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Scotland’s Culture Cultar na h-Alba
© Crown copyright 2006 ISBN: 0-7559-4961-7 Scottish Executive St Andrew’s House Edinburgh EH1 3DG Produced for the Scottish Executive by Astron B44171 01/06 Published by the Scottish Executive, January, 2006 Further copies are available from Blackwell’s Bookshop 53 South Bridge Edinburgh EH1 1YS The text pages of this document are printed on recycled paper and are 100% recyclable
The vision Our approach Key principles The roles of national and local government
★ ★ ★
2 6 12 15 18 19 21 24 25 26 27 29 36 40 42 44 50 55
Planning for culture Local cultural entitlements Delivery of local entitlements
Advancing culture’s availability
Role of the private sector Role of the voluntary sector
The new cultural infrastructure
1 Developing Scotland’s cultural and creative talent 2 National Collections 3 National performing arts companies
Other infrastructure matters Access to languages Next steps Acknowledgements
This paper is a response to the cultural review, which constitutes the report of the Cultural Commission and the subsequent dialogue which it provoked. It sets out Scottish Ministers’ vision for the strategic direction of future cultural policy, and identifies key initiatives, legislation, investment and infrastructure changes needed to implement those decisions. It is the start, not the end, of a new journey towards achieving our ambitious aspirations for Scotland’s cultural life.
Scotland’s culture sits at the very heart of the nation’s life and identity. The country has an enviable reputation reaching far beyond its shores for innovation, skill, and as an authentic source of inspiration. It is essential that these attributes – in their full 21st-century diversity – should be celebrated and cherished.
Since devolution, a new focus on Scotland’s cultural life has seen an amazing host of achievements – world-class architecture and exhibition spaces; new festivals springing up across the country; record audience numbers at major events; lots of community-based activity in all artforms. These have been made possible by Scottish Government’s record investment levels, and a new drive to bring culture into a diverse range of sites and scenarios, all of which benefit from it. Today, there are many more opportunities for the people of Scotland to make culture part of their lives. The Scottish Government believes that culture is a vital ingredient in Scotland’s success, both here and overseas. Culture is also central to the well-being of Scotland’s citizens. Its inspirational qualities defy measurement – just as there is no adequate way to define the confidence and pride that culture’s myriad works stir up in those who participate and in those who look on in admiration. Government recognises the imperative of freedom of expression. Artistic activity can challenge authority and can carry uncomfortable messages. Creativity is seldom diffident, and the independent conviction found in much of Scotland’s art happily contradicts the lack of confidence to which Scots can be disposed.
Individuals with talent, who nurture the ambition to develop their cultural skill to the point of excellence, deserve our wholehearted backing. Individuals whose wish it is to access and enjoy the work and skill of Scotland’s creative community must have every chance to do so. While our indigenous artforms should be celebrated and helped to attain the peak of achievement in each tradition and artform, the excellence we cherish must also represent the vast diversity of culture produced and showcased in Scotland. That way we demonstrate to all residents of Scotland, and to the world community, how warmly we welcome and value the rich heritage of each nation.
Culture is a resource available to all. How and if to be involved must remain matters of personal choice, and the fact that personal views vary considerably regarding what is good art must also be respected.1 Respect for the wide range of responses to cultural activity and decisions about choice are self-evident facts which inhabited the landscape within which the Cultural Commission was asked to consider what role a cultural ‘rights’ agenda could play in drawing people into the world of culture. The Commission’s study was based on the premise that each person in Scotland has rights of access to high quality cultural activity. The right to choose from options that can be provided locally and nationally is paramount; but if marketing, education and interpretation are not present too, the rate of ‘take up’ is likely to be impaired. The First Minister, Jack McConnell, chose to make his 2003 St Andrew’s Day speech on the subject of “Cultural Policy in Devolved Scotland”, putting on record that culture was one of Scotland’s principal assets and a source of immense delight and pride. The First Minister identified the need for a new focus, to place culture at the heart of Scotland’s policy making agenda. Culture cuts across all portfolios of Government, it can make a difference to the success of each, and portfolio Ministers have committed to using arts and culture to achieve their policy objectives more effectively. This recognises their role and responsibility to help strengthen, support, and in some cases provide for, Scotland’s cultural activity.
The Playfair project, refurbishing the Royal Scottish Academy in Edinburgh, was completed in August 2004, funded to the tune of £10 million by the Executive, £7 million from the Heritage Lottery Fund, and £13 million from private donors – a truly international-class exhibition space
Vivid, powerful and about time!
1 Quotes from the “Elbowroom” visitors’ book. “Elbowroom” was an award winning project in the engage Scotland Visual Arts Education Awards 2005 – “Creativity and Well-being”. Working through strong community connections, experienced artists and committed participants gave expressive shape to shared and personal issues, negotiating strong, instinctive responses to a big public issue – violence against women
Beautiful in the worst of situations. The honesty and reflections on such a hard to believe subject touch me deeply.
Thought provoking – which is all that should ever be asked.
Personally, I’d like to ignore everything this exhibition represents – but I can’t. So I suppose it’s worked then.
The decision to undertake a cultural review was announced in the Scottish Executive’s Partnership Agreement of 2003. Quinquennial reviews of the Scottish Arts Council and Scottish Screen had identified a lack of strategic, coherent delivery of culture. It was also clear that several of the delivery bodies were set up some years back, pre-devolution, for a different age and different priorities.
The First Minister declared in his 2003 speech, to a positive response, that raised levels of ambition were needed for these cultural assets to exert their maximum power to change lives. Accordingly, he announced that the promised review was on its way, and to be based on a radically new approach to cultural provision. In April 2004, a Cultural Commission was established, with a bold remit to review the cultural sector and make recommendations to Ministers.
The Commission was asked specifically to explore the notion of cultural rights for the Scottish citizen, and those of its creative community; and to redefine the institutional infrastructure and governance of Scotland’s cultural sector, so that it would be equipped to help accomplish the Executive’s long-term vision for the sector. The Commission took seriously Ministers’ encouragement to adopt a highly inclusive approach to its consultations. Comments and suggestions flooded in over the next year from all parts of the country, and beyond, and representing every branch of cultural endeavour. On 23 June 2005, the Commission delivered its report to Ministers. The Executive welcomed its completion, and the prospect of examining the 131 recommendations to see how they could help to realise our ambitions. The Scottish Parliament was given an opportunity to discuss its views on the report at a debate on 22 September. It was clear that Members endorsed the Government’s wish to reduce bureaucracy in the cultural sector, and several looked to see service providers from other sectors investing to deliver their respective objectives through culture.
The Executive has now considered Parliament’s comments carefully. It has also reflected on subsequent discussions with the Convention of Scottish Local Authorities and national cultural agencies. This document contains the outcome of those deliberations. After setting out the Executive’s future vision for culture and the direction of its cultural policy, the paper outlines Ministers’ views of the role of Government in delivering that vision, along with new initiatives that the Executive will back to achieve its goals. An explanation is provided of the organisational infrastructure model proposed by Ministers; and finally, the paper defines the next steps towards implementation and the timescales envisaged. Our response to each individual recommendation by the Cultural Commission will be published on the Scottish Executive website in due course.
The cultural policy landscape is broad, covering both ‘reserved’ and ‘devolved’ issues. This formal response by the Scottish Executive deals with matters that are the responsibility of Government in Scotland – at national and local levels. In view of the wide range of material in the Commission’s report, it will provide a resource for policymakers for years to come. It is easy to be up-beat about Scotland’s creative achievements. But the arts and culture are far too important for complacency, while there is more to be done to promote their central role, right across the policy agenda. The need for change to deliver improvement is clear. The Cultural Commission rightly identified that Scotland has a confusing cultural infrastructure; there is a lack of clarity in funding responsibilities, leading to inconsistent levels of commitment by key stakeholders; and frequent financial crises at major arts organisations; there is no clear pathway to success for talented young people; and limited sharing of ‘national’ provision across Scotland. We need to turn those things around – and create the conditions that make the nation’s cultural riches as accessible as possible to as many people as possible.
