physics form 5

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physics form 5

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You are on page 1of 10

between electric current

and potential difference

Current,I

work (energy) to carry a unit charge

From Lesson 1,

Current ,I is the rate of flow of charge, Q

charge charge

Current = Charge

Time

Or

Or

I=Q

t

V=E

Q

The unit of current, I , is Ampere (A)

1A= 1 C s-1

1 V = 1 J C-1

The current is measured by an ammeter and it

must be connected in series with the

component which we want to find the current

through the component.

For example, if we want to measure the current

through a bulb :

difference across......"

The potential difference is measured by a

voltmeter and it must be connected in parallel

with the component which we want to find the

potential difference between the component.

For example, if we want to measure the

difference across a bulb :

An electric circuit must have a cell or some

source of electrical energy ,if there is to be a

current. The energy to move the electrons or to

produce current we call voltage or potential

difference

Example 1

and current,I in a metal conductor Ohms Law

time 40 C pass through the battery and they carry

away 240 J of electrical energy . What is the

potential difference across the battery?

a metal conductor is discovered by George Ohm is

called as Ohms law.

Solution

conductor is directly proportional to the current

flowing through the conductor , provided that its

temperature remains constant.

Example 2

A current of 8 A flowing through an electric heater for

50 minutes convert 5.76 X 10 6 J of electrical energy

into heat energy.

Calculate

(a) the total charge circulated through the heater

(b) the potential difference across the heater

Or V I , if T remains constant

The experiment to investigate the relationship

between the potential difference ,V and the

current,I in a metal conductor

Solution

Hypothesis:

The potential difference across a metal conductor

increases as the current in the metal conductor

increases.

Aim of the experiment :

To investigate the relationship between the potential

difference ,V and current, I in a metal conductor

Variables in the experiment:

Manipulated variable: the current

Responding variable: the potential difference

Fixed variable: temperature

List of apparatus and materials:

Ammeter, voltmeter, rheostat, conductor wire,

connection wires ,dry cells and switch.

Arrangement of the apparatus:

the method of controlling the manipulated

variable and the method of measuring the

responding variable.

The switch is closed.

The reading of the voltmeter ,V and the ammeter, I is

recorded.

The experiment is repeated 5 times for with different

value of, I, by adjusting the rheostat

Tabulate the data:

I

V

Analysis the data:

Plot the graph V against I

Resistance, R

Based on the Ohms law,

VI

V=kI

k=V

I

k is replaced by R

Resistance is the ratio of the potential difference to

the current.

Or Resistance = Potential difference

Current

Or

R = V

I

Ohmic conductors.

1 = 1 V A-1

the other physical properties are remain unchanged ,

the resistance of the conductor not depend on the

current ,I and the potential difference, V.

(a) The length of the conductor( l)

The resistance is directly proportional to the

Length of the conductor

(RI)

Resistivity ,

R I and R 1

A

R l

R=l

A

A

The resistance is inversely proportional

to the cross-sectional area of the conductor

(R 1 )

A

= RA

l

As increases , R increases.

S.W.G ( Standard Wire Gauge ) of a conductor

wire

(c)

the wire decreases .

Different material of the conductors have the

resistance .

between the resistance and the length of a metal

conductor

Hypothesis:

The resistance of metal conductor increases as the

length increases

Aim of the experiment :

To investigate the relationship between the resistance

and the length of a metal conductor.

Variables in the experiment:

Manipulated variable: the length of the metal

conductor

Responding variable: the resistance

Fixed variable: temperature, the cross-sectional area

and type of material

List of apparatus and materials:

Ammeter, voltmeter, conductor wire, connection wires

,dry cells, metre rule and switch.

cooper have low resistance.

For good insulating material such as rubber has

high resistance.

(d) Temperature

For metal conductors such as cooper ,iron , the

resistance is increases linearly to the

temperature.

For alloys such as constantan and nichrome

the temperature not affected the resistance.

For semiconductor materials such silicon and

germanium an also termistor the resistance

decreases when its temperature is decreased.

10

Potentiometer

As voltage divider. When the length increases , the

resistance increases and as the result the potential

differences (voltage) increases .

Thermistor :

A thermistor is a resistor whose resistance changes

with temperature. Its decrease in resistance as the

temperature rises.

the method of controlling the manipulated

variable and the method of measuring the

responding variable.

The length of the conductor wire is measured by a

ruler = l

The switch is closed.

The reading of the voltmeter ,V and the ammeter, I is

recorded.

The resistance is calculated , R = V

I

The experiment is repeated 5 times for with different

length of the wire

Tabulate the data:

I

R

Analysis the data:

Plot the graph R against l

The resistance of LDR changes depends on the

brightness of light falling on it. As the brightness of

light falling on it increases the resistance decreases.

Superconductor

Superconductor is a metal conductor decreases when

its temperature decreases.

