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Aug 11, 2015

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Differential Equations

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Differential Equations

© All Rights Reserved

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A Friendly Introduct...

Authored by Mohammed K A Kaabar

6.69" x 9.61" (16.99 x 24.41 cm)

Black & White on White paper

164 pages

ISBN-13: 9781506004532

ISBN-10: 1506004539

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A Friendly Introduction to

Differential Equations

A Friendly Introduction to

Differential Equations

2 M. Kaabar

Theoretical Mathematics from Washington State

University, Pullman, WA. He is a graduate student in

Applied Mathematics at Washington State University,

Pullman, WA, and he is a math tutor at the Math

Learning Center (MLC) at Washington State

University, Pullman. He is the author of A First

Course in Linear Algebra Book, and his research

interests are applied optimization, numerical analysis,

differential equations, linear algebra, and real

analysis. He was invited to serve as a Technical

Program Committee (TPC) member in many

conferences such as ICECCS 14, ENCINS 15, eQeSS

15, SSCC 15, ICSoEB 15, CCA 14, WSMEAP 14,

EECSI 14, JIEEEC 13 and WCEEENG 12. He is an

online instructor of two free online courses in

numerical analysis: Introduction to Numerical

Analysis and Advanced Numerical Analysis at Udemy

Inc, San Francisco, CA. He is a former member of

Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers

(IEEE), IEEE Antennas and Propagation Society,

IEEE Consultants Network, IEEE Smart Grid

Community, IEEE Technical Committee on RFID,

IEEE Life Sciences Community, IEEE Green ICT

Community, IEEE Cloud Computing Community,

IEEE Internet of Things Community, IEEE Committee

on Earth Observations, IEEE Electric Vehicles

Community, IEEE Electron Devices Society, IEEE

Communications Society, and IEEE Computer Society.

He also received several educational awards and

certificates from accredited institutions. For more

information about the author and his free online

courses,

please

visit

his

personal

website:

http://www.mohammed-kaabar.net.

Table of Contents

6

1.1

1.2

1.3

1.4

1.5

1.6

1.7

Exercises.....49

Systems

of

Homogeneous

Equations (HLDE)

Linear

Introduction

Differential

Differential Equations

78

4.1

Bernoulli Method......78

4.2

Separable Method....................................85

4.3

Exact Method....................................87

4.4

4.5

4.6

Exercises.....95

96

5.1

Temperature Application........................96

5.2

5.3

51

Appendices

109

2.1

2.2

Determinants.......................109

2.3

Exercises....65

Vector Spaces........116

Homogenous Systems.........135

Equations

157

Index

159

Bibliography

163

67

3.1

Variation Method.67

3.2

Cauchy-Euler Method....74

3.3

Exercises...76

4 M. Kaabar

Introduction

Transform, Systems of Homogenous Linear Differential

Equations (HLDE), Methods of First and Higher Orders

Differential Equations, Extended Methods of First and

Higher Orders Differential Equations, and Applications of

Differential Equations. I also added exercises at the end of

each chapter above to let students practice additional sets of

problems other than examples, and they can also check

their solutions to some of these exercises by looking at

Answers to Odd-Numbered Exercises section at the end of

this book. This book is a very useful for college students who

studied Calculus II, and other students who want to review

some concepts of differential equations before studying

courses such as partial differential equations, applied

mathematics, and electric circuits II. According to my

experience as a math tutor, I have noticed that some

students have difficulty to understand some concepts of

laplace transforms because most authors of differential

equations books did not start with laplace transforms as a

first chapter, and they left it at the end of their books.

Therefore, I decided to start with a different approach by

choosing laplace transforms to be in the first chapter of this

book. If you have any comments related to the contents of

this

book,

please

your

comments

to

mohammed.kaabar@email.wsu.edu.

I wish to express my gratitude and appreciation to

my father, my mother, and my only lovely 13-year old

brother who is sick, and I want to spend every dollar in his

heath care. I would also like to give a special thanks to all

administrators and professors of mathematics at WSU for

their educational support. In conclusion, I would appreciate

to consider this book as a milestone for developing more

math books that can serve our mathematical society in the

area of differential equations.

Mohammed K A Kaabar

6 M. Kaabar

where m is a

number)

integer

10

11

12

13 Assume that is periodic with period , then:

Chapter 1

This page intentionally left blank

In this chapter, we start with an introduction to

Differential Equations (DEs) including linear DEs,

nonlinear DEs, independent variables, dependent

variables, and the order of DEs. Then, we define the

laplace transforms, and we give some examples of

Initial Value Problems (IVPs). In addition, we discuss

the inverse laplace transforms. We cover in the

remaining sections an important concept known as the

laplace transforms of derivatives, and we mention

some properties of laplace transforms. Finally, we

learn how to solve systems of linear equations (LEs)

using Cramers Rule.

1.1 Introductions to

Differential Equations

In this section, we are going to discuss how to

determine whether the differential equation is linear

or nonlinear, and we will find the order of differential

equations. At the end of this section, we will show the

purpose of differential equations.

8 M. Kaabar

and with a simple example about differential equation.

Definition 1.1.1 A mathematical equation is called

differential equation if it has two types of variables:

dependent and independent variables where the

dependent variable can be written in terms of

independent variable.

Example 1.1.1 Given that .

a) Find . (Hint: Find the general solution of )

b) Determine whether is a linear

differential equation or nonlinear differential

equation. Why?

c) What is the order of this differential equation?

Solution: Part a: To find , we need to find the general

solution of by taking the integral of both sides as

follows:

Since because the integral of derivative

function is the original function itself (In general,

), then

where is constant. This means that

is called dependent variable because it depends on ,

and is called independent variable because it is

independent from .

Part b: To determine whether is a linear

differential equation or nonlinear differential equation,

we need to introduce the following definition:

10 M. Kaabar

linear if the dependent variable and all its derivatives

are to the power 1. Otherwise, the differential equation

is nonlinear.

According to the above question, we have the following:

where is constant. Since the

dependent variable and all its derivatives are to the

power 1, then using definition 1.1.2, this differential

equation is linear.

Part c: To find the order of this differential equation,

we need to introduce the following definition:

Definition 1.1.3 The order of differential equation is

the highest derivative in the equation (i.e. The order of

is 3).

Using definition 1.1.3, the order of is 1.

Example 1.1.2 Given that .

a) Determine whether is

a linear differential equation or nonlinear

differential equation. Why?

b) What is the order of this differential equation?

Solution: Part a: Since is called dependent variable

because it depends on , and is called independent

variable because it is independent from , then to

determine whether is a

linear differential equation or nonlinear differential

equation, we need to use definition 1.1.2 as follows:

Since the dependent variable and all its derivatives

are to the power 1, then this differential equation is

linear.