People who do engage with culture do so because they are stimulated, entertained and challenged by it. One of the most important things about cultural activity is simply that it is enjoyable and the opportunities it unlocks are quite unique. Why does the Scottish Government invest in culture – is it necessary, or simply good to do so? As the Government of a civilised and progressive society, it is imperative that we invest, building on our past record and proven commitment to advance the development of Scotland’s cultural life. The Executive currently dedicates 1% of its total budget to culture – £187 million in the current financial year. This figure increases significantly when local authority revenue and capital cultural spend, in excess of £200 million, is included, of which around 80% is provided by central Government.2
2 The latest published local authority statistics, for 2003-04, show relevant total investment of £226 million.
By 2007-08, the Executive’s annual cultural spend was due to increase to £214 million. But in order to implement the decisions laid out in this paper, Scottish Ministers have pledged an immediate additional £20 million per annum from 2007-08 – an increase of almost 10% in the Executive’s annual cultural budget. This will produce a total annual spend of £234 million from 2007-08. In addition to this, there will be continued expenditure on culture by local authorities, of a similar order. Scottish Executive Departments also contribute over £200 million per year to cultural objectives. There are many views across the cultural sector and from the ranks of external commentators about what the Scottish Government should buy through its investment. The Commission made a large number of suggestions which could progress culture’s influence and development in Scotland. It is important to be clear first, however, about national government’s strategic role in relation to culture.
The Executive has decided that the proper functions of Government are: to ensure that cultural talent in Scotland is recognised and nurtured, and that excellence is developed as a national resource; to promote the best of Scotland’s rich cultural treasure-store; and to make the best of the nation’s performing activity available to be accessed right across the country. Having considered the host of suggestions elicited by the Commission from a large field of stakeholders, as reflected in its report, the Executive has chosen to focus its investment initiatives that will make the biggest contribution to national priorities.
Others also have investment choices. Government is just one player – where our responsibilities stop, other cultural providers must play their part. As the First Minister’s 2003 St Andrew’s Day speech made very clear, other service providers need to commit too, in order for culture to support their wider objectives. Since 2003, the Scottish Cabinet has responded with a programme to bring culture’s beneficial impact to the range of Government actions, such as – supporting regeneration; promoting health; providing transport; boosting enterprise; enabling development; advancing justice and, of course, enriching education.
The Executive’s £750k per year Cultural Co-ordinators in Schools programme, administered by the Scottish Arts Council, explores ways to maximise the contribution of culture, providing experiences and developing skills that are of lasting value to young people
While the Commission’s report said most about education’s links with culture, the contribution by all portfolios to culture will be developed further in light of the cultural review. Local cultural planning is advocated increasingly as an effective way to maximise culture’s contribution to wider priorities – and its impact for Scotland’s citizens, in virtually every important aspect of their lives. For example, it will be mentioned explicitly in the Executive’s forthcoming Regeneration Policy Statement, which will promote the key part played by culture in creating vibrant communities, and driving and enlivening economic and social regeneration. Such approaches enable cultural resources to be integrated into policy making and new developments. All those with a role in the provision of culture need to work together – across the public, private and voluntary sectors. There will be a need to increase the commitment of these sectors to partnership working and joined-up delivery. Equally, the Scottish Government cannot, and should not, extend its ambit to areas best served by others, whose expertise and knowledge is better suited to the task.
Apart from the Executive, the other major delivery sector for culture in Scotland is, of course, the local authorities. The contribution they make to cultural provision within their areas is vital and cannot be overstated. Published statistics3 show that, in 2003-04, local authorities across Scotland invested £226 million in the arts, heritage/museums/ galleries, libraries, archives, and community recreation. However, the current arrangements that determine what cultural provision authorities support and what falls to the Executive and its agencies, are inconsistent and patchy. While there have been impressive achievements, a far more strategic understanding of ‘who does what’ would help to focus purpose and investment. The Executive believes that there should be a clear delineation of responsibilities between local and national government provision.
3 CIPFA’s “Scotland’s Cultural Statistics 2003-04”.
As mentioned above, the Executive is clear that central Government has three key responsibilities that define its role, and into which it will channel national investment for cultural provision. They are to: 1 ensure that cultural talent in Scotland is recognised and nurtured, and that excellence is developed as a national resource, recognising and advancing Scotland’s outstandingly talented artists and their achievements; 2 promote the best of Scotland’s rich cultural treasure-store, maintaining and presenting, as openly and accessibly as possible, Scotland’s superb national galleries’, museums’ and library collections; and 3 make the best of the nation’s performing activity available to be accessed right across the country, providing national performing arts companies – produced and producing the best in and for Scotland.
In 2003, a retired Concorde aircraft was gifted to the National Museums of Scotland for the Museum of Flight in East Lothian. The Executive helped the Museum of Flight development with £2 million
Having acknowledged the need for a clear distinction of future delivery roles, the essential first step is to clarify the respective remits of the two arms of government.
The Roles of National and Local Government
The role of Scottish Government focuses on supporting the development of excellence and the artistic product, up to what might be called the ‘national standard’. How that will affect practice will depend on the nature of each activity. The Executive will fund directly national bodies responsible for building and/or showcasing cultural excellence. That includes the national performing companies, removing the uncertainty inherent in current funding arrangements through the Scottish Arts Council. Government has responsibility, and a major stake, in supporting top flight performing bodies, to be a source of national pride and enjoyment, and to kindle the ambition of talented young aspirants in every branch of the performing arts.
As mentioned, all portfolios of Government recognise that they have a role to play in the supply of culture to advance their business objectives, and all will take culture into account in their future planning activity, in light of the cultural review. Since the First Minister’s St Andrew’s Day speech in 2003 there have been regular meetings between the Minister for Tourism, Culture and Sport with other Cabinet Ministers to achieve this objective. These discussions have produced a programme of joint actions. This action programme has been published on the Scottish Executive website. These Ministerial discussions will continue and the actions resulting will be published periodically on the website. Scottish Executive Departments make a strong contribution, collectively investing over £200 million annually – a similar order of investment to the Executive’s main budget for culture and to investment through local authorities. Local government has a key role to ensure cultural provision in their respective areas. The Executive proposes to promote the development of this responsibility by local authorities, building on their substantial current contribution to achieve more consistent delivery approaches and standards across Scotland.
In recent years, the Executive has increased its focus on international activity, promoting Scotland and its culture through a series of initiatives in places including Washington DC, Venice, Catalonia, France and the Netherlands
Planning for culture
To discharge the local authority planning role effectively requires strategy that ensures the wide-ranging benefits of culture are identified across the range of policy areas. Cultural planning is an effective way of discharging that role, identifying the nature of demand by means of inviting, and responding to, local aspirations. The cultural planning process should feed directly into Community Planning – the system advocated for developing cultural provision and advancing community well-being in the 2003 “Implementation of the National Cultural Strategy: Guidance for Scottish Local Authorities”, published jointly by the Executive and the Convention of Scottish Local Authorities. Like national government, many of local government’s top priorities can benefit from using cultural provision as a delivery agent, funded by the relevant non-arts budgets, such as education and regeneration. There are many good examples where this is happening already. The Executive considers that many more benefits can be released by means of this approach if cultural planning develops as an integral part of the ‘citizen-first’ Community Planning process.
To promote the activity of planning for cultural provision across the local authority sector, the Executive will introduce a new legislative provision that asks authorities to produce evidence of cultural planning as part of the strategic planning activity of Community Planning Partnerships. It will be important for this planning activity to link with other relevant plans, such as Community Learning and Development Strategies, and for adjoining Community Planning Partnerships to exploit economies of scale and strategic interests by working collaboratively and traversing boundaries. Since the joint publication by the Executive and the Convention of Scottish Local Authorities in March 2003,4 setting out strategic advice on good practice for local authorities in their implementation of the National Cultural Strategy, we have acknowledged that more specific guidance was needed. We shall establish a group including the local authority bodies and cultural agencies to produce practical guidance on the development of local cultural policies and strategies within Community Planning and between Community Planning Partnerships, supported by a new quality assurance tool. The aim will be to help local authorities and their Community Planning Partnerships to plan and monitor their cultural provision as part of a pan-policy process that ensures culture’s contribution is harnessed in all departments of local government. It is also intended that this should lead to a greater consistency of approach to cultural provision across Scotland.
4 “Implementation of the National Cultural Strategy: Guidance for Scottish Local Authorities”.
