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Chapter 1

Nuclear energy has turned out to be the achievement of the past century. The most clean
environmental friendly and of less running cost mode of power generation is now in our hand.
At present it is estimated that our natural reserves of U 3O8 is about 70,000 tones, but the
long run potentials depends upon the large reserves of Thorium which is about 3,60,000 tones.
The optimum usage of the available resources takes place via three stages namely:

The first stage and perhaps used widely is using natural uranium as fuel.

The plutonium thus yield by first stage along with thorium is fed in Fast Breeder Reactors.

The third stage would employ the U-233 obtained from second stage together with
thorium is employed. Perhaps the third stage could either be a fast reactor or a thermal

In fact reactors high energy neutrons are required to bring about fission. It is most common with
element having even number of mass number.
In thermal reactors, thermal neutrons i.e. slow moving neutrons are required to being about the
fission. Those having mass number as an odd number possess this type of property.

Chapter 2


The forth coming generations, there will be a large increase in the need of MACHANICAL
energy particularly from clean, green the exploration of natural resources for generation of
electricity has been an evolutionary process. Over the years, it has progressed from tapping the
potential energy of falling water to burning of fossil fuels. But the quest for more sources of
electricity, which is the cleanest and most efficient form of energy, is unending and the limits of
the conventional sources have served to heighten mans anxious efforts in this regard. The
discovery of fission and the promise of abundance which nuclear energy came to hold
subsequently turned mans attention to utilize the potential of this source.
Considering the current population growth which has already crossed 100 crores in the
21st century and improvements in standard of

living of and safe energy sources. The

MACHANICAL energy will play a vital role in sustainable development of the country. Among
all the available conventional and non conventional energy sources, the nuclear energy is most
efficient, abundantly available, sustainable and cost effective energy sources. It does not emit
obnoxious gases that cause global warming, ozone hole and acid rain.
So The Nuclear Power:It is thus evident that some new from of energy, such as nuclear, which is a large addition to our
energy resources, has to be developed in a big way. The currently known uranium reserves in the
country can support a PHWR program of 10,000MW for a design life of 30 years. Even though
there is every reasons can support an ultimate capacity of 350,000 MW(e) by fast breeder .the long
range potential of so, on thorium resources which exceed 360,000tonnes.when used in the breeder
reactors, the thorium reserves would be equivalent to 600 billion tons of coal.
Nuclear Power Is Safe:Improving the quality of life has been the driving force for making to push ahead with the use of
modern technology. That these benefits carry along with them some risks, has been known for
sometimes and one has also to recognize that there is nothing like an absolutely safe technological
products be it the automobile, aircraft, chemical industry, or for that matter, a nuclear reactor. If

mankind had decided to take a zero-risk approach.

It is thus evident that some new from of energy, such as nuclear, which is a large addition to our
energy resources, has to be developed in a big way. The currently known uranium reserves in the
country can support a PHWR program of 10,000MW for a design life of 30 years.

Chapter 3


The Headquarters of Indian Nuclear Power Projects are located at Mumbai It is the
Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) which covers all the aspects of R&D and power
production. It is at Bhabha Atomic Research Centre where all the research works regarding
the new technologies and nuclear science.
Other than the power production plants there are various other institutions that come
under DAE like, Nuclear Fuel Compels (NFC) at Hyderabad, Mines at Jadugura, and Centre
for Advance Technology, Indo session re etc.
The first nuclear power plant was constructed at Tarapur in 1969. It was a Boiling Water
Reactor. The purpose of this reactor was to give the ground for development of Pressurized Heavy
Water Reactors (PHWRs). The two units setup on turnkey basis by G.E., America is still working

The list of various Nuclear Power Plants in India is as follows:Station

Rated Capacity

Year of Criticality


2 x 160

















































Project under construction









Fast breeder reactor Project under construction

Kk project 1


Light water reactor under construction

Kk project 2


Light water reactor under construction

Table 3.1 List of various nuclear power plants

The list of proposed sites in India KAPP3&4


Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor



Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor



Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor

Table 3.2 The list of proposed sites in India

Chapter 4


When a heavy nucleus split into smaller nuclei, a small amount of mass is converted into energy.
The amount of energy produced is given by Einsteins mass energy relation (E=m*c2) .this
breaking up of nuclei is called nuclear fission. Natural uranium has two type s of isotopes, U238
and U235 isotope in the ratio of 139:1. The less abundant U235 isotopes that fissions when a U235
atom is struck by allows (or thermal) neutron, it splits into two or refragments. This splitting is a

compiled by release of energy in the form of heat, radio-ability and two or there atom at high
speed, are made to slow down in the split atom at high speed, are made to slow down in a
moderation, i.e. heavy water, so that they have a high probability of hitting other U235 atoms which
in turn release more energy and further sets of neutrons. Attenuation of self sustained stage of
spilling of uranium atom is called chain reaction. There is a particular size of fissionable material
for which the neutron production by fission is exactly balanced by leakage and absorption. This is
called the critical size at which the chain reaction is self sub staining the size of a reaction.

Principle Of Heat Generation

Fission Reaction



Fig 4.1 Fission Reaction

In the above equation, (1) the total mass before fission, is the sum of the masses of U235 and
the neutrons. Mass after fission is the sum of fission fragments and neutrons.

