vertices, successful incorporation of the NO conis possible. In this case the matrix

dition by

can be obtained as inverse of the matrix containing the

rows of associated with the convex hull. This is

called the tightest bounding case.

vertices, however,

4) If the convex hull has more than

to strictly satisfying the NO condetermination of

dition is generally not possible. In this case, we have

vertices not

to search for a relaxed bounding with

points of . The

all of which coming from the

is then determined according to these

corresponding

vertices. This leads in general to a close-to-NO

.

matrix product

A more detail discussions of these steps can be found in [5].

Carrying out the NO procedures for and , the approximation (20) now becomes

(17)

(21)

(18)

(19)

and

are

by

and

by

,

The matrices

respectively. They satisfy the SN and NN conditions. The same

procedures can be applied to other cases of

and/or

. The

and

will have

or

columns,

resulting

depending on different cases.

The NO condition is now considered. Following the approach for SN and NN, we desire to have invertible matrices

and

of appropriate dimensions such that (16) can be

expressed as

(20)

and

are SN, NN, and

and that the matrix products

NO. However, while it is always possible to tailor the matrices

involved to satisfying the SN and NN conditions, the same is

not true for the NO condition. Successful incorporation of the

NO condition depends very much on the specific matrix at

hand. The following gives a set of procedures which conducts

a tight bounding operation on the matrix and yields, if possible,

a NO matrix or otherwise, a close-to-NO matrix. Here, a closeto-NO matrix is taken to be one that is SN and NN but not all

of its columns containing the value one as element.

,

Take as an example and let its column dimension be

rows of

corresponds to

one first notes that each of the

-dimensional space. Furthermore, since

a point lying on a

is SN, the

points from the

rows of

actually lie

dimension. The procedures then

on a hyperplane of

include the following steps.

points in the

-dimensional space onto

1) Project the

-dimensional hyperplane satisfying the SN

the

condition.

points on the

2) Obtain the convex hull of the

dimensional hyperplane. Algorithms to treat convex hull

problem in a general dimensional space are discussed

in, e.g., [8] and [9].

where

(22)

and

and

are SN, NN, and NO, or close-to-NO.

Several points are worth noticing here. First, The NO

equals to two or .

condition is always possible when

, the hyperplane is a straight-line and one can

For

always find (in this case) a convex hull of two points. For

, the full set of the points constitute the vertices of

and

. This

the convex hull. As such,

corresponds to the trivial case where there is actually no SVD

reduction. In general, however, NO condition is not possible

and one has to adopt a relaxed bounding and settle with closeto-NO condition. Moreover, the choice of a relaxed bounding

is not unique and exact choosing will depend on the matrix at

hand. One may even consider a bounding convex hull which

slightly violates the NN condition at a few points in exchange

for readily bounding on a majority of the points. Note that

out

the scheme of testing various combinations of taking

rows of works only if a tightest bound of the points

of

do exist. The scheme would not be applicable for the relaxed

bounding case.

Second, the reduction , , and of (22) is not unique. In

fact, given that and are SN, NN, and NO, the choice of

and

of appropriate dimensions are SN, NN, and NO.

and

Third, one observes that the choice of constructing

to satisfy the SN and NN conditions is not unique. An

issue of interest is whether there exists and in what way a more

efficient method to choosing them. In this regards, choices with

better results do exist. The point to note, however, is that no

124

and

, they could actually

yield the same final result after the bounding procedures,

as topology would dictate similar relative distribution of the

points and bounding convex hull. Interested readers may refer

to [5] for more detail discussion of the above issues.

As a final topic in this section, we derive an expression

for the error due to the SVD reduction. One notes here that

incorporating the SN and NN conditions and carrying out the

NO procedures do not actually change the approximation of

by

. This is because

(23)

Hence, the approximation error can be expressed as

(24)

in (24) as singular

Absolute value is not required for

and

values are always positive. Since the columns of

are having Euclidean norm of unity, absolute value of

their elements must be bounded by one. Thus

(25)

denotes the th singular value in . Hence, the error

where

using the approximation

introduced into each elements of

(21) is less than or equal to sum of discarded singular values.

The previous section gives the SVD-based procedures for

when is a 2-D

constructing an approximation

matrix, with and being SN, NN, and NO, or close-to-NO.

The approximation can be expressed in terms of the elements

of the various matrices

(26)

and

are the number of columns of the matrices

where

and . By previous results,

and

equal

or

,

depending on the specific case at hand.