National guidance will also be developed collaboratively to help authorities discharge their responsibilities in key policy areas such as access, provision in schools, growing cultural diversity and audience development. Other local partners, including arts venues, galleries, theatres and libraries, clearly have a key role also in promoting ‘audience development’ – and opportunities to collaborate should be exploited. Guidance will also be provided to the national cultural bodies, requiring them to engage with this local planning activity.
The Executive considers that the Commission’s recommendation advocating Scottish legislation to endorse international and European rights would do nothing to improve upon the existing position. Similarly, the proposals for entitlements would not readily translate into legislation in ways that would confer any real advantage for the intended beneficiaries. The Executive will not adopt that route. However we remain wholeheartedly committed to the principle of entitlements to cultural provision for local people, in the spirit of the rights already in place at international and European levels. While we endorse fully those existing rights, we also regard them as a minimum requirement. The Commission’s report sets out the main international provisions which apply.
Local cultural entitlements
The Commission was asked to explore and define the subject of cultural rights and entitlements. The Commission stated correctly that entitlements should be developed in each local authority area, in response to the wishes of local people. Its report proposed a raft of legislation for implementing its ideas – making local authorities responsible for developing, and operating the majority of these arrangements, at the critical local level. The Executive has considered this whole area carefully, and is resolutely committed to the principle. It is important that those fortunate enough to have been encouraged to sample and enjoy culture should ensure that the same good fortune is available to others.
The United Nations Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948) ★ everyone has the right freely to participate in the cultural life of the community, to enjoy the arts …(Article 27 – which also affords the right to protection of artistic production) ★ everyone, as a member of society … is entitled to realisation … of the economic, social and cultural rights indispensable for his dignity and the free development of his personality (Article 22) ★ everyone has duties to the community in which alone the free and full development of his personality is possible (Article 29) The Declaration of the Principles of International Cultural Co-operation by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (UNESCO, 1966) ★ each culture has a dignity and value which must be respected and preserved (Article 1) ★ every people has the right and the duty to develop its culture (Article 1) ★ in their rich variety and diversity, and in the reciprocal influences they exert on one another, all cultures form part of the common heritage belonging to all mankind (Article 1)
The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989) ★ the right to freedom of expression … freedom to seek, receive and impart information and ideas of all kinds … either orally, in writing or in print, in the form of art, or through any other media of the child’s choice (Article 13) ★ the education of the child shall be directed to: the development of the child’s personality, talents and mental and physical abilities to their fullest potential (Article 29) ★ the right of the child to rest and leisure, to engage in play and recreational activities … and to participate freely in cultural life and the arts (Article 31 – which also states that States Parties shall respect and promote the child’s right to participate fully in cultural and artistic life, and shall encourage the provision of appropriate and equal opportunities for cultural, artistic, recreational and leisure activity)
Taking these existing rights as a starting point, the Executive will seek to put in place arrangements that will ensure cultural rights and entitlements can impact on the lives of citizens and communities right across Scotland. We propose that the Culture Bill – through which we plan to implement relevant key provisions of our future policy – would create a legislative framework for delivering rights and entitlements. At national level, relevant cultural bodies which are part of the new infrastructure described below, will be required to develop minimum standards for the various sectors – such as museums, theatre, libraries, dance, literature – reflecting guidance from Scottish Ministers, and in consultation with the sectors in question and other stakeholders. Those national bodies will also be expected to contribute to the development of cultural entitlements. We shall consider the question of how the new provisions should affect the existing duty of “adequate” provision in the Local Government (Scotland) Act 1994 (arising from the Local Government and Planning Act (Scotland) 1982). At local level, the local authorities will have a duty to develop minimum cultural entitlements to apply in their areas. As with direct support to non-national cultural organisations and venues, the Executive believes that cultural entitlements are best, and most appropriately, delivered locally – for the benefit of communities. The cultural planning activity of local authorities, mentioned above – integrated within the framework of Community Planning – should include entitlements that address identified need in each authority area. The Executive anticipates this approach should open up a range of choices for local people, and a menu of cultural options
which they have helped to develop. The principle of free access to cultural activity for young people should be every provider’s goal – and should underpin the entitlements and pledges now being explored.
Delivery of local entitlements
Many local authorities have a record of commitment to meeting identified demand which is well demonstrated by actions such as, improvements in the museums sector, and recognition of the need to strengthen their joint working activities. The Executive has been considering, in the light of discussions with local authority bodies, what approaches would help local authorities in their delivery functions – to maximise cultural opportunities for people across Scotland. In setting entitlements, local authorities will want to have regard to what will be effective and practical. To inform that aspect, pilot projects are proposed exploring approaches to entitlement-setting in different scenarios. One such is the Cultural Pledge for young people, being introduced by The Highland Council as part of the legacy programme for Scotland’s Year of Highland Culture in 2007. The Executive is looking to fund a number of pilots and initiatives to inform the development of standards and entitlements, and will examine incentives to local authorities to help build on their extensive existing activities in ways that promote consistent provision throughout Scotland. One of these initiatives is the Public Library Improvement Matrix, being piloted in ten local authorities with support from the Executive and the Scottish Library and Information Council to develop standards and evaluation criteria. Details of other pilots will be announced shortly.
In 2007, Scotland will celebrate Highland culture in an exciting year-long festival including a range of international, regional and community events, as well as capital projects and cultural activities specifically for young people. The project is a partnership between three principal funding agencies: The Highland Council, the Scottish Executive, and Highlands and Islands Enterprise and aims to promote the Highlands as a great place to live and to visit by showcasing the unique nature of Highland culture past, present and future
Some authorities, like Glasgow, have been considering the implications of the review agenda in advance of this response. Glasgow is developing its own set of citizens’ entitlements, including some for cultural provision. This is a very welcome development, setting an example for others to follow. The proposed new cultural planning and self-monitoring guidance, mentioned above, is intended to help local authorities take necessary action. That guidance will provide examples of good practice, and cover the practical development and monitoring of entitlements by each local authority, discussing approaches such as capacity building, and collaboration between Community Planning Partnerships and with neighbouring authorities – for example, to provide touring exhibitions. While entitlements should be the product of local decision-making, it is envisaged that they will promote access in a range of practical ways, such as providing transport to cultural venues – in the authority area, or that of a neighbouring authority – or making exhibits available electronically. As well as entitlements to visit collections and be part of the audience, active participation in cultural activity and creative processes should also be promoted. Once the new arrangements are in place, we shall take soundings at local level, to discover how cultural provision is being implemented in light of these arrangements, and the existing international and European cultural rights. The Commission’s proposal to make culture a specific theme in Community Planning would not be compatible with the 2003 legislation, which does not specify which policy themes should be promoted. The Executive is aware, however, of the powerful role that Community
Planning can play in opening up cultural opportunities locally, and intends to ask the Chairs of all Community Planning Partnerships, periodically, to advise on how citizen-first cultural planning activity and local entitlements are impacting. That should identify how consistently and effectively local planning is meeting local people’s wishes. We shall review how these arrangements can in due course be developed as part of the debate on future public service reform. Action is also needed regarding what we might call the contact points between ‘national and local’ endeavour. The thrust of public service reform is to establish a relationship between the Executive and local authorities based on achieving high level national priorities and those set locally. The features that should characterise future public sector service delivery centre on meeting the needs of citizens and service users (rather than service providers), quality, efficiency and productivity, accountability, achieving outcomes and more joined-up partnership activity. This
will need to inform the delivery of cultural services as with any other area of provision. As well as exploring opportunities to incentivise local provision, we shall consider the possible devolution of funding via specific grant for initiatives best delivered locally but which could not reasonably be resourced out of normal funding arrangements – for example, certain venue provision currently funded by the Scottish Arts Council to its core funded organisations; schools-based programmes (discussed below); and a possible extension of the proposed museums “national significance recognition” scheme to other sectors. A cultural policy-based pilot initiative might also be explored, to test new approaches allied to public service reform.
Advancing Culture’s Availability
This review has focused principally on the means of extending access, to bring more people into contact with the remarkable world of culture and its creations. The Commission’s remit highlighted the need to examine the role of the private and voluntary sectors, and the relationship between them. The Executive wished to explore whether and how their already crucial contributions might be developed further.
