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Rizki Fiprinita, M.Pd

Extensive and Intensive Reading

Name of members:
1. Suciati Anandes
2. Sugianti
3. Suhendra Efendi

State Islamic University Of Sultan Syarif Kasim Riau

Faculty Of Educaation And Teachers Training
English Education Department


Alhamdulillahhirabbil Alamin, the writers have finished writing this paper. We

should not forgt Allah Almighty, The Lord of the universe Who has given his guidance and
blessings, which finally we could complete and keep this paper existing. This paper entitles:
Reading IV : Extensive and Intensive Reading
This paper was one of the duties and requirements to complete Applied Grammar 1
task. Thanks to Mrs. Rizki Fiprinita, M.Pd and all of our friends who have supported us for
finishing this task.
Finally, the writer realize that this paper is still far from perfection. Therefore, readers
comments, criticisms, and constructive suggestions will be highly apreciated.
We expect this may be useful for all of us, and to contribute ideas for the readers,
especially the expected goals can be achieved, Aamiin.
Pekanbaru, May 8th, 2014

The Writers

Table of contents
Preface 2
Table of contents 3
Chapter I

Background 4
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Chaper II5
A. Extensive Reading

B. Extensive reading vs. Intensive reading 8

C. Programs Focused on Intensive Reading 8
D. Programs Focused on Extensive Reading 9
E. Programs That Combine Intensive And Extensive Reading
Chaper III








A. Background
Intensive reading is related to further progress in language learning under the
teacher's guidance. It provides a basis for explaining difficulties of structure and
for extending knowledge of vocabulary and idioms. It will provide material for

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developing greater control of the language and speech and writing. Students will
study short stories and extracts from novels, chosen for the standard of
difficultly of the language and for the interest they hold for this particular group
of students. Intensive reading is generally at a slower speed and requires a
higher degree of understanding to develop and refine word study skills, enlarge
passive vocabulary, reinforce skills related to sentence structure, increase active
vocabulary, distinguish among thesis, fact, supportive and non-supportive
details, provide sociocultural insights.
Extensive reading develops at the student's own pace according to individual
ability. It will be selected at a lower level of difficulty than that for intensive
reading. Where frequency word counts are available for the language being
learned, extensive reading will conform to a lower frequency word count than
intensive reading. Material will be selected whose choice of structure is
habitually less complex and whose vocabulary range is less extensive. The
purpose of extensive reading is to train the students to read directly and fluently
in the target language for enjoyment without the aid of the teacher. The student
will be encouraged to make intelligent guesses at the meaning of unfamiliar
items. Material consists of authentic short stories and plays, or informative or
controversial articles from newspapers and magazines. A few adaptations of
vocabulary and structure will be made. The style of writing should entail a
certain amount of repetition without monotony. Novelties of vocabulary should
not coincide with difficulties of structure. It means reading in quantity and in
order to gain a general understanding of what is read. It is intended to develop
good reading habits, to build up knowledge of vocabulary and structure and to
encourage a liking for reading, Increase total comprehension, enable students to
achieve independence in basic skill development, acquaint the student with
relevant socio-cultural material, and encourage recreational reading.


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Reading is a complex, multi-faceted activity, involving a combination

of both lexical and text-progressing skills that are widely recognized as
being interactive. Two major approaches have been used for developing
reading skills, known as intensive and extensive reading. Indeed both
approaches have important roles to play in helping learners gain fluency,
first in the critical area of vocabulary and word recognition, and then in
developing better reading comprehension skills.
A. Extensive Reading
Extensive reading is a language teaching procedure where learners are
supposed to read large quantities of material or long texts for global
understanding, the principal goal being obtaining pleasure from the
1. The Benefits of Extensive Reading
Extensive reading is a topic that has been widely discussed over last
decades and its benefits have been generally approved by many
researches. The students who read more will not only become better
and more confident readers, but they will also improve their reading,
writing, listening and speaking abilities and their vocabularies will
get richer.
2. The basic principle of Extensive Reading
a. The reading material is easy.
Learners read material that contains few or no unfamiliar items of
vocabulary and grammar. (There should be no more than one or
two unknown vocabulary items per page for beginners and no
more than four or five for intermediate learners). Students would
not succeed in reading extensively if they have to struggle with
difficult material.

1 Bamford, Extensive Reading Activities 1

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b. A variety of material on a wide range of topics is available

There should be a variety of materials available in the library for
students to choose what they really like. This contains graded
readers, magazines written for language learners at different
ability levels and childrens literature. For high-intermediate
learners young adult literature can offer a bridge to ungraded
reading materials. Advanced learners are supposed to read
books, magazines and newspapers written for native speakers of
English. The variety encourages a flexible approach towards
reading as the learners are reading for different purposes (for
information or pleasure).
c. Learners choose what they want to read.
Self-selection puts students in a different role from that in a
traditional classroom, where the teacher chooses or the textbook
supplies reading material. This is what students really enjoy
about extensive reading. They are also encouraged to stop
reading anything that is not interesting or that they find too
d. Learners read as much as possible.
The language learning benefits of extensive reading come from
quantity of reading. For the benefits of extensive reading to take
effect, a book a week is an appropriate goal. This is a realistic
target as books written for beginning language learners are very
e. Reading speed is usually faster rather than slower.
Because of the fact that material is easily understandable for
students their reading is fluent. Students are discouraged from
using dictionaries as this interrupts reading and makes fluency
impossible. Instead, learners are encouraged to ignore or guess
the meaning of a few unknown items they may encounter from
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f. The purpose of reading is usually related to pleasure, information