The procedures developed above can be readily extended to

matrix of higher dimension. In [5], extension of the procedures

to a three-dimensional (3-D) matrix is given. The extended

procedures convert a 3-D matrix into a sequence of 2-D ones

where SVD can be applied. To provide a basic idea of the

process involved, a pictorial depiction of the procedures is

by

by

matrix

given in Fig. 1. Upon given a 3-D

[step (i)], the extended procedures call for spreading the matrix

by

matrix

in the -index direction to form a 2-D

[step (ii)], and then apply the SVD reduction of Section III to

[step (iii)]. This yields

(27)

is now SN, NN, and NO, or close-to-NO. The

where

dimension of is

by

where

or

,

by

matrix

denotes the

as the case may be. The

YAM et al.: REDUCTION OF FUZZY RULE BASE VIA SINGULAR VALUE DECOMPOSITION

to become a 3-D

by

by

matrix [step (iv)], which can

then be spreaded, this time in the -index direction, to form

by

matrix

[step (v)]. Again, applying the

a 2-D

[step (vi)], one obtains

SVD reduction procedures to

125

where

and

,

,

, are

membership functions of the variable and , respectively,

is the rule consequent of the

th fuzzy rule. To

and

by

matrix

perform rule-base reduction, one forms a

with

as the

elements

(28)

is SN, NN, and NO, or close-to-NO. There are

or

columns in . The matrix

is

by

. Restacking

into a

by

by

matrix

[step (vii)] and spreading it in the -index direction to form

[step (viii)], one has, once more, after SVD reduction on

[step (ix)]

where

(29)

is SN, NN, and NO, or close-to-NO, and there

The matrix

or

columns in

. The

may be

is

by

. It can be restacked into a 3-D

matrix

by

by

matrix

[step (x)]. This completes the process

of generating all necessary quantities for the reduction of the

given matrix . The resulting approximation to the elements

, can be expressed as

of ,

..

.

..

.

..

.

..

.

(34)

where

by

by ,

by , and

matrices. A reduced rule base can then be obtained as

If

and

with

and

,

membership functions

are given by

(35)

(36)

(30)

Equation (30) is a 3-D generalization of (26). One can also

,

work out an approximation error bound for

which is

(31)

,

, and

are sum of the discarded singular

Here,

, , and

.

values in the SVD reduction of matrices

They represent the errors induced in the process of obtaining

, , and

. Interested readers are referred to [5] for the

mathematical details of these results.

The above procedures structures a 3-D matrix so that

SVD reduction can be performed in stages. At each stage,

approximation and conditioning of the matrix is conducted

for one of the dimensions and a certain singular value error

is generated. With additional stages and proper indexing, the

procedures can be extended to matrix of a general number of

dimensions.

V. APPLICATION TO FUZZY RULE-BASE REDUCTION

The methodology developed above is now applied to the

actual reduction of fuzzy rule bases. For convenience, fuzzy

rule bases of two input variables are utilized for illustration

of the various cases. As mentioned before, application can be

readily extended to fuzzy rule base with a general number of

inputs.

If

and

of ,

is given by the

element

(37)

The reduced rule base has

of the original one. Since

is definitely SN and

to

,

NN, by Theorem 1 the membership function set

is SN and NN if the original set

,

is SN and NN. If

is NO as well, the new

membership functions are also NO if the original membership

,

functions are NO. If is only close-to-NO, however,

will only be SN and NN, but not NO in

general. The new membership functions and rule consequents

can be interpreted as the de facto fuzzy rule components

embedded in the operation of the original rule base. These

results apply to the nonsingleton support and the TSK model

cases to follow as well.

The above scheme can be applied to any fuzzy rule base

regardless of the adopted inference paradigm. Compact expression for the output error bound, however, can be obtained

if product-sum-gravity (PSG) inference is adopted. Given that

,

, the output error is given by

(38)

Consider a fuzzy rule base with two inputs

single output ,

(33)

and

and a

(32)

,

,

,

where the fact that membership functions

satisfying the SN condition has been used. The first

and second term on the right-hand side of (38) correspond,

126

TABLE I

FUZZY RULE CONSEQUENT ri; j OF THE ORIGINAL RULE BASE

the reduced rule base. Substituting (35)(37) into (38)

(39)

and, with (25)

(40)

Hence, the sum of the discarded singular values constitutes an

upper bound to the output error incurred by the reduction. If

one is to include all nonzero singular values in the reduction,

the reduced rule base would yield the same output as the

original one with PSG inference. Error bounds for other

inference paradigms can also be derived but the final form

is not as pleasing.