Role of the private sector
The Executive applauds the sponsorship investment of Scotland’s private sector and the work of Arts and Business, administering schemes that encourage the commitment of funding and expertise to bring arts and culture to audiences and into the workplace. We shall make available £400k per annum over the next two years to enable a new match-funding sponsorship initiative proposed by Arts and Business. Arts and Business will use our support to incentivise private sector sponsorship. That way, we aim to deliver over £700k in additional support for the arts each year, through a mix of public and private sector finance.
Role of the voluntary sector
Volunteering is a vital part of Scotland’s cultural delivery infrastructure; and the Executive recognises that practice and endeavour which is inspired voluntarily is a key resource to be valued. At the Executive’s request, the Commission procured research into the work of the voluntary cultural sector in Scotland and the problems it faces. The findings provide a comprehensive account of issues affecting that important sector and will helpfully inform new national guidance. That guidance will be produced by the new cultural development agency, mentioned later in this paper, and will be linked to the Scottish Executive’s Volunteering Strategy which is aimed at embedding a robust culture of volunteering in Scotland. The new guidance will be specifically geared to promoting cultural volunteers, and those who can help support local voluntary and community bodies and the conditions that sustain their activities. Specific outcomes would be around dismantling the barriers to volunteering, the development of volunteers’ experiences – with special regard to the needs, aspirations and lifestyles of volunteers – and a higher proportion of organisations operating an inclusive practice. This is one of several areas where solutions for culture should be consistent with those relating to sport. sportscotland already has a volunteering strategy, and a similar response is needed from the arts and heritage sectors, to recognise and bolster support for the volunteers who are so crucial to delivery across the sector.
The Executive currently is undertaking work to support the voluntary sector, including work on the Strategic Funding Review, aimed at ensuring the sustainability of the sector as a whole. Work is also being undertaken to establish a vision for the Scottish Executive’s relationship with the voluntary sector as it develops over the next fifteen years. Our intention is that through that vision strategic links will be built between the Executive and the voluntary sector on a whole range of joint priorities and joint agendas including the promotion of cultural volunteering. The Executive looks forward to a host of enjoyable and interesting new volunteering opportunities coming to Scotland through the 2012 London Olympics – and it is hoped, through a successful bid by Glasgow to host the 2014 Commonwealth Games. Both arts and sporting programmes will be featured, and the Executive will liaise with the London Organising Committee for the 2012 Olympic Games, and relevant Whitehall Departments, on their delivery.
The New Cultural Infrastructure
From the start of the cultural review, Ministers signalled that they were looking for imaginative solutions that would be effective in delivering their vision for a more vibrant cultural life for the whole of Scotland. They also made it clear, in terms of the cultural infrastructure, that the status quo was not an option.
The Commission presented its preferred option in its report. Its remit was to consider how to achieve Best Value from existing resources; Ministers are determined that funding committed to culture should be focused on delivery and not on unnecessary administration and bureaucracy. For those reasons, Ministers do not favour the Commission’s recommendation, noting also that few cultural bodies and commentators appear to support that model. Having reviewed the opportunities and mindful of the strategic objectives for the review, the Executive has chosen a new infrastructure model. We believe it delivers a less cluttered, more transparent and efficient institutional landscape, capable of delivering Scotland’s cultural ambitions, now and in the years ahead.
The new infrastructure is focused on function and the delivery of national Government’s three core responsibilities for cultural provision. These are: to recognise and nurture Scotland’s cultural talent; to promote the best of Scotland’s Cultural treasures in the care of the National Collections; and to make the best of the nation’s performing activity available through the work of the national performing arts companies. A model of the new infrastructure appears at the end of this section
Mentioned already is the Executive’s commitment to those with talent and the ambition to develop it, to take their cultural skills to the highest levels of achievement. Their progress in that endeavour should be a journey of discovery for the whole nation, as we follow their successes with pride and great enjoyment. Taking part in culture inspires confidence, and it grows confidence and motivation in those who enjoy it. The Executive believes in supporting the culturally talented people of this country. Our aim should be to identify, encourage, nurture and showcase – nationally and internationally – the best that Scotland can produce, including all our unique, indigenous art forms. While Scotland has world-class facilities for those in our schools and those embarking on extended cultural education and training, currently there is no route provided to assist the progress of their cultural talent through ‘the system’. The Executive proposes an ‘escalator model’, to help Scotland’s talented young people move from school into work, either directly or through further and higher education. The prime principle of the escalator philosophy requires children and young people to have the maximum opportunity to try and experience the full range of cultural activity, being helped to discover their own creativity and to develop their gifts. An example of how the Executive currently is addressing this is the Youth Music Initiative.
1 Developing Scotland’s cultural and creative talent
The first plank of central government support for culture holds the key to success in the business of developing and nurturing Scotland’s cultural talent. Here we propose to create a new Scottish cultural development agency, to be called “Creative Scotland”, amalgamating the Scottish Arts Council and Scottish Screen – but transferring support for the national performing companies to the Executive – and transferring the Screen Archive to the National Library of Scotland. The Executive will provide some new funding to the agency, to boost its capacity to develop excellence in Scotland’s cultural sectors. The new agency will have a vital role in delivering a new approach for recognising and growing talent, which we believe will open up a host of opportunities for Scotland’s creative development.
February 2003 saw the launch of the Executive’s Youth Music initiative, committing £17.5 million over three years towards ensuring by 2006 that all school children should have had access to one year’s free music tuition, by the, time they reach Primary 6. A further £10 million per year has been invested to develop this important initiative
The first practical step in the process is provided by parents and guardians, reading to children, playing music, introducing them to shows, heritage sites and so much more. Government’s role in those early stages is limited; but, as a way to endorse the value of culture to children and those who care for them, the Executive plans to explore how best to grow and develop the popular Bookstart programme run by the Scottish Book Trust. This might involve extending its reach or perhaps its focus, so that all youngsters entering nursery school receive access to arts resources, storytelling tapes or visual e-archive material.
The Executive proposes that the delivery of all stages of the escalator – from pre-school to school leavers – should become the responsibility of Creative Links, Cultural Co-ordinators and Active Schools Co-ordinator teams, which we plan to bring together within schools. They will work closely with teachers and early years centres in undertaking and co-ordinating this function for culture, including sport, and in helping young people with their progression in learning through cultural and related activities. Once talent is identified, younger and older people alike, need pathways to develop that talent and to perform. Again, choice will be paramount – not all careers are forged taking the conventional route; that is not always appropriate, but the system should be sufficiently flexible to accommodate the needs of those who wish to use it. There is potential for other schools co-ordinator programmes to join the proposed initiative, which will benefit from a combined budget and the mutual support available from co-ordinators working together in dynamic teams, alongside teachers, across groups of schools. According to the principles of public service reform, enabling local authorities to deliver strategic national and local priorities wherever these are best delivered locally, once the teams are established, we shall discuss with the Convention of Scottish Local Authorities the possibility of transferring to local authorities the responsibility and budget for running the new combined co-ordinator programme.
The development of “A Curriculum for Excellence” over the coming months and years will add greater weight to the place of culture as a context for learning across the whole curriculum. “A Curriculum for Excellence” aims to provide a curricular framework within which cultural engagement and creativity will have an important role to play in learning and teaching, enabling young people to become successful learners, confident individuals, responsible citizens, able to participate in political, economic, social and cultural life. As teachers develop a new approach to teaching and learning, the contribution of cultural engagement and creativity to achieving those outcomes for our children will be a high priority. The curriculum which young people experience should be about both challenge and enjoyment. It is intended that culture will be, not just a context for learning, but increasingly also a vehicle for learning. Early work in the first half of 2006 will see all areas of the curriculum examined thoroughly – as part of this, the Executive will aim to ensure that links to culture and creativity are made at all stages. Community access to schools’ arts and sports facilities could also play a big part in promoting participation in culture; and maximum use must be made of these resources, particularly in remote areas where facilities are scarce. The Commission proposed a review to consider possible improvements in the status quo. The Executive does not plan to take that forward, in light of the fact that a study was recently undertaken. We shall ensure that the massive investment going into the schools estate is effective in enhancing cultural, including sports, facilities and in taking wider community needs into account. We
shall also promote the sharing of good practice amongst stakeholders and will ensure that the developing Youthwork Strategy recognises the importance of wider access to cultural facilities within schools. Cultural and Community Planning should also take account of these needs. While the school co-ordinators focus on their responsibilities for the escalator, attention must also be given to what comes next. An important role is also envisaged for further and higher educational institutions such as the Royal Scottish Academy for Music and Drama, the Screen Academy and Scotland’s art colleges. It is essential that these bodies should establish links with schools, the creative industries’ sector, national arts bodies like the national performing companies, and national initiatives such as the Writers’ Factory – that enable students to progress between them, getting tuition and creative opportunities best suited to their development needs. Ministers plan to discuss the detail of this with relevant partners.
