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# LESSON 2

## Analysing the relationship

between electric current
and potential difference
Current,I

## The potential difference across a conductor is

work (energy) to carry a unit charge

From Lesson 1,
Current ,I is the rate of flow of charge, Q

charge charge

Current = Charge
Time
Or

Or

I=Q
t

V=E
Q

## The unit of potential difference, V = Volt(V)

The unit of current, I , is Ampere (A)
1A= 1 C s-1

1 V = 1 J C-1

## Current is said A current flows through......."

The current is measured by an ammeter and it
must be connected in series with the
component which we want to find the current
through the component.
For example, if we want to measure the current
through a bulb :

## Potential difference is said A potential

difference across......"
The potential difference is measured by a
voltmeter and it must be connected in parallel
with the component which we want to find the
potential difference between the component.
For example, if we want to measure the
difference across a bulb :

## Potential difference (Voltage) , V

An electric circuit must have a cell or some
source of electrical energy ,if there is to be a
current. The energy to move the electrons or to
produce current we call voltage or potential
difference

Example 1

## The relationship between potential difference,V

and current,I in a metal conductor Ohms Law

## A battery is switched on for a few moments. In that

time 40 C pass through the battery and they carry
away 240 J of electrical energy . What is the
potential difference across the battery?

## The relationship between voltage, V and current ,I in

a metal conductor is discovered by George Ohm is
called as Ohms law.

Solution

## Ohms law state The potential across a metal

conductor is directly proportional to the current
flowing through the conductor , provided that its
temperature remains constant.

Example 2
A current of 8 A flowing through an electric heater for
50 minutes convert 5.76 X 10 6 J of electrical energy
into heat energy.
Calculate
(a) the total charge circulated through the heater
(b) the potential difference across the heater

Or V I , if T remains constant
The experiment to investigate the relationship
between the potential difference ,V and the
current,I in a metal conductor

Solution

Hypothesis:
The potential difference across a metal conductor
increases as the current in the metal conductor
increases.
Aim of the experiment :
To investigate the relationship between the potential
difference ,V and current, I in a metal conductor
Variables in the experiment:
Manipulated variable: the current
Responding variable: the potential difference
Fixed variable: temperature
List of apparatus and materials:
Ammeter, voltmeter, rheostat, conductor wire,
connection wires ,dry cells and switch.
Arrangement of the apparatus:

## The procedure of the experiment which include

the method of controlling the manipulated
variable and the method of measuring the
responding variable.
The switch is closed.
The reading of the voltmeter ,V and the ammeter, I is
recorded.
The experiment is repeated 5 times for with different
value of, I, by adjusting the rheostat
Tabulate the data:
I
V
Analysis the data:
Plot the graph V against I

Resistance, R
Based on the Ohms law,
VI
V=kI
k=V
I
k is replaced by R

## Hence definition of resistance is ;

Resistance is the ratio of the potential difference to
the current.
Or Resistance = Potential difference
Current
Or
R = V
I

## Conductors which obey the Ohms law is called

Ohmic conductors.

1 = 1 V A-1

## Note : For a metal conductor ,if the temperature and

the other physical properties are remain unchanged ,
the resistance of the conductor not depend on the
current ,I and the potential difference, V.

## The factors affect the resistance of a conductor

(a) The length of the conductor( l)
The resistance is directly proportional to the
Length of the conductor
(RI)
Resistivity ,
R I and R 1
A
R l
R=l
A
A

## (b) The cross-sectional area of the conductor (A)

The resistance is inversely proportional
to the cross-sectional area of the conductor
(R 1 )
A

= RA
l
As increases , R increases.
S.W.G ( Standard Wire Gauge ) of a conductor
wire

(c)

## When the number of S.W.G. higher the thickness of

the wire decreases .

## The type of the material of the conductor

Different material of the conductors have the
resistance .

