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Fundamental Parameters of Antennas

Radiation Pattern :- A mathematical function or a graphical representation of


the radiation properties of the antenna as a function of space coordinates.
Inmost cases, the radiation pattern is determined in the far field region and is
represented as a function of the directional coordinates. Radiation properties
include power flux density, radiation intensity, field strength, directivity, phase
or polarization.
Directional antenna :- The property of radiating
or receiving electromagnetic waves more
effectively in some directions than in others.

Omni directional Antenna :- Having an essentially


non directional pattern in a given plane (in this case
in azimuth) and a directional pattern in any
orthogonal plane (in this case in elevation).

Directional antenna :- The property of radiating or


receiving electromagnetic waves more effectively in
some directions than in others.

Isotropic Radiator:- A hypothetical lossless antenna


having equal radiation in all directions.
Omni directional Antenna :- Having an essentially
non directional pattern in a given plane (in this case
in azimuth) and a directional pattern in any
orthogonal plane (in this case in elevation).

Radiation Pattern Lobes


Radiation lobe:- Portion of the radiation pattern bounded by regions of relatively
Peak radiation intensity.
A major lobe (also called main beam) is
defined as the radiation lobe containing the
direction of maximum radiation.
A minor lobe is any lobe except a major
lobe.
A side lobe is a radiation lobe in any
direction other than the intended lobe.
Usually a side lobe is adjacent to the main
lobe and occupies the hemisphere in the
direction of the main beam.
A back lobe is a radiation lobe whose axis
makes an angle of approximately 180 with
respect to the beam of an antenna. Usually it
refers to a minor lobe that occupies the
hemisphere in a direction opposite to that of
the major (main) lobe.

Field Regions

1) In the reactive near field region the pattern is more spread out and nearly
uniform, with slight variations.
2) As the observations moved to the radiating near-field region(Fresnel), the
pattern begins to smooth and form lobes.
3) In the far-field region (Fraunhofer), the pattern is well formed, usually
consisting of few minor lobes and one, or more, major lobes.


D3

(1) Reactive near - field region R 0.62


That portion of the near-field region immediately surrounding the antenna


where the reactive field predominates. Phases of Electric & Magnetic fields
are in near quadrature. High content of non propagating field near the antenna.

D3
2D 2

(2) Radiating near - field (Fresnal) region 0.62


R

Region of the field of an antenna between the reactive near-field region and the
far-field region wherein radiation fields predominate and wherein the angular
field distribution is dependent upon the distance from the antenna. If the
antenna has a maximum dimension that is not large compared to the
wavelength, this region may not exist.

2D 2

(3) Far - field (Fraunhofer)region R


That region of the field of an antenna where the angular field distribution is
essentially independent of the distance from the antenna.

Radian
C 2r
1 rads

C
2
r

Steradian
dA r 2 Sindd
d 2
r
r2
d Sindd

Radiation Power Density(W)


The quantity used to describe the power associated with an
electromagnetic wave is the instantaneous Poynting vector (power
density) defined as,
W = EH
W = instantaneous Poynting Vector
E = instantaneous Electric Field Intensity
H = instantaneous Electric Field Intensity
Instantaneous totalpower P

W ds W n da
s

ElementalArea dA r 2 Sindd
dA
Solid Angle d 2 Sindd
r

For applications of time-varying fields, it is often more desirable to find the


average power density which is obtained by integrating the instantaneous
Poynting vector over one period and dividing by the period.

Average Radiated Power Prad Pav

rad

ds

av

n da

Re( E H *) ds
s

In the case of an Isotropic Radiator, the Total Power Radiated,


Prad W0 ds
s

2
2

a
W
r

a
r
sin
d
d

r
W0
r
r 0
0 0

In the case of an Isotropic Radiator, Power Density


Prad
4r 2
which is uniformly distributed over the surface of a Sphere of radius ' r'.

W0 a rW0

Radiation Intensity(U)
Radiation intensity in a given direction is defined as the power radiated from an
antenna per unit solid angle.
The radiation intensity is a far-field parameter, and it can be obtained by simply
multiplying the radiation density by the square of the distance.

U r 2Wrad

In mathematical form it is expressed as


Total Power Radiated is

Prad U d

U sin d d
0 0

For an Isotropic Source, U will be independent of and , so

Prad

d U 0

Radiation Intensity of Isotropic Source is,

d 4 U

Prad
U0
4

Directivity(D)
Directivity of an antenna defined as the ratio of the radiation intensity in a given direction
from the antenna to the radiation intensity averaged over all directions. The average
radiation intensity is equal to the total power radiated by the antenna divided by 4. If the
direction is not specified, the direction of maximum radiation intensity is implied.

U 4U
D

U0
Prad

Prad
U0
4

If the direction is not specified, it implies the direction of maximum radiation intensity
(maximum directivity) expressed as

Dmax D0

max

U0

U max 4U max

U0
Prad

Beam width of a pattern is defined as the angular


separation between two identical points on opposite side
of the pattern maximum.

Half-Power Beam width (HPBW ), which is


defined by IEEE as: In a plane containing the
direction of the maximum of a beam, the angle
between the two directions in which the
radiation intensity is one-half value of the
beam.
First-Null Beam width (FNBW ) is the
angular separation between the first nulls of
the pattern

D0

4
4

A 1r 2 r

32,400
D0
1d 2 d

Antenna Efficiency(e)
The total antenna efficiency e0 is used to take into account losses
at the input terminals and within the structure of the antenna. Such
losses may be due,

1. reflections because of the mismatch between the transmission


line and the antenna
2. I 2R losses (conduction and dielectric).
In general, the overall efficiency can be
written as,

e0 er eced er ecd

e 0 total efficiency (dimension less)


e r reflection (mismatch) efficiency (1 - | |2 ) (dimension less)
e c conduction efficiency (dimension less)
e d dielectric efficiency (dimension less)
voltage reflection coefficien t at the input terminals of the antenna

(Zin - Z0 )
(Zin Z 0 )

VSWR voltage standing wave ratio

1
1-

Conduction-dielectric efficiency (ecd)


The conduction-dielectric efficiency is defined as the ratio of the
power delivered to the radiation resistance Rr to the power
delivered to Rr and RL.

Rr
ecd
Rr RL

Gain(G)
Gain of an antenna (in a given direction) is defined as the ratio of the
intensity, in a given direction, to the radiation intensity that would be
obtained if the power accepted by the antenna were radiated
isotropically. The radiation intensity corresponding to the isotropically
radiated power is equal to the power accepted (input) by the antenna
divided by 4.

Radiation Intensity
U ( , )
Gain 4
4
Total Input(accepted) Power
Pin
U ( , )
G 4
Pin (lossless isotropic source)

We know that, Prad ecd Pin


U ( , )
Therefore, G ( , ) ecd 4
ecd D( , )
Prad

M aximum Gain G 0 G( , ) max ecd D( , ) max ecd D0

30,000
G0
1d 2 d