Since loss of mass of 1 a.m.u is equivalent to an energy release of 931 MeV. Therefore energy
release in the above reaction could be calculated as follows. Since

Chapter 5


Each fission process produces 2.5 new neutrons and, at least one of these must produce a
further fission for a chain reaction to be maintained. So for every 100 neutrons, produced in
one neutron generation, at least 40 must cause further fissions so as to produce 40 x 2.5 or
100 neutrons in the next generation. Now the neutrons produced at fission are fast neutrons
with an average energy of 2 MeV. If the fissions occur in natural uranium fuel, 99.3% of the
nuclei are U- 238 which will only fission with neutrons having energies greater than 1.2 MeV.
Therefore only half the fission neutrons can cause U-238 fissions. So out of the 100 neutrons
produced at fission, only 50 can cause U-238 fissions. The inelastic scattering cross-section
of U-238 is 10 times greater than the fission cross-section at these neutron energies.
So, out of these 50 neutrons 5 will be able to cause fission and remaining 45 will be
scattered and lose so much energy that they can no longer cause U-238 fission. The fast
fission cross section in U-235 is only 1.44 barns and U-235 fast fissions can be ignored with
so little U-235 in natural uranium, Therefore, out of the 100 fast neutrons produced at fission
only 5 will cause further fissions and produce 5 x 2.5 or 12.5 new neutrons. Thus, even if
leakage and radiative capture are ignored the chain reaction can not be maintained by fast
neutrons in natural uranium. One of two alternatives is available which lead to a power
reactor classification as follows:
Fast Reactor:The U-235 content of the fuel can be increased, i.e., the fuel is highly enriched in U-235 with
a substantial decrease in U-238. The U-235 fast fissions are thus, considerably increased in a
fast reactor. Some reduction in neutron energy does occur due to inelastic collisions of
neutrons with nuclei of the fuel and structural material but most of the fissions are caused by
neutrons of energies greater than 0.1Mev.The mass of U-235 required for the reactor to be
critical varies with a mount of U-235 enrichment. In all cases the critical mass of fissile
material required increases rapidly below 15% to 20% U-235 enrichment. To avoid large fuel
inventories a practical fast reactor, such as case C above, would require fuel containing at
least 20% U-235 by volume. Incidentally the critical mass of U-235 in a fast reactor is
considerably greater than in a thermal reactor with the same fuel composition. The highly
enriched fuel and absence of moderator results in a small core. Therefore, fast reactors have
high power density cores. The average power density in a Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) is 500
MW/m3 compared with 100 MW/ m3 for a Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR). It is therefore

essential that a heat transport fluid with good thermal properties be used. The choice is also
limited to a non-moderating fluid and liquid metals seem to satisfy both requirements. The
capture cross-sections of most elements for fast neutrons are small and since there is a
relatively large mass of U-235 in the reactor, the macroscopic capture cross-sections of
structural material and fission products are small compared with the macroscopic fission
cross-section of the U-235. Consequently there is more flexibility in the choice of materials
and stainless steel can be used instead of aluminum or zirconium. Fission product poisoning
is not significant and for this reason, (and the fact that temperature coefficient of reactivity is
low), the excess reactivity required in a fast reactor is small.
Thermal Reactor:Since a chain reaction cannot be maintained with fast neutrons without considerable
enrichment, the alternative is to reduce the neutron energy until the fission cross-section of U235 is sufficiently increased. If the neutrons are reduced to thermal energies, the U-235
fission cross-section is 580 barns whereas the radioactive capture cross-section is 106 barns.
Thus, even allowing for the low percentage of U-235 in natural uranium, the thermal neutron
fission cross-section in natural uranium is 4.2 barns whereas the radioactive capture crosssection is 3.5 barns. Thus, for every 77 neutrons captured in natural uranium about 40 will
cause fission and produce 40 x 2.5 or 100 new neutrons. For 77 neutrons out of every 100 to
be captured, fewer than 23 neutrons can be lost by escape or radioactive reaction could be
sustained. In thermal reactors the fission neutrons are thermalised by slowing them down in a
moderator. Most of the power reactors in existence are thermal reactors.

The heat transport system may be:1. Pressurized light water

2. Pressurized heavy water
3. Boiling light water
4. Boiling heavy water
5. Gases such as CO2 or helium

6. Liquid metals
7. Steam or fog
8. Organic liquids
Heavy Water Moderated Reactor:Heavy water has a much lower neutron capture cross section than both light water and
graphite. The principal advantage of using heavy water as a moderator is, therefore, the
neutron economy that can be achieved with it. The thermal utilization factor, f, in the four
factor formula, is increased because of lower neutron capture in the moderator. Neutron
economy is so much improved that not only can natural uranium fuel be used, but that this
fuel can be used in oxide or carbide form. Thus, there is no longer any need for an enrichment
plant. In addition oxide or carbide fuel improve the fuel integrity and the fuel in less
susceptible to distortion.
Pressurized Heavy Water Reactor (PHWR):PHWRs have established over the years a record for dependability, with load factors in
excess of 90% over extended periods. In the PHWR, the heavy water moderator is contained
in a large stainless steel tank (calandria) through which runs several hundred horizontal
zircaloy calandria tubes. The D2O moderator is maintained at atmospheric pressure and a
temperature of about 70C. Concentric with the calandria tube, but separated by a carbon
dioxide filled annulus which minimizes heat transfer from fuel to the moderator, is the
zircaloy pressure tube containing the natural UO2 fuel assemblies and the heavy water
coolant at a pressure of about 80 kg/cm and a temperature of about 300C. The term
pressurized refers to the pressurized D2O coolant which flows in opposite directions in
adjacent tubes and passes its heat to the secondary coolant via the steam generators. System
pressure is maintained by a pressuriser on one of the legs of a steam generator.
Graphite Moderated Reactors:With a graphite moderator, a liquid or a gas must be used as the coolant. Although there are
water cooled graphite-moderated reactors, e.g., the Soviet Unions RBMK series of power
stations, of which Chernobyl is one, only gas cooled reactors will be referred to here. Whilst


the United States and Canada pioneered, respectively, the light and heavy water moderated
designs, France and United Kingdom undertook the early development of the graphite
moderated reactor, selecting carbon dioxide as the coolant because of its relative chemical
inertness and low neutron activation. France abandoned this approach in favor of an extensive
PWR programme. The UK continued to be heavily committed to gas cooled reactors in the
form, initially, of magnox and subsequently the advanced gas cooled reactor.

