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Circulatiory Systems

Open Circulatory System


In an open circulatory system, there aren't distinct blood vessels. Instead, blood and
interstitial fluid (together called hemolymph of haemolymph) are pumped into a
cavity called the hemocoel.[1] The hemolymph surrounds the organs, allowing the
exchange of substances. The hemolymph is drawn back toward the heart when it
relaxes. This type of circulatory system is often found in insects, molluscs and other
invertebrates.[2]

Closed circulatory systems


In a closed circulatory system, the blood is enclosed inside blood vessels. These
vessels can vary in size and thickness considerably.[2] In such a system the blood is
pumped through the vessels by the heart. The blood vessels usually end up as
capillaries, letting the blood reach all cells and allowing the exchange of substances.
There are two types of closed circulatory system, single systems and double systems.
This type of circulatory system is found in vertebrates and some select invertebrates,
such as squids.

Comparisons
On one hand, open circulatory systems do not require as much energy as closed
systems in order to distribute blood. On the other hand, as the blood is pumped under
low pressure, it moves at a slow rate. In a closed system, the blood is under a lot more

pressure and so reaches its destination quicker. A closed system also reduces the risk
of a loss of pressure or contamination.
Single Circulatory System
In a single circulatory system, there is one circuit for the blood to travel through. The
blood is pumped out of the heart, to the gills of the animal, and then is distributed to
the rest of the body. The blood would then return to the heart in order to be pumped
around the body again. Fish are the main example of this type of circulatory system.
Double Circulatory System
In a double circulatory system, there are two circuits for the blood to travel through.
[4] The blood is pumped from the heart, to the lungs, and then back to the other side
of the heart. The now oxygenated blood is then pumped to the rest of the body before
again returning to the heart. In amphibians and reptiles, the heart may not be
completely separated in to two pumps. This results in only three heart chambers. In
birds and mammals, the heart is completely separated, resulting in a four chambered
heart.

[4]
Comparisons
In a single circulatory system, the blood does not return to the heart after visiting the
gills. This means that blood pressure ends up being lower, slowing the blood flow. In
a double system, as the blood returns to the heart after visiting the lungs, the blood is
pumped a second time and a higher blood pressure can be achieved. This means that
double circulatory systems end up being more efficient at transporting substances.

[1] http://biology.about.com/od/organsystems/a/circulatorysystem.htm
[2] http://www2.gsu.edu/~bioasx/closeopen.html
[3] https://www.boundless.com/biology/circulatory-system/facilitating-exchange-with-cellsthroughout-the-body/single-vs-double-circulatory-systems/

[4] http://www.ideacenter.org/contentmgr/showdetails.php/id/1113