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Associated state

An associated state is the minor partner in a formal, free


relationship between a political territory with a degree
of statehood and a (usually larger) nation, for which no
other specic term, such as protectorate, is adopted. The
details of such free association are contained in United
Nations General Assembly resolution 1541 (XV) Principle VI,[1] a Compact of Free Association or Associated
Statehood Act and are specic to the countries involved.
In the case of the Cook Islands and Niue, the details of
their free association arrangement are contained in several documents, such as their respective constitutions, the
1983 Exchange of Letters between the governments of
New Zealand and the Cook Islands, and the 2001 Joint
Centenary Declaration. Free associated states can be described as independent or not, but free association is not a
qualication of an entitys statehood or status as a subject
of international law.

Marshall Islands (since 1986), and Palau (since 1994), are


associated with the United States under what is known as
the Compact of Free Association, giving the states international sovereignty and ultimate control over their territory. However, the governments of those areas have
agreed to allow the United States to provide defence; the
U.S. federal government fund grants an access to U.S. social services for citizens of these areas. The United States
benets from its ability to use the islands as strategic military bases.

The Cook Islands and Niue have the status of selfgovernment in free association.[8] New Zealand cannot legislate for them,[9][10] and in some situations they
are considered sovereign states.[11] In foreign relations
both interact as sovereign states,[12][13] and they have
been allowed to sign on as a state to UN treaties and
bodies.[12][14] New Zealand does not consider them to
Informally it can be considered more widely: from a post- be constitutionally sovereign states due to their continued
colonial form of amical protection, or protectorate, to use of New Zealand citizenship.[8][15] Both have estabconfederation of unequal members when the lesser part- lished their own nationality and immigration regimes.[16]
ner(s) delegates to the major one (often the former colo- Tokelau (a dependent territory of New Zealand) voted on
nial power) some authority normally exclusively retained
a referendum in February 2006 to determine whether it
by a self-governing state, usually in such elds as defense wanted to remain a New Zealand territory or become the
and foreign relations, while often enjoying favorable ecothird state in free association with New Zealand. While
nomic terms such as market access.
a majority of voters chose free association, the vote did
According to some scholars, a form of association based not meet the two-thirds threshold needed for approval. A
on benign protection and delegation of sovereignty can be repeat referendum in October 2007 under United Nations
seen as a dening feature of microstates.[2]
supervision yielded similar results, with the proposed free
[17]
A federacy, a type of government where at least one of the association falling 16 votes short of approval.
subunits in an otherwise unitary state enjoys autonomy
like a subunit within a federation, is similar to an associated state, with such subunit(s) having considerable independence in internal issues, except foreign aairs and defence. Yet in terms of international law it is a completely
dierent situation because the subunits are not independent international entities and have no potential right to
independence.

2 Other comparable relationships


Other situations exist where one state has power over another political unit. A dependent territory is an example
of this, where an area has its own political system and
often internal self-government, but does not have overall sovereignty. In a loose form of association, some
sovereign states cede some power to other states, often
in terms of foreign aairs and/or defence.

States in a formal association

2.1 States ceding power to another state

The Commonwealth of the Philippines was the rst associated state of the United States. From 1935 to 1946,
the foreign aairs and military of the commonwealth
were handled by the United States although it was otherwise constitutionally separate and independent in domestic matters.

Further information: Suzerainty

The foreign aairs of Bhutan, a Himalayan Buddhist


monarchy, were partially handled by the neighbouring
The Federated States of Micronesia (since 1986), the republic India (from 1949 to 2007[26] ), which thus in a
1

REFERENCES

sense succeeds its former colonizer Britains role as protector, in a loose form of association, although Bhutan
is otherwise constitutionally separate and independent in
all other matters. A similar relationship existed between
Sikkim and India from 1950 until 1975, when Sikkim
became a state of India.

states that have been able to unilaterally depute certain


attributes of sovereignty to larger powers in exchange for
benign protection of their political and economic viability
against their geographic or demographic constraints.[2]
Adopting this approach permits separating microstates
from both small states and autonomies or dependencies.
According to a law of the Republic of Tatarstan (1990 The examples of microstates understood as modern pro2000) and the Treaty of Mutual Delegation of Powers be- tected states include such states as: Liechtenstein, San
Marino, Monaco, Niue, the Cook Islands or Palau.
tween it and the Russian Federation (1994), from 1994 to
2000 Tatarstan was considered a sovereign state under international law, but associated with Russia.
According to statements of ocials of Abkhazia and
Transnistria (self-proclaimed partially recognized republics seceded from the former USSRs constitutive republics of Georgia and Moldova), both intend after recognition of their independence to become associated states
of the Russian Federation. In Transnistria a referendum
took place in September 2006, in which secession from
Moldova and future free association with Russia was
approved by a margin of 97%, even though the results of
the referendum were internationally unrecognised.