Chapter 6



The Nuclear Power plant works on two cycles:1. Secondary Cycle (Rankine Cycle)
2. Primary Cycle (Primary Heat Transport)
Rankine Cycle:Rankine cycle is a vapour power cycle having two basic characteristics:
The cycle consists of a succession of steady flow processes, with each process carried out in
a separate component specially designed for the purpose. The working fluid used in the plant,
i.e. water substance, when passes through the cycle of operation undergoes changes in
pressure and temperature (enthalpy). It receives heat in various feed heaters and undergoes
pressure change by pumps in the circuit. The preheated water is converted into saturated
steam inside steam generators and finally supplied to the turbine, in which it undergoes a fall
in pressure and increase in volume and gives up a certain amount of energy to the turbine
shaft. On reaching the lowest pressure in the system, in the condenser, heat is extracted from
it by the cooling water and it is thus restored to its original conditions as condensate. In the
simplest possible form of heat cycle for a steam turbine power plant, the process thus
comprises four steps.
1) Increase of pressure of the condensate in the feed pump, with a resultant very small
absorption of work.
2) The supply of heat by the combustion of fuel to produce steam in the steam generator.
3) The expansion of the steam in the turbine, with the production of work.
4) The rejection of heat by the steam to the cooling water at constant pressure in the
condenser, and the return of the water to its original condition. The cycle is rarely as simple
as this and is often complicated by such devices as regenerative feed heating and reheating.
Under ideal conditions of expansion in the turbine the above cycle is known as the Rankine
cycle .The cycle shown in figure represents a power station cycle without feed heating. 1-2-34-5-6 Feed water receives the sensible heat 6-7.Feed water receives the latent heat 7-8
Adiabatic expansion of steam through high pressure turbine 8-9 Moisture removal and
reheating 9-10 Adiabatic expansion of steam through the low pressure turbine.10-1
Condensation of steam in condenser at constant pressure.


Fig 6.1 Rankine Cycle

The Primary Heat Transpoert System:Principle of Operation:The PHT system provides continuous circulation of coolant through the reactor at all times by
various modes as listed below:
i) Normal operation - By primary coolant pump.
ii) Sudden loss of power to pumps - By inertia of pump flywheels to avoid a sudden drop in
coolant flow.
iii) Thermo siphoning - By placing main equipment above the elevation of reactor core.
iv) Loss of primary coolant - By receiving emergency injection of heavy water from
moderator system after depressurization of primary heat transport system. In case of
paucity of heavy water from moderator system light water injection is initiated.



The heavy water runs through the feeders into 306 coolant tubes, through the end fittings and
feeders to the reactor outlet headers. The reactor utilizes restriction orifices in selected inlet
feeders to achieve the flow required by the reactor channel ratings, commensurate with equal
temp. from all channels. The reactors outlet headers distribute the flow through 8 boiler inlet
valves, 4 on the north and 4 on the south, to the respective 8 boilers (in new PHWR it is only
4 boilers 2 on each side). From the boilers through the boiler outlet valve the heavy water
arrives at the pumps. Each pump is associated with a respective boiler through an individual
suction line. The pumps discharge the flow through pump discharge valves into the reactor
inlet header.
No common suction header has been provided and pumps are attached directly to the
boilers, the only common connection being reactor inlet and outlet headers. This arrangement
allows the isolation of any of the circulating pumps and leads to the loss of a boilers, the
circuit has no spare pump. This situation is acceptable in view of the expected high reliability
of the heat transport pumps and also that the loss of a pump and a boiler does not result in a
substantial loss of plant capacity. From the reactor inlet headers the heavy water flows
through the feeders and end fittings to the reactor coolant tubes. Corrosion products and
fission products are removed from the system by purification circuit. Purification circuit also
helps to achieve a pH value between 9.5 to 10.5 and to maintain the conductivity of heavy
water between 20 to 30 micromoh/cm. In addition it reduces radiolysis decomposition of
heavy water by controlling ionic impurities.
The operating design pressure in the reactor outlet headers is controlled at 87 Kg/cm 2
(1237.5 psig). The pressure is controlled by a feed and bleeds system. In the event of a leak
in the primary system, no matter how large it is, cooling of the fuel can be maintained or
restored by the emergency injection system which is designed to pump heavy water from the
moderator system into the primary system. For cooling the system below 300F and for
holding the system at low temp. during plant maintenance, an auxiliary cooling system is
provided which is known as standby cooling system or shutdown cooling system. The system
is connected

between reactor outlet and inlet header at each end of the reactor. If normal

heat removal fails and normal pressure control fails or their capacities are exceeded, the
increase in coolant volume caused by the reactor heat would be passed out of the primary
system by relief valves. One relief line connects the pressurized end of the north standby


cooling loop, to the bleed condenser through these instrumented safety relief

valves in

parallel. Isolated boilers are protected against accidental high pressure by system relief
valves. The PHT pumps are provided with flywheels to provide better flow coast down after
pump trip. The system layout as discussed above assures adequate flow for decay heat
removal from reactor during shutdown by thermosyphoning action. A separate shutdown
cooling system is provided to remove reactor decay heat during cold shutdown conditions.
This mode of cooling permits the draining of the steam generators and pumps in the PHT
system for maintenance. An emergency core cooling system provides adequate coolant flow
to prevent overheating of the fuel in the unlikely event of loss of coolant accident.