Part b: To find the order of ,

we use definition 1.1.3 which implies that the order is

3 because the highest derivative is 3.

11

(Hint: Do not confuse between and because

means the fourth derivative of , while means

the fourth power of m).

a) Determine whether

is a linear differential equation or nonlinear

differential equation. Why?

b) What is the order of this differential equation?

Solution: Part a: Since is called dependent variable

because it depends on , and is called independent

variable because it is independent from , then to

determine whether is a

linear differential equation or nonlinear differential

equation, we need to use definition 1.1.2 as follows:

Since the dependent variable and all its derivatives

are not to the power 1, then this differential equation

is nonlinear.

Part b: To find the order of ,

we use definition 1.1.3 which implies that the order is

4 because the highest derivative is 4.

The following are some useful notations about

differential equations:

is the th derivative of .

is the th power of .

The following two examples are a summary of this

section:

Example 1.1.4 Given that

. Determine whether it

is a linear differential equation or nonlinear

differential equation.

12 M. Kaabar

differential equation or nonlinear differential equation,

We need to apply what we have learned from the

previous examples in the following five steps:

Step 1: is a dependent variable, and is an

independent variable.

Step 2: Since and all its derivatives are to the power

1, then the above differential equation is linear.

Step 3: Coefficients of and all its derivatives are in

terms of the independent variable .

Step 4: Assume that Then, must be

in terms of .

Step 5: Our purpose from the above differential

equation is to find a solution where can be written in

term of .

Thus, the above differential equation is a linear

differential equation of order 3.

Example 1.1.5 Given that

Determine whether it is a

linear differential equation or nonlinear differential

equation.

Solution: To determine whether it is a linear

differential equation or nonlinear differential equation,

We need to apply what we have learned from the

previous examples in the following five steps:

Step 1: is a dependent variable, and is an

independent variable.

Step 2: Since and all its derivatives are to the power

1, then the above differential equation is linear.

Step 3: Coefficients of and all its derivatives are in

terms of the independent variable .

13

be in terms of .

Step 5: Our purpose from the above differential

equation is to find a solution where can be written in

term of .

Thus, the above differential equation is a linear

differential equation of order 4.

.

Step 3:

with .

Laplace Transforms

Thus,

1.1.1 is helpful to find laplace transforms.

Definition 1.2.1 the laplace transform, denoted by , is

defined in general as follows:

1.1.1 at the beginning of this book. According to table

answer we got. Thus, we can conclude our example with the

following fact:

Fact 1.2.1 .

do the following steps:

Step 1: We write the general definition of laplace

transform as follows:

to do the following steps:

Step 1: We write the general definition of laplace

transform as follows:

14 M. Kaabar

15

stop integrating when the corresponding row is zero. The

following table shows the table method to find :

.

Step 3:

Step 4: We

with .

need to find

as follows:

Thus,

follows:

1.1.1 at the beginning of this book. According to table

answer we got.

The following examples are two examples about finding the

integrals to review some concepts that will help us finding

the laplace transforms.

Solution: To find , it is easier to use a method

known as the table method than using integration by parts.

In the table method, we need to create two columns: one for

derivatives of , and the other one for integrations of .

16 M. Kaabar

Derivatives Part

Integration Part

We always start with positive sign, followed by negative

sign, and so on as we can see in the above table 1.2.1.

Now, from the above table 1.2.1, we can find as

follows:

Thus, .

find integrals like and

.

Example 1.2.4 Find .

table method than using integration by parts. In the table

method, we need to create two columns: one for derivatives

of , and the other one for integrations of . Then,

we need to keep deriving till we get zero, and we stop

integrating when the corresponding row is zero. The

following table shows the table method to find

:

17

Derivatives Part

Integration Part

We always start with positive sign, followed by negative

sign, and so on as we can see in the above table 1.2.2.

Now, from the above table 1.2.2, we can find

as follows:

with .

columns: one for derivatives of , and the other one for

integrations of . Then, we need to keep deriving till

we get zero, and we stop integrating when the

corresponding row is zero. The following table shows the

table method to find :

Derivatives Part

Integration Part

Step 3:

18 M. Kaabar

to do the following steps:

Step 1: We write the general definition of laplace

transform as follows:

Thus,

We always start with positive sign, followed by negative

sign, and so on as we can see in the above table 1.2.3.

Now, from the above table 1.2.3, we can find

as follows:

Thus,

follows:

19

as follows:

1.1.1 at the beginning of this book. According to table

Solution: To find using table 1.1.1, we need to

do the following steps:

Step 1: We look at the transform table (table 1.1.1).

Step 2: We look at which section in table 1.1.1 contains

function.

Step 3: We write down what we get from table 1.1.1

(Section 3 at the left side) as follows:

look like as follows:

Thus, .

We will give some important mathematical results

about laplace transforms.

Result 1.2.1 Assume that is a constant, and ,

are functions. Then, we have the following:

(Hint: are the laplace transforms of and

respectively).

a) (i.e. where ).

b)

c)

d) is not necessary equal to

Example 1.2.8 Using definition 1.2.1, find .

look like as follows:

(Section 3 at the right side) as follows:

Thus, .

Example 1.2.7 Using table 1.1.1, find .

Solution: To find using table 1.1.1, we need

to do the following steps:

Step 1: We look at the transform table (table 1.1.1).

Step 2: We look at which section in table 1.1.1 contains

function.

do the following steps:

Step 1: We write the general definition of laplace

transform as follows:

.

Step 3:

with .

20 M. Kaabar

21

It is easier to find what it is inside the above box

Because

22 M. Kaabar

.

d)

.

Result 1.2.2 Assume that is a function, and is

the laplace transform of . Then, we have the

following:

a) .

b) .

c)

Thus, .

as follows:

recommended to look at section 8 in table 1.1.1. If you

look at it, you will find the following:

.

function where is the laplace transform of .

Then, we have the following: .

23

Transforms

section 3 in table 1.1.1, we find the following:

is an equivalent to

laplace transforms.

means that .

by is defined as a reverse laplace transform, and to

find the inverse laplace transform, we need to think

about which function has a laplace transform that

equals to the function in the inverse laplace transform.

For example, suppose that is a function where

is the laplace transform of . Then, the inverse

laplace transform is . (i.e. we need

to think which function has a laplace transform that

Using definition 1.3.1 and table 1.1.1, the answer is 34.