and general understanding.
In spite of intensive reading









pleasure and information. The aim of reading is not a hundred

percent comprehension; to meet the purpose of reading sufficient
understanding is satisfactory.
g. Reading is individual and silent.
Learners read at their own pace. Sometimes silent reading
periods may be reserved from class time when students read
their self-selected books in the classroom. However, most of the
reading is homework. Students read out of the classroom, in their
own time, when and where they choose.
h. Reading is its own reward.
Extensive reading is not usually followed by comprehension
questions. The goal of reading is readers own experience and joy
of reading. However teachers may ask students to complete
follow-up activities after reading. These are designed to reflect
students experience of reading rather than comprehension.
i. The teacher orients and guides the students.
Before starting an extensive reading programme students have
to be familiarized what it is, why they are doing it, what benefits
it will bring them and how are they going to proceed. The teacher
keeps track of what and how much students read, he/she is
interested in their reactions to what was read in order to guide
them in getting the most out of their reading.
j. The teacher is a role model of a reader.
Teacher gives students a model of what is to be a reader e.g.
during the silent reading periods teacher should read as well.
He/she should also be familiar with all the books students are
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reading in order to recommend reading to individual students and

share their reading experiences. If teacher and students talk
about what was read they create an informal reading community,
experiencing together the value and pleasure to be found in
written word.
B. Extensive reading vs. Intensive reading
The following chart offers basic characteristics of each approach:

Intensive Reading
Analysis of the Language
Very easy
Teacher selects
All learners study the

Linguistic Focus
What Material

Extensive Reading
Fluency, skill forming
Ussualy difficult
A book a week
Learner selects
All learners read different

same material

things (something

In class
Checked by specific

interesting to them)
Mostly at home
Check by reports/




C. Programs Focused on Intensive Reading

Intensive reading calls attention to the details of a text such as
grammatical forms, literal meaning and vocabulary. Programs focused
on intensive reading ask students to read shorter texts, typically under
500 words. Texts are often re-read and analyzed for meaning. The
Reading Recovery Program that some school districts use to help their
lowest achieving students uses many intensive reading techniques. In
the program, students work with a trained Reading Recovery teacher
for a half-hour per day for 12 to 20 weeks until they achieve grade
level. Working with the teacher one on one, the student practices letter
identification and learns the connection of words and sounds. The
specialist and student discuss the reading and its meaning. Professors
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Stanley Swartz and Adria Klein of the U of California---San Bernadino

report that the program works and is cost effective because it is a
limited-time intervention.
Intensive reading involves learners reading in detail with specific
learning aims and tasks. It can be compared with extensive reading,
which involves learners reading texts for enjoyment and to develop
general reading skills.
The learners read a short text and put events from it into chronological
In the classroom
Intensive reading activities include skimming a text for specific
information to answer true or false statements or filling gaps in a
summary, scanning a text to match headings to paragraphs, and
scanning jumbled paragraphs and then reading them carefully to put
them into the correct order.
D. Programs Focused on Extensive Reading
Extensive reading intends to provide a broad, general understanding of
a text. Rather than focusing on details, it focuses on getting the gist of
the reading. School programs that use parent volunteers often offer
help with extensive reading. The emphasis in these programs is on
reading widely. It's rather like the summer reading programs offered by
public libraries. Often there is an expression component that calls for
the student to either speak or write about what she has read to reflect
her understanding of the reading material.
Extensive reading involves learners reading texts for enjoyment and to
develop general reading skills. It can be compared with intensive
reading, which means reading in detail with specific learning aims and
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A teacher reads a short story with learners, but does not set them any
tasks except to read and listen.
In the classroom
Extensive reading is often overlooked, especially as a classroom
activity. Teachers often feel it is not an effective use of class time or are
just uncomfortable with the extended silence. Learners can be
encouraged to read extensively by setting up a class library,
encouraging review writing, and incorporating reading of books into the
syllabus, and dedicating some class time to quiet reading.

E. Programs






Most teachers use a combination of intensive and extensive reading
practice with their students. Once the intensive reading practice gets
students to an adequate level for successfully reading on their own,
they are encouraged, or required, to read widely. The overall goal is not
only reading competence, but also to instill in students a love of
reading as well as an appreciation for the pleasures of reading and its
practical value as a tool for learning.

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A. Conclusion
In conclusion, through doing complex activities, Extensive Reading can
broaden students knowledge more than Intensive Reading. In Extensive
Reading, students write summary and do presentation which lead them to
minimize the use of dictionary. In opposition, the students activities in
Intensive Reading are more limited. The activities depend on the teachers
guidance only. This kind of activities will not encourage students to
explore their abilities; they cannot broaden knowledge by themselves as
well as in Extensive Reading.

Bell, Timothy. 1998. Extensive Reading: Why? And How?. The Internet
TESL Journal, Vol. IV, No. 12, December 1998. (Accessed on October 13, 2005)

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