## The experiment to investigate the relationship

between the resistance and the length of a metal
conductor
Hypothesis:
The resistance of metal conductor increases as the
length increases
Aim of the experiment :
To investigate the relationship between the resistance
and the length of a metal conductor.
Variables in the experiment:
Manipulated variable: the length of the metal
conductor
Responding variable: the resistance
Fixed variable: temperature, the cross-sectional area
and type of material
List of apparatus and materials:
Ammeter, voltmeter, conductor wire, connection wires
,dry cells, metre rule and switch.

## For good conducting material such as silver and

cooper have low resistance.
For good insulating material such as rubber has
high resistance.
(d) Temperature
For metal conductors such as cooper ,iron , the
resistance is increases linearly to the
temperature.
For alloys such as constantan and nichrome
the temperature not affected the resistance.
For semiconductor materials such silicon and
germanium an also termistor the resistance
decreases when its temperature is decreased.

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## Arrangement of the apparatus:

Potentiometer
As voltage divider. When the length increases , the
resistance increases and as the result the potential
differences (voltage) increases .

Thermistor :
A thermistor is a resistor whose resistance changes
with temperature. Its decrease in resistance as the
temperature rises.

## The procedure of the experiment which include

the method of controlling the manipulated
variable and the method of measuring the
responding variable.
The length of the conductor wire is measured by a
ruler = l
The switch is closed.
The reading of the voltmeter ,V and the ammeter, I is
recorded.
The resistance is calculated , R = V
I
The experiment is repeated 5 times for with different
length of the wire
Tabulate the data:
I
R
Analysis the data:
Plot the graph R against l

## Light dependent resistor (LDR)

The resistance of LDR changes depends on the
brightness of light falling on it. As the brightness of
light falling on it increases the resistance decreases.

Superconductor
Superconductor is a metal conductor decreases when
its temperature decreases.
The resistance decreases with temperature but the
resistance suddenly becomes zero when it is cooled
below a certain temperature called the critical
temperature, tc

Types of resistor
Fixed resistor :
Common materials is used in fixed resistor are alloys
such as nichrome and constantan.

Rheostat :
This has a coil resistance wire wound a ceramic
tube. A sliding contact ca be moved to any position
along the coil. This changes the length of the wire and
as a result the resistance changes.

## These materials offer no resistance to flow of current

and act as perfect conductors with zero resistiviy.
Once the current is set up in these materials, its need
no applied voltage to persist flowing without any loss..
The example of superconductor materials are
aluminium (Tc= 1.2 K), Plumbum (Tc= 7.2 K), Niobium
(Tc= 9.3 K), Nb3Sn (Tc= 18 K) , Nb3Ge (Tc= 23 K) and
YBa2Cu3O2 (Tc= 100 K).
Its used in transportation, medicine ,industry and
army .

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TUTORIAL 2
5
1

## The potential across two points in a metal

conductor is 1 Volt if
A
B
C
D

6.4 x 10 8 V
4.0 x 108 V
1.0 x 108 V

B
D

A
B
C

8.0 x 107 V
2.0 x 107 V

0.1 A
9.0 J
144 J

B
D

## The potential difference is directly

proportional to the current
The electrolyte obeys the Ohms law
The current does not flows in the
electrolyte when the potential difference
lower than 1.5 V

## Which graph shows the relationship between

potential difference ,V and current, I for a torch
light bulb?

## Which of the following factor is not affect the

resistance of a metal conductor?

## The potential difference across a bulb is 4.0 V

and 36 C charge flows in the bulb. What is the
energy is dissipated in the bulb?
A
C
E

## a current of 1 A flows in a metal conductor

1 second
a power of 1 W is generated when 1 C
charge flows
an energy of 1 J is used to flow 1 C of
charge
an energy of 1 J is used to flow 1 A of
current

## When lighting strikes between two charged

cloud , 16 C charge flows from the cloud to the
Earth and transferred 6.4 x 106 kJ. What is the
potential difference across the cloud and the
Earth?
A
C
E

## The graph shows the relationship between

potential difference , V and current , I for an
electrolyte.