Fig 6.2 Primary Heat Transport System

Chapter 7


Parts of Reactor Building:1. Calandria

8. Dump Tank

2. Control Rods

9. Dousing Tank

3. Fuelling Machine

10. Reactor Dome

4. Heat Exchanger

11.Coolant Channel

5. PHT Pump

12. Fuel Bundles

6. Moderator Pump
7. Boiler (Steam Generator)


Fig 6.3 Reactor Building

Reactor:Reactor is the place where actual nuclear fission takes place. The building that houses reactor and
other accessories is called Reactor Building. Following are the ingredients of Reactor Building:Calandria:Calandria is a huge cylindrical structure which houses bundles. The specifications regarding 200
MWe reactors calandria are:Weight

22 tons


4645 mm

Main Shield I.D.

5996 mm

Small Shell I.D.

4928 mm

Thickness of Shell

25 mm


There are 306 channels each accommodating 12 bundles. The calendria is housed in steel lined
concrete. calandria vault filled with light water which provides shielding and cooling of vault
structure. Calendria tubes made up of zircloy.

Fig 6.4 Calandria

Cut Section of Calandria Control Rods:The control rods contain material that regulates the rate of the chain reaction. If they are
pulled out of the core, the reaction speeds up. If they are inserted, the reaction slows down.
In RAPS, cobalt is used as control rods. The used cobalt is then processed and enriched
.The enriched cobalt is then used for different purposes such as cobalt therapy etc.
Fuelling Machine:Reactor fuel is moved into and out of reactor by a pair of fuelling machines that is clamped to
channels on north and south ends of the reactor. It consists of Head, which contains
positioning the mechanisms for manipulating the fuel, a carriage for Head in line with any
desired fuel channel, and numerous houses and cables, which supplies fluid and
MACHANICAL services. A ram and associated mechanism is provided for pushing reactor
fuel and handling plugs in the reactor channels. The ram is operated by the hydraulic pressure
of Heavy water. The fuelling machine is left in the vault when not in the use, unless







The various plugs and fuel handled by the fueling machines are stored in the various
chambers of the rotary magazine. The magazine has twelve chambers. Refueling can be
done in a number of channels during one refueling session
Heat Exchanger:Tube-and-shell type heat exchangers are suitable in this type of system. The U type heat
exchanger, shown in Fig simplifies expansion problems and reduces the number of tube sheet
joints. Heavy water holdup is reduced by passing the heavy water through the tubes and the
cooling water on the shell side. Double tube sheets with interspaces draining to leakage
collection system are used to reduce leakage. The moderator pumps maintain the heavy water
at a higher pressure than the cooling water. This ensures that any leakage that does occur will
be from the heavy water to the cooling water.
This is done to prevent any downgrading of moderator D2O as a result of cooling
water leakage. A system for detecting radioactive nuclei, in the cooling water leaving the heat
exchanger, would indicate D2O leakage into the cooling water. The tube material would


probably be copper-nickel alloy, whereas the shell would be made of carbon steel. In RAPS
cupronickel was used as tube material but to reduce probability of tube failure stainless steel
is now being used as tube material. In order to maintain moderator cooling at all times the
cooling water supply has to be very reliable. Should the normal process water supply fail an








Fig 6.6 Heat Exchanger

Steam Generator:Steam generators are the units where the PHT gives away the thermal energy to DM water and
hence it gets converted to steam. It is a continuous process. There are 4 boilers or steam
The inlet water through the condenser cycle and the steam tapped are maintained such that
there is a constant water level in the steam generators. Even at the time of shutdown there is
continuous flow of PHT to take away the reaction heat and as a result there is always some steam
generator even at non-working condition.
The water chemistry of Steam Generator is maintained in such a way that feed water is not


causing scale formation in the boilers for this regular feed and bleed is done from each Steam
Generator at regulator interval. Steam Generator level and pressure are maintained through
triplicate control systems. In case of very high water level quality of steam to get into the turbine.
In case of low level reactor trips to prevent less of heat sinks in boiler.

Fig 6.7 Steam Generator

Dump Tank:Just below the calandria and connected to it by a transition section and the expansion joint is
dump tank. The purpose is to provide containment to the moderator when dumped through
the S-shaped dump ports. In the normal operation the tank will be empty and contain helium
at 24psi to support the moderator in the calandria.
Dump tank is connected to the bottom portion of calandria through a transition section
and an expansion joint. Its purpose is to store the D2O of reactor under dump (shut down)
condition. Dump ports are provided in the bottom portion of calandria near the transition
section and in between the two stiffener rings. Under normal operation the dump tank


remains empty of water (d2o) and is filled with helium at a pressure of 24 psig. to hold the
heavy water in calandria. Dump ports are in transverse direction to the calandria axis
Nuclear Fuel:The fuel used in a PHWR type reactor is sintered natural uranium di-oxide in the form of
small pellets. These pellets are kept in the zircalloy tubes and are 24 per tube. The tubes are
known as pencils and 19 pencils make a complete fuel bundle. The pencils are held between
end plates and zircalloy provide spacing between the tubes and zircalloy pads provide bearing
action. This help mixing of the coolant flow with the sub channels between the elements.

Fig 6.8 Fuel Bundle

Cooling Towers:Mainly there are two types of cooling towers:-


: Induct Draft Cooling Towers

NDCT : Natural Draft Cooling Towers

The main purpose of these cooling towers is to bring down the temperature of circulating
water. This is light water that circulates through the heat exchanger and carried away the heat
generated by the DM water.


This DM water condenses the steam. Hence the application of cooling towers enhances the
efficiency of the plant.
Following is the description of the types of cooling towers:


As the name indicates it requires induced draft for cooling the active process water. Big fans are
used to produce the draft. The active water is used in Reactor Building to cool various process
equipment etc.


The inductive water that is used to condense water is further cooled by natural draft. They are
150M high with hyperbolic shape atomizing action.

