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16 Maria Cauline M.

Exercise 6 Topical Agents

7. The compounds capable of functioning as antimicrobial agents through

oxidative mechanism are generally nonmetals and certain types of anions.
Common to them are hydrogen peroxide, metal peroxides, permanganates,
halogens and certain oxohalogen anions. The effective oxidative action of
these compounds involves the reduction of proteins. The overall change or
destruction of function in specific proteins is responsible the ultimate
destruction of the microorganism. The chemical result of oxidizing the
protein is reduction of the antimicrobial agent.
The reaction occurring with antiseptics of the hypohalite type and in
particular, hypochlorite (OCl-) is called halogenations. These compounds can
be reagents in the chlorination of primary and secondary amides so similar
reaction can take place under appropriate conditions with peptide linkage
between the amino acid groups comprising the protein molecule. This
reaction of substitution of chlorine atom for the hydrogen produces changes
in hydrogen bonding responsible for the proper conformation of the protein
molecule. It is therefore destructive to the function of specific proteins.
Changes in conformation result in the destruction of function.
Protein precipitation mechanism involves interaction of proteins with metallic
ions having large charge/radius ratio or strong electrostatic fields. Transition
metal cations, including those of Groups I and IIB, Aluminum under Group IIIA
have this property and are all effective protein precipitant. All metal cations,
except alkali and alkaline earth metals demonstrate protein precipitant
activity. This interaction is one complexation in which the various polar
groups on the protein act as ligands, resulting radical change in the
properties of protein or protein precipitant. Metal ion and protein interaction
is nonspecific and will react to host and microbial protein in sufficient
concentration. Protein precipitant property of metal cations can be altered
according to the concentration at the site of action. Increasing the
concentration makes antimicrobial, astringent, irritant and corrosive
properties readily available.
8. Water-soluble compounds are controlled by making concentrations of
solution appropriate for desired use; higher concentration for those applied
on skin than in the eye. Soluble compounds are controlled by placing them in
a vehicle that slows down their release to site of action. Other compounds;
placing them in solutions containing glycerin and polyethylene glycol
controls them. Some agents are also controlled of their release by
complexing them with ligands. This minimizes toxicity and activity at host

cells. Synthesizing compounds into insoluble form as in suspensions,

ointments and creams also control the release of active agent.
9. Astringent is any group of substances that cause contraction or shrinkage
of tissues and dry up secretions.
10. Hydrogen Peroxide Solution USP 31 and Potassium Permanganate USP 31
are both of oxidative action mechanism. Halogenation is the mechanism of
action of Sodium Hypochlorite Solution USP 31.
11. 10 volumes of hydrogen peroxide is the official solution containing 3%
hydrogen peroxide. This means that 1 mL of solution liberates 10 mL of
oxygen at standard temperature and pressure.
12. Diluted Sodium hypochlorite is prepared by diluting Sodium hypochlorite
solution with 5 times the quantity of purified water and adjusting the pH with
5% solution of sodium bicarbonate until no color is produced with
phenolphthalein. The reduced concentration and pH results to solution of
only hypochlorite preparation officially recognized for local application to
tissues as antibacterial.
13. Iodine solution and Iodine tincture
14. Sodium thiosulfate solution
silver nitrate solution- use as antimicrobial agent from 0.01%-10%, recognizing that
the higher concentration present astringent and irritant properties to the tissues.
silver nitrate opthalmic solution- 1% solution, use for instillation into the eyes of
newborn babies.
toughened silver nitrate - use as escharotic and germicide
Sublimed sulfur- 1g dissolves incompletely with 2 mL carbon disulfide. Obtained by
condensing the sulfur vapors produced by heating any form of sulfur.
Precipitated sulfur- obtain in a mixture of sulfur with metal hydroxides to form mixtures
of sulfides and thiosulfate.
Sulfurated Potash- composed of potassium polysulfides and pottasium thiosulfate.
Selenium sulfide- use in shampoos

estriction of the supply of blood to the surface of mucous membrane as a means of
reducing inflammation
Direct action on the skin to remove unwanted tissues.
aluminum chloride
aluminum sulfate
aluminum acetate solution
zinc chloride
zinc sulfate