5.2 J
126 J

A
B
C
D
8

A
B
C

12

## the length of the conductor

the thickness of the conductor
the type of material of the conductor
the current flows through the conductor

## the temperature decreases

the length decreases
the thickness decreases

## Which circuit could be used to find the

resistance of the resistance?

12

## Which of the following V-I graph shows the

resistance increasing as the current rises?

13

10

11

0.67
4.0
24.0

B
D

Length / cm
100
100
50
50

A
B
C
D

## An electronic device labelled 12V , 2A. What is

the resistance of the device?
A
C
E

resistance?

14

6.0
14.0

S.W.G
32
20
32
20

## The figure shows an electric circuit consists a

cooper wire , jockey ,ammeter, voltmeter and
dry cell.

## The graph shows the results of an experiment

to measure the resistance of a wire.

## When the jockey is touched at a length 0.5m on

the cooper wire , the reading of ammeter and
voltmeter are 4A and 12 V respectively.
What is the reading of the ammeter when the
jockey is touched at a length 0.2m on the cooper
wire?

A
C
E

500
2000
8000

B
D

1000
4000

A
C
E

13

3A
12 A
36 A

B
D

10 A
24 A

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15

## A piece of wire has diameter d and resistance

R. When diameter of the wire is 2d , what is the
resistance of the wire.
A

R
4

R
2

2R

4R

## The following graph shows a graph current, I

against potential difference, V represent three
conductors P, Q and R.

## Which of the following changes to wire will

double its resistance?
Cross-sectional area
A
B
C
D

16

18

Double
Double
No change
Halve

Length
Double
No change
Halve
No change
(a) Which conductor obeys the Ohms
Law?

## Which of the following is the symbol of a

thermistor?

.........................................................
(b) (i)

(ii)

## Which conductor has the

highest resistance when the
current increases?
.................................................
in b(ii).
.

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## The graph resistance temperature represents

a graph for a superconductor material.

.
(c)

## What is the name of point P?

A
B
C
D

Absolute temperature
Basic temperature
Critical temperature
Virtual temperature

14

.
Calculate the resistance of the
conductor Q.

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## The graph the potential difference, V against

the length , L is the result of the experiment to
determine the resistivity, , and the
resistance ,R of a wire.

= .m.

(c)

## (i) From the graph, state the value of

L when V = 1.5V
Show on the graph how you
determine the value of L.

(ii)

## The resistance , R, is given by

R = L
A
If the cross-sectional area, A of the
wire is 1.0 X 10-7 m2 and using the
value of from (b), calculate the
value of R when V = 1.5V.

(i)

(ii)

## determine the value of the potential

difference , V, when the length
L = 0 cm.
Show on the graph , how you
determine V

## (d) State one precaution that should be taken

during this experiment.

..
(b) The resistivity , , of the wire is given
by
= 4.3 X 10-5 m
where m is the gradient of the graph.
Calculate the value of .

15

20

## The figure shows a bulb 12 V ,12 W is

connected to a power supply 12. The reading of
the ammeter is 1.0 A. A few minutes later, the
reading of the ammeter decreasing to 0.9 A and
the bulb becomes hot.

## Based on the observations:

(a) State one suitable inference that can be
(b) State one appropriate hypothesis for an
investigation.
(c) With the use of apparatus such as cooper
coils , beaker ,water and other apparatus,
describe an experimental framework to test
In your description, state clearly the
following:
(i) Aim of the experiment
(ii) Variables in the experiment
(iii) List of apparatus and materials
(iv) Arrangement of the apparatus
(v) The procedure of the experiment
which include the method of
controlling the manipulated variable
and the method of measuring the
responding variable
(vi) Way you would tabulate the data
(vii) Way you would analysis the data

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