The Scottish Screen Academy – to be hosted at Napier University and Edinburgh College of Art – was launched in August 2005 and is one of the seven UK screen academies which will provide the best film education and skills development at a further, higher and postgraduate level
Celebrating and demonstrating the national contribution and role fulfilled by our best creative artists is of key importance. There has been debate about whether Scotland should have a similar arrangement to the Aosdana, the Irish Cultural Academy. We already have the Dewar Arts Awards and the Creative Scotland Awards, which are well regarded by the cultural community. However, Ministers consider that there should be more recognition for Scotland’s outstanding artists and other creative individuals, particularly for achievements over a long period. We shall develop and invest in a scheme that celebrates their contribution to national life. The relationship between this and the other existing schemes must be examined, to create a rational framework of accolades. We have asked the Scottish Arts Council to develop such a scheme and would anticipate making the first awards later in 2006. There is a role for a scheme of scholarships and bursaries as part
of the Executive’s plans to develop Scotland’s creative industries sector. Such a scheme could assist the transition from further and higher education into employment and self-employment, building on current successful schemes, such as Ideasmart. Culture makes an important contribution to the Executive’s top priority of growing the economy, through the creative industries. The first significant step towards more meaningful support for the creative industries sector is being taken now, through changes to the cultural infrastructure supporting these industries. The new infrastructure does not, however, address ways to secure more effective enterprise sector support, which clearly will be essential if the creative industries are to achieve their potential for economic growth. A number of Cultural Enterprise Offices have recently been established to provide business support to those in the creative sector. We will evaluate their operation before considering further investment to extend their role.
The Cultural Enterprise Offices were rolled-out from Glasgow to Aberdeen, Dundee and Edinburgh in April 2005, to recognise the particular needs of creative individuals and microbusinesses and provide support and business advice tailored more appropriately to the needs of this important sector of the economy
The new agency, Creative Scotland, will have a pivotal role in developing talent and to link the ‘life stages’ of the escalator. The body will require Non-Departmental Public Body status – providing the appropriate relationship to the Executive to allow it to act as Arts, Screen and Awards for All Lottery distributor. It will have a remit that includes:
★ ★ ★
development of talent and excellence in all branches of the arts and screen industries; promoting effective sector networks of nationallyimportant bodies – to enhance the role and prominence of Scotland’s literature and publishing, developing that sector’s links into schools; supporting nationally-important arts bodies (see below); supporting the creative industries, developing a new strategy to guide that function (see below);
offering business advice and investment services (such as soft loans for activities like publishing); drafting and dissemination of national advice on such matters as – national standards (produced in consultation with relevant sectors), building the voluntary sector, private sector sponsorship approaches, skills for arts organisations, promoting diversity, access and inclusive audience development practice (focused on all sections of the population, including older people), and the role of the arts in wider policy settings such as regeneration, communities, health, justice and development; links with education – other than administration of the schools’ co-ordinator programmes which, once the new teams are established, will be the subject of discussion with the Convention of Scottish Local Authorities regarding a possible transfer of responsibility to local authorities; evaluation and monitoring; research; international engagement – liaising on strategy and programming with the Executive’s cultural and international policy teams, the National Collections bodies, the national performing arts companies and organisations like the British Council-Scotland, in order to maximise impact; promoting national and international recognition of Scotland’s talented artists; and development and administration of schemes to recognise/reward excellence, as mentioned above.
Creative bodies working in all artforms, and significant initiatives and events such as festivals, could continue to have their core costs, venues and qualifying projects supported from national funds at the discretion of the agency. The agency will exercise its judgement about whether organisations merit national funding, based on their record for delivering high quality artistic standards, developing talent and their national impact. That is compatible with the agency’s responsibility for supporting and developing artistic excellence. The Scottish Arts Council’s work to develop performance criteria for the sector, based on skills development and sustainability, should provide a good template for handling applications. The scope of the agency’s funding role will therefore contribute towards ensuring that a network of centres of excellence is maintained as a pan-Scotland resource. Nationally-important arts bodies supported by the agency will be expected to provide outreach activity to demonstrate their national credentials. The Executive agrees with the Commission’s view that ‘creative industries’ is a broad and not always helpful term covering an enormously wide range of sectors and one which does not properly reflect the large proportion of self-employed individuals and micro-businesses in these sectors. The Commission recognised some of the recent work undertaken by the Enterprise Networks, the Scottish Arts Council, Scottish Screen and others to support the creative industries in Scotland, such as the roll-out of the Creative Enterprise Offices from Glasgow to Edinburgh, Dundee and Aberdeen. However, the Commission did not seem to be aware of the full range of existing activity, such as the work of Skillset – the sector skills council for the audio-visual sector – and
Creative and Cultural Skills – the sector skills council for advertising, crafts, cultural heritage, design, music, performing, literary and visual arts. By amalgamating relevant support functions delivered by the Scottish Arts Council and Scottish Screen, the new infrastructure is intended to strengthen national assistance to the creative industries sector. The Executive does not, however, think that some of the Commission’s recommendations focusing on the creation of new organisations, such as a National Creative Industries Sectoral Council or a new body to provide financial advice and services, are necessary given the existing range of players. But we do agree that the Commission was right to highlight the current lack of clarity about the roles that central Government, Scottish Enterprise, Highlands and Islands Enterprise, the cultural organisations, local government, schools, the higher and further education sectors, the sector skills councils and industry bodies have, in relation to assisting the creative industries in Scotland to thrive.
Scotland’s creative industries sector is a real success story – a tribute to the nation’s long-established talent for innovation and entrepreneurial skill, which also contributes significantly to the economy. The Executive is determined to create the right conditions for the sector to maximise its potential. Building on the benefits of the new infrastructure, we will assess the extent to which there are gaps in the current enterprise support services for the creative industries – including contemporary music – which agencies should provide those services, and whether the services could be provided in a more cost-effective manner. This could include consideration of a transfer of functions and funding between Scottish Enterprise and the agency, or a specific new role for Scottish Enterprise in its services to the sector.
The new agency will operate within a national policy framework set by Ministers as a key delivery partner of the Executive. Clarity is essential regarding that strategic relationship, to address comments raised by sectoral interests when consulted during the Scottish Arts Council’s last quinquennial review. Total discretion, however, would vest in the agency regarding its artistic, professional judgements and funding decisions. The Executive agrees with the Cultural Commission that creating a national approach to ease the process of buying tickets for cultural events has significant attractions. We intend to go further. Our approach to a National Box Office will encompass the entire portfolio. The Executive’s vision is of one-stop electronic ticketing for cultural and other events – including sport – for accommodation and ultimately travel tickets too – to help those in Scotland and our visitors to enjoy to the full Scotland’s ever-burgeoning cultural calendar. A project is now being scoped, with a view to piloting what would also be a innovative initiative in international terms. New investment is envisaged, following the pilots. When we move to national roll-out other exciting developments are possible; such as joined-up programming of events and performances.
2 National Collections
The National Collections have a crucial role to celebrate and showcase the talent of Scots and international artists, artisans and writers over the centuries. Principal amongst these are the National Galleries of Scotland, the National Museums of Scotland and the National Library of Scotland. The Executive’s ambition for this part of the infrastructure is to enable the National Institutions and other identified National Collections (see below) to do what they do now – maintaining their discrete functions, prestige and identities as ‘centres of excellence’ – but even more effectively and efficiently.