Example 1: Consider one of the examples from [10] with

a fuzzy rule base of input variables and . The membership

functions of are overlapping isosceles triangles of basewidth

to

at separations

0.08 centering from

of 0.04. The membership function of are similar but with

to

basewidth of 0.6 and centering from

at separations of 0.3. The original example in [10]

utilizes minmax inference paradigm and assigns triangular

membership functions to the fuzzy outputs. In this example,

however, we adopt the PSG inference to illustrate the reduction

process. As a result, the fuzzy rules can be expressed as

If

and

where

s are the center points of the output membership

functions in the original example of [10] and are tabulated

on which the proposed

in Table I. They form the matrix

reduction method is performed.

are determined as 22.6767,

The singular values of

22.6767, 0.9835, 0.9835, 0.5523, 0.5523, 0.3433, 0.3433, 0 .

Keeping only the two largest singular values and going through

the SN and NN processes yield three membership functions

for and for . The convex hull problem then amounts to

finding a bounding triangle on a 2-D plane and can be readily

for

carried out. Fig. 2 shows the membership function

. The membership functions of are similar except

TABLE II

FUZZY RULE CONSEQUENT i; j OF THE REDUCED RULE BASE

condition can be achieved, leading to only two out of the three

membership functions for and attaining value of one within

are given in Table II.

their ranges. The rule consequents

The reduced rule base contains nine rules, as compared to

the original set of 81, in the form of

If

and

the original fuzzy rule base of 81 rules (top plot) and the

reduced rule base of nine rules (bottom plot). To check

how close the reduced rule set duplicates the output of the

original set, the rule bases are applied to controlling an

inverted pendulum given in [10]. The dynamics equation of

YAM et al.: REDUCTION OF FUZZY RULE BASE VIA SINGULAR VALUE DECOMPOSITION

(a)

127

regardless the number of membership functions.

B. Fuzzy Rule Base with Nonsingleton Support

In the nonsingleton support case, each of the fuzzy rules

, which can

in (32) is associated with a support factor

be interpreted as a firing strength or a reliability coefficient.

and

, and assuming PSG inference,

Given that

the inferred output is now generated as

(42)

(b)

Fig. 3. PSG-inferred control surfaces due to (a) original and (b) reduced

rule bases.

the pendulum is

numerator part and a denominator part, in contrast to just the

numerator part in the singleton support case. To proceed with

by

by two matrix

the reduction, one forms a 3-D

with elements

(43)

(41)

where is the angular position, is the angular velocity, and

is the control input. Fig. 4 shows the closed-loop responses

due to the original and reduced rule bases for the initial

and

conditions (0.08, 0) and (0.12, 0.8). Here,

are used as fuzzy variables in the inference of . Note that

have been scaled down by a factor of 0.1

the responses

in the figure. It can be observed that closed-loop responses

produced with the reduced rule base are quite close to that of

the original one.

The present numerical example yields three membership

functions for the reduced set. As a result, the bounding

procedures is readily executed in a 2-D plane. In the case

where the number of membership functions is larger than

three, the bounding procedures require a solution to a hyperdimensional convex hull problem, which can be quite tedious.

follows. Referring to Fig. 1, one first carries out steps (i)(iii)

by

matrix for variable , and then steps

to obtain a

by

matrix

for variable . In the

(iv)(vi) to obtain a

remaining steps (vii)(ix), however, one keeps both singular

without any reduction, i.e., one has

.

values of

As such, (30) becomes in this case

(44)

where matrices

and

are SN, NN, and NO,

for

is

by

by two. One

or close-to-NO, and the matrix

can now write a reduced fuzzy rule base as

If

and

128

RULE CONSEQUENT i; j

OF THE

TABLE III

GIVEN FUZZY RULE BASE WITH MISSING RULES

where

and

are the new membership functions. The new rule conseand support factor

are computed as

quent

fuzzy rules as compared to

rules.

the original of

Two special cases are worth noticing here. First, when

, the results

the supports are singleton, i.e., when

here reduce to that of the singleton support case. This can

can be

be observed from the fact that (44) with

decomposed into the following two parts

TABLE IV

RULE CONSEQUENT r {; | AND SUPPORT

FACTOR s{; | FOR THE REDUCED RULE BASE

(45)

(46)

where one recognizes that (45) is the reduction problem for the

singleton support case and, if one were to obtain the matrices

and

and values

from (45) only, then (46) would

. This is because

automatically be satisfied with

and are SN and NN so that the right-hand side of (46) would

become one. In effect, (46) indicates that singleton support rule

base would be reduced to another singleton support rule base

and the reduction process would be dictated solely by (45),

the same as for the singleton support case.