Constituent country
Dominion
Commonwealth realm
Crown dependency
External association, 1921 proposed relationship
between Ireland and the United Kingdom

Former Commonwealth associated states


6 References

A formal association existed under the Associated Statehood Act 1967 between the United Kingdom and the
six West Indies Associated States. These were former British colonies in the Caribbean: Antigua (1967
1981), Dominica (19671978), Grenada (19671974),
Saint Christopher-Nevis-Anguilla (19671983), Saint
Lucia (19671979), and Saint Vincent (19691979).
Under this arrangement, each state had full control
over its constitution. The United Nations never determined whether these associated states had achieved a full
measure of self-government within the meaning of the
United Nations Charter and General Assembly resolutions. Within a few years after the status of associated
state was created, all six of the former associated states
requested and were granted full independence, except
for Anguilla within the former St. Kitts-Nevis-Anguilla
union, which separated from the associated state before
independence and remains a United Kingdom dependent
territory.

5 See also

Microstates as modern protected


states

The existence of free relationship based on both delegation of sovereignty and benign protection can be seen
as a dening feature of microstates. According to the
denition of microstates proposed by Dumienski (2014):
microstates are modern protected states, i.e. sovereign

[1] See: the General Assembly of the United Nations approved resolution 1541 (XV) (pages:509-510) dening
free association with an independent State, integration
into an independent State, or independence
[2] Dumieski, Zbigniew (2014). Microstates as Modern
Protected States: Towards a New Denition of MicroStatehood (PDF). Occasional Paper. Centre for Small
State Studies. Retrieved 20 August 2014.
[3] CIA (2010-07-15). The Cook Islands at the CIAs page.
CIA. Archived from the original on 10 July 2010. Retrieved 2010-07-15.
[4] CIA (2010-07-15). Marshall Islands at the CIAs page.
CIA. Archived from the original on 11 July 2010. Retrieved 2010-07-15.
[5] CIA (2010-07-15). FSM at the CIAs page. CIA.
Archived from the original on 11 July 2010. Retrieved
2010-07-15.
[6] CIA (2010-07-15). Niue at the CIAs page. CIA.
Archived from the original on 11 July 2010. Retrieved
2010-07-15.
[7] CIA (2010-07-15). Palau at the CIAs page. CIA.
Archived from the original on 11 July 2010. Retrieved
2010-07-15.
[8] Cook Islands: Constitutional Status and International Personality, New Zealand Ministry of Foreign Aairs and
Trade, May 2005