Example 1.3.2 Find

Solution: Using definition 1.3.1 and section 4 in table

1.1.1, we find the following:

is an equivalent to

.

function where are the laplace transforms of

.

a) .

b)

section 3 in table 1.1.1, we find the following:

is an equivalent to

24 M. Kaabar

25

and is an equivalent to

Since , then by

Since

, then by using

because

. Assume that for every

where

is

some

are

interval,

continuous

and

on

Then, the solution to the differential equations is

unique which means that there exists exactly one

in terms of , and this type of mathematical problems

Since , then by

26 M. Kaabar

and

the x-axis.

is an equivalent to

because .

section 2 in table 1.1.1, we find the following:

look like

Example 1.4.1 Find the largest interval on the

so that has

a solution. Given .

27

means that we need to find the domain for the solution

of the above differential equation in other words we

need to find for what values of the solution of the

above differential equation holds. Therefore, we do the

following:

means that we need to find the domain for the solution

of the above differential equation in other words we

need to find for what values of the solution of the

above differential equation holds. Therefore, we do the

following:

everywhere () except

has a solution

which is continuous everywhere () except and

.

everywhere ().

everywhere () except .

the interval .

everywhere ().

everywhere ().

Problem (IVP): . Given .

so that

has a

solution. Given .

28 M. Kaabar

has

solution

which

is

continuous

equation of order 1. First, we need to find the domain

for the solution of the above differential equation in

29

solution of the above differential equation holds.

Therefore, we do the following:

Using definition 1.4.1, we also suppose the following:

because we need it in terms of ).

Then, we will find by finding the derivative of

what we got above ( as follows:

.

in

as follows:

because ( ).

We substitute because it is given in the

question itself.

To find a solution, we need to find the inverse laplace

transform as follows:

1.1.1 section 4.

Problem (IVP): . Given , and

.

Solution: is a linear differential

equation of order 2. First, we need to find the domain

for the solution of the above differential equation in

other words we need to find for what values of the

solution of the above differential equation holds.

Therefore, we do the following:

Using definition 1.4.1, we also suppose the following:

The domain of solution is .

30 M. Kaabar

31

equation, we need to take the laplace transform for

because ( ).

as follows:

and .

To find a solution, we need to find the inverse laplace

Transforms

transform as follows:

and we use

periodic function, and convolution.

We start with some examples of shifting property.

Example 1.5.1 Find .

as follows:

Let , and .

.

32 M. Kaabar

33

Hence,

Thus, .

Let , , and .

Thus,

Let , and .

.

to do the following:

Hence,

Thus, .

in table 1.1.1, we obtain:

Let , , and .

to do the following:

34 M. Kaabar

Thus,

35

Solution: .

.

1.1.1, we obtain:

where , and .

Hence,

substitute in

1.1.1, we obtain:

Hence,

36 M. Kaabar

Thus,

where , and .

37

that we first need to find the laplace transform of ,

and then we need to find the second derivative of the

result from the laplace transform.

because .

Thus,

.

Problem (IVP): . Given

.

Solution: is a linear

differential equation of order 2. First, we need to find

the domain for the solution of the above differential

equation in other words we need to find for what

values of the solution of the above differential

equation holds. Therefore, we do the following:

Using definition 1.4.1, we also suppose the following:

transform as follows:

( , and the denominator a polynomial of degree

equation, we need to take the laplace transform for

both sides as follows

we cover the original, say , and substitute in

38 M. Kaabar

39

and substitute in

.

Example 1.5.11 Find .

1.1.1, we obtain:

Thus,

1.1.1, we obtain:

.

Definition 1.5.1 Given . Unit Step Function is

a) for every .

Example 1.5.13 Given

Rewrite in terms of .

b) for every .

defined as follows:

Thus,

, we do the following:

40 M. Kaabar

41

Result 1.5.3 .

follows: We choose .

Thus, our unit step functions are correct.

Example 1.5.14 Find .

Solution: By using the upper side of section 6 in table

1.1.1, we obtain:

where , and .

Hence,

as follows:

confuse between multiplication and convolution).

Result 1.5.2

where and are functions. (The proof

Thus, .

Definition 1.5.3 is a periodic function on if

has a period such that for every

.

Example 1.5.16 Given is periodic on such

that the first period of is given by the following

piece-wise continuous function:

a) Find the 8th period of this function.

b) Suppose . Find .

c) Suppose . Find .

Solution: Part a: By using section 13 in table 1.1.1, we

obtain:

8th

42 M. Kaabar

43

1.1.1, we obtain:

Thus, .

Equations

Most of the materials of this section are taken from

section 1.8 in my published book titled A First Course

period function.

period function.

Result 1.5.4 .

44 M. Kaabar

45

. Cramers Rule tells us how to

find as follows:

Let W =

Given that

Solution: First, we need to take the laplace transform

of both sides for each of the above two equations.

For We take the laplace transform of both

sides:

equations using Cramers Rule:

according to definition 1.6.1.

, then

Since W in this form is

Thus, .

The solutions for this system of linear equations are:

46 M. Kaabar

For We take the laplace transform of both

sides:

47

obtain the following:

Thus,

Thus,

1. Find .

2. Find .

3. Find .

4. Find .

6. Find .

5. Find .

Hence,

as follows:

We need to find the second derivative of .

.

Now, we can find as follows:

48 M. Kaabar

1.7 Exercises

. Given .

8. Solve the following Initial Value Problem (IVP):

. Given , and .

9. Find .

10. Find .

11. Find .

12. Given

Rewrite in terms of .

13. Find .

49

. Given

Chapter 2

Systems of Homogeneous

.

15. Solve the following Initial Value Problem (IVP):

where

Linear Differential

Equations (HLDE)

Given

Coefficient Method.

18. Find .

19. Find .

20. Solve for and :

Given that

21. Solve for and :

Coefficients

In this section, we discuss how to find the general

solution

of

the

homogeneous

linear

differential

Given that

50 M. Kaabar

*Definition 2.1.1 Homogeneous System is defined as a

system of linear equations that has all zero

constants. (i.e. the following is an example of

51

homogeneous system):

*Definition 2.1.1 is taken from section 3.1 in my

published book titled A First Course in Linear Algebra:

Thus, is a homogeneous

linear differential equation of order 3.

Example 2.1.3 Describe the following differential

equation: .

Course, First Edition1.

equation: .

and all its derivatives are to the power 1. For the order

Thus, is a non-homogeneous

Initial Value Problem (IVP): . Given:

(Hint: Use the concepts of section 1.4)

equation of order 2.

differential equation of order 1. First, we need to find

the domain for the solution of the above differential

equation in other words we need to find for what

values of the solution of the above differential

equation holds. Therefore, we do the following:

Using definition 1.4.1, we also suppose the following:

equation: .

Solution: Since the above differential equation has a

zero constant, then according to definition 2.1.1, it is a

homogeneous differential equation. In addition, it is

linear because the dependent variable and all its

52 M. Kaabar

53

because ( ).

transform as follows:

then we will do the following: Let , we need

to find .