The resistance decreases with temperature but the

resistance suddenly becomes zero when it is cooled

below a certain temperature called the critical

temperature, tc

Types of resistor

Fixed resistor :

Common materials is used in fixed resistor are alloys

such as nichrome and constantan.

Rheostat :

This has a coil resistance wire wound a ceramic

tube. A sliding contact ca be moved to any position

along the coil. This changes the length of the wire and

as a result the resistance changes.

and act as perfect conductors with zero resistiviy.

Once the current is set up in these materials, its need

no applied voltage to persist flowing without any loss..

The example of superconductor materials are

aluminium (Tc= 1.2 K), Plumbum (Tc= 7.2 K), Niobium

(Tc= 9.3 K), Nb3Sn (Tc= 18 K) , Nb3Ge (Tc= 23 K) and

YBa2Cu3O2 (Tc= 100 K).

Its used in transportation, medicine ,industry and

army .

11

TUTORIAL 2

5

1

conductor is 1 Volt if

A

B

C

D

6.4 x 10 8 V

4.0 x 108 V

1.0 x 108 V

B

D

A

B

C

8.0 x 107 V

2.0 x 107 V

0.1 A

9.0 J

144 J

B

D

proportional to the current

The electrolyte obeys the Ohms law

The current does not flows in the

electrolyte when the potential difference

lower than 1.5 V

potential difference ,V and current, I for a torch

light bulb?

resistance of a metal conductor?

and 36 C charge flows in the bulb. What is the

energy is dissipated in the bulb?

A

C

E

1 second

a power of 1 W is generated when 1 C

charge flows

an energy of 1 J is used to flow 1 C of

charge

an energy of 1 J is used to flow 1 A of

current

cloud , 16 C charge flows from the cloud to the

Earth and transferred 6.4 x 106 kJ. What is the

potential difference across the cloud and the

Earth?

A

C

E

potential difference , V and current , I for an

electrolyte.

5.2 J

126 J

A

B

C

D

8

A

B

C

12

the thickness of the conductor

the type of material of the conductor

the current flows through the conductor

the length decreases

the thickness decreases

resistance of the resistance?

12

resistance increasing as the current rises?

13

10

11

0.67

4.0

24.0

B

D

Length / cm

100

100

50

50

A

B

C

D

the resistance of the device?

A

C

E

resistance?

14

6.0

14.0

S.W.G

32

20

32

20

cooper wire , jockey ,ammeter, voltmeter and

dry cell.

to measure the resistance of a wire.

the cooper wire , the reading of ammeter and

voltmeter are 4A and 12 V respectively.

What is the reading of the ammeter when the

jockey is touched at a length 0.2m on the cooper

wire?

A

C

E

500

2000

8000

B

D

1000

4000

A

C

E

13

3A

12 A

36 A

B

D

10 A

24 A

14

15

R. When diameter of the wire is 2d , what is the

resistance of the wire.

A

R

4

R

2

2R

4R

against potential difference, V represent three

conductors P, Q and R.

double its resistance?

Cross-sectional area

A

B

C

D

16

18

Double

Double

No change

Halve

Length

Double

No change

Halve

No change

(a) Which conductor obeys the Ohms

Law?

thermistor?

.........................................................

(b) (i)

(ii)

highest resistance when the

current increases?

.................................................

Give a reason for your answer

in b(ii).

.

17

a graph for a superconductor material.

.

(c)

A

B

C

D

Absolute temperature

Basic temperature

Critical temperature

Virtual temperature

14

.

Calculate the resistance of the

conductor Q.

19

the length , L is the result of the experiment to

determine the resistivity, , and the

resistance ,R of a wire.

= .m.

(c)

L when V = 1.5V

Show on the graph how you

determine the value of L.

(ii)

R = L

A

If the cross-sectional area, A of the

wire is 1.0 X 10-7 m2 and using the

value of from (b), calculate the

value of R when V = 1.5V.

(i)

(ii)

difference , V, when the length

L = 0 cm.

Show on the graph , how you

determine V

during this experiment.

..

(b) The resistivity , , of the wire is given

by

= 4.3 X 10-5 m

where m is the gradient of the graph.

Calculate the value of .

15

20

connected to a power supply 12. The reading of

the ammeter is 1.0 A. A few minutes later, the

reading of the ammeter decreasing to 0.9 A and

the bulb becomes hot.

(a) State one suitable inference that can be

made.

(b) State one appropriate hypothesis for an

investigation.

(c) With the use of apparatus such as cooper

coils , beaker ,water and other apparatus,

describe an experimental framework to test

your hypothesis.

In your description, state clearly the

following:

(i) Aim of the experiment

(ii) Variables in the experiment

(iii) List of apparatus and materials

(iv) Arrangement of the apparatus

(v) The procedure of the experiment

which include the method of

controlling the manipulated variable

and the method of measuring the

responding variable

(vi) Way you would tabulate the data

(vii) Way you would analysis the data

16

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