You are on page 1of 7



Ingls V
Mrcia Del Corona

Novo Hamburgo, 07 de junho de 2015.

1. History
Irish-English or HibernoEnglish is the set of English dialects natively written and spoken
within the Republic of Ireland as well as Northern Ireland. It comprises a number of sub-varieties,
such as Mid-Ulster English, Dublin English and Cork English.
English was brought to Ireland as a result of the Norman invasion of the late 12th century
which brought English and Norman French to Ireland . Initially, it was mainly spoken around
Dublin by servants of the Normans. The rest of the country continued to speak Irish native
language. However, in the 16th century, the reign of Mary Tudor marked a revival in the use of
English. It was a system for establishing English settlers in Ireland.
In 1801 United Kingdom was founded and English became dominant language. It has retained
this status to the present day, even among those whose first language is Irish.
During British rule, the Irish were very persecuted and their customs and language were
strongly combated. Nevertheless, Irish culture never was destroyed. In 1922 Ireland was divided
and in the independent Republic of Ireland the Irish language became official language and was
reintroduced at school. Nowadays, 40% of the Irish are able to speak Irish.
Modern Hiberno-English has some features influenced by the Irish language and most
especially through the retention of archaic forms from Old English. Most of these are more used in
the spoken language than in formal written language, which is much closer to Standard British
English, with a few differences in vocabulary.
Irish-English represents the coexistence of English language and Irish language over the
centuries. During this time English adopted many features of the Irish language.
2. Features of Irish-English
a . Grammar
Some aspects of Irish syntax have influenced Hiberno-English as well as the retention of words
and phrases from Old English.
1. From Irish language
1.1 They don't use yes and no in Irish language
Irish lacks words that directly translate as "yes" or "no", and instead repeats the verb used in
the question. Because of this Hiberno-English uses "yes" and "no" less frequently than other
English dialects and can repeat the verb, positively or negatively, instead of using "yes" or "no".
Are you coming home soon? "I am."
Is your mobile charged? "It isn't."
1.2 They don't use a verb as the verb "to have" in Irish language
* Recent past construction: after-perfect
This formation has arisen under the influence of a similar construction in Irish. The after perfect
is a grammatical construction consisting of a form of (to) be, the preposition after and the Verb-ing.
This construction indicates a recent action by adding "after" to the present continuous. It may be
used in a present perfect as well as in a past perfect context:
Youre after passing instead of You have just passed
I was after buying instead of I had just bought

* Prepositional pronouns
Possession is indicated in Irish by using the preposition ag (at/on in English) and m ( me in
English) to create agam (at me/on me in English).
In Irish if they want to say I have fun they say "The fun is on me". Then, when they combine
Irish grammar and English vocabulary they say I have happy on me and "I have the book with
* Be Perfect
In this form "does be/do be" construction is used instead of have to indicate the continuous or
habitual present:
"He does be working every day instead of He has been working every day.
*Reflection for emphasis
The reflexive version of pronouns is often used for emphasis or to refer to a particular person.
However last night himself came to me and spoke to me.
2. From Old and Middle English
* In old-fashioned usage, "it is" can be freely abbreviated tis. This also allows the double
contraction tisnt, for "it is not".
* Mirroring Irish, the plural you is also distinguished from the singular in Irish-English, normally
by use of the Old English "ye"; the word yous or "youse" (mostly in Dublin) also occurs.
* The possessive forms of the second person are Yer or Yousser.

b. Pronunciation
Pronounce the vowels and the consonants smoothly
*The words "night," "like," and "I" have a sound like "oi," as in the word "oil." The word "Ireland"
is pronounced "Oireland."
*Consonants together at the end of a word like 'lm' in the word film is pronounced with two
syllables: fill-um.
* Words like "think" and "that" are pronounced as "tink" and "dat," respectively.

c. Vocabulary and Expressions

What's the craic? means Whats up?
What's the story? means What's happening?
"Awh would ya stop?" means Wow, really?
I will yeah - means I definitely wont
Tourist: 'Could you please assist me in carrying this very heavy bag?'