First of all, we will find the first and second derivatives

as follows:

constant . Here, .

as follows:

b) Every solution of

is of

some constants .

at ,

54 M. Kaabar

55

at ,

, we need to find .

derivatives as follows:

at ,

Since , then

in as

at ,

follows:

Since , then

at ,

at ,

at ,

the values of )

Solution: is a

56 M. Kaabar

57

at ,

at ,

the values of )

at ,

Solution: is a

because (Note:

means )

combinations of , , and .

, we need to find .

at ,

at ,

. (Note: denotes to

homogeneous).

Are independent?

Now, we substitute , ,

and in

as follows:

Are independent?

and as follows:

. Thus, are

58 M. Kaabar

59

Coefficients

In this section, we discuss how to use what we have

learned from section 2.1 to combine it with what we

and fifth derivatives as follows:

Now, we substitute in as

follows:

solution using a method known as undetermined

coefficients method. In this method, we will find a

general solution consisting of homogeneous solution

and particular solution together.

We give the following examples to introduce the

undetermined coefficient method.

Example 2.2.1 Given Find

the general solution for . (Hint: No need to find the

value of )

Solution: Since does not have a

constant coefficient, then we need to use the

undetermined coefficients method as follows:

Step 1: We need to find the homogeneous solution by

letting equal to zero as follows:

differential equation of order 1.

Since is a HLDE with constant

coefficients, then we will do the following:

60 M. Kaabar

Thus, . Then, we use our value to substitute in

our assumption which is :

at ,

Thus, using result 2.1.1, the general solution for

is: , for some . (Note:

denotes to homogeneous).

Step 2: We need to find the particular solution as

follows: Since equals , then the

particular solution should be in the following form:

because is a polynomial of the

first degree, and the general form for first degree

polynomial is .

Now, we need to find and as follows:

We substitute in .

61

at , we obtain:

at , we obtain:

Now, we substitute in as

follows:

Thus, .

Thus, .

Thus, . Then, we use our value to substitute in

our assumption which is :

at ,

denotes to homogeneous).

2.2.1. Since

letting equal to zero as follows:

differential equation of order 1.

62 M. Kaabar

We substitute in

.

63

Thus,

Thus,

as: .

Example 2.2.3 Given

Describe

Solution: To describe , we do the following:

By using result 2.2.1, we obtain the following:

.

Example 2.2.4 Given

Describe

Solution: To describe , we do the following:

By using result 2.2.1, we obtain the following:

64 M. Kaabar

2.3 Exercises

solution for . (Hint: Use results 2.1.1 and 2.1.2,

and in this exercise, no need to find the values of

)

2. Given Find the general

solution for . (Hint: No need to find the value of

)

3. Given Find the general

solution for . (Hint: No need to find the value of

)

65

solution for . (Hint: No need to find the value of

)

5. Given Find the general

solution for . (Hint: No need to find the value of

)

6. Given Describe

but do not find it.

7. Given Describe

but do not find it.

Chapter 3

Methods of First and

Higher Orders Differential

Equations

In this chapter, we introduce two new methods called

Variation Method and Cauchy-Euler Method in order

to solve first and higher orders differential equations.

In addition, we give several examples about these

methods, and the difference between them and the

previous methods in chapter 2.

In this section, we discuss how to find the particular

solution using Variation Method. For the homogeneous

solution, it will be similar to what we learned in

chapter 2.

Definition 3.1.1 Given is a

linear differential equation of order 2. Assume that

and are independent solution to the

homogeneous solution. Then, the particular solution

using Variation Method is written as:

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67

. To find

and , we need to solve the following two

equations:

a linear differential equation of order 3. Assume that

and are independent solution to the

homogeneous solution. Then, the particular solution

using Variation Method is written as:

.

To find and , we need to solve the

following three equations:

coefficients, then we will do the following:

Let , we need to find .

First of all, we will find the first and second derivatives

as follows:

Now, we substitute and in

as follows:

Thus, and . Then, we use our values to

substitute in our assumption which is :

at ,

at ,

and )

as follows:

Step 1: We need to find the homogeneous solution by

letting

differential equation of order 2.

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solution for is: , for some

. (Note: denotes to homogeneous).

Step 2: We need to find the particular solution using

form: . To find

and , we need to solve the following two

equations:

69

------

Thus,

solution form as follows:

method as follows:

to

coefficients, then we will do the following:

as follows:

, .

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for some

values of and )

------

in as follows:

71

obtain:

at ,

at ,

Notice that and are independent.

solution for is: , for

some . (Note: denotes to

Step 2: We need to find the particular solution using

definition 3.1.1 as follows: Since equals

, then the particular solution should be in the

following form: .

To find and , we need to solve the following

two equations:

------

------

Now, we substitute what we got above in the particular

solution form as follows:

, then we do the following:

, then we do the following:

.

Thus, we write the particular solution as follows:

Thus,

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homogeneous).

for some

73

at ,

as follows:

at ,

values of and )

constant coefficients, then we need to use the CauchyEuler method by letting , and after substitution

all terms must be of the same degree as follows:

First of all, we will find the first and second derivatives

general solution for . (Hint: No need to find the

values of and )

Solution: Since does not have

constant coefficients, then we need to use the Cauchy-

as follows:

Now, we substitute and

in as follows:

First of all, we will find the first, second and third

derivatives as follows:

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, for some .

in as follows:

75

Thus, .

for . (Hint: No need to find the values of , and

)

5. Given Is it possible to find the

general solution for using Cauchy-Euler Method?

Why?

assumption which is :

Since we have two parts (real and imaginary), then by

using the Cauchy-Euler Method, we need to write our

solution as follows:

Thus, the general solution for is:

, for some

.

3.3 Exercises

1. Given Find the general solution

for . (Hint: No need to find the values of and )

2. Given Find the general solution

for . (Hint: No need to find the values of and )

3. Given Find the general solution for

. (Hint: No need to find the values of , and )

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77

Chapter 4

Extended Methods of First

and Higher Orders

Differential Equations

Assume that

and

, then:

Thus, the solution using Integral Factor Method is

written in the following steps:

Step 1: Multiply both sides of by letting

Step 2:

Step 3:

Step 4: Integrate both sides of , we obtain:

Method. We use

higher

orders

linear

and

non-linear

differential

methods, and the differences between them and the

previous methods in chapter 2 and chapter 3.

In this section, we start with two examples about using

integral factor to solve first order linear differential

equations. Then, we introduce Bernulli Method to solve

some examples of first order non-linear differential

equations.