The Scottish Executive committed £8.3 million towards the National Library of Scotland’s purchase of the John Murray Archive. The Murray Archive contains over 150,000 letters and manuscripts by Byron, Scott, Darwin, Livingstone and other figures of global significance
The resource known as the “National Collections” will in future be expanded to include other collections of national status: the Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland, the National Archives of Scotland, and the Scottish Screen Archive (passing from Scottish Screen to the National Library of Scotland). While most of those organisations can expect to remain as independent bodies, they will be asked to develop a closer operational relationship. That will enable better co-ordination of strategy and policy, and far more joint activity than happens at present – with some exhibitions combining a mix of holdings from different collections (as seen to good effect in the 2004 Titian exhibition, when the Institutions combined their Venetian artefacts). We shall review the governance arrangements of each of the five Collections’ bodies and consult on any legislation required to bring about reforms to streamline their administration. The opportunity will also be taken to rationalise the common functions that service the collections’ bodies such as human resources, IT and digitisation, estates, exhibition touring, marketing and press. How the collections bodies do this is a matter for them; it is envisaged that they might create a new unit to co-ordinate, harmonise and deliver these operations on their behalf. Single strategies for the respective combined functions will also be appropriate, helping to deliver increased efficiency and a coherent approach to policy. For example, the benefits of a single estates strategy for national bodies would be to steer the commitment of future funding in ways that secure Best Value and invite creative approaches for the use of the estate.
While we would not envisage this resulting in governance changes to any other organisations, we would expect the collections’ bodies to encourage other relevant museums and heritage bodies to join them in capitalising on the advantages of effective co-ordination of relevant services. We will also seek to adopt a similar approach for all parts of the new national cultural infrastructure. Uniting the institutions’ common functions will underpin their activities with a sense of collective purpose, adding strength and strategic flexibility to the operations that result, and their ability to develop and present the ‘best of the combined collections’. The objective is to improve the interpretation of the collections and exhibitions, and consequently their appeal to a broader public. The Executive is committed to the principle that what is identified as ‘of national’ significance should indeed be presented nationally – exploiting new technology and through increased emphasis on physical touring of exhibitions and exhibits across Scotland and internationally. It would therefore be desirable if more efficient collections administration permitted greater touring opportunities and exchanges with other galleries of (inter)national importance. To capitalise on the benefits of joined-up strategy and delivery for the collections’ education and access functions, shared education and outreach activities will be co-ordinated with Learning and Teaching Scotland. This would ensure education projects reach the maximum audience and complement formal education priorities more directly. We will seek to adopt a similar approach for the other two strands of the cultural infrastructure: the national performing companies and Creative Scotland.
The Executive believes there may be a place for a forum that brings together the collections bodies and other leading keepers of the nation’s cultural treasures, including built heritage interests. The forum would share good practice and consider joint working. We shall discuss the option with the relevant bodies.
An excellent recent example of joint working is the Burns Festival, “Burns and a’ That”, inspired by Ayrshire and Arran Tourist Board. It brings together co-sponsors the Scottish Executive, South Ayrshire Council, VisitScotland, the Scottish Arts Council and Scottish Enterprise Ayrshire. Over four years, the Festival has gone from strength to strength and the funding bodies are committed to its continuation
The Executive is also committed to the development of its support for collections of national significance in the care of local authorities and other organisations. Future funding for non-national museums, including Scotland’s industrial museums, will focus on supporting significant ‘national standard’ collections. We shall make available additional funding of £500k per annum over the next two years to continue to support our non-national museums and to enable the launch of the museums’ recognition scheme on which the Scottish Museums Council has consulted on our behalf. This will bring the total to be disbursed through the new scheme up to £940k per year. The Executive attaches high national priority to the maintenance and improvement of standards in both non-national museums and in libraries. Alongside the support of £1 million, which we make available for non-national museums through the Scottish Museums Council, we shall also make available an additional £500k per annum over the next two years to help the public library service to improve its standards of provision and facilitate co-operation. We shall also expect our National Institutions to provide advice and assistance where appropriate.
Our policy in terms of the entire new cultural infrastructure is to strengthen and clarify our relationship with, and expectations of, the bodies which we fund. In order to drive through our policies for the collections bodies, we propose to develop how we support and direct those organisations. The Executive proposes to explore with the Scottish Museums Council the most effective and efficient solution for providing support from national funds to non-national museums containing collections of truly national significance, through our museums’ recognition scheme. The Scottish Museums Council acts as the channel for the Executive’s support for the non-national museums sector; as mentioned, we plan to increase our direct grant aid for non-national collections. Our ambitions for the museums sector include achieving a combination of efficiency savings and reinforcing our support and direction of the National Collections. The national collections bodies, in consultation with other stakeholders as appropriate, will be responsible for developing standards for their respective sectors and will contribute to the development of cultural entitlements.
The Executive’s support for collections of national significance, including those held by the cultural NonDepartmental Public Bodies and agencies, will continue. We shall channel funds both to the collections which the nation owns, and to the support of collections of national significance held and managed by bodies independent of Government. We shall also seek to incentivise the improvement of standards in museums and libraries throughout Scotland. As we seek to achieve greater efficiencies in delivery, we shall allocate future resources to best achieve national priorities for the conservation of collections and the improvement of public access to them. The Executive sees scope in principle for other, locally-held, collections which are holdings of truly national significance to achieve status as national collections bodies, subject to negotiation. As part of the legislation needed to implement its proposals for the National Collections, the Executive will modernise the National Library legislation of 1925, making it responsible for the Scottish Screen Archive; and will modernise the governance arrangements of the Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland established by Royal Prerogative in 1908. The Executive has considered the position of the collections in the care of Historic Scotland and the Royal Botanic Garden in Edinburgh. As the Commission identified, greater operational commonality exists between Historic Scotland and the National Trust for Scotland. Those organisations are building upon their positive working arrangements, in response to the review, by examining specifically new ways in which they
might manage their respective estates in a more joined-up manner and maximise benefits for visitors and members. Following the outcome of those discussions, we invite Historic Scotland to consider how it might share the benefits of the co-ordination arrangements proposed above, for the National Collections. We believe that the Executive’s Environment and Rural Affairs Department is the most suitable to fund and support the Royal Botanic Garden in Edinburgh. However, we intend that where common services supporting the operation of the Royal Botanic Garden are sufficiently similar to those involved in running the National Collections mentioned above, opportunities to secure efficiencies from sharing services should be explored. The heritage sector welcomed the recent Ministerial decision to invite Historic Scotland to lead an exercise to establish an ongoing audit of the historic environment. This work is an important opportunity to develop the evidence base for the historic environment sector; to promote collaboration and joint working among heritage organisations; and to increase public awareness of Scotland’s rich heritage. Historic Scotland is taking forward its plans to review and revise strategic and operational policies concerning the historic environment, including the launch of a new, updated Scottish Historic Environment Policy series. Historic Scotland is conscious that some of its current policies were developed a while ago, without the benefit of consultation, and intends to consult with the public and stakeholders as it updates this key series of policy documents.
The Executive has for some time been considering the best ways to make national resources available on-line, to promote Scotland’s culture and boost access in ways that exploit new technology and overcome geographical barriers. The Commission’s recommendations in this area echo some of these issues. We believe that a brand new strategic approach is required for the electronic delivery of cultural material – building on the Cultural Portal and the work of Scotland’s Cultural Resources Access Network. Digitisation can be extremely effective where there is a clear purpose and end-user in view – there is need for co-ordinated research to clarify those practical issues; and a project to promote the digitisation of Scotland’s culture will be explored as a ‘pathfinder’ within the Executive’s overarching digitisation strategy. Enhanced electronic access by young people will be explored within the Scottish Schools Digital Network scheme, including e-archive albums.
