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THERMAL RADIATION

Objective
To investigate the radiation rates from different surfaces

Apparatus
Radiation Sensor, Thermal Radiation Cube, Millivolt meter, Ohmmeter

Procedure

Millivolt Meter

Ohmmeter

1. The cube has been setting to 5.0 for 20 minutes to preheat.


2. Ohmmeter and Millivoltmeter has been connected as in the figure above.
3. Then the thermal radiation cube has been turned and power switch has been set to 10.
Eye must be keep on the ohmmeter reading. After the reading gets down about 40,
reset the power switch to 5.0.
4. The cube then reached the thermal equilibrium which the ohmmeter reading has
fluctuate around relatively fixed value. The radiation sensor has been used to measure
the radiation emitted from each of the four surfaces of the cube. The measurements
has been recorded.

5. The power switch setting then has been increased which for the first 6.5, then 8.0,
then 10.0. At each setting, let the cube reach thermal equilibrium. The results has been
recorded in appropriate table.

Data

Power Setting
5.0
Thermal Resistor 10
Temperature
Surface
Black

Sensor
(mV)
7.8

White
Polished
Aluminium
Dull Aluminium

Power Setting
6.5
Thermal Resistant 10
Temperature
Reading Surface
Black

Sensor
(mV)
8.0

7.9

White

8.6

0.7

Polished
Aluminium
Dull Aluminium

0.7

2.9

Power Setting
8.0
Thermal Resistor 10
Temperature
Surface
Black

Sensor
(mV)
7.8

White

8.6

Polished
Aluminium
Dull
Aluminium

0.8
3.1

Reading

2.7

Reading

Discussion
Thermal radiation is the electromagnetic radiation emitted by a body as it is the result
of temperature, which does not require an intervening medium to carry it. All bodies emit
such radiation to their surrounding and absorb such radiation from them. When thermal
equilibrium in reached the rates of emission an absorption are equal.
From this experiment results, it can be seen that relative emitted by a surface being
warmed by the same light is not the same. Although each of the four surfaces of the cube
(polished aluminium, dull aluminium, white and black) were exposed to the same amount of
heat, the sides did not emit the same amount of thermal radiation.

From the data in that every trial, the white side of the cube is warmer is than the black
side of the cube. White would not seem reflecting more thermal energy, though that does not
seem to be the case. Instead, since the object is white, that means it is absorbing radiation of
all visible light, and then must be absorbing more thermal radiation of all visible light, and
then must be absorbing more thermal radiation than the black side. Black is the lack of
colours. So thus it is not absorbing any radiation of the visible wavelength.

From the result, it can be said there are several errors occurs in this experiment. The
error which are method error. There may be an apparatus in this experiment was not set up
correctly by our member. Parallax error also may be have done which not reading the meter
correctly. Then the error could be due to not preheat the thermal radiation cube exactly to 20
minutes.

Questions
1. List the surfaces of the Radiation cube in order of the amount of radiation
emitted. Is the order independent of the temperature?
-

In order of decreasing emissivity, the surface are black, white, dull aluminium and
polished aluminium. This order is independent of temperature and within the
temperature range tested, the ratio of emissions between sides is amount constant.

2. If is general rule that good absorbers of radiation are also good emitters. Are
your measurements consistent with this rule? Explain.
-

Measurements are consistent with the rule. The better reflectors (poorer absorber)
are poor emitters.

Conclusion
From this experiment, due to the objective that to investigate the radiation rates from
different surface. Different materials exposed to the same heat source for the same amount of
time will not come to the same amount of the thermal radiation. From the result that we got,
white was more to have thermal radiation depends other surface like polished aluminium, dull
aluminium and blank. So, it concluded that the experiment was accepted.