Definition 4.1.1 Given

is a linear differential equation of

order 1. Dividing both sides by , we obtain:

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Step 5: By solving for , and substituting

we obtain:

method and no need to find the value of )

79

, where

, where

and

Hence,

Hence,

for some .

Example 4.1.2 Given Find the

general solution for . (Hint: Use integral factor

method and no need to find the value of )

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and

for some .

Definition 4.1.2 Given where

and and is a non-linear differential

equation of order 1. Thus, the solution using Bernoulli

Method is written in the following steps:

Step 1: Change it to first order linear differential

equation by letting .

81

as follows:

, and hence .

Step 5: Substitute what we got above in

as follows:

Step 6: Divide by

as follows:

as follows:

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Bernoulli Method, and we will explore the relationship

between Bernoulli Method and Integral Factor

Method.

Example 4.1.3 Given Find the

general solution for . (Hint: Use Bernoulli method

and no need to find the value of )

Solution: Since does not have

constant coefficients, and it is a first order non-linear

differential equation, then by using definition 4.1.2, we

need to do the following by letting , where in

this example , and and .

Since we assumed that , then

, and

as follows:

83

Then, we substitute

in as follows:

Thus, the general solution for is:

for some .

In this section, we will solve some differential

Hence,

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Definition 4.2.1 The standard form of Separable

Note: it does not matter whether it is the above form or

in the following form:

Example 4.2.1 Solve the following differential

equation:

the above equation in a way that each term is

separated from the other term as follows:

85

follows:

follows:

Then, we integrate both sides of as follows:

Derivative Method.

equation:

the above equation in a way that each term is

separated from the other term as follows:

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other words, this method is called the Anti-Implicit

Definition 4.3.1 The standard form of Exact Method is

written as follows:

87

equation:

method as follows: We rewrite the above differential

equation according to definition 4.3.1:

Thus, from the above differential equation, we obtain:

and

considered exact if .

Note: is defined as the first derivative with

respect to and considering as a constant, while

is defined as the first derivative with respect to

and considering as a constant.

as follows:

Solution: By using definition 4.3.1, we first find

by finding the first derivative with respect to and

considering as a constant as follows: .

Then, we find by finding the first derivative

with respect to and considering as a constant as

follows:

Thus, .

Find

by finding the first derivative with respect to and

considering as a constant as follows:

.

Then, we find by finding the first derivative

with respect to and considering as a constant as

follows:

Thus,

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We first find by finding the first derivative of

with respect to and considering as a

constant as follows:

Then, we find by finding the first derivative of

with respect to and considering as a

constant as follows:

Since , then we can use the

exact method.

Now, we choose either or

and then we integrate. We will

choose and we will integrate it as

follows:

89

integration, then we need to find for as

follows:

Now, we substitute in as

follows:

Then, we integrate both sides of as follows:

Method

equations using a method known as Reduced to

Separable Method.

Definition 4.4.1 The standard form of Reduced to

where .

equation:

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, and then, we need to find the first

derivative of both sides of .

Then, we substitute and in

as follows:

Now, we can use the separable method to solve as

follows:

By using definition 4.2.1, we need to rewrite in a

way that each term is separated from the other term

as follows:

follows:

91

follows:

Hence, is written as follows:

In our example,

Method

for some .

equation: ,

must be 1) as follows:

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93

must be 1) as follows:

by as follows:

Now, let

, and substitute it in

as follows:

In example 4.5.1,

Therefore,

, then it

4.6 Exercises

1. Given

need to find the value of )

2. Given Find the general solution for

. (Hint: Use Bernoulli method and no need to find

the value of )

3. Solve the following differential equation:

5. Solve the following differential equation:

8. Given the following differential equation:

and is a solution

to the associated homogenous part. Find ?

for some

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95

Chapter 5

Applications of Differential

engine to cool to ?

minutes from now?

Equations

to do the following:

example as follows:

where is a constant.

application, and we introduce how to use one of the

, , and

By substituting in , we obtain:

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97

By substituting in , we obtain:

and .

Hence, .

we obtain:

substituting it in as follows:

as follows:

we obtain:

Thus,

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99

approximately minutes to cool to

Part b: To determine what will be the temperature of

the engine 30 minutes from now, we need to do the

following:

We assume that , and then we substitute it in

as follows:

Thus, the temperature of the engine 30 minutes from

now will be approximately .

students in 2013?

b) What will be the number of WSU students in

2018?

Solution: Part a: To determine how long will it take to

double number of WSU students in 2013, we need to do

the following:

Assume that is the number of WSU students at

any time .

Now, we need to write the differential equation for this

example as follows:

where is a constant.

Application

decay application, and we introduce how to use one of

the differential equations methods to solve it.

Example 5.2.1 The rate change of number of students

at Washington State University (WSU) is proportional

to the square root of the number of students at any

time . If the number of WSU students in 2013 was

28,686 students2, and suppose that the number of

, and .

From , the dependent variable is , while the

independent variable is the time .

To solve , we need to use separable method as

follows:

By using definition 4.2.1, we need to rewrite in a

way that each term is separated from the other term

as follows:

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101

in as follows:

follows:

Then, we integrate both sides of as follows:

Thus,

By substituting in , we obtain:

for some .

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Thus,

Now, we substitute in as follows:

103

by substituting it in as

follows:

of minerals containing 0.2 bound of minerals per gallon

years

while the mixture of minerals goes out of the tank at

rate of 2 gallons per minute.

as follows:

students

Thus, the number of WSU students will be

approximately students in 2018.

In this section, we give an example of water tank

application, and we introduce how to use one of the

in the tank of WSU Water Tower at any time , we

need to do the following:

Assume that is the amount of minerals at any

time , and is the concentration of minerals in the

tank at any time . is written in the following

form:

, , and

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105

itself in as follows:

follows:

for some .

as follows:

bounds in as follows:

Thus,

and .

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107

the tank of WSU Water Tower at minutes, we

need to do the following:

We substitute minutes in as follows:

Appendices

Review of Linear Algebra

WSU Water Tower at minutes is

approximately minutes.

Appendix A: Determinants*

*The materials of appendix A are taken from section

1.7 in my published book titled A First Course in

Linear Algebra Course, First Edition1.

In this section, we introduce step by step for finding

determinant of a certain matrix. In addition, we

discuss some important properties such as invertible

and non-invertible. In addition, we talk about the

effect of row-operations on determinants.

Definition A.1 Determinant is a square matrix. Given

, let where A is

matrix,

The determinant of A is

represented by .

Hence, . (Warning:

this definition works only for matrices).

Example A.1 Given the following matrix:

Find the determinant of A.

Solution: Using definition A.1, we do the following:

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Thus, the determinant of A is 11.

Example A.2 Given the following matrix:

Find the determinant of A.