Fig 6.9 Cooling Tower

Chapter 8



For measuring dose absorbed by a person, devices known as dosimeters are used. Generally
there are two types of dosimeters these are:
1. Direct Reading Dosimeters (DRD).
2. Thermo Luminescence dosimeter (TLD).
Direct Reading Dosimeter (DRD) :This device measures the dose directly and is used for day to day dose control. It is a pen
shaped device and lenses are fitted on both the ends. On bigger lens, a scale is marked which
directly tells about the dose absorbed. For reading the DRD it is so held that the bigger lens
should face the light source and it is seen from the smaller lens. This dosimeter is used in
Third and Fourth Zone only.
Thermo Luminscence Dosimeter(TLD):This is a badge type device and is used to dose absorbed during one months time. TLD
badge consists of a TLD CARD loaded in a CASSETTE. The dose measured by TLD is
based on the phenomenon of THERMOLUMINISCENSE. TLD cassette has a dual metallic
filter and an open window to distinguish between doses received due to different type of
radiation (alpha, beta & gamma) and provides energy dependence correction. Personal data
such as Name, TLD No., Service months etc. are written on it.
The person has to wear his TLD badge at his chest level when entering the operating
island. After one month, the TLD card is sent to the TLD laboratory where the absorbed dose
is measured.
Dose Classification:Absorbed Dose:Absorbed dose is simply the dose absorbed by a person and is measured by using the
dosimeters. It is denoted by D.
Equivalent Dose:-


For calculating equivalent dose the type of radiation is also taken into account and the
absorbed dose is multiplied by a factor wr.
Effective Dose:For effective dose despite of type of radiation the effective area of the body is also taken into
account, and the absorbed dose is multiplied by factors wr & wt.
Emergency Declaration:To declare an Emergency in a plant a blinking siren is blown. After the declaration of
emergency, each person in the plant is supposed to assemble in the assembly area.To
terminate the Emergency a continuous siren of 2 min. is blown. This siren indicates the
termination of the Emergency

Chapter 9



Steam Turbine:Steam turbine is a rotating machine in which heat energy of steam is converted into
mechanical energy.
Working Principle of Steam Turbine:The steam is caused to fall in pressure in a passage or nozzle; due to this fall in pressure a
certain amount of heat energy is converted into mechanical kinetic energy, and the steam is
set moving with a greater velocity. The rapidly moving particles of steam enter the moving
part of the turbine and here suffer a change in direction of motion which gives rise to a
change of momentum and therefore to a force. This constitutes the driving force of the
Important Element of Turbine:


This is the element in which the steam expands from a high pressure and a state of
comparative rest to a lower pressure and a state of comparatively rapid motion.

The Blades or Deflector:-

This is the element in which the stream of steam particles strike and experience a change
in momentum due to change in direction resulting in a tangential force for rotation of turbine.
The blades are attached to the rotating element of the machine, or rotor; whereas, in general
the nozzles are attached to the stationary part of the turbine, which is usually termed the
stator, casing or cylin
They are of two types:1.Impulse Turbine :In this, steam is expanded in turbine nozzle and attains a high velocity, also complete
expansion of steam takes place in the nozzle & steam pressure during the flow of steam over
turbine blades remains constant. The blades have symmetrical profile.

2.Reaction Turbine :-


In this, only partial expansion takes place in nozzle and further expansion takes place as the
steam flows over the rotor blades.
Bearings:The Basic Purpose of Bearing Is To:

Support the load

locate the part in motion
reduce friction

Classification of Bearings:1. Plain bearing

2. rolling element bearing
Bearing is also classified as:Friction: dry, semi dry
Motion: sliding or rolling
Load: radial, axial and combination
Duty: heavy or light
Lubrication: type of lubrication involved
Manufacture: manufacturing process involved e.g. forming heat treatment, finishing and
impregnation of lubricants
Application: instrument, special, self-aligning
Plain Bearing:Plain bearing includes types in which primary motion is sliding. They handle radial and thrust
loads, as well as linear motion. These bearings are broadly classified as
journal or sleeve bearing
self aligning bearing

thrust bearing
Journal Bearing;-


Widely used bearing are cast bronze and porous bronze cylindrical bearing. Cast bronze
bearings are oil and grease lubricated. Porous bearings are oil lubricated.
Application of cast bronze bearing: power tools linkage and valve guides.
Porous bearings: electric motor and fans
They are further classified as:

Solid bearings
Split bearing
Plumber block

Compliant Bearing:They are fluid lubricated bearing with surfaces that elastically deform equal to or more
the lubricating film due to fluid pressure induced in the film.All the above bearing can be of
following three types depending on the method of lubrication.
Boundary lubrication: in this a full fluid film doesnt support the shaft in the bearing.
Hydrodynamic lubrication: the load bearing surfaces are completely separated by the fluid
film. The fluid pressure to separate the surfaces developed by shearing of viscous fluid film
between surfaces due to rotation of shafts. The developed pressure supports the applied load.
Hydrostatic lubrication: this type also uses a fluid film to separate the bearing surfaces.
However the pumps to support the applied load supply pressurized fluid externally.

Advantages of Bearings;1. Less radial space required.

2. Less noise
3. Better load carrying capacity.
4. Close tolerances not required.
5. Easy installation and maintenance
6. No damage on the increase of speed.


Material For Bearing:Babbitt, bronze, copper and its alloys, aluminum and its alloys, carbon, Teflon, rubber.
Desirable Properties of Bearing Materials:Score Resistance:- ability of the material to the shaft because of friction.
Load Capacity:- ability of the material to handle maximum amount of pressure without
Fatigue Strength:- ability of material to resist failures caused by cyclic loads.
Corrosion Resistance :- ability of material to resist oxidation. Corrosion may take place due
to surrounding atm. or lubricants.
Conformability:- ability of the material to wear to adjust for the misalignment of the shaft.
Embedability:- ability of the material to absorb foreign particles.

