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WATER

ACTIVATED SLUDGE PROCESS

THEORY

Sewage Treatment by Activated Sludge


ProcessSince water pollution is caused by domestic, industrial &
agricultural wastes. It is used for sewage treatment. It is aerobic
biological method. It is very fast & takes place in presence of
oxygen. It contains mineral, organic matter, inorganic matter &
also contains harmful living organisms.

Sewage-

Water containing domestic or Industrial waste is


called sewage.
Strength of sewage is express in terms of BOD & COD.

The treatment of sewage has to be


carried out as follows,
1. Preliminary treatment- (Screening)
In this treatment floating suspended impurities like bags,
wood, metal, plastics, solids, grits, oil, greases etc are removed.

2. Primary treatment (Sedimentation)


In which used sedimentation process to remove suspended
organic solids. Some times the chemicals like alum & hydrated
lime are added in this treatment to assist ie. Helps in the removal
of finally divided & colloidal solids or precipitate.
3. Secondary or Biological treatment It is
essentially an aerobic chemical oxidation which includes
filtration or activated sludge processes.
Filtration is done through specially designed filters like
contact beds or intermittent sand filter or trickling filter. So that
aerobic conditions are maintained all the times. It removes finally
divided suspended matter.

WATER

ACTIVATED SLUDGE PROCESS

THEORY

4. Trickling filter or bio filter


It is commonly used for the biological oxidation of sewage. It
is circular or rectangular in shape & about 2-5 m deep. They are
filled with porous materials Eg. Crushed rock or hard coke or
broken bricks. In filtrate (trickled sewage) the aerobic bacteria
grow using the organic matter in the sewage as their food.
Therefore it is necessary to maintain highly aerobic condition.
Waste products are CO2, NH3 & PO4.

5. Activated Sludge ProcessIt is a biological waste water treatment process which speeds up
waste decomposition. A part of the digested (activated) sludge is
added to the raw sewage together with oxygen, which promotes
coagulation of the suspended & colloidal matter. Here suspended
& dissolved organic matter is oxidized effectively by the aerobic
bacteria. After aeration, the effluent is sent to sedimentation tank,
where sludge is deposited & clean water is drawn off.

6. Tertiary TreatmentIt is applied to decrease the nitrogen & phosphorous from


effluents.

Precipitation:
Effluent + lime + phosphorous -- Calcium phosphate.
7. Nitrogen Stripping:
It is carried out to remove ammonia gas.

8. Disinfection:
It is chlorinated to kill bacteria which may remain in the
effluent of sewage.