Solution: Since A is matrix such that

, then we cannot use definition A.1

because it is valid only for matrices. Thus, we

need to use the following method to find the

determinant of A.

Step 1: Choose any row or any column. It is

recommended to choose the one that has more zeros.

In this example, we prefer to choose the second column

or the first row. Lets choose the second column as

follows:

Step 2: To find the determinant of A, we do the

following: For , since is in the first row and

second column, then we virtually remove the first row

and second column.

For , since is in the second row and second

column, then we virtually remove the second row and

second column.

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column, then we virtually remove the third row and

second column.

Step 3: Add all of them together as follows:

Thus, the determinant of A is 16.

Result A.1 Let . Then, A is invertible

(non-singular) if and only if

111

invertible (non-singular), and if A is invertible (nonsingular), then .

Example A.3 Given the following matrix:

Is A invertible (non-singular)?

Solution: Using result A.1, we do the following:

Since the determinant of A is 0, then A is noninvertible (singular).

Thus, the answer is No because A is non-invertible

(singular).

Definition A.2 Given

. Assume that

(the inverse of A), we use the following format that

applies only for matrices:

Is A invertible (non-singular)? If Yes, Find .

Solution: Using result A.1, we do the following:

Since the determinant of A is not 0, then A is invertible

(non-singular).

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definition 1.7.2 as follows:

Result A.2 Let be a triangular matrix. Then,

= multiplication of the numbers on the main

diagonal of A.

There are three types of triangular matrix:

a) Upper Triangular Matrix: it has all zeros on the

left side of the diagonal of matrix.

(i.e.

right sides of the diagonal of matrix.

(i.e.

is a Diagonal Matrix).

right side of the diagonal of matrix.

(i.e.

is a Diagonal Matrix).

Fact A.2 Let . If A is an invertible (nonsingular) matrix, then is also an invertible (nonsingular) matrix. (i.e. ).

Proof of Fact A.2 We will show that .

113

the determinants.

Then,

Since , then .

Similarly, .

Thus, .

The effect of Row-Operations on determinants:

Suppose is a non-zero constant, and are row

numbers in the augmented matrix.

* Ri

constant ).

i.e.

3R2 --

.

Similarly, if then

.

constant ).

i.e. Ri +Rk -- Rk

Then, .

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some Row-Operations:

2R1 -- A1 3R3 -- A2 -2R4 -- A4

If , then find

Solution: Using what we have learned from the effect

of determinants on Row-Operations:

because has the first

row of A multiplied by 2.

because has the

third row of multiplied by 3.

Similarly,

because has the fourth row of multiplied by -2.

Result A.3 Assume with a given

. Let be a number. Then, .

Result A.4 Assume

Then: a)

b) Assume exists and exists.

Then,

c)

d)

e) If exists, then

Proof of Result A.4 (b) We will show that

.

115

B =

Thus,

.

Since , then

Thus,

{5} means that 5 is a subset of , and the set consists of

exactly one element which is 5.

in my published book titled A First Course in Linear

Algebra Course, First Edition1.

set.

Hence, Span{1} = .

linear combinations:

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Example B.1.1 Find Span{1}.

117

Hence, .

Example B.1.3 Find Span{0}.

Solution: According to definition B.1.1, then the span

of the set {0} is the set of all possible linear

combinations of the subset of {0} which is 0.

Hence, Span{0} = 0.

Space

In this section, we discuss how to find the dimension of

vector space, and how it is related to what we have

learned in section B.1.

Definition B.2.1 Given a vector space , the dimension

integer.

. (i.e. ).

Result B.2.1 .

Thus, Span{c} = .

Claim:

Definition B.1.2

coordinates.

Definition B.1.3 is a vector space if satisfies the

following:

a. For every ,

b. For every ,

(i.e. Given then

. Lets assume that

, then for some numbers

).

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Thus, is a subset of ( ).

For every ,

Therefore,

We prove the above claim, and hence

.

Fact 2B.2.1 .

Proof of Fact B.2.1 We will show that

Claim: where

119

We prove the above claim, and hence .

Fact B.2.2 .

Fact B.2.3 .

them is a linear combination of the remaining .

we cannot write them as a linear combination of each

other, in other words, we cannot find a number

such that and ).

are linearly dependent if at least one of

is a linear combination of the others.

Example B.3.1 Assume are linearly

independent. Show that and are linearly

independent.

Solution: We will show that and are

linearly independent. Using proof by contradiction, we

assume that and are linearly dependent.

For some non-zero number , .

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linearly independent.

Are these vectors independent elements?

Solution: First of all, to determine whether these

vectors are independent elements or not, we need to

write these vectors as a matrix.

Each point is a row-operation. We need to

reduce this matrix to Semi-Reduced Matrix.

Definition B.3.3 Semi-Reduced Matrix is a reducedmatrix but the leader numbers can be any non-zero

number.

121

Semi-Reduced Matrix as follows:

Reduced Matrix.

This is a Semi

become zero-row, then the elements are independent

because we cannot write at least one of them as a

linear combination of the others.

Example 2.3.3 Given the following vectors:

Matrix.

This is a Semi-Reduced

then the elements are dependent because we can write

at least one of them as a linear combination of the

others.

In this section, we discuss one of the most important

find the basis for subspace.

Are these vectors independent elements?

Solution: First of all, to determine whether these

vectors are independent elements or not, we need to

write these vectors as a matrix.

it a subspace because it lives inside a bigger vector

space. (i.e. Given vector spaces and , then according

to the figure 2.4.1, is called a subspace of ).

Each point is a row-operation. We

need to reduce this matrix to Semi-Reduced Matrix.

Now, we apply the Row-Reduction Method to get the

Semi-Reduced Matrix as follows:

Figure B.4.1: Subspace of

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123

Example B.4.1 Given a vector space .

a. Does live in ?

b. Does equal to ?

c. Is a subspace of ?

d. Does equal to

e. Does equal to

Solution: To answer all these questions, we need first

to draw an equation from this vector space, say .

The following figure represents the graph of the above

equation, and it passes through a point .

prove the following claim:

Claim: where

It is impossible to find a number such that

because in this case where .

We prove the above claim, and .

Thus, does not equal to

Part c: Yes; is a subspace of because lives inside

a bigger vector space which is .

Part d: No; according to the graph in figure 2.4.2,

does not belong to .

Part e: Yes; because we can write and as a

linear combination of each other.

Assume , then we obtain:

.

Now, we can answer the given questions as follows:

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Thus, .

Result B.4.1 is a subspace of if satisfies the

following:

a. lives inside .

b. has only lines through the origin .

125

.

a. Does live in ?

b. Is a subspace of

to get all , we need exactly independent points.