[9] Cook Islands Constitution Except as provided by Act of


the Parliament of the Cook Islands, no Act, and no provision of any Act, of the Parliament of New Zealand passed
after the commencement of this Article shall extend or be
deemed to extend to the Cook Islands as part of the law
of the Cook Islands.
[10] Niue Abstracts Part 1 A (General Information); page 18
The New Zealand Parliament has no power to make laws
in respect of Niue on any matter, except with the express
request and consent of the Niue Government.
[11] See Court various statements, page 262-264
[12] Repertory of Practice of United Nations Organs Supplement No. 8; page 10 Cook Islands since 1992, and Niue
since 1994.
[13] JOINT CENTENARY DECLARATION of the Principles of the Relationship between the Cook Islands and
New Zealand, 6 April 2001
[14] UN Oce of Legal Aairs Page 23, number 86 "...the
question of the status, as a State, of the Cook Islands, had
been duly decided in the armative...
[15] The Cook Islands unique constitutional and international
status, page 9 Cook Islands and Niue do not have citizenship on their own and the Cook Islanders and Niueans have
New Zealand citizenship.
[16] Pacic Constitutions Overview, p.7 - Niue Entry, Residence and Departure Act 1985.
[17] Gregory, Angela (25 October 2007). Tokelau votes to
remain dependent territory of New Zealand. The New
Zealand Herald. Retrieved 16 September 2011.
[18] CIA (2010-07-15). Andorra at the CIAs page. CIA.
Archived from the original on 10 July 2010. Retrieved
2010-07-15.
[19] Kiribati at the CIAs page. CIA. Retrieved 2012-11-02.
[20] CIA (2010-07-15). Liechtenstein at the CIAs page.
CIA. Archived from the original on 10 July 2010. Retrieved 2010-07-15.
[21] CIA (2010-07-15). Monaco at the CIAs page. CIA.
Archived from the original on 11 July 2010. Retrieved
2010-07-15.
[22] CIA (2010-07-15). Nauru at the CIAs page. CIA.
Archived from the original on 11 July 2010. Retrieved
2010-07-15.
[23] CIA (2012-11-03). Samoa at the CIAs page.
[24] CIA (2010-07-15). San Marino at the CIAs page. CIA.
Archived from the original on 11 July 2010. Retrieved
2010-07-15.
[25] CIA (2010-07-15). Holy See (Vatican City) at the CIAs
page. CIA. Archived from the original on 11 July 2010.
Retrieved 2010-07-15.
[26] Indo-Bhutan Friendship Treaty PDF (30.6 KiB))

7 TEXT AND IMAGE SOURCES, CONTRIBUTORS, AND LICENSES

Text and image sources, contributors, and licenses

7.1

Text

Associated state Source: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Associated_state?oldid=675055420 Contributors: Roadrunner, Hoshie, Menchi,


Mic, Karada, Jengod, Pascal, Francs2000, Bon, Altenmann, Nagelfar, Jpta~enwiki, Bkonrad, Henry Flower, Semorrison, BigHaz, Sesel,
Stevietheman, Ben Arnold, Beland, Rlquall, GreenReaper, Kate, Quiensabe, Jnestorius, Che090572, Ronline, XLR8TION, Avenue, Alinor,
Pauli133, Instantnood, Nightstallion, Firsfron, Woohookitty, UnDeadGoat, Before My Ken, Sean II, Tabletop, Privacy, Mb1000, Koavf,
XLerate, Jogvanj~enwiki, Elmer Clark, Taichi, Gwernol, YurikBot, Gaius Cornelius, Danlaycock, Aaron Schulz, Gadget850, Zello, Petri
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Oddeivind, RedCoat10, Dream Focus, VoABot II, Vjperez, Mclay1, BilCat, Mannerheim2015, HerrSchnapps, DrKiernan, Darkspots,
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Jemappelleungarcon, Athomeinkobe, Sanchez 2142, OccultZone, Munchkin2013 and Anonymous: 67

7.2

Images

File:Flag_of_Andorra.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/1/19/Flag_of_Andorra.svg License: Public domain Contributors: Llibre de normes grques per a la reproducci i aplicaci dels signes d'Estat per als quals el Govern s autoritat
competent (Aprovat pel Govern en la sessi del dia 5 de maig de 1999) Original artist: HansenBCN
File:Flag_of_Australia.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/b/b9/Flag_of_Australia.svg License: Public domain Contributors: ? Original artist: ?
File:Flag_of_Federated_States_of_Micronesia.svg Source:
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File:Flag_of_Italy.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/0/03/Flag_of_Italy.svg License: PD Contributors: ? Original
artist: ?
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File:Flag_of_Liechtenstein.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/47/Flag_of_Liechtenstein.svg License:
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File:Flag_of_Monaco.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/e/ea/Flag_of_Monaco.svg License: Public domain
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File:Flag_of_Nauru.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/30/Flag_of_Nauru.svg License: Public domain
Contributors: ? Original artist: Source: Drawn by User:SKopp
File:Flag_of_New_Zealand.svg Source: https://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/3/3e/Flag_of_New_Zealand.svg License:
Public domain Contributors: http://www.mch.govt.nz/files/NZ%20Flag%20-%20proportions.JPG Original artist: Zscout370, Hugh Jass
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domain Contributors: PDF Colors Construction sheet Original artist: User:Marc Mongenet
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