Second, the nonsingleton support case considered here includes fuzzy rule base with missing rules as special case. In

is assigned value zero for

this case, the support factor

the missing rules and one for the included rules. This case is

further explored by the use of following numerical example.

Example 2: Consider another example from [10]. The

are now isosceles triangles of

membership functions of

to

basewidth 0.16 with the centers located from

at separations of 0.08. The membership functions

for are also isosceles triangles but with basewidth of 0.12 and

to

at separations

the centers going from

are given in Table III, where

of 0.6. The rule consequents

the blank entries correspond to missing rules. The number of

fuzzy rules in this case is 17. The rule set can be expressed as

for the missing

a nonsingleton support system, with

for the rest.

rules and

Application of the SVD procedures yields the following

singular values: 13.0860, 12.7475, 2.0633, 2.0, 0 . Again,

keeping only the two largest singular values, one obtains

of ,

. Membership

membership function

functions of are again similar except for the different domain

of interest. In this case, the bounding procedures are able to

achieve the NO condition for the membership functions. The

and support factor

for the

resultant rule consequents

reduced set are given in Table IV.

The reduced rule set in this case has nine rules and is

expressed as

If

and

. Note that in this example negative

support factors are obtained. To gain more insight, Fig. 6(a)

shows the inferred outputs for the original and Fig. 6(b) shows

the reduced rule base adopting the inference of (42). Because

of the missing rules, the output surface of the original rule

domain.

base is not defined in certain region on the

By comparison, the output surface for the reduced case is

defined on a larger region in the domain. Furthermore, because

of the negative support, the reduced rule base actually yields

. Fig. 6 has in fact

infinite outputs at certain values of

been constrained to show only the output surface with values

between 6. One may thus claim that the SVD procedures has

extrapolated somewhat the original surface to a wider region

than it is initially defined. There is, however, a limit to the

extent of this extrapolation; the negative supports may cause

the interpolated surface to go to infinity if one ventures too

YAM et al.: REDUCTION OF FUZZY RULE BASE VIA SINGULAR VALUE DECOMPOSITION

(a)

129

smoother trajectories.

C. TakagiSugenoKang (TSK) Model

The TSK model utilizes functions of the input variables as

fuzzy outputs. For a fuzzy system with input variables and

, the fuzzy rules are expressed as

If

and

to be consisting of only three terms, a

confine

constant term, and linear terms in and in , i.e.,

(47)

(b)

Fig. 6. PSG-inferred control surfaces due to (a) original and (b) reduced

rule bases.

and how it relates to existing interpolation techniques, say,

e.g., [7], is a research topic of interest.

For further comparison, the two rule bases are again utilized

to controlling the inverted pendulum of (41). Fig. 7 plots the

closed-loop responses due to the original and reduced rule

bases for the initial conditions of (0.08, 0) and (0.12, 0.8).

The first set of initial conditions and its subsequent responses

lie inside the region where the original fuzzy rule base is well

defined. The second set of initial conditions, however, starts

at a region where the original output surface is not defined.

To carry out the simulation, we let the output be zero in

the undefined region. The idea here is to let the pendulum

dynamics return itself to where the original output is defined.

response at around

s shows a slight change

The

in the decay rate which is indicative of this transition. On

the other hand, both set of initial conditions and subsequent

trajectories remain in the extended well-defined region of the

elements

by

by three matrix

with

(48)

the nonsingleton case, here we apply the reduction procedures

by

and

by

matrices

and ,

to obtain the

but in step (ix) we keep all three singular values for , i.e.,

. As a result, (30) becomes

(49)

. The matrices and are SN, NN, and NO,

for

or close-to-NO. The reduced TSK model can be written as

If

and

where

and

are the new membership functions. The output functions

for the reduced set are given by

(50)

130

(a)

(a)

(b)

Fig. 8. Membership functions of (a)

TABLE V

PARAMETERS

i; j , i; j , AND i; j

FOR

FUNCTION

(b)

Fig. 9. Membership functions of (a)

#2.

gi; j (a; b)

TABLE VI

PARAMETERS

where

fuzzy rules compared to the

.

original number of

Example 3: In their work [1], Takagi and Sugeno considered the following fuzzy rule base:

If

and

with

and

. The functions

are of the form (47) with parameters

,

, and

as

tabulated in Table V. The membership functions for and

are as shown in Fig. 8. They do not satisfy the SN condition.