The national performing arts companies are: Scottish Opera, Scottish Ballet, the Royal Scottish National Orchestra, the Scottish Chamber Orchestra and the National Theatre of Scotland – a product of the National Cultural Strategy which received an enthusiastic welcome for the recent announcement of its first programme. Consistent with its approach to all activities receiving national support, the Executive wants to see these companies flourish – exhibiting and maintaining the highest standards as they showcase Scotland’s best performing talent across the country and overseas. To promote that aim, we have decided to redefine the national arts companies according to criteria for the highest artistic performing standards, borrowing from the model operating successfully in Australia. Festivals, however significant, are not national performing companies; as appropriate, some festivals will be supported in other ways such as through EventScotland, Creative Scotland or by local authorities. Any companies aspiring to win the status of a ‘national performing arts company’ will require to meet a set of operating criteria in order to gain and retain membership of the national performing companies. Those elite bodies that qualify will need to fulfil a funded contract that requires them to deliver a superior standard of performance, touring, education and outreach programmes, while ensuring consistent performance in terms of governance and financial sustainability. We shall also expect them to co-operate with each other on joint projects and productions, and to seek efficiencies from their collaborative activity. To underline our commitment to those national bodies entering the new arrangement,
3 National performing arts companies
The national performing arts companies have a unique function, bringing work of an international standard to their audiences, and showcasing some of the best performing arts activity produced in Scotland.
the Executive plans to increase their funding. Nothing in these new arrangements will affect the artistic independence of these companies – that must not, and will not, be compromised. A new and exciting feature of the plan is that the national youth companies will be eligible for inclusion. This would contribute to the new goal of an escalator of talent leading from school to the highest levels of international performing excellence. The national performing companies – both youth and adult companies – should be the target to which Scotland’s ambitious and talented young performers aspire. A variety of arrangements are in place at present for the funding of the national performing companies. Whereas the longer established companies are independent entities in receipt of core grant, the National Theatre of Scotland is presently in public ownership. In future, the funding of all the national performing companies will be undertaken directly by the Executive, using the resources currently committed to this function through the Scottish Arts Council. We consider there is a case for consistency of treatment with the National Institutions, which receive funding direct from the Executive. This change will assist in clarifying roles and responsibilities. As mentioned, the companies’ artistic decisions in delivering their programmes will remain strictly a matter for their boards, who will remain responsible for the management of the companies. We shall review the governance arrangements of the national performing companies and consult them on any steps required to streamline their administration. We shall aim both to secure efficiencies and to strengthen accountability for the companies’ use of public funds.
We expect the national performing bodies to contribute to the development of standards and cultural entitlements for their respective sectors. To discharge its new role, appropriate expertise will be required by the Executive’s funding team; relevant Scottish Arts Council staff will transfer to the Executive under the relevant employment protection arrangements in force. Consistent with the approach planned for the Collections, the national performing companies will also be encouraged to adopt a ‘common services’ arrangement to discharge their supporting functions such as marketing, press, and estates strategy (mentioned above). Also consistent with the treatment of the National Collections, it will be open to those performing companies – adult and youth alike – that are not presently counted amongst Scotland’s national performing companies, to qualify for ‘national’ status if they meet the criteria. According to the proposed split of roles between national and local levels, support for the performance venues visited by the national performing companies would fall to local venue operators. This would not apply to ‘core’ rehearsal facilities, which are properly part of the core funding package provided in future direct from the Executive. Provision of local venues will secure for local communities greater opportunity to enjoy touring and outreach activity, which will become a regular feature in the national performing companies’ programmes.
Other Infrastructure Matters
The recently created Bòrd na Gàidhlig and Architecture and Design Scotland will not be affected by the infrastructure changes. The Executive plans to launch a new architecture policy statement in 2006, taking account of the Commission’s recommendations and comments about the strengthening of the role of that policy statement, in view of the acknowledged cultural importance of the built environment, design and the creative industries.
The Cultural Commission has recommended that Ministers should consider how a separate TV channel for Scotland might be financed and set up. The Commission was unable to estimate a budget for the channel, but cited as examples channels with a budget of £35 million and £50 million. The Executive is not attracted to this recommendation. Broadcasting is a reserved matter and is the responsibility of the Department for Culture, Media and Sport. It would also be a costly way of increasing opportunities for Scottish broadcasting and creative talent. We consider that our efforts and resources would be better spent on securing the future of Gaelic broadcasting, continuing to work to increase TV production in Scotland and encouraging broadcasters to improve coverage of Scottish issues on existing channels rather than trying to set up a new one. There may be opportunities to use new technologies for providing streamed coverage on the Internet of an increasing number of cultural performances. The Executive will be looking into these possibilities.
Access To Languages
The Gaelic Language (Scotland) Act 2005 established Bòrd na Gàidhlig with statutory responsibility for Gaelic and for the preparation of a national Gaelic language plan, which will be a strategy for Gaelic in Scotland.
The Cultural Commission recommended that a representative body for the indigenous languages of Scotland should be created and that a national indigenous language strategy could be a responsibility of the proposed new body. Unfortunately the Commission did not take adequate account of the 2005 Act. It will be for Bòrd na Gàidhlig to help create a sustainable future for the Gaelic language in Scotland. There is, in addition, a number of small bodies which seek to promote and support the Scots language. We will discuss with these bodies the next steps in the promotion and development of the Scots language.
The Scottish Executive has made good progress with its Partnership commitments to the Gaelic language, resulting in the successful passage of the Gaelic Language (Scotland) Act 2005 through the Scottish Parliament, the establishment of Bòrd na Gàidhlig and the ongoing support for the development of Gaelic medium education at all levels. These measures have all been supported with funding and have the aim of creating a sustainable future for the Gaelic language in Scotland
The Executive’s Partnership Agreement of 2003 announced there would be a National Languages Strategy to celebrate and promote the rich diversity of languages spoken in Scotland, including Gaelic and Scots. The National Strategy, which is currently under development, will be able to guide strategies prepared locally, and by national bodies, to ensure this rich and growing heritage is identified as a national resource. It will consider current provision for both heritage and community languages, and how best to meet our obligations for their development in the light of the European Charter for Regional or Minority Languages. As mentioned, we intend that the new cultural infrastructure will seek to offer opportunities for enhancing the role of Scottish literature and publishing; and this is a specific task for the new cultural development body, Creative Scotland. The Scottish Arts Council at present has responsibility for literature and publishing in Scotland through its Literature Department. That Department works with a range of literary and publishing organisations and offers support to initiatives in this sector. The focus on literature and publishing is welcome. There are many small groups that operate in this area and they would benefit from increased recognition. The national role to promote literature and publishing should encompass both Gaelic and Scots projects (for example, Itchy Coo or Ur Sgeul). Ministers
will be looking to see an increased role for Scottish publishing and literature, in its distinctive forms, promoted through the new infrastructure. Scotland has an excellent literary tradition and the present surge of world-class contemporary writing deserves help to maximise its profile. Many bodies act as national resources already in this area, such as the Scottish Book Trust, Scottish Poetry Library, the Scottish Storytelling Centre, the Scottish Publishers’ Association, and a number of Gaelic and Scots projects. They will be well placed to assist in the promotion of literature and publishing, and links into schools. Scotland’s literary heritage receives world-wide acclaim, but more should be done to ensure our young people are able to enjoy it. Opportunities for everyone to develop their awareness of Scottish writing will be exploited in 2009, which the Executive has designated Scotland’s Year of Homecoming, to include a national celebration of the 250th anniversary of Robert Burns’s birth.