Rolling Element Bearing:Basically they consist of inner race, outer race, rolling element, and cage. Rolling element
can be balls, cylindrical rollers, spherical rollers or tapered rollers.

Ball bearing

Roller bearing

Ball Bearing:They are divided into three-category radial, angular contact and thrust bearing. Radial
bearings are designed for application in which loading is primarily radial. Angular contact
bearings are used where loads are combined radial and high thrusts. Thrust bearings handle
only axial loads.
1. Deep Groove Bearing;- This bearing is designed primarily for radial loads but it is
capable of carrying equal amounts of thrust loads in either direction. They are also


available with two or more no. of rows, accordingly they are called as single rowed or
double rowed.
2. Angular Contact Ball Bearing:- In this type of bearings there is central line of contact
angle and is between 15 and 45 degrees. These bearings are capable of carrying higher
axial loads but in one direction only. They are also available with two or more no. of
rows, accordingly they are called as single row or double row angular contact ball
3. Self Aligning Bearing;-In this type of bearing the tract on the outer race is grounded
spherically and its this feature which gives these bearings the property of self alignment.
The shaft deflection up to 4 is automatically adjusted without damaging the bearing.
These carry radial loads.
4. Thrust Ball Bearing;- They are of two types single and double thrust. Single thrust
bearings consist of two rings and a set of ball in a retainer. Double thrust bearings consists
of one rotating ring in the middle with two ball tracks, two sets of balls in a retainer and
two stationary rings. Single thrust bearings are designed for carrying load in one direction
only. Whereas double thrust can take load in both directions. But these bearings can never
take any radial loads.

Roller Bearing;1. Cylindrical Ball Bearing;- In this type of bearings, the roller and the racetracks are
essentially cylindrical. The rollers are guided between two lips on either the inner race or
outer race. In this type of bearing the rolling element has only line contact on the races.
They have high radial load carrying capacity and are more convenient for mounting than
ball bearings.
2. Self Aligning Spherical Roller Bearing:- This type of bearings consists of spherical outer
race and inner race with two tracks, a cage and complement of spherical shaped rollers.
These bearings are thrust loaded in either direction.
3. Taper Roller Bearing:- Taper roller bearings consists of two main units a cup and a cone.
The cup is on the outer surface and the cone is on inner race, the separator and the
complement of taper rollers. These bearings are capable of capable carrying axial loads
but in one direction. They can also carry radial loads.


4. Needle Roller bearing:- These comprises the special form of cylindrical roller bearing in
which the rollers are of very small diameter and comparatively long length therefore they
have the advantage of very small difference between bore and outside diameter. They
carry only radial loads. In this bearing L/D >2.

Cause of Bearing Failure:-

Improper mounting
Vibration brandling
Inadequate lubrication
Loose or excessive tight fit on the shaft

Advantages of Ball Bearing:1. Low friction

2. Ability to support both radial and thrust load.
3. Accurate performance under changing load and speed.
4. High load carrying capacity.
5. Practically no wear in running
6. Simple lubrication
7. Inherently precise mechanism

Pump: Pump is a mechanical device which is used to suck liquid from particular level and then
discharge to the required level by providing it the K.E. as well as P.E. that is pressure and
velocity (flow).
Classification of Pump:Basically pumps are classified as following tree diagram:











Centrifugal Pump:A centrifugal pump consists of a rotating element including impeller and a shaft and a
stationary element made of a casing, stuffing box and a bearing. Vanes of the impeller impart
energy to the fluid through the centrifugal force. The fluid is forced into impeller due to the
differential pressure between pressures at the water surface in the section tank and pressure at
the section eye of the impeller. Fluid is discharged through impeller output at higher pressure
and velocity. The velocity is converted into pressure by means of the involutes or set of
stationary diffusers vane surrounding impeller.
Rotary Pump:It is a positive displacement pump, i.e. they will provide discharge to there rated value even if
the discharge valve is closed to some extend. These types of pumps are involving the rotating
motion. This pump has a number of advantages such as
Can operate under low NPSH requirements and produce high suction lift.
Relatively high efficiency, when pumping viscous liquids.
Hydraulic characteristics are good with high head at a wide range of capacities.


Have extensive speed range, generally limited only by fluid viscosity.

Inherently self-priming since they are virtually operated as compressor.
Pump Sliding Vane Type:It is a type of rotatory pump, used in many applications in industrial plants. In these types of
pumps the vanes are made up of softer material then the pump casing and hence they wear
less and are easily replaceable at low cost.In these pumps as the impeller rotates, its offset
position above the pump centerline allows the vanes or blades to extend and draw in fluid on
one side. The open space between the impeller and housing at the bottom of the pump allows
the movement of the fluid through the pump.
As the continues its rotation, the vanes are pushed back in there slots as they near the
top of the pump this contraction of available space forces the fluid out of discharge port. In
some vane type pumps the impeller vanes are spring loaded which assures that there will be
complete contact with the casing of the vane.Usually operate up to differential pressure of 50
psi and capacities up to 375gpm. Practical limit on liquid viscosity is about 100000 SSU.
This type is subjected to wear and should not be specified when liquid has poor lubricating
Gear Type Pump:Two types of gear pumps are there:
1. External gear pump
2. Internal gear pump
Gear pumps along with their industrial use some times are also used for bearing lubrication
and supplying cutting fluid.In these type of pumps the fluid being pumped is drawn through
the space between the rotors and the pimp casing by the gear teeth and forced out by
discharge port. The meshing gears just only prevent the back flow of the fluid to the suction
These gears are classified on the basis of the type of gear used in the pump and are


gear pump is used mostly because it is economical, but its power transmission is unsmooth
because very less area of its teeth of either gear comes in contact.
To overcome this problem of un-smooth power transmission helical gear pump is
used, in helical gear pump the contact area of the teeth increases and the power transmission
becomes smoother but since the teeth of helical gear are on an angle therefore the problem of
axial thrust arises.
To overcome this problem of axial thrust the herringbone gear pump is used since in
this the teeth are in opposite direction therefore they can bear the axial thrust along with the
smooth power transmission.
Gear pump are used to about 650 gpm and 350 psi. They can handle viscosity
approaching 5 million SSU. These pumps are self-priming; give constant delivery at the set
rotor speed, negligible pressure pulsation. They can pump in either direction if necessary.