Result B.4.5 Assume , then

( points of the are independents).

needed to the vector space.

a. Find .

of .

lives inside . Lets assume the following:

as a , then it is a subspace of .

as a , then it is not a subspace of .

Fact B.4.4 Assume lives inside . If is in

, then is a subspace of .

Fact B.4.5 Assume lives inside . If is

not in , then is not a subspace of .

Part a: To find , we check whether and

are dependent elements or not. Using what we have

learned so far from section 2.3: We need to write these

vectors as a matrix.

Each point is a row-operation. We need to

reduce this matrix to Semi-Reduced Matrix.

is .

Semi-Reduced Matrix as follows:

say , then .

Result B.4.4 .

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127

then these elements are dependent because we can

write at least one of them as a linear combination of

the others. Only two points survived in the SemiReduced Matrix. Thus, .

Part b: is a plane that passes through the origin

. Since , then any two independent

points in will form a basis for . Hence, the following

are some possible bases for :

Basis for is .

Another basis for is .

Result B.4.6 It is always true that .

Example B.4.4 Given the following:

.

Find a basis for .

Solution: We have infinite set of points, and lives

inside . Lets assume the following:

Each point is a row-operation. We

need to reduce this matrix to Semi-Reduced Matrix.

Now, we apply the Row-Reduction Method to get the

Semi-Reduced Matrix as follows:

Matrix.

This is a Semi-Reduced

then these elements are independent. All the three

points survived in the Semi-Reduced Matrix. Thus,

. Since , then any three

independent points in from the above matrices will

form a basis for . Hence, the following are some

possible bases for :

Basis for is .

Another basis for is .

Using what we have learned so far from section 2.3

and example 2.4.3: We need to write these vectors as a

matrix.

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b. Find a basis for .

c. Rewrite as a .

129

inside .

combination of the free variables and .

inside . We try write each coordinate of as a linear

combination of the free variables and .

Since it is possible to write each coordinate of as a

linear combination of the free variables and , then

we conclude that is a subspace of .

Part b: To find a basis for , we first need to find

. To find , lets play a game called (ONOFF GAME) with the free variables

Thus, .

Semi-Reduced Matrix:

Part b: Since we found the basis for , then it is easy

to rewrite as a as follows:

Fact B.4.6

Example B.4.6 Given the following:

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Is a subspace of ?

If , then .

Since it is impossible to write each coordinate of as a

linear combination of the free variables and , then

we conclude that is not a subspace of .

Example B.4.7 Form a basis for .

Solution: We just need to select any random four

independent points, and then we form a matrix

with four independent rows as follows:

Note: is a number.

Thus, the basis for , and

131

Is ?

inside . There are two different to solve this

example:

.

Solution: We need to add two more points to the given

one so that all four points are independent. Lets

This is a random point.

This is a random point.

Then, we need to write these vectors as a matrix.

need to reduce this matrix to Semi-Reduced Matrix.

Now, we apply the Row-Reduction Method to get the

Semi-Reduced Matrix as follows:

Thus, the basis for is

.

Example B.4.9 Given the following:

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Question: Can we find and such that

?

Answer: Yes but we need to solve the following system

of linear equations:

Using what we have learned from chapter 1 to solve

the above system of linear equations, we obtain:

Hence, Yes:

The Second Way (Recommended): We first need to find

, and then a basis for . We have to write

as a matrix.

133

Each point is a row-operation. We

need to reduce this matrix to Semi-Reduced Matrix.

Appendix C: Homogenous

Semi-Reduced Matrix as follows:

Systems*

Matrix.

This is a Semi-Reduced

in my published book titled A First Course in Linear

Algebra Course, First Edition1.

In this chapter, we introduce the homogeneous

systems, and we discuss how they are related to what

then these elements are dependent. Thus, .

?

Answer: Yes:

In this section, we first give an introduction to

homogeneous systems, and we discuss how to find the

null space and rank of homogeneous systems. In

space.

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system of linear equations that has all zero constants.

135

system):

Imagine we have the following solution to the

homogeneous system: .

Then, this solution can be viewed as a point of (here

is ) :

Result C.1.1 The solution of a homogeneous system

can be written as

.

Result C.1.2 All solutions of a homogeneous system

form a subset of , and it is equal to the

number of variables.

Result C.1.3 Given a homogeneous system . We

write it in the matrix-form: where is a

and

Now, using algebra:

By taking as a common factor, we obtain:

Thus, is a solution.

Fact C.1.1 If is a solution, and

, then is a solution.

is a subspace of .

denoted by or .

136 M. Kaabar

137

of independent rows or columns of , and it is denoted

by .

Definition C.1.4 Row Space of a matrix, say is the

of independent rows of , and it is denoted by

.

Definition C.1.5 Column Space of a matrix, say is the

of independent columns of , and it is denoted by

.

Example C.1.1 Given the following matrix:

solve systems of linear equations use Row-Operation

Method.

Matrix.

This is a Completely-Reduced

equations after using Row-Operation.

a. Find .

b. Find .

above homogeneous system is as follows:

c. Rewrite as .

d. Find .

e. Find .

Solution: Part a: To find the null space of , we need to

find the solution of as follows:

Step 1: Write the above matrix as an AugmentedMatrix, and make all constants terms zeros.

Thus, according to definition 3.1.2,

, .

Part b: It is always true that

Here, .

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139

meaning of

or .

lives inside .

follows: To find a basis for , we play a game

called (ON-OFF GAME) with the free variables and

.

Example C.1.2 Given the following matrix:

a. Find .

b. Find .

Thus, .

c. Find .

change matrix to the Semi-Reduced Matrix. We

already did that in part a. Thus,

Part e: To find the row space of matrix , we just need

to write the of independent rows. Thus,

It is also a subspace of .

Result C.1.4 Let be matrix. Then,

.

Result C.1.5 Let be matrix. The geometric

meaning of lives

inside .

change matrix to the Semi-Reduced Matrix as

follows:

of matrix , we just need to write the of

independent rows. Thus,

Part b: To find the column space of , we need to

change matrix to the Semi-Reduced Matrix. We

already did that in part a. Now, we need to locate the

columns in the Semi-Reduced Matrix of that contain

the leaders, and then we should locate them to the

original matrix .

140 M. Kaabar

141

(i.e.

Semi-Reduced Matrix

).

(i.e.

Matrix

).

polynomials as follows:

first and fourth columns.

facts,

we

introduce

Thus, .

following from:

are coefficients.

integers whole numbers.

is a constant term.

We start

this section

with

an

introduction

to

power (exponent).

We list the following examples of polynomials:

x

(i.e.

following mathematical facts:

, , , but

).

(i.e.

).