Model of the New Cultural Infrastructure
Scottish Cultural Development Agency National “Creative Scotland” (an amalgamation of the Scottish Arts Council – except national company funding – and Scottish Screen – except the Archive National Collections of Scotland Scottish National Performing Arts Companies Scottish Opera/Scottish Ballet/ Royal Scottish National Orchestra/ Scottish Chamber Orchestra/ National Theatre of Scotland/Youth companies (supported by a cultural common services function)
National Collections include National Galleries of Scotland/National Museums of Scotland/National Library of Scotland/Royal Commission on the Ancient and Historical Monuments of Scotland/ the Scottish Screen Archive/ National Archives of Scotland (with arrangements for common delivery of functions such as: estates strategy, payroll, administration, education, and touring) To conserve and display the National Collections to maximum advantage and with extended access, and to maintain accessible estates To develop national standards for these sectors, in consultation, and to contribute to developing entitlements Scope in principle for other truly ‘national’ collections to be added
To support and develop creative talent and excellence in all artforms, linking the steps in the ‘escalator’; developing national standards and guidance; supporting the creative industries; running schemes to recognise talent; promoting access and touring; acting as Arts Lottery distributor
To deliver national and international excellence in the performing arts – as the best in Scotland, and to inspire an ‘escalator’ of talent To contribute to the development of standards and entitlements Entry criteria: best quality performances, touring, management, regular review Scope for others to join
Model of the New Cultural Infrastructure – cont
Scottish Cultural Development Agency LINK ZONE Connection between national and local levels Consulting on national standards and guidance Offering advice on pilots to develop entitlements as element of cultural/Community Planning: local authority pilots testing different approaches in different areas, including The Highland Council’s Cultural Pledge National Collections of Scotland Scottish Performing National Companies New pathway model through education to top flight performance. Building on current Creative Links’, Cultural Co-ordinators’ and Active Schools Co-ordinators’ activity and working closely with further and higher education Outreach, education and touring activity
New funding mechanism to deliver: ★ national and international status and recognition ★ outreach, education and touring of items in the Collections Consulting on national standards
Local authorities responsible for local premises, facilities, and events New funding sources, delivered through: cultural planning, local entitlements, quality assurance and collaboration incentivised by the Executive
Local authorities, universities and other bodies to look after their own collections and provide premises accommodating ‘works on tour’ Delivered through: cultural planning, local entitlements, quality assurance and collaboration incentivised by the Executive
Local authorities and other local operators responsible for their premises, performing/touring venues, local activity and access. Delivered through: cultural planning, local entitlements, quality assurance and collaboration incentivised by the Executive
Timescales – Milestones
This section lists the steps (and supporting policies) that are planned to implement and promote the Executive’s decisions on the cultural review, discussed in the paper. In the 6 months to end-June 2006:
★ The Executive will take forward its plans for new policy that requires legislation, starting to prepare a draft
Parliamentary Bill that includes a legal framework for delivering rights and entitlements, and establishing “Creative Scotland”, the new cultural development agency
★ The Executive will act to maximise the presentation of the National Collections, and to secure arrangements for
shared education and outreach activity, and efficiencies through combined arrangements for common services – launching a joint review of the National Institutions with a steering group, to include representatives of the collections bodies
★ The Executive will establish a group including the Convention of Scottish Local Authorities, to develop guidance for
local authorities on cultural planning, good practice, and ways to develop and monitor local entitlements within Community Planning. The group will also support initiatives and pilots to deliver entitlements, and explore possible approaches to incentivise local provision
★ Proposals for a National Box Office will be scoped by the Executive and its national cultural and tourism agencies ★ The Executive will pursue its plans for a recognition scheme for Scotland’s creative sector, with assistance from the
Scottish Arts Council
★ The Executive will provide new funding over the next two years for the launch of the museums’ recognition
scheme for non-national museums, and – in addition to that already announced – to help public libraries improve their service standards and to promote co-operation
★ The Executive and the Scottish Arts Council will identify Scottish Arts Council staff to transfer to the Executive’s
unit that will fund the national performing companies – in terms of the relevant employment protection arrangements in force
★ The Executive will explore the most effective and efficient solution for providing support from national funds to
non-national museums containing collections of truly national significance, in discussion with the Scottish Museums Council
★ The Executive will start to identify the best way to give the creative industries the enterprise advice they require to
develop – ensuring targeted input from the enterprise sector and, with its agencies, examining pilot proposals to develop sector skills through new applications of the Visual Arts Fellowships and Ideasmart programmes – working as appropriate with the new Sector Skills Council and the National Endowment for Science, Technology and the Arts
★ The Executive will start to explore how best to grow and develop the popular Bookstart programme run by the
Scottish Book Trust
★ The Executive will provide funding over the next two years to enable a new match-funding scheme proposed by
Arts and Business to incentivise private sector sponsorship
★ Early work will be carried out, in creating “A Curriculum for Excellence”, to ensure that learning and teaching
across the whole curriculum can enable young people to become ‘Successful Learners, Confident Individuals, Responsible Citizens and Effective Contributors’; within this, the Executive will aim to ensure that links to culture and creativity are made at all stages
★ The Executive will publish a Tourism Framework for Change, setting out strategy and actions on tourism for
2005-10, including links between culture and the ambition to grow tourism by 50% over the next decade
★ The Executive will start to develop practical steps to take forward its proposed ‘escalator’ of developing cultural
talent, ensuring effective links at each stage – pre-school delivery, activity in schools, a new focus for further and higher educational institutions, and appropriate roles for the national agencies
★ Historic Scotland and the National Trust for Scotland will discuss new ways of managing their respective estates in
a more joined-up manner, increasing benefits to visitors and members. Historic Scotland will also work with an external stakeholder advisory group, to oversee the audit of Scotland’s historic environment; and will take forward its plans for updating historic environment policies, including the launch of a new, updated Scottish Historic Environment Policy series (this action will run throughout the period of its current Corporate Plan – to 2008)
Beyond June 2006 – ★ Prior to legislation, the Executive will develop a detailed implementation plan for the merger of the Scottish Arts Council and Scottish Screen
★ The Executive, assisted by the Scottish Arts Council, will determine appropriate governance structures for the
national performing arts companies; develop criteria redefining them and the national youth companies; draw up a timetable for introduction; and bodies meeting the new criteria will be funded direct by the Executive
★ The Executive will aim to publish a draft Culture Bill for consultation, by the end of 2006 ★ The Executive will develop, in consultation, and launch a National Languages Strategy, to celebrate and promote
the rich diversity of languages spoken in Scotland
★ The Executive will monitor ongoing projects delivering cultural entitlements, and their evaluation, such as the
Cultural Pledge for young people, being introduced by The Highland Council as part of the legacy programme for Scotland’s Year of Highland Culture in 2007. The Executive will offer financial assistance towards these projects where appropriate
★ The Executive will develop and launch a new architecture policy statement, with a strengthened role to influence
the quality of the built environment, design and the creative industries
★ The Executive will discuss with the relevant bodies the idea of setting up a forum that looks at sharing good
practice between the collections bodies and other leading cultural and built heritage interests
★ The Executive will develop a new strategic approach for the electronic delivery of cultural provision, as a
‘pathfinder’ in its overarching digitisation strategy
★ The Executive and its agencies will promote community access to schools’ arts and sports facilities, identifying
opportunities to ensure that investment in the school estate enhances these facilities and community access to them, and ensuring that the developing Youthwork Strategy recognises the importance of wider access to cultural facilities within schools
From 2007 – ★ After 2007, the Executive plans to take forward its proposals for culture legislation
★ Creative Scotland, the new agency will lead the development of national standards, guidance and strategies to help
cultural delivery organisations, including local authorities, discharge their responsibilities in key policy areas such as access, entitlements, diversity and developing the contributions of the private and voluntary sectors. The National Collections bodies which are part of the new infrastructure will draft national standards for their respective sectors, in consultation, and as with the national performing arts companies, will contribute to developing entitlements
★ Creative Scotland will seek to enhance the role of Scottish literature and publishing, encompassing both Gaelic
and Scots projects, and linking to the range of bodies that currently act as national resources in this area
★ The Executive will deliver its planned backing for Scotland’s Year of Highland Culture in 2007 and the biennial 6
Cities Festival of Design
★ The Executive will promote awareness of Scottish literature, heritage and a vast array of cultural riches though the
programme to mark Scotland’s Year of Homecoming in 2009, with a national celebration of the 250th anniversary of Robert Burns’s birth
★ The Executive will liaise with the London Organising Committee for the Olympic Games and relevant Whitehall
Departments on the delivery of exciting arts and sporting programmes, and new volunteering opportunities, arising in connection with the London Olympics in 2012. Our support for Glasgow’s bid to host the 2014 Commonwealth Games seeks to deliver more of the same, in a major boost for the promotion of Scotland, its culture and sport
★ Coalition Group ★ Getty Images ★ Itchy Coo (An Imprint of Black & White Publishing) ★ Gerry McCann/Scran ★ National Gallery of Scotland ★ Richard Partridge/Jim Lambie ★ Aileen Paterson/Glowworm Books ★ Scottish Viewpoint
Astron B44171 1/06
© Crown copyright 2006 This document is also available on the Scottish Executive website: www.scotland.gov.uk Astron B44171 01/06 Further copies are available from Blackwell’s Bookshop 53 South Bridge Edinburgh EH1 1YS Telephone orders and enquiries 0131 622 8283 or 0131 622 8258 Fax orders 0131 557 8149 Email orders firstname.lastname@example.org
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