Screw Pump:It is another type of rotary pump. It has a double impeller design and hence it is able to pump
large amount of fluid easily. It is expensive to manufacture and is quite susceptible to damage
from abrasive material.
In operation the screw type pump is driven by the center rotor called the power rotor.
It drives two idler rotors, which meshes with it. Both idler rotors are identical being threaded
to mesh with power rotor.As the power turns fluid is drawn in from one end of the pump and
is discharged out from the other end. As the thread of power rotor met with the idler rotor the
fluid is forced along the opening in the threaded area towards the discharge section of the
Screw pumps are applied to large flows, since they have capacities up to 4000GPM
and 3000psi. Viscosity capability is about 100 million SSU (say bolt seconds unit). Screw
pumps have bearing and time gear requirements. Screw pumps can operate at high speeds
because of lower fluid velocities. The reason is that in this type the flow is axial, as opposite
to flow around the periphery of gear or the vane pump.


Reciprocating Pump:These are also positive displacement pumps. In these types there is cylinder in which a
reciprocating part reciprocates, this may be piston, plunger or diaphragm.The fluid is pumped
out due to the pressure exerted on it by this reciprocating part, the inlet and outlet valves are
mounted on the cylinder through the fluid is taken in and pumped out. The reciprocating part
is connected to a crankshaft, through which it gets its reciprocating motion
Types of Reciprocating Pumps:1. Diaphragm pumps
2. Plunger pumps- simplex, triplex
3. Piston types- single acting and double acting
Piston Pump:In this type of pump the reciprocating part is the piston, this piston is connected to the
crankshaft through the connecting rod, there are inlet and outlet valves mounted on the head
of the cylinder, in the reverse stroke of the piston the fluid is sucked in the cylinder and in its
forward stroke the fluid is pumped out of the cylinderThe piston pump may be single acting
or double acting, in single acting the fluid is sucked in and discharged out from one side of
the piston. But in double acting the fluid is sucked in and discharged out from both side of the
Plunger Pump:From construction point of view plunger pump is similar to that of the piston pump; the only
difference is that the length to dia ratio of plunger is more than that of the piston. It imparts
more pressure to the fluid. The plunger pump may be simplex, duplex or triplex.Simplex
plunger pump is the plunger pump in its simplest form.In duplex pump there are two
cylinders and two plungers one installed in each cylinders, and both the cylinders are
connected to the same crankshaft in this type of arrangement when first cylinder is taking
suction the second one is giving out its discharge, and vice versa in the second stroke.
In triplex plunger three plungers and three cylinders are connected to the same
crankshaft And each of them will give discharge in different times. The duplex and triplex
arrangements are made to give a smooth discharge


Diaphragm Pump:In this type of pump a diaphragm is there just below the cylinder head. This diaphragm is
connected to the crankshaft and provide the reciprocating motion, when the suction valve is
open the comes in the orifice of the diaphragm of the, and then it is pumped out in the
forward stroke of the diaphragm. The pump is used for low pressure and low discharge.
Diaphragm pumps are used in control volume application, capacities 600 gal/hr at
dischargepressureto 3500 psi. Plunger pumps have larger capacities than diaphragm pumpsup to 1000 gal/hr and 7500 psi. Large plunger types often called power pump, turn out 600
gpm, at pressure up to 10000 psi. Piston pumps are generally less expensive than plunger
types but have shorter service life. Maximum performance of piston type is in the range of
600 gpm and 750 psi.
Pulsation is inherent in reciprocating pump. Multi cylinder pump arranged at different
crank angles will reduce pressure pulsation. Accumulator can be used for high-pressure
application and as a metering pump. Plunger pumps are necessarily single acting devices.
Plunger moves through stationary packet seal whereas in the piston the seal is carried on the
Valve:Valves are mechanical device used to isolate, regulate or release the process the fluid flow
through pipeline.
Principle of Function of Valve:

Starting and stopping flow

Regulating or throttling flow

Preventing back flow

Regulating pressure

Relieving pressure

Different Types of Valves Are Used For Diferent Uses Such As:-

Gate valve is used for starting and stopping process.


Globe and angle valves are used for regulating and throttling flow.
Check valve are used foe preventing back flow.
Pressure regulator is used for regulating pressure

Classification of Valves On Basis of Function:1. Isolating Valve:- This type of valve are either fully opened or fully closed. Gate valve,
plug Valve and ball valve are examples of this type.
2. Regulating Valve:- These types of valves regulates or control the rate of flow of fluid
according to the requirements. They can be opened in any position from fully opened
to fully close. Globe valve, angle valve are examples of this type
3. Non Return Valve:- These types of valves permits the flow of fluid in one direction
only and automatically shuts off if a reversal flow occurs. The direction of fluid flow
is indicated by an arrow on valve body. Swing check non-return valve and lift check
non-return valve are examples of this type.
4. Safety Valve:- These type of valve are designed to open as soon as the predetermined
and set pressure has been reached on the system. Spring load safety valve and torsion
bar type safety valve are examples of this type.
Gate Valve:

It is used to close or full open the valve.