Corkman: 'I will yeah.' and walks off laughing...

Taking the mick or taking the piss - making fun of something or someone
Gone in the head means mad, crazy
Hold yer horses means Wait a moment
Are you coming?
Yeah, hold yer horses!
Yous (youse), Ye plural of you (from Old English)
Yer your (from Old English)
Yoke An object or thing. 'That's a strange looking yoke, what is it?' (Old English)
Your man or Yer man Irish does not refer to a random guy like 'that guy' but as 'yer man'.
Your one (for woman)
Feck or Feck off is a variant of fuck
Way less offensive than fuck
What a feck is that?
Shite - alternative spelling of shit preserving the original vowel of the Old English.
Lift Irish doesn't pick up a ride, and rather a lift because ride in this context means something else
(the slang term for sexual intercourse)
Grand Hey, how are you? Im grand, thanks. And you?
Eejit - Idiot, fool
Thanks a million This expression comes from the Irish language
Amnt it's used like arent e isnt
Bells - clock
Its 5 bells
Cheers - This expression is used not only for the toasts, but constantly in normal conversations. It
can be used as a thank, or say "hi" and "bye".
Class - great, cool, awesome
Crisps - potato chips
Deadly / Grand - cool, great, good
Dotey - cute
Fella male person, also used for boyfriend
Flah - sexual intercourse or attractive person
Football Soccer
Footpath - sidewalk
Gaff house
Gas funny
Give out means to complain.
Gobshite fool
Lad This term is used to describe men, usually someone you know well.
Langer idiot, fool
Langered drunken (Cork)
Loo female toilet
Lashing raining heavily
Locked or plastered - Very drunk
Piss up a night of big drinking
Ride an attractive and sexy person
Shift - kiss "I shifted her in the club
Shades - guards
S(h)nake - sneaky (a person that do something quietly behind friend's back )
Wrecked - very tired

3. Data analysis
a. Grammar
From Old and Middle English
Irish language has separate forms for the second person singular (t) and the second person
plural (sibh). Mirroring Irish, the plural you is also distinguished from the singular in Irish-English.
They normally use words from Old English in order to adress to the second person plural. They use
words as "ye", yous or "youse".
In Old English thou addressed one person, and ye addressed more than one. The word
thou is now largely archaic, having been replaced in almost all contexts by you. While ye is
archaic in most of the English-speaking world, is still commonly used as an informal plural in
Did ye all go to see it?
None of youse have a clue!
Are ye not finished yet?
b. Pronunciation
In speaking Hiberno-English one of the most important sounds is the letter [i], which is
found in words such as like and hiked. In Ireland its pronounced more like the [o], but theres still a
difference between the two of them. The [i] being pronounced like something between the [i] and
the /oi/ sound you get when you say oil.
Example: Ireland [Oirland]
c. Vocabulary and Expressions
Craic is an Irish language word for good times, gossip, music, drinking, news, debauchery
of any kind or good clean fun. Not specifically linked to crack of the crack-cocaine definition.
What's the craic?

means Whats up?

For one question with craic you are going to give a reply which includes information about
you: what you are doing; where you are going; any interesting gossip, and so on. It is a question to
which there are many possible answers.
If someone is 'good craic' they are fun to be around. "Craic" as an intrinsic part of the culture
of sociability that distinguished the Irish workplace from those of other countries.
It was great craic.

Where's the craic?

Any craic?

4. Validity of the study

When you study about varieties of English you perceive that in many different parts of the
world people use English to communicate and they don't worry about accent or pronunciation. Their
English is different and they are proud of their slangs and accent.
This work was important to me as a language teacher because showed me that I can debate
with my students about the varieties of English spoken around the world in order to reduce the
linguistic prejudice experienced in schools.
If I say to my students that the Irish pronounce "tink" rather than "think" and that they do not
care about talking different from American or British English my students will feel more
comfortable in speaking English with a different accent. Students will also understand that each
person speaks differently and will be more tolerant with their classmates.
Learning about linguistic varieties increases the tolerance regarding the linguistic differences
and teaches that the most important thing is the communication.
5. References