If , then .

is not a polynomial.

discuss a new concept called linear transformation.

142 M. Kaabar

143

.

Semi-Reduced Matrix as follows:

. (i.e. .

Note: The above form is in an ascending order.

Result C.2.3

Fact C.2.5

. (i.e. ).

Example C.2.1 Given the following polynomials:

.

a. Are these polynomials independent?

b. Let . Find a

basis for .

This is a Semi-Reduced

Matrix.

Since there is a zero-row in the Semi-Reduced Matrix,

then these elements are dependent. Thus, the answer

to this question is NO.

Part b: Since there are only 2 vectors survived after

checking for dependency in part a, then the basis for

.

in , and as a vector space is the same as . According

to result 3.2.2, we need to make each polynomial

equivalent to as follows:

. Choose one particular point, say , such that

where are

are independent.

Now, we need to write these vectors as a matrix.

to reduce this matrix to Semi-Reduced Matrix.

144 M. Kaabar

there is only one value for each of .

Proof of Result C.2.4 By using proof by contradiction,

we assume that where

are constants. Our assumption means that

it is dependent. Using algebra, we obtain:

145

Hand-Side (LHS):

independent.

. Then, there exists unique

number such that

.

Linear Transformation:

Definition C.2.1 where is a domain and

is a co-domain. is a linear transformation if for every

and , we have the following:

.

Example C.2.2 Given where is a domain

and is a co-domain. .

a. Find .

b. Find .

c. Show that is a linear transformation.

Solution: Part a: Since ,

then . Thus,

.

Part b: Since , then

. Thus,

.

146 M. Kaabar

Each coordinate is a linear

combination of the .

Example C.2.3 Given where is a domain

and is a co-domain.

a. If , is

a linear transformation?

b. If , is

a linear transformation?

Solution: Part a: Since 13 is not a linear combination of

. Thus, is not a linear transformation.

Part b: Since 0 is a linear combination of .

Thus, is a linear transformation.

147

and is a co-domain. If ,

is a linear transformation?

Solution: Since is not a linear combination of

. Hence, is not a linear transformation.

Example C.2.5 Given . If , is a

linear transformation?

Solution: Since it is a linear combination of such

that . Hence, is a linear transformation.

Solution: The standard basis for is the rows of .

Since

Solution: The standard basis for is the rows of .

Since , then the standard basis for is

.

Example C.2.8 Find the standard basis for .

Solution: The standard basis for is .

Example C.2.9 Find the standard basis for .

Solution: The standard basis for is .

148 M. Kaabar

.

Solution: The standard basis for is

because

as a vector space where standard basis

for is the rows of that

are represented by matrices.

Example C.2.11 Let be a linear

transformation such that

Find .

Solution: The given points are and . These

two points are independent because of the following:

. There exists unique numbers and such

that .

Now, we substitute in , we obtain:

Hence, .

149

Thus, .

Example C.2.12 Let be a linear

transformation such that . Find .

Solution: Since it is a linear transformation, then

. If it is not a linear

transformation, then it is impossible to find .

In this section, we discuss how to find the standard

a.

b.

c.

d.

Find .

Find .

Find .

Standard Matrix Representation, lets call it , here is

. We know from section 3.2 that the standard

basis for domain (here is ) is .

We assume the following:

matrix.

domain in as

follows:

domain and is a co-domain. Then, Standard Matrix

Representation is a matrix. This means that it is

the origin point, and it is denoted by . This

means that .

Definition C.3.3 Range is the column space of standard

matrix representation, and it is denoted by .

Example C.3.1 Given where is a domain

and is a co-domain.

150 M. Kaabar

This is the Standard Matrix

Representation. The first, second and third columns

represent .

151

co-domain. Thus, .

This is a Completely

Reduced Matrix. Now, we need to read the above

matrix as follows:

.

all points in the domain that have image .

Hence, . This means the

following:

follows:

152 M. Kaabar

Hence, and .

By letting , we obtain:

, and

Thus, .

column space of . Now, we need to locate the columns

in the Completely-Reduced Matrix in part c that

contain the leaders, and then we should locate them to

the original matrix as follows:

Completely-Reduced Matrix

153

Solution:

Orignial Matrix

Thus, .

Result C.3.1 Given where is a domain

and is a co-domain. Let be a standard matrix

representation. Then,

.

Result C.3.2 Given where is a domain

and is a co-domain. Let be a standard matrix

representation. Then, =

Number of Independent Columns.

Result C.3.3 Given where is a domain

and is a co-domain. Let be a standard matrix

representation. Then, .

Result C.3.4 Given where is a domain

and is a co-domain. Let be a standard matrix

representation. Then,

.

Part a:

.

Thus,

Hence,

addition, we can also find basis by letting be any

real number not equal to zero, say , as follows:

Thus, .

Part c: It is very easy to find range here.

because we linearly transform from a second degree

polynomial to a real number. For example, if we

linearly transform from a third degree polynomial to a

second degree polynomial, then the range will be .

a linear transformation.

a. Find .

b. Find .

c. Find .

154 M. Kaabar

155

Answers to Odd-Numbered

Exercises

This page intentionally left blank

1.7 Exercises

1.

3.

5.

7.

9.

11.

13.

17.

19.

21. and

2.3 Exercises

1. for some

3.

for some

156 M. Kaabar

157

5.

for some

Index

7. It is impossible to describe

3.3 Exercises

1.

for

some

3.

for some

5. It is impossible to use Cauchy-Euler Method

because the degrees of and are not equal to each

other when you substitute them in the given

differential equation.

4.6 Exercises

1.

3. for some

5. for some

7. for some

B

Basis, 123

Bernoulli Method, 78

C

Cauchy-Euler Method, 74

Constant Coefficients, 51

Cramers Rule, 46

D

Determinants, 109

Differential Equations, 9

Dimension of Vector Spaces, 119

E

Exact Method, 87

G

Growth and Decay Applications, 100

158 M. Kaabar

159

Separable Method, 85

Subspace, 123

I

Initial Value Problems (IVP), 27

Inverse Laplace Transforms, 24

T

Temperature Application, 96

Laplace Transforms, 9

Linear Equations, 45

Linear Independence, 120

Linear Transformations, 142

Variation Method, 67

W

Water Tank Application, 104

P

Properties of Laplace Transforms, 33

R

Reduced to Separable Method, 90

Reduction of Order Method, 92

160 M. Kaabar

161

Bibliography

Study Guide for the Undergraduate Linear Algebra

Course. CreateSpace, Charleston, SC (2014)

[2] Quick Facts. http://about.wsu.edu/about/facts.aspx

(2015). Accessed 01 Jan 2015

162 M. Kaabar

163

Proof

Printed By Createspace

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