The flow is perpendicular to the seat of the valve.
Slightly pen valve cause vibration and chattering of disc. Flow cause erosion of seat.
Repeated movement of disc near closing under high pressure flow may gal or score

Refacing seats is difficult and time-consuming operation.

Globe Valve;

Seat parallel to line of flow and are used for regulating.

No contact of seat and disc when flow begins.
Operator can gauge the rate of flow by the no of turns of hand wheel.
Fever turns are required to operate the valve.
Seat and disc can be repaired without removing the valve easily online.


Butterfly Valve:

Saves space and less hold up.

Doesnt require support
Resilient liner provides tight shut of
At high temperature piston ring minimizes the leakage
Any accumulator can be used.
Double ported valve increases the control range

Chapter 10




Operation of a nuclear facility like nuclear power station inevitably leads to the production of
low level radioactive wastes which are collected segregated to select best processing method,
and conditioned for either interim site storage or for disposal. The design of facilities is such
that the average public exposure from radioactive materials at the exclusion boundary is a
small fraction of the recommended AERB limits. The radioactive wastes produced at the site
may belong to one of the following


Spent Fuel, Solid Wastes, Liquid Wastes & Gaseous Wastes.

Spent fuel is stored in a pool of water until it is ready for shipping for reprocessing at special
Solid Radioactive Waste Management:Solid radioactive waste in segregated into three general categories based on contact dose.
Category -1 wastes. : Largely originates
Protective clothing, contaminated metal parts and miscellaneous items. As it may contain no
radioactivity. This waste will be collected in unshielded standard drums.
Category-II & III Wastes. : Filter cartridges and ion exchanges resins typically this waste
has an unshielded radiation fielded greater than 1 R/hr. on contact. These require additional
shielding and greater precautions than for category-I during transportation, handling and
storage operation.
Liquid Radioactive Waste Management System:The Liquid Radioactive Waste Management System provides for collection, storage,
sampling and necessary treatment and dispersal of any liquid waste produced by the station.
The system is designed to control the release of radioactivity in the liquid effluent streams so
that radiations dose to members of the public is with in those stipulated by the regulatory
board. This system handles radioactive wastes that are carried in liquid streams from the
laundry active floor drains, decontamination center and chemical laboratories.
Gaseous Radioactive Waste Management System:-


An extensive ventilation system collects potentially active exhaust air from such areas as the
Reactor Building. The spent fuel handling and storage area, the decontamination center and
the heavy water management area. The active and potentially active exhaust air and gases
are all routed to a gaseous effluent exhaust duct. This exhaust flow is monitored for noble
gases, tritium, iodine and active particulate before being released. Facilities for filtration are
provided. Signals from the iodine, wide range beta-gamma and particulate monitors are
recorded in the control center. Tritium monitoring is carried out by laboratory analysis.

Chapter 11

Industrial Safety :-


By Industrial safety we mean that the measures adopted

as a whole in a industry so that

occurrence of the accidents can be reduced to bare minimum.

Factors Responsible For Safety:

Plant layout

Design of machinery

Safety Gadgets and equipments

Protective aids

Safety culture & Respect for Safety

Attitude of the management/ employer - Caution Boards

Display of Good practices about Safety

Safety meetings, Open discussion and other motivation about Safety

Safety Manual


Unsafe Act & Unsafe conditions

Radiation Safety:In a Nuclear reactor the Radiation is produced in following ways:

i) Directly in fission reaction
ii) By decay of fission products
Following types of radiations are encountered:
i) Alpha radiation
ii) Beta radiation
iii) Gamma radiation
iv) Neutron radiation
Out of the above types of radiations Alpha radiation is

practically zero, whereas Beta and

Gamma radiation fields may be present almost everywhere inside the reactor building and in
negligible amount even outside the reactor building. Neutron radiations are mainly present


inside the reactor vault. It is worth noting that the secondary side of the plant i.e. feed water
and steam cycle etc. are completely separate from the nuclear systems and are therefore not
supposed to be and neither they are to carry any sort of radioactive particle and therefore free
of contamination and radiation. It is also wroth noting that all radiations are emited from the
nucleous of every radioactive nuclide which will always have a tendency to become stable
by emitting radiations through disintegration.
The following reactions show the emmision of Alpha, Beta, Gamma and Neutron.

U238 2He4 92U234 +



It has very low penetrating power and can be stopped by simple paper.
H3 2He3 (18 Kev) +beta

It also does not have good penetrating power and in human skin it can penetrate up to about
half mm. It can be very easily shielded
U235 + 0n1 92U236 Xe + Kr + 0n1 + gamma + Heat


Following methodologies are used to control the exposure to the radiation and therefore
resive of the radiation dose.
(1) Administrative Control
(2) Zoning Technique
(3) Design Control
(4) Operation Control
(5) Maintenance and house keeping

Exposure to any kind of radiation can be controlled by an individual by following methods:

(1) Distance





Decay (Time to Decay)

Chapter 12

The practical training at R.A.P.S. has proved to be quite faithful. It proved an opportunity


for encounter with such huge components like 220MW generators, turbines, transformers and
switchyards etc. The architecture of the NPP (Nuclear Power Plant):
The way various units are linked and the way working of whole plant is controlled make
the students realize that engineering is not just learning the structure description and working of
various machines, but the greater part is of planning, proper management.
It also provides an opportunity to learn technology used at proper place and time can save
a lot of labor for example almost all the controls are computerized because in running condition no
any person can enter in the reactor building.
But there are few factors that require special mention. Training is not carried out into its
tree spirit. It is recommended that there should be some projects specially meant for students
where the presence of authorities should be ensured. There should be strict monitoring of the
performance of students and system of grading be improved on the basis of the work done.
However training has proved to be quite faithful. It has allowed as an opportunity to get an
exposure of the practical implementation to theoretical fundamental.