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No 3.

Enacted Curriculum
Oxford Dictionary(2015) defined enacted as something that being put into practice.
Hence, the enacted curriculum can be defined as what most educators more often refer
to as "instruction." Teachers shape how curriculum is enacted in classrooms (Milner,
2003).The enacted curriculum or instruction can be divided into two categories:
instructional practices and instructional content (Porter & Smithson, 2001). Instructional
practices are the methods by which instructional content is delivered; "how" content is
taught. Instructional content is when the enacted students are exposed to and expected
to acquire; "what" is actually taught.
According to Nolet & McLaughlin(2000), the enacted curriculum is the
operationalization of the intended curriculum and reflects the decisions a teacher makes
during implementation.
The Enacted Curriculum reflects the daily curricular experience of a student
within instructional settings exemplified by assignments, instructional practices, and
managed content (Jones, 2010). Remillard (1997) suggested that teachers play a more
direct role than textbooks in the enacted curriculum as they make the final decision
about what gets taught. This is because teachers make content decisions about how
much time to spend on a school subject, what content to cover within that time, which
students to teach what content, and to what standards of achievement (Schwille et al.,
1983) In short, the enacted curriculum is what students get the chance to learn, as well
as how teachers "deliver" the content.
Next, I would like to point out some factors that influence the enacted curriculum.
The factors that may influence the enacted curriculum include teacher and student
knowledge, beliefs, and practices; access to resources, such as instructional
technologies; and contextual opportunities and constraints.(Remillard, 2010)
While delivering the enacted curriculum, some of the sources that can be used
are textbooks and workbooks, teacher created lessons, computer-based training, virtual
learning environments and social network group-learns

Focusing on enacted curriculum, I would take this opportunity to highlight two

issues on this matter. The first issue pertaining to enacted curriculum in Malaysian

context is the integration of salient new technologies in English lessons as proposed in

Standard Curriculum. The Ministry of Education foresees the use of ICT in appropriate
contexts in education can add value in teaching and learning and significant in
motivating pupils to learn. Institute for Democracy and Economic Affairs(2015)
highlighted that Billions wasted as 1BestariNet and ICT in Education Policy in Malaysia
fail to consider the needs of schools and insist on a one-size-fit-all policy.The main
weaknesses identified in this paper are: lack of teacher training on how to integrate ICT
into pedagogy, inadequate internet speeds and connectivity, and minimal involvement of
school leadership when implementing ICT policies into their schools, all of which lead to
minimal usage of ICT by teachers in classrooms. Lack of technical supports such as
good computers and cutting-edge software also inhibits the use of ICT in language
The second issue that I would highlight here is the application of studentcentered learning to enhance critical and creative thinking skills in English classrooms.
According to Raissia & Fazirah (2013), Communicative Language Teaching (CLT) has
been recognized as an effective method in language teaching and learning. However, it
is difficult to apply this method in an ESL context like Malaysia. If we focus on teachers
attitudes regarding their perceptions and implementation of CLT in Malaysian schools,
we can see that although teachers believe on this method and they try their best to apply
this method in their classes but still they have some problems. We can name some
problems like lack facilities in the Malaysian school as they need to apply authentic tasks
which relates to the students real life situations, but they were not satisfied with the
school facilities. On the other hand most of the teachers didnt agree with some
principles of CLT and they believed that still CLT principles cannot be applied in the
schools properly.
In conclusion, teacher plays an important role in delivering the enacted
curriculum. As a teacher, we need to take Malaysian context into account while putting
the plans into practice to achieve quality teaching.