Moreover, the example utilizes an inference paradigm, which,

and

, generates the output as

upon given

(51)

just the same. Two case studies are conducted here. From step

(iii), the singular values of the matrix are: 15.9065, 3.6559,

2.1562, 0 . The first case study keeps all three nonzero singular

{; | , {; | , AND {; |

FOR

FUNCTION

g{; | (a; b)

in step (vi), which are 13.3853, 3.6433 . This yields three

membership functions for variable and two for . The top

for the

plot of Fig. 9 shows the membership functions

are the same

first case study. The membership functions

as the original ones in Fig. 8. The corresponding function

is given by:

, where

,

, and

are shown in Table VI.

the parameters

The top plot of Fig. 10 shows the output surface of the

reduced TSK model for the first case study according to the

inference of (51). The output surface turns out to be the same

as that due to the original rule set. Hence, the original TSK

model of eight rules can be replaced by the presently reduced

one of six rules without any output error.

Instead of retaining all nonzero singular values in the

reduction process, the second case study keeps only the largest

and

in steps (iii) and (vi). As a result,

singular value of

two membership functions each for and are obtained. The

bottom plot of Fig. 9 shows the membership functions

for this case. Again, the corresponding membership functions

are identical to

in Fig. 8. The reduced TSK model

is now comprised of four rules instead of the original eight.

,

, and

giving rise to functions

The parameters

in this case are tabulated in Table VII.

The bottom plot of Fig. 10 shows the output surface of

the reduced TSK model for the second case study using the

YAM et al.: REDUCTION OF FUZZY RULE BASE VIA SINGULAR VALUE DECOMPOSITION

(a)

(b)

Fig. 10. Control surfaces due to reduced rule bases in (a) case study #1 and

(b) case study #2.

TABLE VII

PARAMETERS

{; | , {; | , AND {; |

FOR

FUNCTION

g{; | (a; b)

study, which is the same as the original one, it can be observed

that appreciable error is generated for the region

and

.

VI. CONCLUSIONS

This paper introduces a new reduction method for fuzzy

rule base. The method calls for forming a matrix with the rule

consequents and then applying singular value decomposition.

The resultant singular values and orthogonal matrices are then

tailored to form linear combinations upon which membership

functions and rule consequents of the reduced set are generated

from the original ones. Given that the original membership

131

guarantee that membership functions for the reduced set are

sum normalized and nonnegative as well. Normality or closedto-normality condition for the reduced set, however, depends

on the nature of the bounding solution to a convex hull

problem. The proposed method is applicable independent

of the inference paradigm. In the special case when PSG

inference is being used and that the fuzzy rule base has

singleton support, output error due to reduction is readily

bounded by the sum of the discarded singular values. The

method is presented here using a fuzzy system of two inputs

but is readily extended to rule base with a general number of

antecedent variables.

Three cases of fuzzy reduction are discussed in this paper.

They include the singleton support case, the nonsingleton

support case, and the TSK model case. These three cases

represent situations where the number of parameters defining

the fuzzy system is gradually increased. For the singleton

support case, the output of each rule is determined by just one

numerical value. For the nonsingleton support case two are

needed, namely, the rule consequent and the support factor.

As for the TSK model, the numerical example here utilizes

a fuzzy output function of three parameters, but, in general,

the function can include any number of parameters. From

this perspective, the proposed method can be applied to a

variety of other cases. Take the example where the output

membership functions are trapezoidal; for instance, one may

apply the reduction procedures using the characteristic points

of the trapezoids as the parameters.

The present work aims at establishing a methodology in

extracting the essential elements of a given fuzzy rule base.

