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I.

FUNDAMENTALPRINCIPLESANDSTATEPOLICIES

A. Principles
1.SovereigntyofthePeopleandRepublicanism
a.DirectandIndirectDemocracy
b.Representationandrenovation
c.AccountabilitytothePeople
d.RuleoftheMajority
e.TheRuleofLaw
ArticleII(DeclarationofPrinciplesandStatePolicies)
Section1.ThePhilippinesisademocraticandrepublicanState.Sovereigntyresidesinthepeopleandall
governmentauthorityemanatesfromthem.
ArticleV(Citizenship)
Section1.ThefollowingarecitizensofthePhilippines:
[1]Filipinosbeforetheconstitution;
[2]Filipinoparents
[3]ThosebornbeforeJanuary17,1973,ofFilipinomothers,whoelectPhilippinecitizenshipupon
reachingtheageofmajority;and
[4]Naturalized.
Section2.NaturalborncitizensarethosewhoarecitizensofthePhilippinesfrombirthwithouthavingto
performanyacttoacquireorperfecttheirPhilippinecitizenship.ThosewhoelectPhilippinecitizenship
inaccordancewithparagraph(3),Section1hereofshallbedeemednaturalborncitizens.
Section3.Philippinecitizenshipmaybelostorreacquiredinthemannerprovidedbylaw.
Section4.CitizensofthePhilippineswhomarryaliensshallretaintheircitizenship,unlessbytheiractor
omission,theyaredeemed,underthelaw,tohaverenouncedit.
Section5.Dualallegianceofcitizensisinimicaltothenationalinterestandshallbedealtwithbylaw.
2.AdherencetoInternationalLaw
ArticleII(DeclarationofPrinciplesandStatePolicies)
Section2.Renouncementofwarasaninstrumentofnationalpolicy,adoptsgenerallyacceptedprinciples
ofinternationallawaspartofthelawofthelaw,andadherestothepolicyofpeace,equality,justice,
freedom,cooperation,andamitywithallnations.
Section7.Independentforeignpolicy.Nationalsovereignty,territorialintegrity,nationalinterest,and
righttoselfdetermination.

Section8.Freedomfromnuclearweapons
a.RenunciationofWar
ArticleVI
Section23.(1)2/3ofbothhousesofcongresscandeclareexistenceofastateofwar.
b.AdoptionofInternationalLaw
c.Adherencetopolicyofpeace,freedom,amity
3.SupremacyofCivilianAuthority
ArticleII
Section3.Civilianauthorityissupremeoverthemilitary.ThegoaloftheAFPistoprotectpeopleand
State.
ArticleVII
Section18.
PresidentistheCommanderinChiefofalloftheAFP.HecancallAFPtosuppressviolence.
Hemaysuspendwritofhabeascorpus(topersonschargedwithrebellion)duringrebellionfor
notmorethan60daysorplacecountryundermartiallaw.
HeshallsubmitareporttoCongresswhocanrevoketheproclamation/suspensionwithamajority
vote.Theycanalsovotetoextendit.
Supremecourtmayreview(inproceedingfiledbycitizen)sufficientbasisof
proclamation/suspensionandmustpromulgatedecision30daysafterfiling.
MARTIALLAWDOESNOTSUSPENDOPERATIONOFCONSTITUTION.Norsupplant
functioningofcivilcourtsorlegislativeassemblies,norauthorizeconfermentofjurisdictionon
militarycourtsandagenciesovercivilianswherecivilcourtsareabletofunction.
Anypersondetainedbecauseofthesuspensionofwritcanbefreein3days.
ArticleXVI(GeneralProvisions)
Section5.(4)NomemberoftheAFPintheactiveservice,shallbeappointedordesignatedtoacivilian
positioninthegovernment(includinggovernmentowned/controlledcorporationsoranyoftheir
subsidiaries).
Section5.(2)Stateshallstrengthenpatrioticspiritandnationalistconsciousnessofmilitary,andrespect
forpeoplesrightsintheperformanceoftheirduty.
4.GovernmentasprotectorofPeopleandPeopleasDefendersoftheState
ArticleII
Section4.Primedutyofgovernmentistoserveandprotectthepeople.Governmentmaycalluponpeople
todefendstate(orderpersonal,military,orcivilservice).
Section5.Maintenanceofpeaceandorder,protectionoflife,liberty,andproperty,andpromotionofthe
generalwelfareareessentialfortheenjoymentbyallthepeopleoftheblessingsofdemocracy.
5.SeparationofChurchandState
ArticleII(PrinciplesandStatePolicies)

Section6.Separationofchurchandstateshallbeinviolable.
ArticleIII(BillofRights)
Section5.Nolawshallrespectanestablishmentofreligion,orprohibitfreeexercisethereof.Exercise
andenjoymentshallbewithoutdiscriminationorpreference.Noreligioustestsforexerciseof
civil/politicalrights.
ArticleIXC(CommissiononElections)
Section2.(5)Religiousdenominationsandsectsshallnotberegistered.Registerpoliticalparties,
organizationsorcoalitions.Achievethroughviolenceorunlawfulmeans?Refusedregistration.Cancelled
registrationwhenacceptanceoffinancialcontributionfromforeigngovernments.
ArticleVI(LegislativeDepartment)
Section5.(2)Nosectoralrepresentationfromreligioussector. Thepartylistrepresentativesshall
constitutetwentypercentumofthetotalnumberofrepresentativesincludingthoseunderthepartylist.
ForthreeconsecutivetermsaftertheratificationofthisConstitution,onehalfoftheseatsallocatedto
partylistrepresentativesshallbefilled,asprovidedbylaw,byselectionorelectionfromthelabor,
peasant,urbanpoor,indigenousculturalcommunities,women,youth,andsuchothersectorsasmaybe
providedbylaw,exceptthereligioussector.
Exceptions:
ArticleVI(LegislativeDepartment)
Section28.(3)Churches(andpersonagesorconventsappurtenantthereto)areexemptfromtaxation.
Withcharitableinstitutions,mosques,nonprofitcemeteries,andalllands,buildings,andimprovements
forreligious/charitable/educationpurposes.
Section29.(2)Nopublicmoneyorpropertyshallbeappropriatedforreligioussectors.Exceptwhen
priestetc.isassignedtothearmedforcesorpenalinstitutions,orgovernmentorphanageorleprosarium.
ArticleXIV(Education,ScienceandTechnology,Arts,CultureandSports)
Section3.(3)Religionshallbetaughtinpublicschooluponwrittenrequestofparents.Regularclass
hours.Approvedbyreligiousauthorities.Noadditionalcoststogovernment.
Section4.(2)EducationalInstitutionsshallbeownedbyFilipinos(exceptthoseestablishedbyreligious
groupsormissionboards)