This is important as there is yet no uniformly accepted

formulation for designing a fuzzy rule set efficiently and

effectively. As illustrated by the numerical examples, the

proposed approach manages to generate a reduced rule base

which quite reasonably approximates the operation of the

original one. This is the case especially in Example 1, when a

fuzzy rule base of 81 rules is effectively replaced by one with

just nine. Moreover, Example 2 demonstrates a certain ability

in the present approach to extrapolate the original output to

region where it is previously undefined. The third example in

this work demonstrates that the proposed method is capable

of eliminating certain redundancy in the fuzzy rule set. In

this case, the method reveals that the original rule base of

eight rules can actually be replaced by a rule base of six rules

without any output error.

REFERENCES

[1] T. Takagi and M. Sugeno, Fuzzy identification of systems and its

applications to modeling and control, IEEE Trans. Syst., Man, Cybern.,

vol. 15, pp. 116132, 1985.

[2] P. Baranyi and Y. Yam, Singular value-based fuzzy approximation

with nonsingleton support, in Proc. 7th Int. Fuzzy Syst. Assoc. World

Congress, Prague, Czech Republic, June 1997, pp. 127132.

[3]

, Singular value-based fuzzy approximation with Sugeno type

fuzzy rule base, in Proc. 6th IEEE Int. Conf. Fuzzy Syst. (FUZZIEEE97), Barcelona, Spain, July 1997, pp. 265270.

[4] Y. Yam and C. T. Yang, Singular value-based fuzzy approximator: A

case study, in Proc. Int. Panel Conf. Soft Intell. Comput., Budapest,

Hungary, Sept. 30Oct. 3, 1996, pp. 305312

132

[5] Y. Yam, Fuzzy approximation via grid point sampling and singular

value decomposition, IEEE Trans. Syst., Man, Cybern., vol. 27, pp.

933951, Dec. 1997.

[6] L. Wang, R. Langari, and J. Yen, Principal components, B-splines, and

fuzzy system reduction, in Fuzzy Logic for the Applications to Complex

Systems, W. Chiang and J. Lee, Eds. Singapore: World Scientific,

1996, pp. 255259.

[7] P. Baranyi, T. D. Gedeon, and L. T. Koczy, A general interpolation

technique in fuzzy rules bases with arbitrary membership functions,

in IEEE Int. Conf. Syst., Man, Cybern. (SMC96), Beijing, China, Oct.

1996, pp. 510515.

[8] J. ORourke, Computational Geometry in C. Cambridge, U.K.: Cambridge Univ. Press, 1994.

[9] H. Edelsbrunner, Algorithms in Combinatorial Geometry. Berlin, Germany: Springer-Verlag, 1987.

[10] F. Bouslama and A. Ichikawa, Application of limit fuzzy controllers

to stability analysis, Fuzzy Sets Syst., vol. 49, pp. 103120, 1992.

the Chinese University of Hong Kong and the M.S.

degree from the University of Akron, OH, both in

physics, in 1975 and 1977, respectively, and the

M.S. and Sc.D. degrees in aeronautics and astronautics from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology,

Cambridge, in 1979 and 1983, respectively.

From 1985 to 1992, he was a member of the

Technical Staff in the Control Analysis Research

Group of the Guidance and Control Section at the

Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA. He joined

the Chinese University of Hong Kong in 1992 and is currently an Associate

Professor in the Department of Mechanical and Automation Engineering.

His research interests include analysis, design, and identification of control

systems.

received both the M.Sc. (electrical engineering) and

the M.Sc. degrees (education of engineering sciences) from the Technical University of Budapest,

Hungary, in 1994 and 1995, respectively. He is

currently working toward the Ph.D. degree at the

Technical University of Budapest, Hungary.

Since 1998, he has been a Research Assistant

at the Technical University of Budapest. He has

also conducted research work at the CNRS LAAS

Institute in Toulouse, France, in 1996, the Chinese

University of Hong Kong in 1996 and 1998, and the University of New South

Wales, Sydney, Australia, in 1997. His research interests include fuzzy and

neural network techniques.

Mr. Baranyi is a member of the Hungarian Society of IFSA (International

Fuzzy Systems Association), the Hungarian Neuman Janos Computer Science

Association, and the Hungarian Elektrotechnic Association.

He received the B.S. and M.S. degrees in electrical engineering from the University of WisconsinMadison in 1992 and 1993, respectively.

Since 1995, he was a graduate student in the

Department of Mechanical and Automation Engineering at the Chinese University of Hong Kong.

His research interests include fuzzy control, identification, and modeling.

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